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Air pollution from World War II production Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report. •
Schematic drawing, causes and effects of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect, (2) particulate contamination, (3) increased UV radiation, (4) acid rain, (5) increased ground level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides. An air pollutant is known as a substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made. Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. Usually, primary pollutants are directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone — one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants. About 4 percent of deaths in the United States can be attributed to air pollution, according to the Environmental Science Engineering Program at the Harvard School of Public Health.
India where buses now use compressed natural gas to help eliminate the “pea-soup” smog. 15.4 million people die each year from causes directly attributable to air pollution.S. lung and heart diseases. 6. Published in 2005 suggests that 310. The United Kingdom suffered its worst air pollution event when the December 4 Great Smog of 1952 formed over London.000 were injured. and respiratory allergies. These effects can result in increased medication use. coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. wheezing. In the United States. The worst single incident of air pollution to occur in the United States of America occurred in Donora.000 Americans die each year from cardiopulmonary disease linked to breathing fine particle air pollution. .000 fewer emergency room visits by children with asthma. and Indonesia. The human health effects of poor air quality are far reaching. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to. "Epidemiological studies suggest that more than 500. Causes of deaths include aggravated asthma. pneumonia and other lower respiratory infections as well as a low initial birth rate.. with 1. Examples of these countries include Egypt.5 million of these deaths attributable to indoor air pollution.  Effects on children Cities around the world with high exposure to air pollutants have the possibility of children living within them to develop asthma. Worldwide more deaths per year are linked to air pollution than to automobile accidents. U.000 fewer premature mortalities. and 8.000 to 600.Dust storm approaching Stratford. but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system.000.A." A study by the University of Birmingham has shown a strong correlation between pneumonia related deaths and air pollution from motor vehicles. activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants in the atmosphere. Sudan. Texas Controlled burning of a field outside of Statesboro. increased doctor or emergency room visits. Georgia in preparation for spring planting Sources of air pollution refer to the various locations. Inc. The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing.000 more died within the following months.900 fewer respiratory-related hospital admissions each year in the United States. The worst short term civilian pollution crisis in India was the 1984 Bhopal Disaster. An accidental leak of anthrax spores from a biological warfare laboratory in the former USSR in 1979 near Sverdlovsk is believed to have been the cause of hundreds of civilian deaths. 1948. In six days more than 4. . These sources can be classified into two major categories which a Natural sources  Health effects The World Health Organization states that 2. the individual's health status and genetics. more hospital admissions and premature death. and 8. the degree of exposure.000 people outright and injured anywhere from 150. Leaked industrial vapors from the Union Carbide factory. the Clean Air Act was . belonging to Union Carbide.. Mongolia.000 Europeans die from air pollution annually. when 20 people died and over 7. Protective measures to ensure the youths' health are being taken in cities such as New Delhi. Research by the World Health Organization shows there is the greatest concentration of particulate matter particles in countries with low economic world power and high poverty and population rates.000 died.000 fewer heart attacks. killed more than 25. emphysema. Pennsylvania in late October. The US EPA estimates that a proposed set of changes in diesel engine technology (Tier 2) could result in 12.
passed in 1970. however in 2002 at least 146 million Americans were living in non-attainment areas—regions in which the concentration of certain air pollutants exceeded federal standards. public health effects can be significant and costly.5 and ozone concentrations) would produce a $29 million in annual savings in the Metro Vancouver region in 2010. used for industrial sources. used for forest fires or duststorms Photochemical models. This is because effects can occur at very low levels and a large number of people breathe in such pollutants. and lead. Because children are outdoors more and have higher minute ventilation they are more susceptible to the dangers of air pollution. Those pollutants are known as the criteria pollutants. nitrogen dioxide. sulfur dioxide.  Carbon dioxide emissions India 1. especially in developing countries where environmental regulations are relatively lax or nonexistent. The principal methodologies are: • • • • Point source dispersion. even populated areas in developed countries attain unhealthy levels of pollution. and include ozone. [ Legal regulations Smog in Cairo  Cities Air pollution is usually concentrated in densely populated metropolitan areas. Line source dispersion. particulate matter. used to analyze reactive pollutants that form smog . carbon monoxide.510 5.3% Atmospheric dispersion Main article: Atmospheric dispersion modeling The basic technology for analyzing air pollution is through the use of a variety of mathematical models for predicting the transport of air pollutants in the lower atmosphere. A 2005 scientific study for the British Columbia Lung Association showed that a small improvement in air quality (1% reduction of ambient PM2.  Health effects in relatively "clean" areas Even in areas with relatively low levels of air pollution. used for airport and roadway air dispersion modeling Area source dispersion. However. This finding is based on health valuation of lethal (death) and sub-lethal (illness) effects.
in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations. Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e. This model has been extensively validated and calibrated with experimental data for all sorts of atmospheric conditions. Water pollution Raw sewage and industrial waste flows across international borders—New River passes from Mexicali to Calexico. Carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels is the major problem. This effect has been understood by scientists for about a century. scientists are studying the role of changes in composition of greenhouse gases from natural and anthropogenic sources for the effect on climate change. Other greenhouse gases include methane. lakes. and technological advancements during this period have helped increase the breadth and depth of data relating to the phenomenon. dating back to about the year 1900. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. but also to the natural biological communities. hydrofluorocarbons. with consideration given to wind velocity. and ozone. since it involves simpler mathematics and has been studied for a long period of time.Visualization of a buoyant Gaussian air pollution dispersion plume as used in many atmospheric dispersion models The point source problem is the best understood. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Introduction . and. oceans and groundwater). Environmental impacts of greenhouse gas pollutants Main articles: Ocean acidification and Greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is a phenomenon whereby greenhouse gases create a condition in the upper atmosphere causing a trapping of heat and leading to increased surface and lower tropospheric temperatures. California. Currently. emission rate and stability class (a measure of atmospheric turbulence). rivers.g. nitrogen oxides. It uses a Gaussian dispersion model for buoyant pollution plumes to forecast the air pollution isopleths. chlorofluorocarbons. perfluorocarbons. stack height.
Natural phenomena such as volcanoes. groundwater pollution. storms. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet. and 32 percent of assessed bay and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted. 47 percent of assessed lake acres. groundwater aquifers are susceptible to contamination from sources that may not directly affect surface water bodies. Groundwater pollution See also: Hydrogeology Interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex. hydrogeology. may be analyzed through a hydrological transport model or groundwater model. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States. Categories Point sources Point source pollution . The movement of the plume. and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14. Causes The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals. defined as a toxin plume. non-point source may be irrelevant. and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. industrialized countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well. and 1. such as fish. While many of the chemicals and substances that are .Rio de Janeiro. Analysis of groundwater contamination may focus on the soil characteristics and site geology. and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water. hydrology. Consequently. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases. and the nature of the contaminants. By its very nature. and physical or sensory changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration.000 people daily. and/or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities. 45 percent of assessed stream miles.000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use. and the distinction of point vs. algae blooms. pathogens. A spill or ongoing releases of chemical or radionuclide contaminants into soil (located away from a surface water body) may not create point source or non-point source pollution.Millions depend on the polluted Ganges river. In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries. sometimes referred to as groundwater contamination. called a plume front. Water pollution is a major global problem. such as drinking water.Shipyard . but can contaminate the aquifer below. is not as easily classified as surface water pollution. Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution.
 Thermal pollution Main article: Thermal pollution .regulated may be naturally occurring (calcium. Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances. and clogs the gills of some fish species. logging. High concentrations of naturally-occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna. as well as commercial and residential use Heavy metals from motor vehicles (via urban stormwater runoff) and acid mine drainage Silt (sediment) in runoff from construction sites.g. leaves and grass) as well as man-made chemicals. Chemical and other contaminants Muddy river polluted by sediment. Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth. and what is a contaminant. Oxygen-depleting substances may be natural materials. Inorganic water pollutants include: • • • • • • Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants) Ammonia from food processing waste Chemical waste as industrial by-products Fertilizers containing nutrients--nitrates and phosphates--which are found in stormwater runoff from agriculture. such as plant matter (e.) the concentration is often the key in determining what is a natural component of water. A garbage collection boom in an urban-area stream in Auckland. New Zealand. slash and burn practices or land clearing sites Potrero Generating Station discharges heated water into San Francisco Bay. etc. manganese. Photo courtesy of United States Geological Survey. sodium. iron.
Fish and shellfish kills have been reported. etc. caused by chemicals using up oxygen and by algae blooms.Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. validated analytical test methods to facilitate the comparability of results from disparate testing events. Some methods may be conducted in situ. Each successive step up the food chain causes a stepwise concentration of pollutants such as heavy metals (e. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. because toxins climb the food chain after small fish consume copepods. Urban runoff may also elevate temperature in surface waters. A polluted river draining an abandoned copper mine on Anglesey Many chemicals undergo reactive decay[disambiguation needed] or chemically change especially over long periods of time in groundwater reservoirs. chemical and biological. Elevated water temperatures decreases oxygen levels (which can kill fish) and affects ecosystem composition. Government agencies and research organizations have published standardized. but 100 kilometers south. since several days are required for incorporation into planktonic tissue. This is known as biomagnification. In some areas of the world the influence can be traced hundred miles from the mouth by studies using hydrology transport models. The Hudson discharge flows south along the coast due to coriolis force. followed by specialized analytical tests. The highest toxin loads are not directly at the mouth of the Hudson River. Measurement Environmental Scientists preparing water autosamplers. Further south then are areas of oxygen depletion. Advanced computer models such as SWMM or the DSSAM Model have been used in many locations worldwide to examine the fate of pollutants in aquatic systems. mercury) and persistent organic pollutants such as DDT. without sampling. Transport and chemical reactions of water pollutants See also: Marine pollution Most water pollutants are eventually carried by rivers into the oceans. Both of these chemicals. results in a change in the physical properties of water. unlike chemical pollution. then large fish eat smaller fish. undergo partial decomposition reactions.g. Indicator filter feeding species such as copepods have also been used to study pollutant fates in the New York Bight. which are carcinogens themselves. A noteworthy class of such chemicals is the chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (used in industrial metal degreasing and electronics manufacturing) and tetrachloroethylene used in the dry cleaning industry (note latest advances in liquid carbon dioxide in dry cleaning that avoids all use of chemicals). which is occasionally used interchangeably with bioaccumulation. such as invasion by new thermophilic species. for example. Water pollution may be analyzed through several broad categories of methods: physical. such as temperature. Thermal pollution can also be caused by the release of very cold water from the base of reservoirs into warmer rivers. leading to new hazardous chemicals (including dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride). Most involve collection of samples. Thermal pollution. caused by excess nutrients from algal cell death and decomposition. Control Domestic sewage .
 In urban areas. Most municipal plants are not designed to treat toxic pollutants found in industrial wastewater..g. most of these plants are operated by local government agencies. Cities with sanitary sewer overflows or combined sewer overflows employ one or more engineering approaches to reduce discharges of untreated sewage. Industrial wastewater Main article: Industrial wastewater treatment Dissolved air flotation system for treating industrial wastewater.. Municipal treatment plants are designed to control conventional pollutants: BOD and suspended solids.g.e. Alternatively. toxic pollutants (e.S. oil and grease). Massachusetts and vicinity. through a process called pollution prevention. secondary treatment or better) can remove 90 percent or more of these pollutants. which treats the wastewater on site and discharges into the soil. and then send the partially-treated wastewater to the municipal system.g. volatile organic compounds) or other nonconventional pollutants such as ammonia. in a rural community). frequently referred to as publicly owned treatment works (POTW). including: A household or business not served by a municipal treatment plant may have an individual septic tank. Although found in low concentrations. Domestic sewage is 99. domestic sewage is typically treated by centralized sewage treatment plants. Industries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of conventional pollutants (e. Well-designed and operated systems (i. Industries generating large volumes of wastewater typically operate their own complete on-site treatment systems.1 percent are pollutants. Some industries have been successful at redesigning their manufacturing processes to reduce or eliminate pollutants. need specialized treatment systems. these pollutants pose risk on a large scale. Some of these facilities can install a pre-treatment system to remove the toxic components. heavy metals.9 percent pure water. while the other 0. Some plants have additional sub-systems to treat nutrients and pathogens. Heated water generated by power plants or manufacturing plants may be controlled with: Agricultural wastewater . In the U.Deer Island Waste Water Treatment Plant serving Boston. Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic sewage that can be treated by municipal facilities. domestic wastewater may be sent to a nearby privately owned treatment system (e.
and some perform both functions.Riparian buffer lining a creek in Iowa Confined Animal Feeding Operation in the United States Urban runoff (stormwater) Main article: Urban runoff Retention basin for controlling urban runoff Effective control of urban runoff involves reducing the velocity and flow of stormwater. called best management practices (BMPs) in the U. installation of green roofs and improved chemical handling (e. Thermal pollution from runoff can be controlled by stormwater management facilities that absorb the runoff or direct it into groundwater.:p. as the water may be heated by the sun before being discharged to a receiving stream.S.g. as well as reducing pollutant discharges.. such as bioretention systems and infiltration basins. while others focus on improving water quality. bioretention systems. These techniques. 5-58 Green infrastructure Noise pollution . management of motor fuels & oil. Runoff mitigation systems include infiltration basins. Local governments use a variety of stormwater management techniques to reduce the effects of urban runoff. constructed wetlands. fertilizers and pesticides). Pollution prevention practices include low impact development techniques. retention basins and similar devices. Retention basins tend to be less effective at reducing temperature. may focus on water quantity control.
 Light pollution Jump to: navigation. and other harmful effects.Noise pollution is excessive. increasing risk of death by changing the delicate balance in predator/prey detection and avoidance. Older males exposed to significant occupational noise demonstrate significantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers. compressed air horns. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss. Noise pollution is also a cause of annoyance. .  Environment Noise can have a detrimental effect on animals by causing stress. see radio spectrum pollution.S. The unwanted sound is called noise. lighting hum. and by interfering with their use of sounds in communication especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation. hypertension.  Human health Main article: Noise health effects Noise health effects are both health and behavioral in nature. Acoustic overexposure can lead to temporary or permanent loss of hearing. who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise. A comparison of Maaban tribesmen. animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. displeasing human. sleep disturbances. This unwanted sound can damage physiological and psychological health. The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted above as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease. to a typical U. and loud people. search This article is about light pollution in the visible spectrum. Noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression. barking dogs. electric megaphones. stress and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems. tinnitus. Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. though differences in hearing sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups are indistinguishable by age 79. For information on pollution in the radio spectrum. emergency service sirens. aircraft noise and rail noise. audio entertainment systems. groundskeeping equipment. fireworks. meaning seasickness. whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness. appliances. severe depression and at times panic attacks. including motor vehicle noise. high stress levels. A 2005 study by Spanish researchers found that in urban areas households are willing to pay approximately four Euros per decibel per year for noise reduction. since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area. Indoor and outdoor noise pollution sources include car alarms. mechanical equipment. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution. hearing loss. Furthermore. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems.
advertising. all of which are caused by inefficient. using a broad spectrum metal halide lamp. Europe. water. a global dark-sky movement has emerged. Its sources include building exterior and interior lighting. Since the early 1980s. and. and Japan and in major cities in the Middle East and North Africa like Tehran and Cairo. It is most severe in highly industrialized. This approach confuses the cause and its result. Light pollution is a side effect of industrial civilization. Light pollution can be divided into two main types: (1) annoying light that intrudes on an otherwise natural or low-light setting and (2) excessive light (generally indoors) that leads to discomfort and adverse health effects.  Over-illumination . overillumination. carbon dioxide. factories.This time exposure photo of New York City at night shows skyglow. Adverse consequences are multiple. unappealing. pointing upward in Uniqema Gouda. in analogy to added sound. Specific categories of light pollution include light trespass. with concerned people campaigning to reduce the amount of light pollution. glare. or (arguably) unnecessary use of artificial light. some of them may be not known yet. however. one form of light pollution. An example of a light pollution source. Like other forms of pollution (such as air. Light pollution is a broad term that refers to multiple problems. interferes with astronomical observatories. and noise pollution) light pollution causes damage to the environment. disrupts ecosystems and has adverse health effects. A single offending light source often falls into more than one of these categories. offices. commercial properties. light clutter. like any other form of pollution. is excessive or obtrusive artificial light. Scientific definitions thus include the following: Light pollution obscures the stars in the night sky for city dwellers. Light pollution. densely populated areas of North America. and illuminated sporting venues. the Netherlands. streetlights. but even relatively small amounts of light can be noticed and create problems. Pollution is the adding-of/added light itself. etc. and skyglow. also known as photopollution or luminous pollution.
the Netherlands. A satellite image of Earth at night. A composite image of the Earth at night in 1994–95. of which much light goes into the sky and neighboring apartment blocks and causes light pollution. in Nijmegen.Main article: Over-illumination An office building is illuminated by high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps shining upward.  Glare Main article: Glare (vision)  Light clutter  Skyglow Main article: Skyglow .
The only places in continental Europe where the sky can attain its natural darkness is in northern Scandinavia and in islands far from the continent. Maps that show the enhanced sky brightness have been prepared for the entire world. The entire area consisting of southern England. primarily from distant stars and the Milky Way. The amount of airglow and zodiacal light is quite variable (depending. the sky also scatters incoming light. there is enough UV radiation from the sun of very short wavelength that ionization occurs. west Germany. arcsecond is not uncommon.Mexico City at night. the sky brightness increases to 18 magnitude/sq. causing airglow. or as much as 100 times brighter than is natural. Global effects of light pollution are also made obvious. Inspection of the area surrounding Madrid reveals that the effects of light pollution caused by a single large conglomeration can be felt up to 100 km (62 mi) away from the center. To precisely measure how bright the sky gets. These are put into a physical model of scattering due to air molecules and aerosoles to calculate cumulative sky brightness. If a full moon is present.  Consequences  Energy waste . with a brightly illuminated sky. The natural atmosphere is not completely dark. primarily above the mesosphere. both direct and indirect. Belgium. sunlight that is reflected and backscattered from interplanetary dust particles. and northern France have a sky brightness of at least 2 to 4 times above normal (see above right). The degree of ionization is sufficiently large to allow a constant emission of radiation even during the night when the upper atmosphere is in the Earth's shadow. When these ions collide with electrically neutral particles they recombine and emit photons in the process. This is caused by two main sources: airglow and scattered light. amongst other things on sunspot activity and the Solar cycle) but given optimal conditions the darkest possible sky has a brightness of about 22 magnitude/square arcsecond. from artificial light sources that reach space Measuring the effect of sky glow on a global scale is a complex procedure. Apart from emitting light. 40 times brighter than the darkest sky. At high altitudes. but also the zodiacal light.  Measurement and global effects False colors show various intensities of radiation. Lower in the atmosphere all of the solar photons with energies above the ionization potential of N2 and O2 have already been absorbed by the higher layers and thus no appreciable ionization occurs. even in the absence of terrestrial sources of light and illumination from the Moon. Netherlands. In densely populated areas a sky brightness of 17 magnitude/sq. arcsecond. night time satellite imagery of the earth is used as raw input for the number and intensity of light sources.
reported a saving of 645. In 2007. including non-beneficial upward direction of night-time lighting.2 million kWh in electricity consumption during the daylight saving period from April to October. Terna. therefore. Possible solutions include:  Improving lighting fixtures A flat-lens cobra luminaire. is very effective in reducing light pollution. Lighting is responsible for one-fourth of all electricity consumption worldwide. Effect on astronomy Increase in atmospheric pollution A study presented at the American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco found that light pollution destroys nitrate radicals thus preventing the normal night time reduction of atmospheric smog produced by fumes emitted from cars and factories. It attributes this saving to the delayed need for artificial lighting during the evenings. . reducing light trespass. California. The study was presented by Harald Stark from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. which is a full-cutoff fixture. It ensures that light is only directed below the horizontal. and case studies have shown that several forms of over-illumination constitute energy wastage. reducing glare. The method for best reducing light pollution. and reducing clutter. the company responsible for managing electricity flow in Italy. such as reducing sky glow. depends on exactly what the problem is in any given instance. which means less light is wasted through directing it outwards and upwards.Christmas lights in Dublin. Reduction This kind of LED droplight could reduce unnecessary light pollution in building interiors Reducing light pollution implies many things.
so overall light pollution could be increased by metal halide and above all by LED street lamps while fluorescent lamps usually include small quantities of mercury and should be treated as special waste. Moreover blue and white light scatters more than yellow or red light. However. Supposed superiority of blue-white lamps for common road lighting intensities seems to be questionable. leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. pesticides. chemicals that are not water soluble contaminate plants that grow on polluted soils. industrial waste materials. This episode of this incident is linked with the degree of industrialization and intensities of chemical treatment. causing acid rain. Both organic and inorganic contaminants are imperative in soil. mostly chemicals that are out of place or are present at concentrations advanced than normal which may have unpleasant effects on humans or other organisms. and the need to generate cheap . The brisk industrialization of agriculture. luminaries with high pressure sodium lamps are in the foreground. the treated soil may build up heavy metals and as a result become not capable to even support plant life. or if contaminated overflow reaches streams.Crossroad in Alessandria. Soil pollution can lead to water pollution if poisonous chemicals percolate into groundwater. soil pollution is also caused by resources other than the undeviating addition of man-made chemicals such as undeveloped runoff waters. and radioactive clash. lakes. and percolation of polluted surface water to subsurface strata. spreading out of the chemical industry. In accumulation. On the other hand it has to be remembered that human night vision in better in blue or white light only if light intensity is low. What Is Soil Pollution? Filed Under (Soil Pollution) by admin on 10-06-2010 Soil pollution comprises the toxic waste of soils with resources. The greater than ever pollution of the atmosphere has been one of the greatest concerns for science and the universal public in the last fifty years. use of pesticides. acidic precipitates. if functional over and over again or in large amounts. Heavy metals and other potentially toxic elements are the most grave soil pollutants in sewage. Italy: luminaries with mercury lamps are in the background. Soil also naturally contributes to air pollution by releasing likely to explode compounds into the atmosphere. oil and fuel dumping. while lighting and power industries are pushing to increase more and more ground illuminances: to avoid a conflict of interests ground illuminance or luminances required by standards has to be dropped down if blue or white light sources are used. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons. LED street lights in the middle. lead and other heavy metals. or oceans. solvents. This type of contamination normally arises from the split of underground storage links. Sewage mud contains heavy metals and. Soil pollution is caused by the presence of synthetic chemicals or other modification in the natural soil background. The decay of untreated materials in soil can release sulfur dioxide and other sulfur compounds.
As a result. or biological dreadful conditions and thus be a symbol of an ecological burden of considerable amount. birth defects for humans and other organisms. genetic changes. These include the hazard of acute toxicity. and many soil environments have become contaminated by a large variety of toxic compounds.forms of energy has caused the constant release of man-made organic chemicals into natural ecosystems. . chemical. bodies of water. the atmosphere. Some of these artificial toxic compounds are also dead set against to substantial.