ElectricArcWelding | Welding | Electric Arc

Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I

The electric arc welding process makes use of the heat produced by the electric arc to fusion weld metallic pieces. This is one of the most efficient and widely used welding process because of the ease of use and high production rates that can be achieved economically.

Principle of Arc
An electric arc is formed when an electric current passes between two electrodes separated by a short distance from each other. In arc welding one electrode is the welding rod or wire, while the other is the metal to be welded. The electrode and the plate are connected to the supply, one to the positive pole and one to the negative pole. The arc is started by momentarily touching the electrode on to the plate and then withdrawing it to about 3 to 4 mm from the plate. When the electrode touches the plate, a current flows, and as it is withdrawn from the plate the current continues to flow in the form of a spark across the very small gap first formed. This causes the air gap to become ionized or made conducting, and as a result the current is able to flow across the gap, even when it is quite wide, in the form an arc. The electrode must always be touched on to the plate before the arc can be started, since the smallest air gap will not conduct a current 9 at the voltages used in welding) unless the air gap is first ionized or made conducting. The arc is generated by electrons flowing from the negative pole to the positive pole and the electrical energy is changed in the arc into heat and light. Approximately two-thirds of the heat is developed near the positive pole , which burns into the form of a crater, the temperature near the crater being about 6000-70000C, while the remaining third is developed near to the negative pole. As a result an electrode connected to the positive pole will burn away 50 % faster than if connected to the negative pole. The welding current may vary from 20 to 600 A in manual metal arc welding. When alternating current is used, heat is developed equally at the plate and rod, since the electrode and the plate are changing polarity at the frequency of the supply.

Arc Welding Equipment
The main requirement in an arc welding setup is the source of electric power. They are essentially of two types: a) Alternating Current Machines 1. Transformer 2. Motor or engine driven alternator b) Direct Current Machines 1. Transformer with DC rectifier 2. Motor or engine driven generator In AC welding normally transformer is used. It has following operational characteristics. 1. No moving parts and less noise; 2. Less maintenance; 3. Higher efficiency; 4. Cheaper power source. In DC arc welding a rectifier or a generator can be used to supply the required DC power. At first input voltage is stepped down to required voltage and then through silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is converted from AC to DC. Its characteristics are 1. Compact setup 2. Highly reliable and efficient 3. Less noise 4. Costly setup The welding machine can be of two types. 1. Constant current welding machines or droopers 2. Constant voltage welding machines In constant current welding machine the change in arc current magnitude due to change in voltage across the electrodes is very small. This machine is very essential for manual arc welding processes since the maintenance of constant arc is nearly impossible by a human welder. With the variation of electrode distance from the base plate in manual arc welding the voltage across the arc gap changes continuously but the magnitude of current remains almost constant due to which good quality of weld can be made.

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das


Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 18 . For thinner materials where less heat input is required in the weld zone.In this case weld metal penetration is small. but with AC supply by transformer the open circuit voltage choice is less. such as for thicker sheets or for the work materials which have higher thermal conductivity such as aluminium and copper. If more heat is required at the workpiece side. An arc cannot be maintained with a voltage lower than about 14 V and is not very satisfactory above 45 V.3: Weld penetration A typical Ac arc welding set up using transformer has the workpiece on a metallic table to which the ground lead of the secondary windings of the welding transformer is connected. When the electrode comes a bit closer to the work. DC arc welding is preferred for difficult tasks such as overhead welding.2: Constant voltage characteristics Though DC arc welding is more expensive than AC welding. This gives rise to higher penetration of weld metal. the welding takes place. Theses machines are generally preferred in the automatic machines since they become self corrective. liberating large heat near it.Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I In constant voltage welding machines small change in voltage makes for an extremely large change in the output currents. Figure 2.2. This is termed as reversed polarity or direct current electrode positive (DCEP). The other lead of the secondary is connected to an electrode holder into which the electrode is gripped. When the electrode is brought into contact with the work. The arc welding machines are specified by maximum rated open circuit voltage. The maximum rated open circuit voltage which is the voltage between the output terminals when no welding is being done. With DC source the voltage can be varied by a switch or regulator. This current instantly melts the electrode and thus maintains the arc gap. down to 50 V on small units. Figure 2. the workpiece can be made as anode. This is termed as straight polarity or direct current electrode negative (DCEN). rated current in ampere and duty cycle. In case of AC welding the bead obtained is somewhere in between the above two types.2. the polarity could be reversed by making the workpiece as negative.2. being 80 or 100 V on larger units. it is generally preferred because of the control of the heat input offered by it. the arc voltage drops raising the output current to very high value.1: Constant current characteristics Figure 2. since it can maintain a stable arc.

Figure 2.5: Shielded arc Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 19 . The minimum voltage Vm can be calculated as Vm = 20 + 0. The preferred current ratings as per Indian standard are 150. 200.04 I . 300. whereas for continuous welding 20 to 30 V is sufficient. Most of the welding machines need not have to operate the full time since a good length of time is spent in setting up.Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I Figure 2.2. Continuous automatic welding machines may require 100 % duty cycle. metal chipping. 600 and 900 A. Normally a 60 % duty cycle is suggested. cleaning and inspection. The duty cycle as defined by American Welding Society (AWS) is the percentage of time in a 10 minutes period that a welding machine can be used at its rated output without overloading.2. where I is the load current in amperes.4: Arc welding setup A voltage of the order of 40 to 50 V should be enough for starting an arc. However Indian standard specifies a duty cycle of 5 minutes period. The rated current specifies the maximum current in amperes that a welding machine is capable of supplying at a given voltage. 400. 500.

It is possible to use non-consumable electrodes made of carbon. 5. coated electrodes which are also called stick electrodes provide other useful functions which are listed below. This would increase the available heat for melting the electrode and thus help in improving the metal deposition rate. Consumable electrodes provide both heat input and filler material. A consumable electrode can be either bare or coated. Under the heat of the arc chemical compounds in the covering also react to form a slag which is liquid and lighter than the molten metal. excluding the atmosphere with its harmful effects on the weld metal. 4. The current Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 20 . The filler material required has to be deposited through a separate filler rod. Viscous slag would be useful for making welds in vertical position to cover the metal puddle for longer time. and made of various materials depending on the purpose and chemical composition of the metals to be welded. • The electrode covering usually melts at a higher temperature than the wire core so that it extends a little beyond the core. Workpiece having thickness below 3 mm creates problem in this welding due to lack of rigidity and requirement of low heat input. Some slags are self removing while others have to be lightly chipped. The stick electrodes are available in diameters of 3. 8 and 9 mm and the length is 350 or 450 mm. making the arc stable and easier to control. cools and solidifies. both base metal and electrode tip melt due to heat produced by the arc. This is done by covering the electrode with various types of covering and as a result gases such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide are released from the covering as it melts and forms an envelope around the arc and molten metal pool. Consumable electrodes 2. The carbon and graphite electrodes are used only in DC welding. Similarly thicker workpiece (above 20 mm) may take longer time to weld. MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING (MMAW) OR SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) The manual metal arc welding also called shielded metal arc welding is the most extensively used manual welding process which is done with stick or coated electrodes. 1. The electrode will act as filler material and gets mixed intimately with molten base metal to form solid joint after solidification. • The coating is normally insulator of electricity and thus permits the electrode to be used in narrow grooves and other difficult locations without causing any short circuiting problems. • Special alloying elements can be introduced through these coatings to improve the strength and physical properties of the weld metal. which may be necessary for welding in overhead and other positions. also slows down the cooling rate of the weld. The coatings are different for AC welding and DC welding. • It is possible to include iron powder in the coating in large amounts so that the electrode can be kept in contact with the workpiece. concentrating and directing the arc stream. The molten globules are being exposed to the atmosphere in their travel from the electrode tip to the weld metal pool and absorption of oxygen and nitrogen takes place even when a short arc is held. • The coating contains materials which can control the slag to be viscous or fluid. This low cost equipment can be used for welding in any position.2. The arc can be rendered easy to control and the absorption of atmospheric gases reduced to a minimum by shielding the arc. In addition to above mentioned functions. the arc stream wandering hither and thither over the molten pool. forming a protective covering over the hot metal while cooling and protecting it from atmospheric effects. This process is highly versatile and can be used extensively for both simple as well as sophisticated jobs. the electrodes are kept inside the oven to make them thoroughly dry before put into use.Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I Electrodes The electrodes used for providing heat input in arc welding are of two types. The shielded arc welding can be done with either AC or DC power source. Therefore heat input and amount of filler material deposited can be separately controlled. Non-consumable electrodes When consumable electrode is used. graphite or tungsten. In the welding process the electrode is continuously consumed and hence it should be moved continuously towards the workpiece to maintain constant arc length. In order to prevent moisture pick up by the covering. If a bare wire is used as the electrode it is found that the arc is difficult to control. Also this increases the metal penetration and deposition rate. Also the thermal loses to the atmosphere from the electrode tip are reduced. 6. The result is that the weld tends to be porous and brittle. It rises to the surface. where as tungsten electrode is used for both AC and DC welding. • Some elements which are required for stabilization of the arc are also added in these coatings.

The slag becomes fairly fluid when appreciable amounts of calcium carbonate and fluoride are present in the coating.The electrodes are marked with a 6 digit numeral associated by a prefix and a suffix.Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I may vary from 50 to 500 A and voltage requirement is in between 20 to 40 V. Figure 2. But the weld finish is smooth. When the content of titania (as rutile. elongate with a neck connecting them to the electrode. The welding current. it is necessary that the weld pool be smaller for better control. • The tensile strength of the required joint. (4) magneto-dynamic forces producing movement and (5) surface tension. So a smaller size electrode is selected. This transfer takes place whether the electrode is positive or negative and also when it has changing polarity. as when making an overhead weld.g. • The type of arc welding equipment used.2. It can be expressed as: efficiency % = mass of metal deposited x 100 mass of metal of the electrode consumed With ordinary electrodes the efficiency varies from 75 to 95 % but with electrodes containing metallic components in the covering the efficiency can approach 200 %(e. • The weld position. The forces which cause the transfer appear to be due to : (1) its own weight. and the drop is projected into the molten metal pool. In case of vertical and overhead positions. the heat generated forms a molten pool in the plate and the electrode begins to melt away.7. • The thickness of the base metal. It is generally preferable to use the largest size electrode that is permitted for a given welding situation. and this helps to ensure a sound bond between weld and parent metal. If the arc is observed very closely it can be seen that the metal is transferred from the electrode to the plate in the form of drops or globules. The high cellulose type electrode coating gives rise to a voluminous gas shield but also burns off quickly.6: detachment of molten globule in the metal arc process Electrode Efficiency The efficiency of an electrode is the mass of metal actually deposited compared with the mass of that portion of the electrode consumed. Larger globules are transferred at longer intervals than smaller globules and the globules form. Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 21 . the neck gets reduced in size until it breaks . • The composition of the base metal which determines the electrode composition. Iron oxide when present in the coating gives rise to higher metal deposition rates. (2) the electro-magnetic ( Lorentz) forces. electrodes containing iron powder). The electrodes for the welding operation should be properly selected considering following factors. which is agitated by the arc stream. • The required metal deposition rate. and these globules vary in size according to the current and the type of electrode covering. smooth arc is produced giving rise to voluminous slag and as such should be used for the flat position only. A flat position can accommodate a larger size electrode. (3) gas entrainment. the metal being transferred from the electrode to the plate. category D+ refers to direct current with electrode positive and A 90 refers to the open circuit voltage not less than 90 V for a reference electrode size of 4 or 5 mm. The meaning of these and the various values are shown in figure 2. Similarly it is transferred upwards against the action of gravity. Transfer of metal across the arc gap When an arc is struck between the electrode and the plate. For thinner metals the current setting should be lower.2. These are used for high tensile structural steels. titanium-white or ilmenite) is high. Thus deep penetration can be achieved but the weld finish is somewhat coarser.

7: Designation of manual metal arc welding electrode for mild steel The size of the electrode to be chosen is based on the thickness of the plate to be welded and the weld position. V 18 to 22 20 to 24 21 to 25 23 to 27 24 to 28 Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 22 .2 6 4 9 6 4 Down hand 12 8 4 16 8 5 20 to 25 9 5 6 3.Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I When the electrode size varies. Weld position Metal thickness. A typical current and voltage setting is given here for a specific electrode composition (E603413). Figure 2.2 Vertical 16 to 20 5 4 25 5 5 6 to 9 4 3. it may vary from 100 to 70 V in case of A 90. Electrode diameter. For other electrodes.2 4 5 6 8 Current. the choice is to be made of the parameters of the welding machine.2 Horizontal 12 to 20 6 4 25 6 5 Table-I: Electrode sizes based on the metal thickness to be welded After selecting the electrode size. Root electrode diameter. the voltage also changes accordingly.2. mm 3. For example for 2. A 100 to 150 140 to 200 200 to 220 275 to 350 375 to 475 Table-II: Welding machine parameters Voltage. Electrode diameter. mm mm mm All 3 to 6 3.5 to 8 mm electrodes. manufacturers’ or standard welding handbook should be referred.2 9 to 12 4 3.

When large slag is produced. As long as the flux can travel. Arc energy (KJ/mm) = arc voltage x welding current welding speed ( mm/s) x 1000 The greater the voltage drops across the arc the greater the energy liberated in heat for a given current. This phenomenon is observed more frequently in DC welding as compared to AC welding. hydrogen giving a higher voltage drop than carbon dioxide. Figure 2. Ionized gases that carry the arc from the end of electrode to the workpiece are acting as flexible conductors. absorption of oxygen and nitrogen from the atmosphere can take place. The magnetic flux is produced in the steel and across the arc gap. As a result. but since there is an increased resistance in this long arc the current is decreased. there is less and less chance that the magnetic field will concentrate in the arc gap. It is essential that the welder should keep as short an arc as possible to ensure sound welds.2. it produces a magnetic flux that circles around the conductor in perpendicular planes. Areas where lines of force have a tendency to concentrate are at points of starting and stopping and in such places as the inside corners of boxes or frames. As the weld is filling the gap of the joint.8: Arc blow in DC arc welding The result of an arc blow is an excessive spatter. the arc blow melts the slag causing still more excessive spatter. The voltage drop can be varied by altering the type of gas shield liberated by the electrode covering. This concentration of flux that pulls the arc from its intended path is called Arc Blow. The problem of arc blow gets multiplied when welding is done on strongly magnetic materials such as nickel alloys because of the strong magnetic fields set up by these metals. The arc column is mainly influenced by the lines of forces crossing the arc gap. incomplete fusion and reduced welding speed. Long arcs are difficult to control and maintain and they lower the efficiency of the gas shield because of the greater length. Arc Blow When current flows through a conductor. Some of the methods that are used to reduce the severity of arc blow are Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 23 . it piles up and a magnetic field of considerable strength develops. The buildup of the flux causes a deflection of arc column as it pills away from this heavy concentration of magnetic forces. As the length of arc increases so does the voltage drop. When flux ceases to move. resulting in poor mechanical properties of the weld. no serious arc blow will interrupt the weld. The centres of the flux circles are located at the centre of the conductor. it pushes the magnetic flux ahead of the arc.Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I An arc energy is usually expressed in kilojoules per millimeter length of the weld (KJ/mm). As the weld joins the pieces together.

This is known as spatter and may occur through: 1. The use of too long an arc or too high an arc voltage. the effect of magnetic field is nullified.Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I 1.11: Eccentricity of electrode between the maximum and minimum reading is an approximate indication of the eccentricity. Figure 2. the arc may not function satisfactorily. The arc tends to be directed towards one side as if influenced by arc blow and accurate placing of the deposited metal is prevented. by the magnetic fields set up. or by the magnetic pinch effect.2. The use of excessive current.2. The latter is the most frequent cause. 4. Arc blow making the arc uncontrollable.9: Appearance of magnetic field in DC arc welding as affected by grounding Spatter At the conclusion of a weld small particles or globules of metal may sometimes be observed scattered around the vicinity of the weld along its length. the difference Figure 2. Figure 2. Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 24 . Change to AC welding. Place more than one ground lead from the base metal (preferably one each from the ends of the base metal plate). 3. 2. by varying current and voltage. Put steel blocks near the end of the plate in contact with the base metal so that the magnetic flux line would flow through them and reduce the arc blow. because of the continuous change in the polarity. expanding with great violence and projecting the small drops of metal outside the arc stream. 5. Use a short arc length so that the filler metal would not be deflected but carried easily to the arc crater. 3. and thus the globules of metal getting projected outside the stream. Spatter can be reduced by controlling the arc correctly. and by preventing arc blow. 2.2.10: Spatter Eccentricity of the core wire in an electrode If the core wire of a flux coated electrode is displaced excessively from the centre of the flux coating because of errors in manufacture. To establish whether the core wire is displaced outside the manufacturer’s tolerance is to clean off the flux covering on one side at varying points down the length of the electrode and measure the distance L. Spatter may also be caused by bubbles becoming entrapped in the molten metal globules of metal. Reduce the current used so that the strength of the magnetic field gets reduced.

2.2. Figure 2. In the first method the electrode is moved in an arc so that it will scratch the work metal and thus establish the current flow. The type of edge required for butt welds in manual arc welding process is given herewith for better understanding. To start the arc.13: Arc initiation techniques Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 25 . Then electrode should be moved away from the workpiece by a very small amount so that the arc is established. To accomplish this generally two different methods are employed. The normal distance by which the electrode is separated from the work metal is same as that of the diameter of the electrode wire.12: Butt joint preparation Welding Techniques The normal welding can be started after selection of electrode. The scratching method is an easier method and is generally preferred by the beginners.Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I Edge Preparation The edge preparation in case of arc welding is very important particularly for thicker material. Figure 2. setting up parameters of welding machine and preparation of edge of the workpieces. first the welder has to make a contact between the electrode and the workpiece so that current flow is established.

There are two positions in the vertical. After completing a sideward weaving motion. In the downward welding the slag is likely to move down due to the gravity and mix with the weld metal. Out of these vertically upward direction is most preferred because of the strong weld obtained.Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I However the electrode should be brought back immediately to the point of start where the welding should take place. To fight the effect of gravity the electrode is held at an angle of about 20 degrees from the vertical plane with a short arc length so that the filler metal will be easily moved into the groove. Welding in flat (down hand) position is relatively easy. the arc crater would not be completely filled and a depression would be left in the joint. this would be continued till the joint is completely filled. the welding becomes somewhat difficult because the molten metal cannot be held in position against gravity.2. Therefore only vertical upward welding is preferred. the electrode is moved forward to form a new puddle which is separated from the previous puddle by a small distance of order of 1. a smaller arc length is maintained with a smaller size electrode. Further. and at the same time it should be moved sideways in a weaving motion to maintain the bead width. The other method which is generally preferred by experienced welders is called the tapping start. Figure 2. there are chances that the electrode itself would get welded to the base metal plate. This slant helps in pushing the molten metal into the shape and reducing the sagging of the metal. The electrode should be moved downwards continuously to maintain the arc length. the welder should move the electrode along the length of the joint maintaining the arc. This is caused mainly by gravity acting on the molten metal during solidification. When the electrode is moved in the forward direction. the electrode is moved in and out of the puddle so that a proper bead is formed. The electrode is maintained at about 20 degrees from the horizontal and inclined about 20 degree from the vertical plane in the direction of its travel. with the metal at the centre of the arc being at the highest temperature. otherwise the base metal will unnecessarily get defaced by the weld metal deposit. Generally short arc is maintained so that filler metal will be properly deposited in the groove. In overhead welding to reduce the chance of weld metal falling.15: Welding passes At the end of the welding.5 mm.2. The flat position is the best since Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 26 . After establishing the correct arc length. the bead is formed. Figure 2. Therefore the arc has to be slowly extinguished by the gradual decrease of the welding current which ensures a complete filling of the arc crater. if arc is abruptly extinguished. The intense heat generated under the arc starts melting the metal. vertically upward and vertically downward directions. These can be corrected by short arc length and angular positioning of electrode. is chipped off and then the area is cleaned with wire brush before the second pass is commenced. In multipass welding the brittle slag coating present on the bead after the root pass is made. In this the electrode is held vertically above the point where the welding is to start and in a swift motion it is moved down to contact the metal and then lifted as much as the arc gap which is same as the electrode wire diameter.2. Unless the motion is swift.14: Welding motion Figure 2.16: weaving motion The major problems in the horizontal welding are the undercutting and sagging of the weld bead. but in horizontal position.

overlap and sagging of weld bead higher metal deposition rate as well as good bead quality can be achieved.2.17: Undercut. Figure 2. It has been observed that adding iron powder to the coating of the electrodes causes an increase in the metal deposition rates.19: Vertical welding Figure 2.Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I Figure 2. special fixtures are used to rotate the jobs in such a way that the weld joint comes into the flat position.2.18: Horizontal welding Figure 2.20: Overhead welding Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 27 .2. Because of this in many situations.2.

6. page377-391 Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 28 . Heat input and filler material deposition can not be separated. It requires relatively small variety of electrodes. The net heat that is actually utilized for melting can be obtained by assuming another efficiency factor. is defined to take into account any losses. 5. 2.21 to 0.Rao. Relatively simple and versatile technique. The covering on the electrode can provide shielding gases. is by direct conversion of the electrical energy. There are more chances of slag inclusions in the bead. Pearson Education. A lot of electrode material is wasted in the form of unused end. H = { f1 V I / v } J / mm When heat source is concentrated such as an electric arc. But the actual heat utilized by the joint depends upon how this heat is transferred from tip of the electrode to the joint. page 780-781 Manufacturing Technology by P. Thin workpieces (less than 3 mm) are difficult to weld. although this range can be easily extended by skilled operators using multiple pass techniques. alloying elements and other required materials at comparatively low cost. The process is best suited for workpiece thickness of 3 to 19 mm. NewYork. Hence a factor of heat transfer efficiency. and for maintenance work. It is useful for work in remote areas.N.8 and would almost approach 1. TMH.85 SAW 0. 5.48 SMAW and GMAW 0. 4. page 101-152 The Science and Practice of Welding by A. 3. This is the actual heat generated at the tip of the electrode and ideally should be available for melting the joint.C. Faster welding operation compared to gas welding process. Cambridge University Press. 3.99 Though the net heat as calculated above reaches the weld joint. Welding equipment is portable and can be easily maintained. 6. f1. the heat input P in watts. where a portable fuel powered generator can be used as the power supply. Disadvantages Application This process is commonly used in general construction. 1. then moisture may lower the quality of weld metal.0. 7. The actual heat distributed into the surrounding metal would depend upon the welding process as well as the process parameters including the joint design. If velocity of weld is v. where v is in mm / s. then arc energy is given as H = {P / v} J/mm. slag and gas. the value of f1 would be greater than 0. all of it cannot be utilized for melting since part of it would be conducted away from the joint by the base metal as reflected in the heat affected zone. Reference • • • • Welding and Welding Technology by R. MacGraw-Hill. page 1-7 Manufacturing Engineering and Technology by Kalpakjian and Schmid.66 to 0.Little. Low cost welding equipment.L. Low cost of welding operation. because the equipment is portable and can be easily maintained. 2. If proper drying of electrode is not done. f2 as melting efficiency as follows: f2 = Heat required to melt the joint Net heat supplied Advantages of Electric Arc Welding 1. in ship building. on pipelines. 4.Davis.Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I Heat Input In case of arc welding.90 to 0. Arc blow and metal spatter are common problems of this process. The following are some expected values for the various processes: GTAW 0.

Write the advantages of non-consumable electrodes over consumable electrodes. Differentiate between arc and spark. Why voltage requirement for arc maintenance is less compared to staring arc voltage? Explain overlap and undercut in arc welding. 10. 3. 46. Suggest the situations in which DC welding has edge over AC welding. 5. Heat required to melt steel may be taken as 10 J / mm3 and the heat transfer efficiency is 0. 12. 30. Write the welding electrode specification in Indian standard. 18. Why titania is added to the covering of the electrode? What is spatter in arc welding? What factors govern the voltage drop across the arc? Explain various self removing slags formed in arc welding. How electric welding equipment is specified? What do you mean by duty cycle in case of welding? How you will measure the eccentricity of coating in welding electrode? Why iron powder is provided in coating of electrode? What do you mean by hydrogen controlled electrode? For overhead welding smaller size electrode is selected. 17.Module-II of Manufacturing Science-I Review Questions 1. When you will opt for 100 % duty welding equipment? Write various non-consumable electrodes used in arc welding. 21. 16. 15. Why maximum size of electrode is considered in flat welding position? What is the function of flux in the coating of electrode? Why upward welding is preferred in case of vertical welding? Explain how the heat produced at the tip of the electrode is transferred to the base metal? What are the functions of calcium carbonate and fluoride in the coating of electrode? What is a stick electrode? 36. 20. 19. Explain. 40. Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 29 . Explain the mechanism of heat generation in electric arc welding.85. 27. 26. Why electrode is dried prior to its use? Why slag removal is essential in arc welding? Explain the HAZ in arc welding. 7. 47. 37. 23. 25. 38. 41. 34. 8. 22. 50. How metal gets transferred fro tip of the electrode to the weld zone in arc welding? How arc is initiated in arc welding? Explain. 49. 48. 28. calculate the melting efficiency in the case of arc welding of steel with a potential of 20 V and current of 250 A. the travel sped is 6 mm/s and the cross sectional area of the joint is 20 mm2. For welding of aluminium which mode of current AC or DC will give desired result? What do you mean by DCEN and DCEP? For wider gap joint and for deep penetration which mode of welding you will prefer? Why arc welding is not suitable for thinner sheet welding? Write the function of coating on an electrode. 32. 24. Explain the various forces the filler material encounter while transferred from electrode to the weld zone. 11. 14. 13. 33. 4. 39. Write various weaving motion of electrode in arc welding. What do you mean by arc blow in arc welding? And how to avoid it. 44. Explain the method of obtaining a weld in horizontal position by SMAW. How multi-pass welding is done in SMAW? Explain open circuit voltage for arc welding equipment. Explain five different zones in an electric arc. 29. 43. 9. What is electrode efficiency? How you can improve it? Explain the process capability of SMAW. 35. 42. 31. How arc welding electrode is manufactured? ( beyond syllabus) Explain the procedure for overhead welding in SMAW. 6. Describe various joint preparations in case of arc welding. Explain primary and secondary electrons in arc welding. 45. Explain the characteristics of constant voltage and constant current type welding equipment. 2.

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