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Aerodynamic Control

— D Viswanath

Acknowledgment

I am most grateful to my Dr. S. E. Talole, for introducing me to this subject. His teachings have been my source of motivation throughout this work.

(D Viswanath) Feb 2011

1

Synopsis

Broadly speaking autopilots either control the motion in the pitch and yaw planes, in which they are called lateral autopilots, or they control the motion about the fore and aft axis in which case they are called roll autopilots. Lateral ”g” autopilots are designed to enable a missile to achieve a high and consistent ”g” response to a command. They are particularly relevant to SAMs and AAMs. There are normally two lateral autopilots, one to control the pitch or up-down motion and another to control the yaw or left-right motion. The requirements of a good lateral autopilot are very nearly the same for command and homing systems but it is more helpful initially to consider those associated with command systems where guidance receiver produces signals proportional to the misalignment of the missile from the line of sight (LOS). The eﬀectiveness of a guided missile weapon system, in terms of accuracy and probability of kill, depends greatly on the response characteristics of the complete guidance, control, and airframe loop. Since the accuracy or eﬀectiveness of a guided missile depends greatly on the dynamics of the missile, particularly during the terminal phase of its ﬂight, it is often desirable to predict its ﬂight dynamics in the early preliminary-design phase to assure that a reasonably satisfactory missile conﬁguration is realized. The missile control methods can be broadly classiﬁed under aerodynamic control and thrust vector control. Aerodynamic control can be further classiﬁed into Cartesian and polar control methods while thrust vector control can be further classiﬁed under gimbaled motors, ﬂexible nozzles (ball and socket), interference methods (spoilers/vanes), secondary ﬂuid or gas injection and vernier engines (external or extra engines). Aerodynamic control methods are generally used for tactical missiles.

2

Contents

Acknowledgment Synopsis Contents 1 Modeling Roll, Pitch and Yaw Dynamics Using Aerodynamic Derivatives 1.1 1.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Translational and Rotational Dynamics of Missile Autopilot . . . . . . . 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3 Dynamics of Yaw Autopilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamics of Pitch Autopilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamics of Roll Autopilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 3

1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 5

Roll Dynamics using Aerodynamic Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 Normalized Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example[1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transfer Function Form of Roll Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . .

References

3

**Chapter 1 Modeling Roll, Pitch and Yaw Dynamics Using Aerodynamic Derivatives
**

1.1 Introduction

Aerodynamic derivatives are devices enabling control engineers to obtain transfer functions deﬁning the response of a missile to aileron, elevator or rudder inputs. With the roll, pitch and yaw dynamics under consideration, aerodynamic derivatives are force derivatives if they are used in force equation and moment derivatives if they are used in moment equation.

1.2

Translational and Rotational Dynamics of Missile Autopilot

The ﬁnal simpliﬁed equations for forces and moments acting on the missile which represent the translational and rotational dynamics of the missile respectively were derived in Chapter 2 as follows: -

1

1.2.1

Dynamics of Yaw Autopilot

It can be seen that the equations Y = m( dv + rU ) dt N = rIz ˙ (1.1)

are coupled and produce moments about z axis or torque about z axis or the yaw movement and are used for design of yaw autopilot.

1.2.2

Dynamics of Pitch Autopilot

Similarly the eqns Z = m( dw − qU ) dt M = qIy ˙ (1.2)

are for pitching dynamics and are used for design of pitch autopilot.

1.2.3

Dynamics of Roll Autopilot

The roll autopilot dynamics is represented by the equation L = pIx ˙ (1.3)

1.3

Roll Dynamics using Aerodynamic Derivatives

The roll dynamics can be rewritten as given below:pIx = L ˙ (1.4)

where p is the angular velocity about the x-axis; Ix is the moment of inertia about the x-axis and L is the total rolling moment acting on the missile. 2

The total rolling moment L is a function of the angular velocity p and the aileron deﬂection ξ, i.e., L = L(p, ξ) Hence using partial derivatives, the roll dynamics can be expressed as follows:pIx = ˙ ∂L ∂L ξ+ p ∂ξ ∂p

∂L ∂ξ

(1.5)

(1.6) and

∂L ∂p

The partial derivatives

are also known as the aerodynamic moment derivatives

and represented by Lξ and Lp respectively. In other words, Lξ is the roll moment derivative due to aileron deﬂection ξ and Lp is the roll moment derivative due to angular velocity p. Thus pIx = Lξ ξ + Lp p ˙ Note:- Lξ is not a linear function of ξ due to two reasons:(i) Aileron eﬀectiveness decreases with total incidence θ. (ii) For a given θ, Lξ is not a linear function of ξ, although the graph passes through origin. However, bearing in mind that in most applications ξ is unlikely to exceed a few degrees we can consider Lξ as constant. (1.7)

1.3.1

Normalized Form

The normalised form of roll dynamics using aerodynamic dervatives can be expressed considering the moment of inertia Ix (or A) to be constant as follows:pIx = Lξ ξ + Lp p ˙ Lp Lξ ξ+ p p = ˙ Ix Ix p = lξ ξ + lp p ˙ where lξ and lp are the normalised roll moment derivatives. Sign Convention for Roll Moments Positive aileron deﬂection results in the sign of moments being negative. Hence Lξ and Lp are negative values. 3 (1.8)

1.3.2

Example[1]

Consider an air to air homing missile whose roll moment of inertia is A = 0.96Kgm2 and is assumed to ﬂy at a constant height of 1500m. The table 1.1 shows that the roll derivatives, aerodynamic gains and time constants vary largely due to the variability in the launch speeds in the range of M = 1.4 to M = 2.8.

Various quantities M = 1.4 M = 1.6 M = 1.8 −Lξ −Lp −A Ta = Lp Lξ Lp 7050 22.3 0.043 316 8140 24.9 0.0385 327 9100 27.5 0.0349 331

M = 2.0 M = 2.4 M = 2.8 10200 30.3 0.0316 336 11700 34.5 0.0278 340 13500 37.3 0.0257 362

Table 1.1: Roll Derivatives, Gains and Time Constants

1.3.3

Transfer Function Form of Roll Dynamics

Thus the above equation of roll dynamics where aerodynamic derivatives have been used can now be easily expressed in transfer function form where the input is the aileron deﬂection (ξ) and output is the roll rate (p). Using Laplace Transforms p = lξ ξ + lp p ˙ sp(s) = lξ ξ(s) + lp p(s) (s − lp )p(s) = lξ ξ(s) p(s) lξ = ξ(s) (s − lp ) (1.9)

4

References

[1] P. Garnell, Guided Weapon Control Systems. London: Brassey’s Defence Publishers, 1980.

5

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- Missile Guidance Control
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- Garnell- Autopilot Design
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- MATLAB SIMULATIONS FOR GARNELL's ROLL AUTOPILOT
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