00 Editorial

01 Editor’s Mail Box
02 Campus Update ........................................................../ Surjya Chutia
08 Academic World Around
10 Panorama
Personality
16 22 Ways to Become Spectacularly Inspirational........./ Robin Sharma
Exam & Education
17 =··+=·== ¬=·+ =++ š:+· ¬+ ·++ š:+==+= ......../ ¬o- ·+
22 ¬‹|+= :=·- =-š:= .../ · - : :™:r= := = :-:r ·= +; ¬= : ·'” ·- :ƒ+
26 On the Art of Writing ......................................../ Maj. (Retd) H.P. Singh
Career
27 Career Jyoti ......................................................./ Nilim Jyoti Senapati
30 Notes for Freshers - II................................................/ Prasanta Bora
32 List of Unapproved and Unrecognized Universities-III
34 Career Tabloid
Science & Tech.
35 =-+ += ¬·+ =+¤ ..................................../ +‰ =++· ·+=='=
37 Role of Traditional Plants in the Treatment .................. / Biplab Banik
Social Science
39 Role of Media in the Peace Process ....... / Biraj Dutta & Bristi Senapati
47 Child Labour – Please think Twice .........................../ Anirban Ghosh
49 Empowering Women as Social Partner ......................../ Dr. B.K. Sen
50 Domestic Violence Against Women ../ Rashmi Dutta & Baikuntha Das
54 Problems of the Ageing Population in India ................... / Monika Das
57 ¬=·+ :ƒ= + ==:·r+ :-='·· = .............................../ :··-¤ ·:·
63 ··...· +++ =‹+· ·:=°+ ='° š™:-r= ................../ =™| r=+
66 The Concept of Humanism in the ............/ Debananda Bhattacharjee
Language & Literature
69 +'··ƒ=· :=++ '·· š'+=·+ ·'=·= – ‘+'=++ 'r':’ ........../ š=¤ ·:·
73 '··='· +··ƒ=· ¬+ +š:=++ :=|'=š=ƒ ............./ ·:+·ƒ=· ·+:=+
77 \ã¤>à>ì@ƒ¹ ëW¡àìJ ¹¤ã@ƒø>à= – &A¡[i¡ "δšèo¢ γãÛ¡à ............./ Îœ¡[È¢ [¤Å«àÎ
83 Gender Representation in Shakespeare's Plays ........../ Anjali Baruah
87 A¡[¤t¡à : ¬'=·= ‹'+=š=. =
·
=·:-· ='-=. r·ƒ· ='-=. g§{JVm ‘moXr,
°·r :=:=+-
Students’ Column
90 =-'·ƒ |· š =t ¬+ ='++|=+ ¬=· ......................./ ·:=+o= ·+· (×+ )
92 Thoughts for a Dream – Shattered ........................../ Bobita Bhoktiari
93 r '° ·t – = +r = – :=·+ ¬:š¤= ............................../ r+'== ·='+=
95 A¡[¤t¡à : š-·:=|'= ··. ·'==. :·r· :·+:r+. +š=·ƒ= š:=. ·ƒ-
·:·. :=·= ·:·. ·-· ·+·. Shubhadeep Paul, ¬¤+=· :š„+
Patron : Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, the Principal, Tinsukia College
Adviser : Anjan Borthakur, President, ACTA, Tinsukia College Unit
Editor in Chief : Rana K. Changmai
Executive Editor : Sushanta Kar
Editors : Monika Devi, Roshmi Dutta, Mayuri Sharma Baruah, Monika Das, Manashi
Rajkhowa, Santanu Borah, Nilimjyoti Senapati, Surjya Chutia, Satyajyoti Gogoi, Dr.
Kamalesh Kalita
Students’ Representatives : Pranjal Gogoi, (Magazine Secretaty, TCSU)
Published by : Secretary, Assam College Teachers’ Association (ACTA),
Tinsukia College Unit, Tinsukia College, Tinsukia - 786125
Contact : Web : http://sites.google.com/site/pragyan06now ;
Blog : http:pragyan06now.blogspot.com ; Cell : 9954226966
email : pragyan_tsc50@yahoo.co.in ; pragyan.tsc50@gmail.com
Printed at : The Assam Computers (Govt. app ‘A’ Category Press)
email : assamcomputer@gmail.com/
http://theassamcomputers.webs.com/ Tinsukia - 786125 (Assam)
The Editorial Boar The Editorial Boar The Editorial Boar The Editorial Boar The Editorial Board of Pragyan d of Pragyan d of Pragyan d of Pragyan d of Pragyan
expr expr expr expr expresses gratitude to Anjal Borah, esses gratitude to Anjal Borah, esses gratitude to Anjal Borah, esses gratitude to Anjal Borah, esses gratitude to Anjal Borah,
Joseph Landsber Joseph Landsber Joseph Landsber Joseph Landsber Joseph Landsberger ger ger ger ger, Maj (Rtd) , Maj (Rtd) , Maj (Rtd) , Maj (Rtd) , Maj (Rtd)
H.P H.P H.P H.P H.P. Singh, Prasanta Bora, . Singh, Prasanta Bora, . Singh, Prasanta Bora, . Singh, Prasanta Bora, . Singh, Prasanta Bora,
Rudra Narayan Borkakoty Rudra Narayan Borkakoty Rudra Narayan Borkakoty Rudra Narayan Borkakoty Rudra Narayan Borkakoty, Biraj , Biraj , Biraj , Biraj , Biraj
Dutta, Bristi Senapati, Anirban Dutta, Bristi Senapati, Anirban Dutta, Bristi Senapati, Anirban Dutta, Bristi Senapati, Anirban Dutta, Bristi Senapati, Anirban
Ghosh, Dr Ghosh, Dr Ghosh, Dr Ghosh, Dr Ghosh, Dr. B.K. Sen, Prafulla . B.K. Sen, Prafulla . B.K. Sen, Prafulla . B.K. Sen, Prafulla . B.K. Sen, Prafulla
Gogoi, Har Gogoi, Har Gogoi, Har Gogoi, Har Gogoi, Harendranath Bor endranath Bor endranath Bor endranath Bor endranath Borthakur thakur thakur thakur thakur, ,, ,,
Saptarshi Biswas, Anirban Saptarshi Biswas, Anirban Saptarshi Biswas, Anirban Saptarshi Biswas, Anirban Saptarshi Biswas, Anirban
Dharitriputra, Chandrama Kalita, Dharitriputra, Chandrama Kalita, Dharitriputra, Chandrama Kalita, Dharitriputra, Chandrama Kalita, Dharitriputra, Chandrama Kalita,
Palashjyoti Sar Palashjyoti Sar Palashjyoti Sar Palashjyoti Sar Palashjyoti Sarma and Sangeeta ma and Sangeeta ma and Sangeeta ma and Sangeeta ma and Sangeeta
Modi for their invaluable Modi for their invaluable Modi for their invaluable Modi for their invaluable Modi for their invaluable
contribution to this issue. W contribution to this issue. W contribution to this issue. W contribution to this issue. W contribution to this issue. We ar e ar e ar e ar e are ee ee
looking for looking for looking for looking for looking forwar war war war ward for mor d for mor d for mor d for mor d for more ee ee
contributions in futur contributions in futur contributions in futur contributions in futur contributions in future ee ee
1 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
T
hank you so much for
sending Pragyan.I have
just received it and was going
through the articles. The
magazine is really good and I
am sure will only become well
with your care and effort.
Although I am not
publicity hungry guy, yet it felt
good to see my own name in
fine prints. One small
correction though - that “h” in
my surname “Borah” is not
required - it is plain “Bora”.
Thank you again and regards.
Prasanta Bora
Silchar, Cachar.,
mailborap@gmail.com
I
have just gone through the issue of Pragyan
which you had forwarded.First of all, I must
congratulate you on the excellent quality of all the
articles. The level of merit that the articles have
attained is of the highest order.I must really
commend you for your fine work.
I must also express my gratefulness at the
publishing of an interview with me. It is really a
great honor for me to have my interview published
in your magazine, and I will always cherish this
memory in my heart.
You can be sure that you have added one more
dedicated reader of your magazine
in me.
Thanking you again,
P.J.Mazumdar, Guwahati
palashm@yahoo.com
You Have Added one more Dedicated Reader to your Magazine
The Magazine is
Really Good
(Readers may choose whatever
language they feel comfort to write
in mailbox.
But for better communication we
prefer English and Assamese. —
Editor)
/ 2
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
A
lthough women constitute almost a half of
the population and are equally gifted, talented
and competent in scholarship, leadership,
management and policy making, there is inequity
as seen in their representation at these higher
levels. Having experienced a gender sensitivity
programme, they could catalyze the system to
move towards a gender-just system, by bringing
their perspectives into decision-making. Keeping
this in view, the UGC started organizing
workshops since 2002-2003 in different
universities and colleges of the country
Sensitizing, creating Awareness and building
Motivation (SAM) for women teachers in higher
education, The participants of such workshop
generally constitute middle and senior level
women in administrative positions or who have
the potential to occupy such positions in the near
future.
The Cell for Women’s Studies and
Development (CWSD), Tinsukia College
organized a 5 days Residential Sensitization/
Awareness/ Motivation (SAM) Workshop under
UGC Scheme on ‘Capacity Building of Women
Managers in Higher Education’ from 08
November, 2010. Altogether twenty nine (29)
women teachers from different colleges of
Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, Sivsagar and Jorhat districts
participated in the Workshop.
Dr. Anjali Goswami, Bibha Rani Goswami,
Ashima Borah, Dr. Tanusree Sarker (Women’s
College, Tinsukia), Sikha Rani Dutta, Ira
Majumdar (Tinsukia Commerce College),
Tilottama Gogoi, Dr. Sanjita Chetia (Digboi
Mahila Mahavidyalaya), Runjun Saikia, Bitumoni
Malia (Margherita College), Jolly Borthakur
Kotoky (J.B.College), Bina Baruah, Pronamika
Goswami, Himanjoli Sarmah (Sibsagar College),
Workshop on Capacity Building of Women Managers in
Higher Education held at Tinsukia College
1
Surjya Chutia
3 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
Deepa Gogoi, Dr. Mamoni Borah (Swahid
Maniram Dewan College), Swapna Borah,
Monimala Borah, Kabree Borpuzari Sarmah
(Doomdooma College), Sujata Borthakur, Sarojini
Dutta, Jina Borbora (Nazira College), Dr. Salma
Nasreen (Sibsagar Girls’ College), Anima
Hazarika, Kiron Goswami, Bantimala Devi, Ranee
Borthakur, Pranamika Das and Dr. Deepika
Bhattacharjee (Tinsukia College) participated in
the five days Workshop.
The Inaugural Session of the Workshop was
held at the Tinsukia College premises on 08
November, 2010. Anita Baruwa, the Local
Coordiantor of the Workshop greeted the
participants, invited guests and resource persons
and the session began with the College Chorus
sung by the College students. The welcome
address was delivered by Sangita Baruah, the
Coordinator of the Cell for Women’s Studies and
Development, Tinsukia College. The UGC Core
Group Resource Person for the North East Region,
Prof Nasreen Rustomfram enlightened the
gathering about the importance, focus and
objectives of the workshop, precisely mentioning
the five Substantiative Manuals designed as
subject material for the workshop. Prof.
Rustomfram is a faculty in the Center for Lifelong
Learning, Tata Institute of Social Sciences,
Mumbai. Dr. Ajanta Rajkonwar, Reader,
Department of Commerce, Dibrugarh University,
who is the Sub Regional Coordinator of the SAM
Workshop, elaborated on the genesis of the
workshop. Dr. Daisy Bora Talukdar, Director i/c,
Center for Women’s Studies, Dibrugarh University
gave the inaugural address. Dr. Bhuban Gogoi,
Principal, Tinsukia College expressed his views
on the Workshop and also planted a sapling of
Sanchi tree to mark the occasion. Pallavi Gogoi,
Asst. Coordinator of the workshop delivered the
vote of thanks.
There were 15 technical sessions in all and
the resource persons for these sessions were: Rita
Borkotoky, Assoc. Prof., Home Science, Sibsagar
Girls’ College, Dr. Champa Rao Mohan, Asst.
Prof., English dept, Doomdooma College, Anita
Barwua, Asst. Prof., Economics, Tinsukia
College, Ashifa Sobhan, Asst. Prof., English,
Namrup College and Dr Sunita Agarwalla,
Assoc. Prof., Education, Dispur College. Apart
from 15 technical sessions which covered the 5
substantiative manuals in the five days, there
were two Open Sessions of one and a half hours’
duration. One such session was on ‘Witch Craft
and Witch Hunting in Assam’. The resource
person for that session was Prof. Jahnabi Gogoi,
Department of History, Dibrugarh University. Dr.
Madhumita Purkayashtha Asst. Prof, English,
D.H.S.K.College, Dibrugarh was the resource
person for the second open session which was
on ‘Sexual Harassment at Workplace: Theory
and Praxis’. The Workshop came to an end with
a brief valedictory session on the evening of 12
November, 2010 in the presence of the Principal,
Tinsukia College, Dr. Ajanta Rajkonwar and Dr.
Sunita Agarwalla. The Cell published booklet
‘Anuronon’ on this occasion.
A
UGC sponsored workshop on “Compilation
of a New Comprehensive Assamese
Dictionary: Challenges & Strategies” was
organized successfully by department of
Assamese, Womens’ College, Tinsukia in
collaboration with the department of Assamese,
Tinsukia College, Tinsukia on 10
th
, 11
th
and 12
th
of February 2011. The three days workshop was
held at the Womens’ College premises. Altogether
33 teachers from various Colleges of upper Assam
and Dibrugarh University participated in the
workshop. In all 10 technical sessions were held
during the three days.
The resource persons of the workshop were-
Dr. Bhimkanta Baruah, Professor, Department of
Assamese, Dibrugarh University, Dr. Madan
Sharma, Professor, Department of English &
Foreign Language, Tezpur University, Dr. Ramesh
Pathak, Retd. Professor, Department of Assamese,
Cotton College, Dr. Basanta kr. Goswami, Retd.
Professor, Department of Assamese, D.C.B. Girls’
College, Jorhat and Dr. Devabrata Sharma,
UGC Sponsored Workshop on Assamese Dictionary held 2
/ 4
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
A
ssam College Teachers’ Association,
Tinsukia College Unit organizes the ‘Annual
Departed Teachers’ Memorial Lecture’ regularly in
memory of the Colleagues who died either in
service or after retirement. The memorial lecture
for the year 2010 was organized by the Unit on 7
th
of December 2010 at the College auditorium.
At the outset of the function, Dr Bhuban Gogoi,
the Principal, Tinsukia College, kindled a lamp in
memory of the departed teachers which was followed
by floral tribute to the departed souls by Kiron
Goswami, the Vice Principal of the College and
Anjan Borthakur, the President of the Teachers’ Unit.
Dr. Akhil Ranjan Dutta, Associate Professor,
Department of Political Science, Gauhati
University delivered lecture on the topic “Uttor-
Pub Bharator Jono Nirapatta, Rastra, Nagarik
Samaj aru Gana Andolonar Bhumika” In his
address, Dr. Dutta elaborately discussed each and
every movement that took place from the medieval
era to present juncture of
north east region of the
country. He said that
whenever a particular
ethnic group felt a threat
to its cultural dignity and
fabric, it revolted against
the oppressors. Many a
time, even unknowingly,
these became inter- ethnic
group conflicts for which
Associate Professor, Department of English,
Jorhat College, Jorhat.
The workshop ended with a brief valedictory
function held on the evening of 12
th
of February,
2011 under the chairmanship of Dr. Chandrakanta
Sharma, Principal, Women's College, where
participation certificates were distributed among
the participants.
College Teachers Paid Tributes to Departed Colleagues 3
the people of this region failed to fight for a
common issue unitedly. These uprisings were
mainly through arms in the pre- independence era
and some of the struggles are still continuing.
Though in the post-independence era, most of the
uprisings were launched in a non- violent way but
due to some unfortunate factors sometimes these
became violent. He further stated that each and
every ethnic group has its own culture and tradition
and these should be given proper respect by others.
Dr Dutta also appealed to the students’ community
to study history of the region by which they would
be richer academically. The lecture session was
followed by an important interaction session.
The whole function was presided over by
Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, the Principal and anchored
by Rana Kr. Changmai, HoD, English Department
of the College. The day long programme ended
with vote of thanks offered by Anjan Borthakur,
the President of the Unit.
5 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
AIDS Day Observed at Tinsukia College 4
Dr. Sunita Agarwala Delivered Talk on Stress Free Living 5
T
oday, it is a major course of concern in our
society that the number of youths suffering
from stress related problems in our society have
been increasing day by day. Talk, counselling
programme on such problems among the youths is
considered very important and relevant. Keeping
this view in mind, The Pragyan Editorial Board
in collaboration with the Cell for Women’s Studies
& Development, Tinsukia College organized a talk
on the topic ‘Stress Free Living’ at the college
premise successfully on 13
th
of December 2010. Dr
Sunita Agarwala, Associate Professor, Department
of Education, Dispur College, Dispur delivered a
lecture on the topic as the key resource person. Most
of the students and teachers of the college were
present in the programme. In her deliberation Dr.
Agarwala discussed the various tips on attitude and
personality development so that one can minimize
the stress in life. She appealed to the students to be
always positive to success in life.
She said, “The positive thinker is always a
part of answer; The negative thinker is always a
part of problem, The positive thinkers say ‘ It may
be difficult but possible’; The negative thinkers
say ‘ it may be possible but is too difficult’, The
positive thinkers see the gain; the negative
thinkers see the pain, The positive thinkers
recognize limitations but focus on strengths; The
negative thinkers recognize strengths but focus on
limitation.”
The talk was followed by an interaction
session on the topic. The programme ended with
vote of thanks offered by Sushanta Kar, the
Executive Editor, Pragyan.
campus after the rally.
An awareness meeting was also held on the
occasion at the college premise under the
presidentship of Kavita Baibhav
Padmanabham, Additional Deputy
Commissioner, Tinsukia district.
The meeting was addressed by
Dr. Swaraj Mohan Bora, Joint
Director of Health Service,
Tinsukia, Dr. PC Saikia. Sub-
divisional Medical Officer,
Hapjan, Dr. Mridul Gogoi,
Medical Officer, GBC Hospital,
Tinsukia and others.
A
long with the rest of the world, the AIDS Day
was observed with a day long programme on
1
st
December, 2010 by NRHM, Tinsukia
district Unit in collaboration with Assam
State AIDS Control society. On the
occasion, a rally was taken out from
Tinsukia College campus through
the streets of Tinsukia town. The
rally, attended by member of
NGOs, ASHA workers, School &
College students, was flagged off by
Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, the Principal,
Tinsukia College. A street play was also
staged by Suryudoy, an NGO, at the college
/ 6
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
46
th
Annual College Week held at the College 6
T
insukia College NCC unit (‘D’ Coy) is one of
the best NCC units under the 10th Assam Bn.,
Dibrugarh, which has both the Boys’ and Girls’
wings. Apart from the participations in various
social works, the cadets of the unit participate
regularly in the ‘Independence Day’ and ‘Republic
of the week, i.e. 24
th
of December 2010, the open
session and prize distribution ceremony was held
at the college auditorium under the presidentship
of Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, Principal of the college.
The chief guests who attended the session were
Dr. Samujjal Kr. Bhattacharyya, the advisor of
ASSU Central committee, Shri Mrinal Hazarika,
leader, ULFA (Pro-Talk Group). They addressed
the session with their inspiring words and
congratulated the students who got prizes in
d i f f e r e n t
c o mp e t i t i o n s
during the college
week.
A colourful
c u l t u r a l
e x t r a v a g a n z a
marked the
evening of the day
where Sri Neel
Akash, renowned
artist & former
student of the
college along
with the local artists entertained the audience.
NCC Unit Adjudged the Best 7
Day’ parades organized centrally by the district
authority of Tinsukia district. The cadets of the
unit performed well in the last ‘Republic Day’
Parade on 26
th
of January, 2011 and the unit was
adjudged the best unit and awarded the 1
st
prize
in it’s category.
The 9
th
Chemistry Olympiad Held and
New Lab Inaugurated at Dept. of Chemisty
8
T
he 9
th
Chemistry Olympiad programme was
organized by the department of Chemistry,
Tinsukia College on 10
th
of October 2010 at the
college premises. A good number of students from
various local schools and colleges took part in the
programme. The result of the Olympiad was
declared on 20
th
of December 2010. The students
who have earned glory to the college center are –
Sayam Chakraborty, Sauvik Kashyap (both are
from Guru Teg Bahadur Academy, Tinsukia) and
Luna Phukan (Saumarjyoti Vidyalaya) jointly got
the 6
th
rank in the junior category (class X level).
A
s per the academic schedule of Tinsukia
College, the 46
th
Annual College Week was
organized by the college students’ union from 18
th
to 24
th
of December 2010. The week long
programme started with hoisting of the College
Flag by Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, Principal of the
college. It was followed by the floral tribute at
the martyrs column initiated by Bantimala Devi,
HoD, Department of Assamese. Then a new issue
of the college wall magazine ‘Bhaskar’ was
inaugurated by Kanak Chanda, HoD, Department
of Bengali. The issue of the magazine was edited
by Pranjal Gogoi, the Magazine Secretary of the
students’ body.
T h e
schedule of
the whole
college week
i n c l u d e d
almost all the
r e l e v a n t
sport events,
literary and
cultural competitions and other related activities
which can prove students’ talent. On the last day
7 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
Ranbir Chakraborty (Guru Teg Bahadur Academy)
got the 10th rank in the same category. In the
category class XII level, Hrishrat ( Kendriya
Vidyalaya, Tinsukia) got the 8
th
rank and Nanda
Dulal Sen (Tinsukia college) got the 9
th
rank.
The newly constructed well furnished
laboratory of the Chemistry department was also
officially inaugurated on 10
th
of November 2010
by Dr. Bhuban Gogoi, the principal of the
college.
W
ith a view to provide necessary guidance
to the engineering-medical aspiring students
of HS 2
nd
year (science stream) of Tinsukia college,
the department of Physics has organized a crash
Free ENGG/ MEDICAL/IIT-JEE Entrance Coaching Week
Held at Dept. of Physics
9
coaching week starting from 5
th
to 10
th
of January,
2010. In all twenty students in this category of
the college participated in the programme.
The resource persons who took classes in the
programme are — Dr. Rajib Bordoloi,
Sri Satyajyoti Gogoi, and Dr. Bulbul
Gogoi of Physics Department; Sri
Biplab Banik of Chemistry Department
and Sri Deepjyoti Sarma of Commerce
Department
The students were provided with
necessary skills and techniques for
solving various tricky questions that
are generally set in those entrance
examinations. The programme will be
undertaken again immediately after
completion of the HS final
examination.
A
t the initiative of the teachers and students of Assamese
Dept. Tinsukia College, the inaugural issue of a new departmental
magazine — christened as ‘Papori’ was published in the month of February,
2011 with the financial support of IQAC of the college. The articles of the
magazine are contributed by the students of the department and being edited
‘Papori’ the Departmental Magazine of
Assamese Department Published
10
/ 8
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
Saurav Stars in Convocation
Assam University, Silchar
A
ll the academic luminaries and students who
had gathered in the Netaji Subhas hall of the
university to receive their degrees burst out in
applause as Sourav Ganguly, the ex-captain of
Team India, draped in a ceremonial purple gown,
received his PhD as Honoris Causa as a mark of
excellence in cricket at the 11th convocation of
Assam Central University in Dargakona hills near
Silchar. Sourav Ganguly was being selected for
this honour along with three other scholars like
D
r. Bhuban Gogoi, Principal and Dr. Kamalesh Kalita, Asst. Prof., Department of Geography,
Tinsukia College participated and presented research paper at the International Conference on
Geomorphology held from 15
th
Feb to 22
nd
Feb of 2011 at Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, Africa.
The Conference was organised by the
Association of International
Geomorphologist. The subject matter of the
conference was Geomorphology for Human
Adaptation to Changing Tropical
Environment. The association organises such
conference at the interval of every 4 years in
different countries of the world. About 200
scientists and researchers from more than 30
countries of the world took part in the
Conference. It is mentionable here that Dr.
Gogoi and Dr. Kalita were the only participants from India.
Dr. Gogoi presented paper on ‘Fluvial Geomorphology and Flood Problems of the Brahmaputra
Valley, Assam’ and Dr. Kalita presented paper on ‘Landslides Hazards in Gangtok, Sikkim, India’ at the
conference. Their presentation had been highly appreciated by the world geomorphological community.
Prominent Geomorphologist, Geologist, Geo-Archeologist, Professor and Researchers from diverse
field and institutes have presented new scientific ideas and views from international perspectives in the
conference.
Dr. Bhuban Gogoi and Dr. Kamalesh Kalita Attended
International Conference at Ethiopia
11
jointly by three major students namely – Pranami
Borthakur, Sanjeev Chetia and Bastav Moran
under the guidance of Bontimala Devi, HoD of
the Department.
Since the longest journey begins with the
single step, the inaugural issue of the magazine
is the 1
st
step of its long journey in future. It is
also a part of on going endeavour for creating
a congeni al academi c at mosphere i n t he
college.
(The Updater teaches Economics)
9 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
Prof. K.G. Subramanyam, a noted
painter, muralist and a renowned
teacher of art, Prof. Irfan Habib, a
doyen of history and Homen
Borgohain, the Assamese novelist.
Prof Habib and Novelist
Borgohain couldn’t make it there
due to ill health.
The chief guest, Prof N.R.
Madhava Menon, who is a legal
pundit and the head of the Dr S.
Radhakrishnan Centre for Parliamentary Studies
in the Rajya Sabha, said in the convocation that
nearly 200 million youths in the country are now
denied the scope of higher education for paucity
of seats. At present only about 12
per cent students in the country
could manage to attend the portals
of higher learning.
Prof. Tapodhir Bhattacharjee,
vice-chancellor, Assam University,
Silchar, in his address in the
convocation gave an overview of
the spectacular progress the
institute had made in its brief
period of existence. He said from
meagre six departments, the university has now
grown into a massive centre of education and
research with 34 departments and nine schools
of studies.[PEB]
A one day workshop on Semester System at Undergraduate Level held at Margherita College on 10
th
of
January. The workshop was organised by ACTA, Margherita College Unit in association with ACTA,
Tinsukia Zone.
A one day workshop on Minor Research
Project held at Women's College, Tinsukia
on 24
th
of Dec, 2010. The workshop was
organised by ACTA Women' s College,
Tinsukia Unit in association with ACTA,
Tinsukia Zone.
UGC sponsored workshop on Continuous and
Comprehensive Evaluation at the Undergraduate
Level : Problems and Prospects was held at Women's
College, Tinsukia on 5
th
and 6
th
of Feb, 2011. The
workshop was organised by the Dept. of Education
in association with Community Development
Society, Tinsukia.
/ 10
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
Wahid Saleh, this year’s Recipient of the
Pravasi Bharatiya Samman : The Personality and His Works
1
Y
ears before a Telegraph story wrote, when
Wahid Saleh boarded his ship in Bombay for
the long journey to Europe, the Jorhat-born student
of aircraft maintenance had a two-anna coin in
his pocket. It was an experience he recalled with
amusement when, nearly 40 years later, Queen
Beatrix of The Netherlands knighted him with the
Ridder va de Orange in 2002. His journey to
distinction began when his college in Ernakulam
selected him for higher training in Germany. But
when he eventually got to his workplace, BMW,
in Munich, he discovered he had been taken on
not for training but as an unskilled labourer. But
there was no going back, so he forged on,
determinedly and,
some jobs — and
disappointments —
later, joined
Lufthansa in
Hamburg. And then
he fell in love with
a new phenomenon.
It was the computer,
for it was the dawn
of the computer age.
And so he joined the
computer industry.And then love of another kind
happened. A penfriend he used to correspond with
in the Netherlands came to visit him and romance
blossomed. As she was studying medicine back
home, he decided to join her there, and eventually
joined a Dutch company in Rotterdam as a
computer programmer. He excelled at it and, by
1983 was able to implement one of the biggest
PC networks in Europe.
This year on 9
th
of January, ’11 Wahid Saleh
was awarded the Pravasi Bharatiya Samman by
the Hon’ble President of India, Smt. Pratibha Devi
Singh Patil at Vigyan Bhawan, Delhi. He was also
given the rare honour of making the acceptance
speech on behalf of all the PBS recipients.
He is an active
member of the
Netherlands-India
A s s o c i a t i o n ,
established in April
1954, and then got
elected to the Board.
For more than
fifteen years he has
served the
organization as
s e c r e t a r y .
Eventually he became information center for the
11 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
D
r. Hifzur R. Siddique, hailing from
Karimganj, Assam and a post doctoral
Scientist at The Hormel Institute, University of
Minnesota received the American Society for
Basic Urologic Research Award-2010 (SBUR-
outstanding research award) in a function held at
Hotel Grand Hayat, Atlanta, GA on November 14,
2010. In USA, around 40,000 post doctorates are
working from different countries. In every two
year, SBUR gives this award to 4 people. This
year it was Dr. Siddique’s turn. SBUR conferred
him this award for his discovery, the role of Bmi-
1 protein in the survival and proliferation of
prostate cancer cells. Bmi-1 helps cells to survive
the attack of chemotherapy agents, and, because
Dutch students and public about India and Indian
migrants on Netherlands. Even if the Indian Embassy
was not able to give answer to queries, they directed
the public to contact Wahid Saleh. Indian Tourist
Office directed the public to contact Wahid Saleh
with their specific questions. He started writing down
the questions and also the answers. This was the
foundation of his book called Indiawijzer (Guide to
India) first published in 1992.The profit of the first
edition was donated to the Netherlands-India
Association. The first edition was of 142 pages while
the second edition of 412 pages was published in
1999. The profit of this edition was donated to an
educational foundation from Assam.
He frequently visits Assam and here he
helped to set up an educational Trust in the name
of his parents. It is meant for Assamese students
and for higher studies. Last year the trust helped
six students and this year also financial assistance
was given to another six. Besides the above trust
he is helping few other institutions like Parijat
Academy,started in 2003 by social entrepreneur
Uttam Teron; Pragyalaya,an orphanage started in
2002 by Late Jugal Bhuyan; Society for Health
& Educational Development (SHED),residential
rehabilitation centre in Guwahati for differently
able children; Baby Micro financing,supervised
and guided by Uttam Teron.
Another accomplishment which he is very
proud of is to furnish historical evidence that the name
Assam was not coined by the British and existed
before the British came to Assam. In a Dutch museum
he discovered a map of Eastern part of India
cartographed in 1661 AD, where the name Assam
was clearly mentioned. He also discovered the
autobiography of Frans Van Der Heyden, a Dutch
sailor shipwrecked in the bay of Bengal and was
forced to fight in the army of Mir Jumla. He was in
Assam in 1663 and the book was published in 1675.
It was he who recently led an online
movement to increase Assamese content on net.
It resulted in formation of a group called E-Junaki
Jug (· :=== ™ · http://sites.google.com/site/
ejonakijug/home) and a Facebook group called:
¬=·+= =· ·=+ , which now have more than seven
and half hundred active Members who interact and
help others to do so in Assamese.
When PRAGYAN went online three years
back he was among the first few well-wishers and
supporters those we had, only because it’s another
selfless service like his kind of work for people
and their land. Even if one stays far from his land
and people, it’s the attitude that determines if he
or she will be able to win hearts and live there for
ever. Becoming an NRI never becomes any excuse
for a personality like Wahid Saleh. To know more
on him one can visit his site :http://
www.indiawijzer.nl. [PEB]
Dr Hifzur R. Siddique, Received
American Society of Basic Urology Award-2010
2
of that, could be used as a
target for
n e w
dr ugs
to treat
p r o s t a t e
c a n c e r .
T h e r e ’ s
also hope to
use Bmi-1 as a biomarker
for the future diagnosis and staging of
prostate cancer. According to the experts of
Urology fields, “It’s a very significant discovery
that gives us insight into how cancer cells escape
the affects of chemotherapy in prostate cancer
/ 12
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
patients”. The Hormal Institute, where Dr.
Siddique works, is world’s renowned medical
research center, specializing in research into natural
compounds/small inhibitory
molecules (SIMs) that might
prevent, control or cure
cancer. Dr. Siddique has
been an extraordinary and
meritorious student
throughout his career. This
is evident from the
prestigious scholarships and
awards received by him.
These include Junior
Research Fellowship (JRF) from Council of
scientific and Industrial Research, and Graduate
Aptitude Test for Engineering (GATE) fellowship.
During his Master’s degree program, he was
awarded University Merit Scholarship for two
consecutive years. Dr. Siddique obtained his M.Sc.
degree in the year 2001 in the
subject of Zoology
(specialization in Genetics)
from Aligarh Muslim
University, UP. He did his
Ph.D. from the Indian Institute
of Toxicology Research,
Lucknow in the year 2008.
After completing his Ph.D.,
Dr. Siddique pursued
postdoctoral training in cancer
biology at the University of Wisconsin. In January,
2010, Dr. Siddique joined The Hormel Institute at
the University of Minnesota.[PEB]
Dr. Musahid Ahmed
: A Scientist from Assam Bagging Honors in US
3
Dr Saitanya K Bharadwaj
Received 2010 Eli Lilly and Company Asia Outstanding Thesis Award
4
D
r Saitanya K Bharadwaj, hailing from Hazari
Para Shipajhar, Darang has received the
“2010 Eli Lilly and Company Asia Outstanding
Thesis Award” for the first time in India. Eli Lilly
D
r. Musahid Ahmed, a scientist hailing from Assam, presently working as a senior scientist
at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, USA, has been elected as a fellow to the
American Physical Society recently for his outstanding contribution to Physics. Dr. Ahmed is also
member of American Chemical Society, American Physical Society and American Association of
Advancement of Science and in 2010 he has been elected as fellow to the American Physical Society.
His citation which appeared in his fellowship certificate reads: “for his creation of a world class
synchrotron chemical dynamics facility serving the community and his unique
marriage of lasers with synchrotron science, used to study small molecules
spectroscopy and energetic, biological imaging, combustion, nanoparticle
reactivity and chemical dynamics.” His fellowship citation will be published
in the March 2011 issue of APC News.
Dr. Ahmed is in USA since 1995 and his research encompasses
fundamental studies which are relevant to energy and environmental processes.
Born in Assam’s Digboi city Dr. Ahmed did his schooling in Scindia school in
Gwalior. Later he obtained his bachelor’s degree in Chemistry from Delhi
University in the year 1985 and in the same year he joined for Ph.D.
programme in Cambridge University in UK and obtained Ph.D. in 1989.
He completed his post doctoral degree from University of Leicester
and Manchester in UK and Max Planck Institute in Gottingen,
Germany. [PEB]
13 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
The First Ever Knowledge Fair held at Tinsukia
5
T
he Tinsukia District administration in
collaboration with some social organizations
and intelligentsia has organized an intellectually
enriching event, the Tinsukia Knowledge Fair,
2011 comprising major attractions i.e. Book fair,
Science Exhibition, seminars , Kavi Sammelan,
Career Counseling,
adda, Children’s
competition and
cultural programme
from 16th February
to 20 the February,
2011. It was in the
year 1996 last such
event was organized
in this eastern most
city of Assam. The
event took place at
Chaliha Nagar Khel Pothar, Tinsukia.
Tinsukia being a commercial hub is vibrant with
business activities and always a desired destination
of business communities. With its huge potential for
growth in various fields, Tinsukia is an ideal place
for such an event, both for exploration of newer
avenues of knowledge as well as for promotion of a
Dr Saitanya K Bharadwaj was honored
with Ph.D in September, 2009 from Indian
Institute of Technology Guwahati under the
Supervision of Prof. Mihir Kanti Chaudhuri.
Development of green protocol for extraction of
Bromine from sea water, Synthesis of anti-diabetic
compounds and development of industrially
important catalysts are main themes of his thesis.
His team work has been highlighted in several
conferences including PANIIT2007 held at Santa
Clara, California, USA. He is currently doing his
2nd postdoctoral research in Technische
Universität München, Germany after returning
from USA in September 2010.
Eli Lilly award ceremony was held in
January 28, 2011 at Hyderabad University, along
with the J-NOST conference. The awards contain
a certificate from Eli Lilly and company, a plaque,
and 1000 USD.
scientifically advanced community. Such an initiative
will enlarge the boundary of knowledge and
consciousness and help to propel Tinusukia on the path
of knowledge based growth and development. Every
day apart from the visitors almost 500 school children
were brought by the organizers to attend the event from
across the district, particularly, from remote areas like
Sadiya, Kakopathar, Pengeree, Philobari, Bordumsa,
Jagun etc., in order to thrust in this direction and to
provide an exposure.
More than 25 publishers and book dealers
Like, Sahitya Academi, Scholars, and Satirtha from
the state and beyond attended the fair.[PEB]
and Company is a world wide famous research
laboratory, situated in every continent. The main
branch is situated in
I n d i a n a p o l i s ,
Indiana 46285
USA. Eli Lilly
and company Asia
i n v i t e d
nominations for
best thesis from all
institutes and
u n i v e r s i t i e s
t h r o u g h
N O S T
(National
Organic
Symposium
Trust) in India. His thesis was nominated by IIT,
Guwahati.
/ 14
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
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15 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
(Contd. on Page 21)
lungs’ lower air sacs, called alveoli - they do not even come
close to using our lung capacity! That being said, if these
alveoli do not receive air regularly they will collapse a bit
and stiffen. Therefore, experts believe that our brains trigger
a yawn as a way to keep these sacs flexible.
4. About 19% of all Nobel Prize recipients have been
Jewish, though Jews only make up about 0.2% of the
world’s population : The Jewish people have received more
Nobel prizes than any other ethnic minority group. Out of the
roughly 700 individuals who have received the prize over 120
of them are Jewish. This is despite the fact that Jews make up
a tiny percentage of the world population. This disproportion
makes sense when you consider that Jews are overrepresented
in the professional fields from which Nobel laureates are
selected (physical and social sciences, and literature).
5. Leonardo da Vinci painted tiny letters in the eyes of
the Mona Lisa : It turns out there really is a “Da Vinci Code”
after all! The 500-year old masterpiece has always been
shrouded in mystery, but Italy’s National Committee for
Cultural Heritage recently revealed that magnification of the
painting’s eyes shows tiny letters and numbers! In the right
eye, the letters “LV” appear, while in the other can be seen
either “BE” or “C.” On the bridge in the background, symbols
that appear to be the number “72” are also visible. Experts
are still baffled at what the symbols could mean, though “LV”
is likely a signature by the artist himself.
6. The movie Avatar takes up over one petabyte of
storage space : A petabyte is the equivalent of 500 hard
drives, each with a capacity of 2 terrabytes (a terrabyte to
1,000 gigabytes!). That’s the size of a 32 YEAR long mp3
file. The movie was shot in 3-D and rendered in one of the
most powerful data centers in the world. Its computing core
adds up to 40,000 processors and 104 terabytes of RAM. It
would be realistic to assume that a significant portion of
the film’s $300 million budget went to storage space.
7. In western culture, pink was the color originally
associated with males : The tradition of assigning colors
to each gender began back in the 1920s. At this time, pink
was deemed more appropriate for boys due to its close
associations with red. Blue was assigned to girls since it
was more “delicate and dainty” and had close ties to imagery
of the Virgin Mary. This practice continued until the 1940s,
when the gender colors were reversed and became the
stereotypes that we are still familiar with today.
8. The odds of a meteor landing on your house are 1 in
182,138,880,000,000 : Your odds of becoming the President
of the United States,or dating a supermodel are much much
1. The color orange was named after
the fruit : Before that, the English-
speaking world referred to the orange
color as ‘geoluhread,’ which literally
translates to “yellow-red!” The word
orange itself was derived from the
Spanish word ‘naranja,’ which likewise
came from the Sanskrit word ‘naranga,’
meaning “orange tree.” Over time, the
English dropped the first “n,” and soon
the word was transformed to ‘orange.’
This word was also applied to the fruit’s
color in the 1540’s, likely due to the
increased popularity of oranges around
this time.
2. A two-year-old girl scored a 156 on
the IQ test : At 2 years and 4 months
old, British toddler Elise Tan-Roberts has
been accepted as the youngest-ever
member of the high IQ fraternity known
as Mensa! The club can typically only test
children who are older than 10, but an
exception was made in Elise’s case
because her IQ score was already proven
to be in the top 2% of the country. Tan-
Roberts has an IQ of 156, which is just 4
points lower than Albert Einstein’s! She
already knows 35 world capitals,
including Paris, Tokyo, and Washington,
D.C. She can even count in Spanish.
3. Yawning is not caused by boredom
or tiredness : Most likely explanation is
that we yawn in order to take in more air.
Normal breathing patterns only use our
/ 16
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
1. Do important work vs. merely offering opinions.
2. Lift people up vs. tear others down.
3. Use the words of leadership vs. the language of
victimhood.
4. Don’t worry about getting the credit for getting things
done.
5. Become part of the solution rather than part of the
problem.
6. Take your health to a level called superfit.
7. Commit to mastery of your craft instead of accepting
mediocrity in your work.
8. Associate with people whose lives you want to be
living.
9. Study for an hour a day. Double your learning and
you’ll triple your success.
10. Run your own race. “No one can possibly achieve real
and lasting success by being a conformist,” wrote
billionaire J. Paul Getty.
11. Do something small yet scary every single day.
12. Lead Without a Title.
13. Focus on people’s strengths vs. obsessing around their
weaknesses.
14. Remember that potential unused turns into pain. So
dedicate yourself to expressing your best.
15. Smile more.
16. Listen more.
17. Read the autobiography of Nelson Mandela.
18. Reflect on the words of Eleanor Roosevelt who
said: — “Great minds discuss ideas; Average
minds discuss events; Small minds discuss
people.”
19. Persist longer than the critics suggest you
should.
20. Say “please” and “thank you”.
21. Love your loved ones.
22. Do work that matters.
17 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
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/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
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19 /
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/ 20
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
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21 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
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·‹|=· -= :·+ =· · ™+ ¬=+:= ====:+ =+:+
š+ ='-š= °+ '·š ++ == = Š += ·'= :+ ='= ‹+
== = š '·+·=+ =· ·· :=:š+:=:+ ·- ++ =·= ='°-
=·== ='+ 'ƒ 'ƒ='·'ƒ= :·+ +· -· ·+·
·= ·= ¬=·+:= ‹'+ ¬=|=| ¬«'-= =+=· ·+
==°+ '·+:+ =·:+ =·:+ '·'=r ¬:-r= :·+ :ƒ·
:·:=· =+ =° ==°~ - ·+:= =·+ :=· :° '=‡ +·
='+·+ ·:· · = :=:- · '== ·= :·'·s| (feature) = :¤·
='+:=· :=· :·'·s|=· ·+ '==+= =° = :¤·:™·| '·++
:·:= ‘‘š r+ ·‹|· ¬+ =·| š'+:+·= =+:°+ ¬= '= +.
š ‹==: ¬‹ '===+ -·= =+:° '= š'+·:= ·š ··
š'+:=·’’ (Response to new domains and media,
mainly concerned with the extent to which the lan-
guage scopes with modernity.)· =· :° '=:=:–ƒ· :™
='-š= °+ ¬+ · ·°+:=°+ ·ª- š :+:·· :·:= =·
¬‹ '===+ · - = ·=· =· ·+=·=+ '·'=r :+·r· °.
· ’· ¬+ ‘='r:+- :=°+'= =· °’=· ·:= ¬'· ¬=·+
=+ š r++ =·= :š °=· '·r:š ·|+·+ ='+· š:+ ·
=· :¤== ¬«'-= =+=· ·+ š :+· ·= ·= =:=·:+
:·+ =· ™'ƒ· · ++ ='++|= ¬= =- · '- ='·· :=+'+·
· ++ ·:· š :+== ·:· · ·°+:=° ·|+·+ =+ :=·
=++ '·'=r ·|'= + · = ¬+ š :rs· ·= ·= · ·°+:=°=
š r++ ·:· '·· + '·'=r š ” = =· += =r· š += ¬=·+·
‘· :=== ™ ·’ =:·:+ =° =·:=:+ ·:= ='+:=·
¬'· ¬· =:+ ='ƒ= · ·°+:=°+ ='++:= =·~ '·· ·
¬=·+ =+='·=|= ¬‹|+= ='+· š'+··
¬·+ ¬:-r== =· ·+=·== ¬=·+ =++
š =++ š :+==+=+ -·:= ¬·+ '·¤ ·|+-‚ + '==
=·· š =¤= :· = :¤· =+ :·:=· =· :¤== r+=+
=·=+ =ƒ ·|+ -·:= ¬·+ ƒ'+· :·‹ ¬'=:= š :+==+·
'·'=r ƒ = '=. = ~ š”‚ + =·=| ¬+ · -|· '‡ :+ :=. =+
+=|·== =:=:·+ ×+ · == = š-'= =++ =·+ ¬'·
š'+:=· ==:- =· r+=+:- ='+ '='ƒ ¬'· '=:=·
=·++ -·= :·== :·= '·-· ¬··' » ™· š'+:-:·
'==+ -·:= =·=·=:= ¬×+· '=· š'+··
‘Soladey-J3X’ was designed by Dr. Kunio
Komiyama, a former dentistry professor at the
University of Saskatchewan. The device sends
electrons through a lead wire that runs from a solar
panel at its base to the brush head on top. These
electrons then form a chemical reaction with acid
in the mouth, which eliminates bacteria and breaks
down plaque. The whole process requires about
the same amount of light used by a solar-powered
calculator.
(:-·= ×+·° '··'·ƒ|-++ ¬‹== ·:++·+= ==· ¬o-+ ¬=| :-·=·· š'»·:- r·= :=·+ ·· :
http://anjal.mywebduniya.com)
(Compiled by Lohit Dutta, B.Sc II Yr. Lohit writes in his blog http://waxan.blogspot.com)
(Contd. from Page 15) A Few Amazing Facts
better than your odds of your house getting hit by
a meteor. You’re also more likely to witness a UFO
or die from either a shark attack or from contact
with hot tap water.
9. A flea can jump 30,000 times without
stopping : They can also jump 50-100 times their
own body height. Also, a flea’s acceleration when
jumping is 50 times that of a space shuttle taking off.
10. Scientists have created a solar-powered
toothbrush that doesn’t need toothpaste : The
(*·'=·:‹| - ·r. ··.. ='+:· ·=· ·«··· ¬=·+ ·=+ -¤| =· ¬'==· ='+:= =-šƒ= š==)
/ 22
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
|=v+¶ ººšt+ ¬:·'+=+ '·:=r’° š :ƒ·+ :r–° š’- (City of St. Paul, Minnestota, USA) =·++ ¬'‹·=
:™:r= := = :-:r ·= :+ (Joseph Frank Landsberger) '··= ·· ·+ . .· =·|+ š+ =· ‹+·'·= :-·'=¬+-
='+'=-· · '=·:‹| '··= =·| :=·°+ ¬= 'ƒ= ¬:·:+ :=’ :-:r·= ++ '== :+·=· ° www.studygs.net — = == =
š r=· · ¬+- =+ :·:=· ¬=·+ ¬= ·ƒ+ -·:= = ·” =:+ =+ ·- ¬= ·:ƒ == š ='·= :·:=· ¬=·+ ¬+ ·-
ƒ :+° š r+ -·= ‘š ==’ ¬+ ‘'='=r =+ ··'·ƒ|-+’ + :+·=· ° =™ = :·:=· =· =·= :=’ :-:r·= += =·:™'·=
='+:= ‘š ==’+ =™ ·· =-šƒ= = ·” =:+· ='=++ š+ Study Guides & Strategies + š+ '™:=:= ƒ· = ‘š ==’:-¬+
‘š ==’+ š+ Study Guides & Strategies :- ¬· :™+ ='+· š'+·· · ¬·+ ·:· == =.+ =–:= ¬+ š 'œ· '-
=:·· :+·=·°+ ·:· ·-=· ='+:-· š==+ š»:+==-+ =· ·== +'· ¬'· ···:· ¬=·ƒ ='+:=· :=··:·
·+= ====:+ =š-'= ='+· š+:= '==·= =· :=+ ·’·. -·:= -‚=+ =ƒ·+·:+ =:¤· š··
:=’ :-:r·=++ '-·:·+ ·-=: :=·+ :+·r·°+ ·:· '-· ¬+ :=· ƒ:+ ·++ =+· š'+='t=· :=·+
'-·'= ·=-š ·-= (Interactive)·¬·· '-·= ¬+ š:=+ ¬·~·· ¬'··:= ·++ š== ¬:·‡+ =+:° °=·
'·:·+:= ¬'· ™’= (*) 'r:=:+ 'r'·= ='+· :=· ¬·:·+ :=·+ :+·r·=:- :· :=·+ š+ :š=š°+ š+·· -:-
======- :·'= =š== :·+:° ·°· :=:+:· =· '-·+ ·:=:+ ==:-:= :=’ :+·r·° r·:- =·='·=
=+:°:+· ¬·+ ·- -¤|· =-šƒ=)
¤+ ¶|”·|=| :ƒ-|
=====-. :™+ =·|= ‘¤|=|+-|º+¶
==¶-’= :ƒ='–ƒ= =·+=r+ š'+=t=. :=·
š'+=t= ¬= ™+ =· '=‹ +·. ¬= ·-= ¬+
+ š+= =-š:= '== =· :=+ :·'=-· ¬· ='+:=
:=:=· :=:=·· '=·r+ ¬+- ='+=· =+:=
·+ '==:= ==- +š= r·:- ·= =™+! =·+
=:=·
=··+ =·+·|+-‚š=+ '·+:+ ¬== =°
'ƒ·:- :rs =+ :·:=·
º·r ¶i-º‚|š+|
š'+='t= ¬ r'=:+ =-:= ¬+- =+ =·+ =‹+·:=
=·š:= o= ·+· r=’= - r · – ->.-·.
:=|·|¶ |ƒ+tr|¶ +|™ºr| –
='· :=:=:= =·+ =:°+ š='=+¤· =+·
¬~'‹=++ '='== :=·+ -¤| ¬+ =:„·|+
š‹=| '=·+ =+·
ƒ:+°+ ·== =-= ='+ :r+·
=-= 'ƒ+ =· ¬=™+ =·++ '·rš =° ='+·
·= :™|tr= :=¢ :=<r¶|=|¶
23 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
š'+:- :=·+ ='·‹ ·’· š:+ :
.) =|· |ƒ+tr|¶ -- º·r| º·r :+t+t+ +r|¶|
|o+ +|¶ :=|-|i
-) š|=tr| +|· ¤|¶· =|¶ ¶|t¶ štr|=+|r º·r
¤<¶| º·r¶ =+ |:- |=v| ¤|¶· |ƒ+¶ · o º·r¶
š¶| ¶|ƒ |ƒ :™|-|i
;) +|¶¶ =~| º+t=| +|·¶ ·o º·r |+-r +¶|i
. ¶ š¶| ; |¶tr|~ +¶|i ¤<|· ·o --
º·r|¶ š¶| :=|·|¶ +|·¶ ¶|t¶ š tr|=+|r º·r
¶|ƒ |ƒr|i
:=|=r| ¶||c :c|-| º·r|v|+ |+-r +|¶¶
š||¶¶|i
|ƒ+tr|¶ ·o º·r|¶ š¶| ?ƒ|++ +|™|-=|¶ +|·= |+·|+
º·r c|=¶ š¶| º¶|+ ™|r :r|-| –
:·++ =·+
'==+ =+:· :-+ ™·—+ =·+ / ·++ =:+·+
¬- :šr= ‹:+:= :-+ =·+
·ƒ| š - = =+. :·+. r= 'r= · =:+:= :-+
=·+
š'++-+ š'= 'ƒ· -· =·+
·r ·r ++ -·= ¬’:- =’:- :™+. ·
¬=–ƒ='=+ =+:· =:°+ =·+
¬=:- · ='-· '++:= '°.'= :r+. :·-
·=|'ƒ+ ·:· =·+
:™··|+·. :·-‹- ¬'ƒ+ ·:· =·+
'·¤=r= · ¬= =·:- ¬·:™+ =:+:=
:-+ =·+
'·'=r =·= ·:+·'·:+ =:°+ =·+
:··= =š'-‚= ·= =·+
¬‹|+=+ =·+
¬=|=| '=· =+·= ·+r :·+ =·+
:+t+t+ +|¶¶|:
=ƒ|c¶- |cr|tš – |·¤=r== :=·+ ‹+·r =·++
'==+:= =° '·:·+ =œ·+ ·:· =-š · =·+= r =·=
:=++ ='+ :-+·
'·+++ š‹=| ¬=™+ ='-=== =+
:=·+ '·ƒ|-+ / ··'·ƒ|-++ '™ 'ƒ=·++
='-= (calender) ¬:= =+ '==+:= =··‡
='+ '=‹+· =+
·|'==· ·|+-‚:+· ='+· š+ ™+ :='= :r+
º·r ¶i-º‚ |š+| – |-+|¶· º+=¶ +|¶t- º|œ||c+
š|¶+a+| –
=·+= r:+ '™ :=:= :·:·='- ¬+ =·'+=
=:=== · ª=·+ š+ +¤ =:+·
='= '=-=. ¬:·'+=. .>-«·
=° '·:·+ =œ· :=:=:= =°· = '='·r= ='+
=œ'·= =· = r :=++ =+· ¬·:= ='+ ¬·
=·++ '·rš:° ¬:= ·== :š:-+ ¬+ š '=:°
=·+ ·:· =+ š - '=+ ·:· '™·= =·+ ™+ :=·
=·+'·'= š '=:° 'ƒ=+ · : =·++ š+ ·ƒ 'ƒ+·
=· '=‹ '+= =œ'·= =· = r š =¤ '=:ƒ ·+ ·:·
¬+ š='=+¤·+ ='·‹+ ·:· ¬=·+:= :ƒ'·
·=:= '-'· :·+·
º·r ¶i-º‚|š+| – =¤i / =t„-i ¤|¶· š|‹|+i ¶|
¤+||‹+|¶
¬=–ƒ · = · =° -¤| ·’· :=+:+· · =°
¬= =+. '™ =· = r ¬·· »· '=+= -:· -:· ·'= = „š=
:™·+· š- ×=:·=· ¬:·'+=. .>...>···
=-= 'ƒ+ ¬=·-== ='· =· '='=° -¤| ·
=:„·| ·'r :-+· '™ :=·° ='· =-š· =++ =·
='·=. :=· :=·°= ='· '=‹'+= =· +:š ··| =+·
:=·+ =+·+ =· :=·° ==· :-+·
=· :¤== =-·| '™ :=:= :·r · =·'+
r-'-·:- š-= ·=· :·r =··:- ='· '= :=·-
-’· 'r== ='+ :-+ ¬+ '='=° ƒ+=+ =·+ ='-=
=+ '™ :=·° ='· =-š· ='+·:- '·r+·
.· ..............................
·· ..............................
·· ..............................
=· '='=° =·= :==:° =·+ ·:· :=·+
·š+= :=+ š'+· š:+ · :·r š'+· ·'- ¬==· :·:=
:=·:° 'r== ='+ ='-=== =+·
·== +'··. š'=:° =· =-š· ='+·:- '='=°
·š ·'=· =:=ƒ:+ –
.= ......... .· ......... .· .........
·= ......... ·· ......... ·· .........
·= ......... ·= ......... ·· .........
='=+ =-:= ='·'r'” š ‹=|+ '='== =='ƒ= :·
=· :=· ° ==· :- ='+· -· =· '·r:š '-'· · =š
='+ ·’:-· ¬=·+:= :ƒ'· ·=:= r= + ¬·= +· ™:=
/ 24
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
:=· ·:= ¬= =+· ='+ ¬··' » ™· š+·
|¶+a ¤+-|=+ – :=·+ š=–ƒ ·:= '=‹'+=
=·+ =-š· š'='-'š+ =š+š ='-+· :-+· :=·+
·:· ƒ+=+ '='=° -¤| · =:„·| ='-= ='+ :=·
:=·° =-šr ='+·:-
ƒ·-+ =·+ -’· :=
·‹|·+ =·+ -’· :=
:===:-· ='+· š+ ™· :=· ·:= = :¤· ='+··
=|=r| :r|-|tr|+ ºœ|ctr|= š|=tr| =¤i š¶-¶
¶|t¶ =|· |+·|+ º·r ¶||vv|:
= '· +· =·++ '·===:·:+ -¤|+ ¬~ '‹=+ · š ‹=|
š'=='-= ='+:=:=·
š|‹|+i ¤+™|r| +|¶¶t= :=|-| +|·¶ ¶|t¶ ¶v|
|+|ƒt º·r º=|+ +|¶¶ š||¶¶|t+:
ºct= º·r º=|+ +¶|¶ º |¶‹| :+|+|v|+=
¤|tv ºœ|ctr|¶ :-º¶ =|t= :+ :ƒ«¶|¶¶
¶||ct¶ ¤|+ :+|t+| |ƒ+=: š|¶-= + +|¶¶
v |=t= :+|+tr| º·r= š||¶¶|. :+ ƒ tr|r|
º·rt= š||¶¶|:
=¤i š|¶-= + +|¶¶ š||¶¶|t+: |¶+at¶|¶ |+ |+:
|-¤|+t|+¶ |¶¶|= ¶| ¶+ :c|-|¶ º·rt=t+
|+¶| =¤i |šv-|¶ š||¶¶| :+|+:
|-¤|+ t|+¶ ¤|=i” ¶|- š¶|¤| ¶| º:|- t ?-|¤+
+ · c := |·|¶ º·r |¶= |=+= :+ t++ -|
¤º|¶‹|¶ º|t +|¶tv:
:- -|:+|o|¶ |-¤| + c-¶ ƒ|rƒ||r¤ ¤|¶·
+= ¶i= |¶|º|+ +ºtr|-|t+ = |· |+ ƒt¶ š|¶-= +
º|‹+ +|¶¶ š||¶¶|:
º·r ¶i-º‚|š+| – |-¤|+t|+¶ |ƒ+ ¶|¶¶ =||=+|
¤+™|r| +·ºr| |+‹|¶- –
'™ :=:= =· ™·· =:· =-š = ·’· :='=+:·. :™'=+
=·+ ¬==· =':= ·’·· ·= :°:+·=. ¬:·'+=.
.-·«.>.· ·
(=· ·= =·= ··- š'+=++ ='·. · += :·'= '·- =
='+· =-:·)
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:=·+ :· ·:·++ =+:· ƒ+=+ ='+·:·:+:+
'==··+:= =·= :=:-:+ š-= =+· :™:=
š·— === ¬=™+ ¬‹|+=. ·r. '·+'=.
š :·— =+ '-·=. š ='¤= ¬‹|+=. š =t
š-==+·. '·¤·++ ¬=|”'+· š+¤. ·='=
š+¤. '·¤” š+¤ ·=|'ƒ·
š'+·'+= ¬+ =·'== =+=+ ·:· ƒ+=+
:·+ ='+·:·:+ ¬”== =+·
š'=:° =œ·+ ·:· :ƒ'== =·=r =·= :=++
=+. '™·== + '°= ·=+ -·:= ƒ+=+
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r== š+:= -·· :-+. ™:= :=·+ š'=:°
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š'= ='r+ =° =·+ ':= ='+ :-+. '™:° =·+=
='· 'š='ƒ=+ ·:· ·= =·:·+ ¬·=+:= ·= -··
·· š'+·· ‹'+ :-+. +'°=+ =·+ =š'+· =:+·=
-· =+. '=· š:+=== =’+·:- ™· -· ¬'ƒ+
·:· =·+ 'r” ='+ ·· š+·
š '= 'ƒ=+ =· = r š + =·+ '=+¤· =+:°
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+|¶¶ =~| +|·¶ =||=+| šº= +¶- –
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r'-· -:·. =+· ·= ·+ ·:· ¬‹· ·= ·’- · ª-·==·
:·'=+=. === ~ = ='·. - · ·'==. (· :š :)·
+|¶¶ =~| +|·¶ =||=+| |+. |+r ¤|¶· :+t+t+
– |+ –
=||=+| šº= – '·'=r =·+ '==++ ×+·š·
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š+:= '-'· +· ™:= :==:° =·+ 'š== :==:°
=· :='=+ ='+· -'·· =·'r” ='+ =·+ =s ==+:=
¬··'»· š+ ™+·
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· :-'°= ·= = -·· =:= =:· = :·+ ™:= ¬:·:=
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=·++ '==+= =·:·+ =-šr ='+·:- = ƒ·'= 'ƒ ·:=·
º:~|o= +¶| – =·=r š-= ¬+ '=‹+·+ ·:·
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:¤=:= ·|+·+ ='+· š'+·
=· ·= ='+· =-· =·+ ='-= ·’· š:+ ™'ƒ:·
25 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
=·+ ·:· =·+ =r '=‹+· =+ =·:=. ¬·r
'·++:° š·'+·:- '='·r++ ·:· ='· ·='-·
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=:= ·|+-‚· :=·= =-==·+ ¬'=== 'ƒ++
-·:= =-š'= = ¬= = š+ + =· ¬'ƒ+ '·+:+·
=š-'= =+· '™ :=·+ =· =-šr :·+=
=·+= ·’·· '=” = š=·:·+ =· ·= ='-=+
'==++ =·+·
– |+r –
·|+|º+ :c r| +t·|-|– '·+++ š ‹=| ¬= ™+ ='+·
-· =·:·+= :=·+ =+=+ -·++ · '- ='· ¬:š=
='+ -’· š'+:- ·='== :· r+ š+ · ='- ·’· š'+··
|+t= |+=¶ ·+= ¶|v| – =š™= -‚== :ƒ'·
·=:= '-'· +· =:==+ =·=r:+ :=·= :=·+
š:+==+ =· ='+·:- ==:= ·== :š-· ·'=··
š‡ |=~= :+|-t=t¶ ººš|ƒ+ – =™ = r·= :ƒ·+
-:· -:· :=·+ ·=:- =·:° ='+· -·+ =·:° ¬'···
:='=+ :=:=:=. '=·+ =·+= ¬+ '= = š:+:+ =·:°
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=t+ ¶i-º‚ |+ = |· ¤|+·ƒƒ|r+ :‹·||= |cr|tš«
+ c- +|¶¶ š|¶| – ·='== :· r · '- ='··:- ='+:-·
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'= + ='+ =·'œ+ 'š:= :=·= ¬·· »· :- ™··
=·:°+ -·= =-r ·= '=· +š · ¬='=.
š '== '= =· · ='·+ =:™=:=· :=·= =·:° = š:=·
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. :+t+t+ .
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=+·+ =+:· ·|+·+ =+·
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. º:t™|=+ . ‘‘=·++ ¬r- ·-| ·'=·:- :rs =+·
=·++ š'=:° ··= ·'š+· :-+. ··'r ‹+. =š:=·
=+· ¬-=|. ¬+=ƒ. ƒ· = '== =· :·+ =:=·:+·
=r'-·· '™:° =· ¬'= ='+· š+. :=· =· =·:-
='+· ·'- :š-· =·’··’’ -= :rs+'==
(¬=·'ƒ= ¬=·+ '·=·+ '·¤'+=)
in Nagaland jail was quite humane as compared to
what I have heard in other state jails.
With my short stint with writing and in jail I
had to leave Nagaland, which turned out to be a
blessing in disguise. I shifted to Shillong and
started Cafeteria Nazareth Hospital, which later on
became famous for hotdogs.
Now I have started writing again at the age of
78 and aim to become a graphomaniac. If I do succeed
the credit would go to my dear friends who encourage
me to do so. My daughter Arshi too has been asking
me to redeem myself by becoming a writer.
I don’t know where my graphomania will
land me this time!
(The writer is in his sunset years, Is a bohemian and footloose. He is a Spoken English Trainer and Counsellor)
(Contd. from Page 26) : On the Art of Writing
/ 26
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
B
asically educated human beings can be
divided into two categories –
graphophobics and graphomaniacs. 98%
are graphophobics, who detest writing. I belong
to the majority; unless driven by strong
emotions. For me putting pen to paper is the
biggest nightmare. During the last 33 years of
my retirement, I have read a lot but the sum
total of my efforts on paper might not even fill
a medium-sized school notebook. The lucky
graphomaniacs take to writing like fish take to
water.
To be able to write you must have a large
vocabulary, keep a diary & you should be a
voracious reader and finally you can only
become a writer by writing regularly. Writing
is a craft which can be learnt by anyone with
practice; there are however exceptions. Osho
never wrote a single word. He used to speak to
his audiences – these speeches were tape
recorded and later resulted in 650 printed books.
But every one is not Osho. For us mortals back
to the basics.
As I have already said I write only when I
am driven by intense emotional experience. In
1977 there were xenophobic riots against non-
tribals at Dimapur in Nagaland. For three days
& three nights, marauding bands of locals held
the city to ransom with arson and looting. 800
houses in all were gutted. Being a retired army
officer it was galling for me to accept what we
humans were doing to each other. To me once a (Contd. on Page 25)
man wears uniform he becomes above caste, creed
or religion, but here the Nagaland police were
actively involved.
Armed with a cheap “click” camera bought
from the army canteen for rupees 30 only, I clicked
the marauders, including the police personnel who
were egging the crowds on, instead of doing their
duty, laced with these photographs I approached
The Indian Express office in Delhi and handed
over to the office photos for publication. They told
me “Major sahib please do write the details” and
gave me a sheaf of blank sheets.
I went to “gankura” then a very popular fast-
food joint at the Cannaught Place and horribly
scribbled a few paragraphs while I was having my
lunch. Handed over the photos with my write up to
the Indian Express office and forgot all about it.
10 May 1977 will remain etched on my
memory. That day The Indian Express had splashed
the short article and the photo on the front page.
The administration went into a tizzy. They
confiscated all the newspaper copies from the
railway station and the stalls and then came barging
into my hotel. The Superintendent of police
Dimapur with a camera was in the lead taking snaps
from various angles till he found the view identical
to the newspaper photo. Then the search to nab me
began. I went underground till my friends got me
an anticipatory bail. But the freedom was short-
lived, the bail was cancelled and I had to cool my
heels in the jail for a week. It was a devastating
experience but I must say in passing that treatment
Maj(Retd) H.P Singh
27 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
+||=· :=i||= :º+|š|=
-<'== =·+:r+= ==== =· ¬'==+= ==-+ ·== :='+++ ==·= ¬=|” ‰= ·'==
·'‡ :·+ :ƒ· :·:=· ·=·=+ ¬'‹=· ¬'==+:=· '·=:+ :=·:-=+ =”=+ == =- :='+++·
==== ==:-· · == · =+ ·+=:= ¬+- =:+ :='+++ · »+ :ƒ+· =· :ƒ+= :=:= ¬··: ». :=:=
š= š:+· :='+++ · »+ :ƒ+= '™ ==- ==- ·’· :=+:+ :=· :-= :· š:+ ·=·+ 'r=+ '™ ·ª =·+= ·ª
==+ =+= ‹·=+ =+= :· š:+· ·= ·= =·+= ™ + š =–:+ ·== ·=·· == =+·· + š ‹+· ='+ ==
=·'== =·=|+ = 's ='+:=· :='++++ - š— :·'ƒ '·=- :· ·ª š '==·= ™ += ™ += ¬='=
'=:·+ '=:·+:+· ·ª ¬=·'== =™ =
'-œ :·+ ¬='= ¬=·==+ ƒ:+ r =”
š”‚ · ~ ·· =+ :ƒ· :·:=· ¬='= ¬·
¬· '° (IIT) + ƒ:+ = ·= s ·=+
'·¤= r=+ ¬'= š '==·= ¬+
=- ·=·+ ====:+· ·=·+ 'r=+
:· ¬=·=|+ =++ ·ª ·°=
·'°:= ¬+ · ++ ·+ '··=
=·+:=+= · '‡ :·+·
=·¤= š =· š· :=·
==== = · ™ +
=·+ ·== :ƒ· :š+ ·=·
'=” :=:= ·|'=·= · '·'=r
š'+·°= =·+· · =-<'==
=·=+ ·|+-‚+:· š'==-=·
·= · = =·+= = == =
==-+ ·== :='+++ =·- '™ ·='=== ·'» ='::= '= ·ª =·+= :='=·r= š=+ :š-·:=· :='+++
=:r=== =- =·. '=” :ƒ·= :ƒ'· '==- šr–ƒ. +'r. :™·|= ¬'ƒ '·r+ ==+:= =:=° :='+++
'=·r= ='+ =+ š== :ƒ++ =- ·ª =·+= '·:= '·š+= :·+:· :ƒ· :š+ ™+· ·=·=+ =·== :ƒ·
/ 28
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
:·:= :=· °·= :¤=. '·:·+:= · 'o'=+'+..
:·:==:··° ¬'ƒ= ====+ ¬=|'‹= ::- :·r·
·++ =-= š'=:™·=+ -+ :· š'+:= ¬'= =r· =·
=r š'=:™·=+ rš ='·· :=+'+ ·ª ====
‘·++’ ·'·+ :· š'+· -·= š'+:=· '=” š '=:™·==
'='r· :=++ ==== ==- :· š'+:= ·=·+ 'r=+
™+ =-= :=·:-=+ :·'= =:·· '==:= ¬:™·| ·
¬šƒ· ·'- ='··:- :-:=·
'=” :=:= =° š:·· š+¤= '·=- ·’:-
¬·· ·:= =· (· ¬:= ':= ='+ 'ƒ+) r='+ =°
=š:-· =+= :·+ :· =™+· š'·+= '=== š'=r
='+·:-. '==+ :™·|= š=· ='+·:- ·ª :· ¬:=.
·ª š· ¬:=· :='+++ ·:= =·:= '='ƒs ='+ 'ƒ+
:=·°·= ‘:-==+’ r='+ =·+· ™+ :™·|= ¬:=.
š'== ¬:= ¬+ ¬:= š'+·· =++ '=r :=· '==+
·:· '=:=· =:=° :='+++ '=·· ='+ -’· š:+·
¬+ =+== ==-=+ :='°:+· ·’- '·=-=· =+·
'·=-=· ·=·= '=== š+¤ ='+·:- '·=+· ·=·
==-|+ š‹= ·=· ·=·+ ·r+= ='= -=+ =+
·’:- ¬'=+ ·ª ==- ·|'= · = ¬'· 'r'=:+·
=š:-:· :==· '·–ƒ r-'r=+ =·- =+ :··s+
¬'·== ·r=+ :='++++ ¬+- '· ¬'=- ¬'=
·=·===· =·=+ š== =·= = š 'r:=·· ¬'·===
·-·+ ='· =·=+ ·|· =+== š'+·= ='+'=-· :=·
¬='= ¬'==+ ·ƒ 'ƒ ¬=| ·'= ~·· =++ =··
='·'=-· '=” :=· ¬'==+ :='+:-. ·+« ¬'‹=
==~=:+ =· ='+ ·’-· '==+ š'+··. '=r. š'==
¬+ ™=+ ·='===+ =-= ==·++ =š '·:+==
š'+·= ·’- ¬'=+ ¬'·== ·r==·
'·=-== =+ ='+ ==-| -= ='+·+ ·:· ¬'=
š :+==+ =° = šƒ= ·’- ¬='·· =· '==+ ·š+=.
'==+ =· ·| ¬+ š '==+ ·š+= ™+ '·· = ¬:= :=· ==
:='=+· ·'+ =™+· '™ :=:= :¤=:=· :=· :-:=
:· š:+ ==-· ·ª =·+= ¬·+ ==== ==:- = -
:¤== =· ='+ ·:=. ™+ =-= :=· :-:= ==- =·+.
-·:= '==+ š '==:+ ¬šr+ ·+· ·== ·'===+ · =
='. '==- š· ·'= -’· š'+:- ==-=+ ¬=· r ·
š'+· =·='·= :-==+ :='++++ š== :ƒ+ ™ + =·+
·:· =:= ·ª = ƒ·+· ¬:= ™’= =:=== ·|'= :+ '==+
:¤=+ ·'·+= ·-· ¬'· :·'= ==- :·:=· ¬· ¬·
'° (IIT) ¬+ IIM + == :r== =·=+ ¬'= ¬=·-·
·|'= '=” :=:= ·ª ='== :=-š=+ '·++ '·r:·
=·+ ·+« === :-·= '·r:·:·· :=:=:= ¬=·+ ƒ ·
==- ·|'= · =
·
= :š= ·='+= ¬+ :·:·= ·+:··'=+
=·· =’· š'+· =
·
·='+=· '·· '·ƒ|-++ ¬‹|š=+
¬+ ·+:··'=:+ = 'r =r (ACS) + '=+šƒ r='+
=|· ='+ ·'= :-'=- =~ ·+ =+=· == :=· :-= ·ª
·‹. ·ª ·=·+ =–: ·= :·'=-· '=” '==+ ¬='·· =
¬+ ¬'·+= =~ ·+ =-= :=· :-= ¬'= '==- :¤=+
=:=== ··+ ·= š'+·= :·:=·
·'=:= :='+++ ·»+ =·= š·-+ ƒ:+ =:=·=
:¤=:= '=+ =++ š'+·:= ¬·+ ======:- '==+
·:· '=r '=r :¤= ·'= -’· -:·· ¬'=+ š'··=
:=:= =:·· ¬ºš·| =·+· r'- =°+ ƒ:+ =·'=+
=· ='·= '=·— ·š+ ·'=· ¬'=+ '··+=+ ™·= :·
š'+:= == :~·+r :='+++· =·=+ ¬+:·'-= ='š=
·'= ¬'= =:·ƒ ·'·· · :·'=·+ ƒ:+ ·|'=+ ·==
š'+ ‘:·++ s· '-s’+ ¬=+· + :='+++= š'+·= :·:=·
=·'=+ +r'= ¬'= :· š'+:= ‘:r=’ '™ ·=·= =·++
== ¬'= =-·=š· ¬+ ¬=+·+ ·'=· ·'=:= ¬·+
==== ==:- ·==·'== :=·°·= ·== ¬·‡
=·'= =·:+ ¬'= 'ƒ+ š'+·==+ =:™· -’·:- '·'=·
-:·· š+¤= -= =+ :·+ =- · ·:= '·=+
š:|=·= =· ='=+ =:™· :=:š+ ¬'ƒ+ ƒ:+ ·°==
·=· =:· === =ƒ|:·:+ ¬··'»:- ==-| '='·r=·
·|·= '™·:= :·'= ·+. ==-|· '™·:=· ¬'‹= ·+·
=+· =·:= :š+ ==-|· === ·|'=+ =ƒ|· ¬+
™ = + ·='=== · = ='+ :š-+· '=” '·=-=· ·= ·=
=:+ :š+ :=·+ ƒ:+ ¬'‹= =ƒ|·. ¬'‹= š'+·· ='+
:=:-· :=:= ·=:· :='=+· ··'= =++ ¬+ =ƒ+
==-|+ ··= ¬:+·+·+ ·:· š'+·· ='+ ™+. ™+
=-= '='·r= =:· :=·:-:= :· š:+ ==-·
'··= ƒ ° ƒ·== '·· += ¬+ · = ·=+ ¬· ='=:+
=·~ '·· :+ =-‚ š=+ :¤=·== ¬· - š'+·= = ¬'=:=·
· ¬=-=™ :™ '··+=. =ƒ+=+·+ ='= ~·· =++
=-= '··= =·+:=+= ¬·+ :ƒ·:= r+=+ ·:=
r='++ =:™· ·ª š'+·:· ='· ¬'·:=· r='+ š=|·
-· -· '·'¤= ™ +=™ += r='+ =š· ·=·=
:=·· š'+-'¤= :·:=· '=” =· '·'¤= ™ +r:· ·=·+
'r=+ :·++ š'+·:= '··+:= ¬'= 'ƒ+ ='·‹ =··
29 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
~·· ='+·+ ·:·:· š+= =+ ='r=· =·+ ==| :™
=-<'== =·+= r+=+ r='++ ='·‹ '=·=++ =·|
· '‡ + = -== :=:=· =·· '=” -·:= =· =·· š·'+:-
=·’· :™ · = ·=+ ¬· ='=:+ ·|'= ·= ·:= =·
=-‚š=+ ·ª === =:™· ·='- ='+:=· ¬r-:= ¬'=
‘r='++’ ==· =-'= :· š'+:=· ·|'=·= ·:= '=~
· ¬·= =:= :·'= ×+ · š · ‘ƒ¤=’:·· ·= ·=+
š'+·'== ¬·='=+ ™·= ƒ¤ ==+ ·:· '=” š·+
=-== ¬š=|'·= =· ¬+ =š==+ =:™· ¬'·
š'+:=· ·=·= š·+ ƒ:+ -‚+. '=+šƒ ¬+ ‹+·r
=·++ ·==·'== r='++ ™· :=:·+ :· ¬'·:=·
=+ š'+·:= =:=== ·|'=:+ '==+ ¬·= ¬+ ƒ¤=
¬=='+ =:= =·+:= '·'=r :¤== ¬·=-= =·
='+ '==+ ==:- 'ƒ·+ ƒ¤= ‘'·= ’ ='+ ·ª· ·
:='+++ ·»+ === ‹++ ='s :·:=· ¬‹'== š'+r-=
=·= ·+= :=+ ·+ ‘š°='-· =·’ (Portfolio job)·
¬'=+ ==== ==:-· =·++ '·='= ·'= š'+·'==
š'+'-‚ '=+ -·= '=== ·š· +·:- ·='== =:· š - =
·’·+ ·’-· ¬'=+ š'·+ ·=·. ·=·=| · =:-ª+
==+ ·:· =·+. ƒ¤. š'+··. ¬='··= ¬+ =ƒ|·
==+ ·:·:·· 'ƒ·” ¬'= š='+= :·:=· ='+·+ ·:·
-'·· '==+ ƒ·ª+ ·-·
:=–ƒ+ :-=:=+ ¬:+:· (UPSC) ·++ ‡+ ¬='-‚= ¬=·'+= :=+ š+¤ (Civil Services Exam)
+ š:|=·= '== ¬·- š'+·==+ ·°·:=· ¬:+·+ ¬‹== IAS, IFS, IPS ¬+ ¬=|=| ·+ =· =+=+ :=+
=··+ ·:· š· '=·r=+ ·:· =· ·=+ ¬='-‚'= ·’·-·+ š'=:™·= ·-= ·='= š+¤+ š:|=·= ™:·s
š'+·== ·:°+ :·:=· š·· š™+= ¬+:·| :=+- š+'-= (Preliminiary) š+¤+ š:|=·:=:· š'+·== =+
:·:=· ='=+:+ š+ š+'-= š+¤= š·+ ƒ:+ ='== (optional) '·+++ === =·'=·· =+ š'+·:= ƒ·=
·‹|=·-= ===+ š+¤ ==:- š·:+ 'ƒ· -'···
¬:+·+ š'+·'== š:|=· ¬=='+ š+'-= š+¤= ƒ·= === ·'=· –
.) º|‹|¶- =|+ – ·+= =+=+ ·'=·=. ¬+ -‹== =~·. =+= ¬+ '··+ =:·-. =+=+ +=='=
¬+ š·==. :=+ :·'r=. =-·+ š'+·==. =‹+· '·== ¬+ =-<'== ·°=+-+ -·= ='== š·— ·'=··
-) ·|+|º+ º¤·=| – =· ==== ==·'=. '·:·+· ¬+ =·=| =·‹= ¤·=. :-· ¬+ :+· 'r=.
='-=. ·+= =++ == ¬+ ƒ·· :·· -++ ¬= '·+++ š·— ·'=··
:=|+tº-| ¤|tr|~¶ += + š|oi= · –
Paper I –History of India, National Movement, Geography of India & World (physical, social, eco-
nomic), Indian politics & administration (Construction, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy,
Civil Rights, Social & Economic development etc), observation, Bio-diversity, climate change, Gen-
eral Science, Current affairs.
Paper II – Mental aptitute, Comprehension, Reasoning, Numerical ability, chart-diagram, English etc.
Revised syllabus for UPSC-civil Services (Prelims)
/ 30
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
2. Job Channels
During my time of job-haunt, which is good
15 years back (I graduated in 1992), the channels
through which job could be found was minimal.
Job availability situations were available mainly
in print media such as newspapers. Campus
interview was rare and Internet was at its
infancy.You are however at the most fortunate
time with evolved Internet with which you can
haunt for jobs at the click of a button. There is
more reason to be optimistic about finding the
right job, as the economy of India is booming,
creating more job opportunities.
If you ask me what channels are available
to you for job-haunting, I would try to summarize
as follows:
Age-Old Job Channels: Those that have
been in existence even before Internet came.
1.0 Campus Interview Jobs.
2.0 Pool Campus Jobs.
3.0 Walk-in Jobs.
4.0 Common Recruitment Tests.
New Age Job Channels: Those that have come
through Internet.
5.0 Job-site based Jobs.
6.0 Referral Jobs (Buddy Lao jobs).
The above list is indicative only and is
categorized according to how the job selection
process is organized by the recruiter. Let us go into
details of these job-channels.
1.0 Campus Interview Jobs: If you are fortunate
to belong to a very good institute (i.e. attractive
in the eyes of a recruiter), then this channel is open
before you when recruiters come hunting for you
in your own institute campus.The Training &
Placement cells of these institutes maintain very
close relations with the recruiters, providing them
with all required data on who would be attending
the Campus Interview.
The selection process by the recruiter varies
A few words from the writer: The contents of this write up have actually been reproduced for Pragyan
from my career blog: www. careerquips.blogspot.com. As the contents were actually made for the blog, to present it to
the students as a published form we needed some minor edits.
Full potential of the knowledge imparted here can be found only online at the blog, since many contents can not
be presented in hard published form – say for example, the video on demo GD in section “Group Discussion”. Also
we may not be in position to write in details about links of other sites those our blog have. We’ll try to mention the
related web IDs here. Students are advised to visit those sites or our blog to search it, simply type “Career Quips” or
“careerquips” or any combination of these two words. The first result shown is the blog: www.
careerquips.blogspot.com.)
[Editor's Note : Prasanta Bora is an Engineer by profession. His blog Career Quips is world’s 5th best
career blog. Its Google page rank is 4th. With more than 3,500 blog subscriber Career Quips gets more than
3,50,000 visitors per month, but, very few of them are from NE India, for whom it’s created. To make such a
wonderful blog popular among NE Indian students and Pragyan readers we invited Prasanta to write for us. We
are grateful that he has started a new series.]
Prashanta Bora
31 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
from recruiter to recruiter, but most recruiter goes
through the usual round of Written Test > Group
Discussion > Personal Interview, sometimes with
Psychometric Tests.
Never had campus interview in the past, but
would like to have one? If there had never been a
Campus Interview in your institute but you think
that recruiters would find your students attractive
to employ, then you need to chalk up a strategy as
follows:
i) Form a Training & Placement Cell with
concurrence from your institute authority.
There must be at least a group of five/six
active individuals, with an active faculty
as a mentor.Prepare an Institute Profile file
(Name, Address, Branches, Qualifications
awarded, Accreditation, Academic
Calendar etc.), which is sought by the
recruiters when you approach them for
campus interview.
ii) Gather maximum data on your alumni:
“Who is working in which organizations,
in what capacity, which cities of which
country”. More well placed are your
alumni, more attractive the institute looks
to a recruiter.
iii) The Institute Profile File and Alumni
Profile becomes your sales brochure for the
institute. With it, start approaching the
recruiters through e-mail and phone. Where
would you find these contact details? Use
your contacts (Faculties, fellow friends
from other institutes, alumnus) and of
course Google to find the corporate
websites!
Since the recruiters are always bombarded
with requests for campus interview, it is unlikely
that your requests would be accepted on your first
request itself. Therefore you need to have patience
for that first Campus Interview to occur for your
institute. It may quite be possible that whatever
you are doing the fruits of it would be enjoyed by
your junior students.
Also try to go in for good placement agencies
first (rather than the employing organizations
themselves), so that your students gets used to the
whole idea of Campus Placement. Why? Because
this way chances of conducting the first Campus
interview is always better. Later you can go for
employing organizations directly.
2.0 Pool Campus Jobs:
Very akin to the Campus Interview jobs, in
Pool Campus Jobs, few institutes form a pool and
organize the selection process in a common venue,
mostly in one of the institutes having better
infrastructure or better communication facilities.
The advantage for the recruiter is that they find
students from all the institutes in a common place
and thus do not have to visit the institutes
individually. And hence more and better recruiter
comes, which helps more students getting placed
with better job offer.
North East Professional Institutes Forum
(NEPIF) is one such forum which organizes Pool
Campus Jobs for its member institutes of North
East India. If your own institute belongs to North
East India, you may wish to contact NEPIF to
accept your institute as a member institute.
Also, your own institute can form such a
partnership with other institutes offering similar
courses and qualifications and together you can
invite recruiters for Pool Campus Jobs.
3.0 Walk-in Jobs:
As the name suggests, these kinds of jobs are
advertised by the recruiters in the electronic
(Internet) and print media (newspapers) and you
just have to walk-in to appear in the selection
process.In most cases, the written-test round is not
conducted and candidates are required to appear
in the GD/Interview rounds directly.
Walk-in Interviews are a little bit different
than the normal interviews – since the interviewer
may not have heard at all about the institute you
passed out from. His perception on you would bank
entirely on your resume. Therefore you need to
prepare as good a resume as possible.
Following two items are must-carry items
while going for a walk-in:
1. Few (2/3) hardcopy of your resume.
2. Few (2/3) passport size photographs.
Also, if you are an working individual, you
need to carry photocopies of the last increment
letter/offer letter, whichever is latest.
You can visit following internet sites to find
walk-in job announcements:
ht t p: / / search. cl i ckj obs. com/ j s/ search/
/ 32
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
jresult.php?walkin=yes
http://www.walkinsindia.com/
http://www.mywalkin.com/
Do you know of any better sites for walk-in
jobs? Kindly send me the web site address at
careerquips@gmail.com. We would acknowledge
your contributions with sincere thanks.
4.0 Common Recruitment Tests :
This is the most formal out of all the job
channels, which have been around for a long, long
time. Used by all Government agencies (UPSC
Exams – Civil Services, Defence, Railways etc.)
and Public Sector industries (such as IOCL,
NTPC, SAIL etc.), its advertisement are given
elaborately in Print (newspapers) as well as in
Electronic media (Internet). Not many Private
Sector industries however conduct common
recruitment tests.
The format of selection process is elaborate
again: You need to apply in specified formats; you
are called for written exams in selected centers after
which GD & Interview is held.Government jobs
and Public Sector industries jobs are a happy
hunting ground for freshers, since the intake is at
entry-level, experience is not asked for.
Following links should help you getting these
kinds of jobs:
http://www.employmentnews.gov.in/
www.yuvajobs.com/indian-govt-jobs.asp
Above rounds up the job channels which have
been existing even before Internet came. Would
you like to know the New Age Job Channels?
Follow me in next issue of Pragyan.
(to be continued)
61 Institute of Management
KKWCampus, Pimpalgaon Bawanti, Nasik
62 Institute of Rural Studies & Admn
Institutional Area 1, Guntur – 522019, A.P.
Programmes : PG Programme in Rural
Mgt – Running under MOU with MGCGV
Chitrakoot, Fellowship Programme in
Rural Mgt Running under MOU with
MGCGV Chitrakoot. PG Programme in
Disaster Mgt, Conflict Mgt & Family Mgt,
Fellowship Programme in Disaster Mgt,
N
E Career Guidance is working towards helping students in North Eastern States to choose right career for their
life. It is very crucial for students to choose right Institution or College and be careful that they don’t fall into
trap of choosing an UNAPPROVED or UNRECOGNIZED Institute, College or a Course.
To ensure that students do not make any mistakes choosing an unapproved Institute or College or a course
which are not recognized by Government or UGC, we share here the list available in public domain.
Please note that students taking up such courses or getting admitted to such institutes may not affect in
some instances getting employment but at the same though it does not guarantee. Studying in such institute may
impact your higher educational ventures or taking up any Government job or employment.
However, NE Career Guidance suggests further investigation by admission seeker should be done
prior to taking admission.
Conflict Mgt & Family Mgt
63 International Business School,
12/1Mathura Road, Delhi
Programme : MBA-FT
64 International College of Financial
Planning, Mumbai-13. Programme
: PG DIP. In Financial Planning
65 International Council for Management
Studies, Chennai – 28, Tamil Nadu
Programme : 6 Month Dip & 18 Months PG
courses by Correspondence (Distance Education)
– An NE Career Guidance Presentation-III
33 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
66 International Institute of Hotel
Management, Gurgaon-122 002
67 International Institute of Information
Technology and Management, Kerala
68 International Institute of Information
Technology, Pune-411057
Programme : MBA programs, MS
programs in Automotive Engg.,
Computational Fluid Dynamics, Oil and
Gas Engg., Embedded System Design
69 International School of Business & Media
Pune – 411014
Programme : PG programmes in Management
70 International School of Business & Media
Delhi – 110034
Programme : PG Prog. In Business Mgt. ,
PG Prog. In Human Resource Mgt., PG
Prog. In Supply Chain & Operations Mgt
(Only for Engineering Graduates),
71 International School of Business & Media,
Bangalore 560 037
72 International School of Business & Media
Kolkata 700 091.
Programme : PGDBM
73 Ismail Yusuf College of Arts, Science &
Commerce, Mumbai-60
Programme : PG Dip./Degree In Hotel
Management courses, MBA (Hospitality
Management)
74 ITM Business School, Hyderabad-500 044,
Programme : Masters in Pharma &
HealthCare Mgt, MS (IT) Telecom &
Networking, Exe Masters in program for
Pharma Industry
75 Jai Hind Institute of Computer Studies
& Research, Pimpri, Pune – 400018
76 JSP’s CISBMR, Bhosari, Pune – 411037
77 MAII (K.K. Modi Group) New Delhi
78 Marathwada Institute of Mert, Pune
79 N.S. Dixit Institute of Management &
Technology, Hinjwadi, Pune – 411027
80 National Institute of Business Management
Chennai – 600 020, Tamil Nadu
Programme : MBA in Various Functional Field
in DISTANCE MODE, Exe MBA (1 Yr)
81 National Institute of Construction
Management and Research (NICMAR)
Hyderabad
Programme : PGD in Advance Construction
Mgt (PGD ACM) – 2 yrs, Graduate Dip in
Construction Safety Mgt (GD CSM) – 1 Yr
FT, Graduate Dip in Bldg Services &
Facilities Mgt (GD BSFM) – 1 Yr FT.
82 National Institute of Human Recourse
Development, Chennai-600004, TamilNadu
Programme : PGDHRD (PT)
83 Nexgen School of Management &
Technology, Kolkata-71
Programme : MBA
84 NIFT-TEA Knitwear Fashion Institute
Tamil Nadu
Programme : Applied Arts & Crafts
85 Oxford Business College, New Delhi
Programme : MBA
86 Ozar Vikas Sanstha’s Institute of
Management & Research Center , Nasik
Programme : Conducting unapproved
courses without obtaining prior approval
from AICTE
87 Parle Tilak Vidyalaya Association’s
Institute of Management & Professional
Studies, Mulund College of Commerce,
Mumbai – 80.
Programme : Various diploma in mgmt
courses
88 Peoples Empowerment Group,
International School of Business and
Media, Pune-411 014
Programme : PGDM (Marketing),
PGDBM (Insurance and Risk
Management), PGDBM (Finance),
PGDBM (HR), PGDBM (SCM & OM)
89 Prajnanannanda Institute of Technology
Kolkata-14
Programme : MBA
90 Prestige College of Management and
Technology,under Tilak Maharashtra
Vidyapeeth, Pune (Deemed University)
Programmes : MBA, MPM, PGDBM, MMM
91 Raffles Design International, Raheja Centre
Mumbai-54
Programme : Interior Design
The complete list can be read on www.necareerguidance.com
/ 34
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
It’s not Dearth of Job, but Job Seekers in the Region:
The Staff Selection Commission is Worried
T
he Staff Selection Commission (SSC) has
expressed concern over the lack of response
from the local youths of the north-eastern region
to the various posts in the Central Government
setups. The Regional Director (NER) of SSC,
Debolina Thakur, has recently commented before
media saying, “Various examinations being
conducted by the SSC are great opportunities for
seeking employment in the government sector.
However, it’s a matter of concern that our local
youths are not applying for these examinations to
the extent one would expect given the high
incidence of educated unemployment in the
Northeast”. 60,075 applications handled by the
regional office in the year 2010-11 as against
64,371 in 2009-10, far less then all India Numbers.
Lack of awareness might be one possible
reason for poor representation from the Northeast
among students about different examinations
being conducted, the syllabi and requisite
education.
According to The Regional Director (NER),
this year alone the Staff Selection Commission
(SSC) will recruit 53,200 constables from the
region for six paramilitary forces on behalf of the
Ministry of Home Affairs. The vacancies include
880 in the Assam Rifles, 3,320 in the Indo-Tibetan
Police Force and the rest in four others forces –
CRPF, Sashastra Seema Bal, CISF and BSF. The
advertisement published on the current issue of
employment newspaper and the entire process
would be concluded by July 31, 2011. Among
the vacancies, the highest number of 3,206 posts
of constables will be recruited from Assam,
followed by 449 from Tripura, 329 from Mizoram,
316 from Meghalaya, 229 from Nagaland, 217
from Manipur and 100 from Arunachal Pradesh.
The minimum educational qualification required
is matriculation, which should make most youths
eligible to apply.[PEB]
Gauhati University to Start Radiological Physics Course
G
auhati University begins its masters course in
Radiological Physics. The
university had signed an MoU
with the B. Borooah Cancer
Institute (BBCI) in November
2010 to jointly run the course.
Besides Gauhati University,
only two universities in the
country offer masters in
Radiological Physics.
For its first batch, the university has decided
to admit less than 10 students so that all of them
can find employment as soon as they complete
the course. While the BBCI is a
recognized institution for cancer
treatment and research, Gauhati
University’s Physics Department is
a fast growing one. While some
of the courses would be conducted
at the Physics Department of the
university, other classes would be
held on the BBCI campus, where
students can interact with experts in the
field. [PEB]
35 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
¶·‰ +|¶|r- ¶¶+|+|=
· (Mangifera indica L.) = =”+ =-+
+= :·- ·+· ™'ƒ· · = ” + ¬«-= · '‡ +
·:· ¬==- š'+:·· š·. =·'š =·‰ šr+ š+
.-·· '·°+ =r=:-:= ·++ '·-'= :ƒ· ™+·
¬=·:= ‹'+ =+=+ '·'=r ¬«-= ¬·+ ·=.
š= ¬+ =-= š'·= = ·=+ š· ·= ·|+·+ =++
-·:=. · ++ =- := r · š= ¬·-‚ = ·ƒ| '·r:š
·=:· ~·· =:+· ¬·+ ·+'‹ ×:· :š+ ™+
¬·+ ·='-+ += ¤+· ·r ='+· š+ ×:·:+
=·‡. ·+:+š'+ =-ƒ. =·r·+ ¬+ ='œƒ+=
š= ¬· ·’- '=°'·= ‘=’ ¬+ ‘'r’ (Vitamin
‘A’ & ‘C’) + =:+·
š '··+ '==+= =+:= =· '‹= =·|= ¬·
= ·šƒ= =:+· š '··+ =· · : = ·šƒ=+ -·· =+:=
¬=:- = ·šƒ= =:+· =+=+ >-·.«.· :·ª+
· ' ° ¬' ‹= + = ' + ·= ¬ · ·=+ š+
-.·... «.· °= = ·šr ·+· ¬+:·| ¬=·= «.·.
·=+ :·ª+ ·'°='-= ¬×'+ ·= ¬· ·=+ š+
·='+ ··.·· ·=+ °= ¬· = ·šƒ= ·+·
¬·= .·« '·‹=:= ¬'‹= š='=+ =°
š=¤ == ‹+·+ :··+ ¬+ '·'=r ·=| ·++
='== '·=·'=:+ ¬=·· =:+·
¤|· ~v+ ¤|=·- +¶| +|rš=:~ –
.) :··’ št = · '=- (sternochetus frigidus)
·) :··’ ·’š+ (Idioscopus clypealis) ¬+
(Amritodus atkinsoni)
·) :··’ '·'- ·· (Drosicha mangiferae)
-) :··’ :s· ·++ (Batocera rufomaculata)
«) :··’ =·° =· (Bactrocera dorsalis)
.) :··’ ·= ··° (Aceria magniferae)
·) :··’ r|° ·- š=· (Apsylla cistella)
-) :··’ '-= ·- š=· (Amaraemyia spp.)
+) :·:~’ š|a =c|== . ¬· ·== ¬=·· =+ =°
š=· =··+ '==+= =·'·‹ š=·· :·'= ·+==·
··= ·=+= š=·:°:+ ¬·+ ·'-= ='š-:·’
··= '=- š=+ =:+· '=- ='° =–: š-:·:+ ¬·+
·.· ¬· ==:·= =+· ·'–ƒ ·ƒ| '·r:š ·|+·+
=:+· =-+ '==+:= :-° ·:r ¬+ š œ·+- š=·:+
=·š'= ·+· ¬=··+ =+:· ¬=-:= ='+ š+ =-+
š+ šœ·+- š=·:·+. '=‰ ='s:+ ·-+ ¬'· o==
·= · ··+ ·== -=· '··· -+·
š|=+|¶ –
.) ‘r· š+ :·'· =’. ‘=-·’ ¬+ ‘··= š'¤+’
ƒ:+ ¬'= -š· ==+ = r:·+ :+š· ==++ =-·
·) ¬= ” ·=+ š+ ='+ š+ :·- ¬·:·+ =~ ·
='+ '=+šƒ -‚== š'= · š'+ :š-· -:·.
™:= '==++ š=·:·+ ‹·= ·+·
·) '=:r-+==++ ··= ·=+ ×'=+ š+ š+
· '·°+ ·š+:-:= ‘:='”‚+=’ (·.·«·) ·
‘·‹'+-’ (·..·) ·|+·+ =++ ·š'+· ·
·= ¬·= ¬:==+ ·-+ š:-š 'ƒ š·+=
·+= o== š= ¬+ ··= ¬·+ :- ·=
š œ·+- š=·:·+= ·=+ ·š+:- ··+
/ 36
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
:™+= ·‹ šƒ= ='+· š'+·
-) ·'-·++ . =œ· š== ‘:= ª°:·'==’
(·.···«·) ¬+ · ++ š+ =š:+=+ š==
‘:='–:+=’ (·.·«·) ‰+· ='°+· = =- š· š'+·
v) :·:~’ c’š|¶ – ¬· ·=+ :=·- š= ¬+ šºš
·o++ š+ += :·+· =++ =-= ·= :=š+ ¤'=
·+· :·'=:= ¬=” š== == -'· ™+ ¬+ šºš
·o+ o=· ™+· ·+'· :™+ ¬·= ‘r'° ·’=’
=·+ :==+ ·=· :ƒ· ™+· ·=+ š== == -'·
¤'- :™+:= ‘·’š+ ··’ ·'-· == ™+·
š|=+|¶ –
.) ¬· ·=:·+ ·=·=:= :+š= ='+· =-:··
·) š+'· =-:·++ -·:= ¬=” ··:·+ =·:+
=·:+ ='° ·'=· -:··
·) ·=- ='s ¬+ ·'-·+ =·+= ‘r·š+ :·'·=’
· ‘:== :=-:+°’ (·.·.·) ¬+ NSKE
(-·) + ‰+· ='°+:- ==- š· š'+· =-
=-+ =·+= +=+'== ‰·| š:+· ==+ =-
'=+:=. · š+· =:™·= ·‹ 'ƒ:+·
~) :·:~’ |·|= ¶|~ – =· š=·+ ¬š=| -+ ¬+
š·· :·:+ ¬· ·=+ šºš ·o+ ¬+ =·-+ š=+
š+ += :·+· =++ =-= :=· ¬· =··= ‘r'° ·’=’
=·+ :==+ ·'= o=· ™+·
š|=+|¶ –
.) ·+· ='- ··=+ ·'° r· ='+. =· š=·+
'=-:·+= +’ƒ+ =š ¬+ :=+ '=+”= =·=+
‡+ ‹·= ='+· š'+·
·) ··== ¤+=+ šƒ·+ š:-š 'ƒ ·'°+ š+
·=+ ·š+:- ··· '·r+ š=·:·++ ·'==
·‹ 'ƒ· š'+· · ++ -·:= š :-š+ =-+ ¬·=
=· :·+ š=·= NSKE (-·) · =·+ :=-
(.·) ‰+= ='°+· ‹·= ='+· š'+·
º) :·:~ :t· ¶¶|¶ – ···. ƒ·- '·'.+ ·» ·°+
·+·+ š=·:·:+ ¬· ·=+ =: ¬+ · ¬·= ·=
·='-+ ·š+= ¬= ·· =:+· =-= ··=+ š+
¬::-'=+ šƒ· ·'·+ ·-+ ¬=” ¬·= =··
š:+· ¬=” =-:·+ ='+ :™++ -·:=. ·=+ =-
-·+ š'+·· ·= š+·
š|=+|¶ –
.) ·= ·='- ¬+ o== =-:·+ =·:+ =·:+
='° :š:-+ ='r=·
·) ·=+ =: ¬·= ·+· ='-. ‘=’+’š·'+=r’
(·..·) + '=· (.·) + ‘=’š+ ¬'== +· =’
(·.-·) + ·: ·=· š:+· ='+:- '=- š=++
·= ·= ='+· š'+·
·) ‘=·=’+’=r’ (·..·)+ ‰+== =š· '=+·.
·'=·:‹| ='s =+ '=‰=··= =+· ·'°:+ ·r
='+ 'ƒ· -:··
÷) :·:~’ =cr =|c – =· ·'·:·:+ ¬·+ ·='-+
=-= '=- š =+ =:+· '=- = '° = 's :·+ ¬š=| š- :·+
·.· ¬· ·ƒ| '·r:š ·|+·+ ='+ :·-· :š-+·
¬=” =-:·+ ·» ·°+ ·+·+ :·++ -·:= ::+
::+ :·'- ¬=-:= ='+ ™+· ==:- ‹+·+ ·'·'=|=
= r =· ·'·+ š '= -š· ==+ ™'ƒ· ‘:-:¤+’. ‘=r·'+’.
¬+ ‘·:- ~·’+ š'=:+‹ ¤·= ¬:=·
š|=+|¶ –
.) :™= :=+·= ·|+·+ ='+ ·'·+ =·|· '‡ +
š'+·· r· š'+·
·) :·'- ='+ š+ ¬· =~· ='+ '=+šƒ -‚==
‹·= ='+ :š-· -:··
·) :š== ¬· =·+= š'+:-. ·'·:+ '=- š=++
='·‹ =š+·
r) :·¤’ ¶|= ·|cr – =· r'·:·:+ ·=-+ š+ +=
:=·+ =-= =·-+ =-:·+ ¤'- ™+· =·|·=
š'+·· ¬'‹= ·’:- :·:°· ·=-:·+ ‹·= ·’· š:+·
=· r'·:+ ==:- š=++ =r= ¬=·· ='+· š:+·
š|=+|¶ –
.) ¬=” šºš ·o+ ‹·= =+ ='r=·
·) ‘=·'··:+°’ ·· ·. 'r.+ ‰+· ='°+· š'+·
‘:·¤’ r° ·-’ š=·+ ¬=··+ =-= =:
¬+ · = -= :°:š+ :ƒ· ™+. ¬==:- ‘:·¤’
'-= ·-’ š=·+ ¬= ··+ =-= š== :°:š+
=: :ƒ· ™+·
-¶|¶ =|+= |¶º:~|= –
.) =¶v¶ =|¶ =¶v¶ == =~| (Alternate bear-
ing) : =· ·|'‹ =‹+·:= ·ª= ‹+·+ =r=
:ƒ· ™ + · · ' ° = ‘:š= ’· = ° =-’
(Paclobutrazole) = .· ~· š'=:=š ·=
'·=š= š:+· ='+ ==- š· š'+·
·) ¤|·¶ + ¶š=| (Mango Malformation) : ·
37 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
·=+ =+š= ¬+ šºš =+š== ™·=:·
š'-·'+ ¬+ =-+ ··== :ƒ· ™+·
··· 'š.'š.=·. ·'=™= NAA š:+·+ ‡+
=+š= ·= ='+· š'+·
·) «·v º|t (Clustering) : :'++ ¬·= -š
-š:= ·ª= ·'- -:· ™'ƒ· ··-+ :=·+
··:=· ·+'· ™+· š:+===:= =· =š·=+
·:· =· ·|'‹ :ƒ· ™+·
-) º š º |šr| +=| (Spongs Tissue) : ‘¬-== r’
¬·= =· ·|'‹ :ƒ· ™+· =-:° ·'·++ š+
:ƒ·= - ='+= ™'ƒ· '==+ ·= = š = 'š+ ·+·
· +:+š'+ :°. ×· :·'= ·+· ¬'‹= = +=+ ·:·
š'=·+ ·:· ƒ+·‡ = ·:=r= = 's= ·‹ :š++
=-= =· ·|'‹ ·+· š + ·«· :š== :·++ ¬·-‚ =
=- š'+· -:·· ‘=+= š ==’ ¬+ ‘+·— ’ =·+
·· ==+ = =:·+= =· ·|'‹ =·+·
[=·· (¬=·)+ =·== ='+'·== ¬=·+ =+= '·== '·+++ === -= š'=r :-·= ¬+ ·:++=· =-<'=
‘š=· +·=|’ =:·:+ :=· =·= '==š š=· ='+ ='-+·:=·]
Assam
is rich in
varieties of
e t hnome di c i na l
plats. The perfect natural
conditions like humidity,
fertility of the land and moderate
temperature leads to the rich flaura & fauna
available here.The study on medicinal plants
had started in India in Vedic eras 4500-1500
B.C. where chemon, peeple, pithuan medicinal
plants are mentioned. In the history of
Ayurvedic Sastra, the 16
th
& 17
th
century
period in India was considered as age of Herbal
medicine. Presently 25% of allopathic medicine
is made from various plants. With the rapid
advancement of medical science, still today it
is observed that plant is the only source of
treatment in the backward village areas.
Without plant, the survival of human and other
living species is very difficult. So the
importance of conservation of medicinal plants
and social forestration is understood minutely.
Different Ethno medicinal plants and their
medicinal values:
1. Vern Name:Tulsi
a) Tulsi leaf extract mixed with mouri leaf
extract, if eaten removes cough completely.
b) It also gives relief from otorrhoea (ear pain).
c) It increases the digestion power.
d) It removes vomiting tendency, thread worm problems,
apesia, dyspepsia (loss of appetite), anorexia.
2. Vern Name:Duburi Bon
a) Blood removal in piles disease can be
prevented.
b) Blood removal due to dental decay, from
wounded place can be stopped immediately.
c) Ulcer becomes dry if it is applied at the
affected place.
3. Vern Name: Siju Goch.
a) Leprosy , Diabetes, cough, otorrhoea diseases
can be cured.
Biplab Banik
/ 38
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
b) Lower abdominal pain, abscess, carbuncle,
thread worm problems can be problems.
c) It also acts as anti venom for poisonous snakes
and insects.
4. Vern Name: Chal kuori
a) Diabetes, leprosy, liver diseases, gastric
problems, thread worm problems, fertility
problems, anorexia can be cured.
b) Blood Circulation in ovary can be done.
c) Typhoid, Pneumonia fever, flatulence, blood
pressure and headache can be cured.
d) muscle pain, burning pain can also be cured.
5. Vern Name : Bor Manimuni Shak.
a) Leprosy, Disynetry, Abdominal gripes, Skin
problems, apilepsy, curbancle, ring worm
problems can be cured.
b) It also increases the intelligency and memory
power.
c) It relives from sleeping disorder.
d) It is a good medicine for nurve and blood.
6. Vern Name: Dupur tenga or Pategoja.
a) It removes Gall Bladder stones, urinary
bladder stone and kidney stone.
b) It keeps the brain cool and sexual debility can
be cured.
c) It is a good medicine for high blood pressure
patient.
7. Vern Name: Podina
a) Disynetry, Stomach problems, Gall bladder
stone can be cured.
b) Gastric problems, otorrhea, headache, swelling
of nails can be cured.
8. Vern Name: Masandari
a) Disynetry, abdominal gripes, stomach problems,
bronchitis & pneumonia can be cured.
b) Heart diseases and blood circulation problems
can be cured.
9. Vern Name: Ban Amlokhi
Ascites, Jandish, disynetry, ulcer can be cured.
10. Vern Name: Tengechi Shak
a) Disynetry, Loss of appetite, diarrhea, anorexia,
apesia, dyspepsia problems can be cured.
b) Ascites, eczema disease, diabetes can be cured.
11. Vern Name : Dhatura
a) It acts as pain reliever, tranqulizer.
b) It acts as anti snake venom, insects venom.
c) Bronchial asthma, eczema disease, mumps,
dental Pieria can be cured.
12. Vern Name:Kola kachu
a) Piles, high blood pressure, ring worm, scabies
can be cured.
b) It is a good vitamin A and vitamin C source
for Pregnant woman.
c) It is a blood purifier.
13. Vern Name: Betgoch
a) Intestine and pancreas stone, ulcer, allergy,
elephantiasis can be cured.
b) Diabetes, fishtulainano, can be cured.
14. Vern Name: Bhedailata
Body and chest pain, piles disease, anorexia,
rheumatism, can be cured.
15. Vern Name: Nayan Tora
a) Diabetes, high sugar level in blood, can be cured.
b) High blood pressure, thread worm problems
cab be cured.
c) It increases memory power.
16. Vern Name: Keharaj
a) Blood deficiency, Jaundice, Hepatitis, Ring
worm, sexual inability, ascifes, leucorrhoea
cab be cured.
b) It is a good medicine for hair fall problem.
17. Vern Name: Khutura Shak
a) Piles, diabetes, leprosy, cough, cold fever ,
Irregular menstruation can be cured.
b) It acts as anti venom for snake.
18. Vern Name: Duran
a) Malaria, Pneumonia, Jaundice, Worm problems,
piles, ascites, scene disease can be cured.
b) It acts as anti venom for snake.
c) It makes liver strong.
19. Vern Name: Ronga Joba
a) Cough, sexual inability, urinary disorder,
parturition disease can be cured.
b) It makes hair roots strong.
20. Vern Name: Bonsot
a) Hydrophobia, heart disease, blood removal
due to piles disease can be cured, it acts as
anti vomiting medicine.
Conclusion: From the above discussion it can
be understood very minutely the importance of
locally available ethomedicinal plants in our
habitat, surrounding house yards which can cure
various human disease. We all don’t have to run
after allopathic medicine as these medicinal plats
could be a substitute for it. Due to urbanization
effect, these plants are going to be extinct in near
future. So all of us now should concentrate upon
the conservation of such medicinal plants.
(The author teaches Chemistry)
39 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
I
ntroduction: The North-East Region
(NER) of India spreads over an area of
262179sq. kms and comprises of eight states:
Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and
Sikkim. It is stretched between 89.46 degree
to 97.30 degree East longitude and 21.57
degree to 29.30 degree North latitude.
1

Of
the 5,633 communities listed by the “People
of India” project, 635 were categorized as
tribal, of which 213 were found in the North
East Indian States. This project also listed
325 languages of which 175 belonging to the
Tibeto-Burman and the Mon-Khmer family
were found in North East India.2 The North-
Eastern Region (NER) is located in the
easternmost part of the country, which is
accessible by roads or rails through the
narrow corridor at Siliguri in West Bengal,
popularly known as “Chicken’s Neck”. Due
to the geographical location far away from
the mainland India, poor means of road and
rail connectivity to most parts of the region,
and absolutely poor air connectivity even
with the capitals of the constituent states,
barring Guwahati (Assam), Agartala
(Tripura), Imphal (Manipur), and Gangtok
(Sikkim), the region remains mostly
unknown to the country.
3
Objective of the Paper:
1. The paper tries to highlight the historical
legacy and reasons behind Insurgency in
North-East India.
2. Further the paper tries to analyze the Role
of Media in the on going Peace Process
of North-East India.
Methodology: The present paper is primarily
based on secondary sources like, Books, Journals,
Articles, Daily and Weekly News Papers (Both
English and Assamese) etc.
History of Insurgency in North East India:
There is a historical legacy of insurgency in
North Eastern States of India. India’s North East
has been the theatre of earliest and longest-lasting
insurgency in the country. In the Naga Hills- then
a district of Assam State, violence centering in
independence started in 1952 soon after India’s
independence. It was followed by the Mizo
rebellion in 1966 and a proliferation of more
recent conflict since the late 1970s.
4
Tripura and
Assam started agitation which later turned into
insurgencies against huge influx of people across
the border from Bangladesh; Manipur insurgency
largely centres around ethnic rights. All these have
prevented investment and, therefore, jobs. Lack
of employment opportunities further fuelled the
movements.

Every state of North East Region
(NER) except Sikkim is currently affected by
some form of insurgent violence.
5
Biraj Dutta
Bristi Senapati
/ 40
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
The North-Eastern States of India are having
a large number of terrorist organizations or groups
which are creating terror, instability and situation
of insecurity in the region. As per the records there
are 120 no. of Terrorist Organization/Groups in
North East India. Though they are organized with
their own ideology and demands but the people at
large are the victim of the terrorist activities. In
most of the cases it has been witnessed that due to
their demands and anti-state activity the people of
the region have to suffer to a great extent. Violation
of human rights is not a very new issue in the
region. The worst sufferers are the women, children
and the elderly persons, as they are the prime target
of these terrorist activities. This is what we are
witnessing for decades in North-East India. Table
1 shows the number of terrorist organizations
operating in the North-East India.
Economic insecurity basically occurs due to
lack of avenues of generation of income. The
people of the region are dependant one way or the
other on the government, trapped in vicious circle
of poverty, mass unemployment, high level of
income inequality etc. The fear among the people
about the loss of own culture to exotic culture and
social structure lead to cultural and social insecurity
among the people. Similarly, the possibilities of
losing political power among the people lead to
political insecurity. All these are happening in the
State of Assam and as a result of the growing
insecurity arisen among the people of Assam lead
to Students’ Movement in Assam and thereby
insurgency in the state. The people of Assam started
to believe that as a result of the migration of people
from the neighbouring countries like Bangladesh
and Nepal pose a great threat to the economy,
society, demography, politics and culture of the
Assamese people. This is also a case for Tripura.
The immigrants from Bangladesh reduced
Tripura’s citizens to minorities in their own state.
Fear of becoming minorities in the state of Assam
also always disturbed the minds of the Assamese
people. The same kind of movement also stated in
Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya against the
influx of Bangladeshis. However, for the state of
Manipur and Nagaland, insecurity is not a major
factor for the growing insurgency problem.
(ii) Past History of Independent State:
Before the advent of the North Eastern region by
the British, the region was not a part of India and
therefore, many organizations of Nagaland and
Manipur don’t accept the acknowledgement of the
Indian statehood, thereby they have been struggling
for the independence of the respective states on the
basis of their past history. The British had annexed
Nagaland in 1832 and then in 1918 Naga Club was
established and became the platform for Naga unity
thereby Naga independence movement and later on
insurgency after independence. Similar history is
also for Manipur. Many people refused to accept
the Manipur agreement of submerger, 1949. In
Assam, ULFA (United Liberation Front of Assam)
has also demanded an independent state, but their
demand is only after the student’s movement.
(iii) Negligence of the Central Government :
It is a fact that the people from mainland India
Name of the State No. of Insurgent
Groups
Arunachal Pradesh 01
Assam 38
Manipur 40
Meghalaya 05
Mizoram 02
Nagaland 04
Tripura 30
Total 120
Table: 1 Terrorist/Insurgent/Extremist
Groups operating in North-East India
Reasons behind Insurgency in North-East India:
The Terrorist/Insurgent Groups were formed in
the states of North-East India with their own ideology
and demands. Though the reasons behind insurgency
are not same for all the states of the region, even there
are some common reasons behind the problem of
insurgency in North-East India (NEI). Here an attempt
has been made to trace the reasons behind the growth
of insurgency in the North-East India as a whole.
(i) Economic, Cultural, Social and
Political Insecurity among the People: Feelings
of insecurity among the different classes of people
in NEI is one of the prime reasons for the problem
of insurgency. However, the feelings of insecurity
can be of four different types. All these forms of
insecurity whether Economic, Social or Cultural
or Political do not matter, but increase of fear
among the people about their cheers survival.
41 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
always believed that NEI is a land of jungles and
insurgencies. The people from mainland and the
central government always neglect the region. The
insurgency movement in Mizoram started because
of the neglect of the central government during the
great Famine of Mizoram during 1960’s. More than
half of the tea production, 60 percent of the
plywood (till the ban of felling tree came) and a
substantial portion of oil and natural gas have been
produced in the region but not even a tiny portion
of the profit is re-invested in the region. Agriculture
of the region is grossly underdeveloped and
therefore it will have to import essential goods
amounting to Rs. 3,500 Crore annually. The
infrastructure of the region is very bad and the steps
taken by the Central Government is not up to the
mark. It is interesting to observe that only one state
capital of the region is covered by railway network.
Except the Guwahati airport, the other airports have
very minimum facilities. Moreover, vital sectors
of the region, such as education, health care, power,
etc. are still in primitive state. In fact, despite of
having vast natural resources, forest, hydro-
electricity, oil & gas, coal, limestone, uranium,
extremely rich bio-diversity, the region stands
much below the national average as a whole in
terms of all development indices (e.g. Per Capita
Income, Human Development Index etc.). Thus
there is no improvement in the socio-economic life
of the people. The region is becoming land of
colonial exploitation for the prosperity of the
others. All these have made the people of North
East India dissatisfied, frustrated, angry, hopeless,
rudderless, jealous and feeling of widespread
neglect of Centre thereby discontent and
insurgency. Shukla Commission rightly pointed out
that the North Eastern region cannot be treated
merely as a resource region, market dumps and
transit yard.
(iv) Negligence of National Media: The
mass media also always neglect the region. They
failed to cover the problems, needs, aspirations of
the people of the region. When the people of North
East need some help from the national media, they
failed to get that and thereby people of the region
felt that they are being neglected. This also leads
to discontents and insurgency.
(v) Geographical and Cultural Isolation:
This is another reason for the emergence of
discontent thereby insurgency in the region. The
NEI is not only geographically isolated but also
culturally isolated from the rest of the country and
thus both intensified the extent of insurgency which
is already in the valley. Moreover, the tribal person
had been isolated by geography, the rugged terrain
and environment, and later by political policy.
7
Inner line was drawn to preclude the tribal raids in
the plains. The tribal people were kept unawake.
But, once they wakened they started to differentiate
themselves with others and wanted to preserve their
identity and all these efforts are however not bad.
But political, cultural, social and identity
consciousness lead to ethnic strife among the
different tribes of the region basically over the
ownership of land, preservation of culture, language
etc., thereby discontent and insurgency. Karbi-Kuki
conflicts, Bodo movement are such examples.
(vi) Inequalities within and outside NE
India: Both forms of inequality, within the
communities of NEI and with the rest of the states
also contribute to the problem of insurgency.
Inequalities within the communities lead to ethnic
strife within the communities of the region that
caused increasing discontent and ultimately
insurgency problem. In Assam itself, many
insurgent organizations have grown up basically
due to economic backwardness of their community,
e.g., Adibasi Tiger Force, Birsa Commando Force,
Gorkha Tiger Force, Dima Halong Dauga,
Kamatapur Liberation Army, etc. Violence of
Karbi-Anglong between Kuki and Karbi regarding
ownership of land is known to all. Thus, economic
inequalities within the communities lead to
discontentment and strife among themselves and
thereby create the problem of insurgency. Similarly,
inequalities in income and wealth of a particular
region to the rest of the country also increase the
intolerance among the people lead to violence and
results in insurgency. However, many economists
believe that some sort of income inequalities is
inevitable in the initial stages of development.
Muller & Seligson concluded that income
inequality is responsible for violence and that
slowed down the growth.
8
Many others also believe
that inequality in the distribution of land and/or
lack of ownership (landlessness) to be among the
/ 42
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
more fundamental economic preconditions of
insurgency and revolution.
The extent of income inequalities of the
region can be shown with the help of the Table 2
given below as the distribution of households by
income profile reflects income inequalities among
state. Moreover the GDP growth rate on the North-
Eastern states is also very poor in comparison to
the national average. Table 3 clearly indicates the
growth rate of the North-Eastern States.
violence in people’s lives such as militarization,
structural violence of racial and economic
injustices, violence against women etc. A positive
peace initiative that addresses wider socio-political
issues may here lead to the reduction of all forms
of violences. Without that any such initiative which
is blind to the dynamics of domination, or power
over “the other” will be fragile based on injustice
and unable to bring an end to the conflicts that are
inevitable in militaristic societies.
12
As the anti-state
activities of the terrorist/insurgent groups creates
lots of problem to the people of North-East India,
so under such circumstances there is the need of
some positive initiative to have some desired
solution to the problem of insurgency and to bring
peace and stability to the region. The noble
initiatives may be called as Peace Talk to have a
solution to the demands raised by the various
terrorist/insurgent groups of the region. Several
initiatives have been carried out by various
Governmental as well Non-Governmental
Organizations for concluding a peace treaty
between the Terrorist/
Insurgent groups with the
Central and State
Government.
Peace and Development:
Peace and development are
very closely associated
with each other, because
without peace we cannot
expect or think of proper
development of a Nation
States. As it has been
realized by all that without
having a peaceful situation any government cannot
implement the development plans and programmes
for the development of the country as a whole.
Without having a stable and peaceful situation, the
government cannot stay in power for a long period
or they may face lots of problem in running the
administration of the state/country.
As a Third World developing Country, India
got her independence in 1947 on 15 August from
British Imperialism. After 63 years of independence,
India is facing number of problems which resulted
in multiple problems to India as a whole. The issue
of peace and development are inter-related to each
State/Country Rich Middle Poor
income
Assam 6.59 35.67 57.74
Manipur 6.16 49.87 43.97
Meghalaya 4.64 46.88 48.48
West Bengal 5.58 40.97 53.44
India 10.06 54.03 35.91
Table: 2
Income Inequalities Among the States
(i) Alienation: Alienation and isolation from the
national mainstream are two important factors
responsible for the birth and growth of conflicts in
North-East India. It is basically due to the failure
to recognize the peculiar historical, social and
cultural factors of each area in the region with the
common effect of isolation.
11
Meaning of Peace: The definition of peace as an
end of armed conflict or as absence of war like
situation is a partial definition. Absence of war
situation is not enough condition to ensure non-
occurrence of armed conflict. The important step
for peace is to end and question all forms of
State Eight Ninth Tenth Plan Eleventh Plan
Plan Plan Target Achievement
(preliminary)
Arunachal 5.1 4.4 8.0 5.6 6.4
Assam 2.8 2.1 6.2 6.1 6.5
Manipur 4.6 6.4 6.5 5.8 5.9
Meghalaya 3.8 6.2 6.3 - 7.3
Mizoram - - 5.3 - 7.1
Nagaland 8.9 2.6 5.6 - 9.3
Sikkim 5.3 8.3 7.9 7.7 6.7
Tripura 6.6 7.4 7.3 - 6.9
India 6.7 5.3 8.0 7.2 9.0
Table: 3
GDP Growth Rates in North-East India
43 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
other in many ways, as instability or unrest is an
opposite situation of peace where proper
development or desired development cannot be
achieved at all. Therefore, it is very essential to have
a peaceful situation in the state to attain the desired
goals fixed by the planners of the country. The North-
Eastern region of India is a region, which is having
different problems, and one of the major problems
of the region is insurgency and terrorism for which
peace of the region is being very much hampered
and the process of development becomes stagnant
and which indirectly helps to the anti-democratic
practices.
Peace Process: The term Peace Process means the
initiative through which peace talks is conducted. It
may be initiated from the governmental side or from
the terrorist/insurgent groups, or sometimes any
individual or group of individuals come forward to
initiate the negotiation between the State and the
insurgent groups. It’s a continuous process and may
last for several years. When the terrorist/insurgent
groups accept the proposal for a peace treaty and
ceasefire has to be announced by both the sides.
Though a number of civil society organizations and
government directed peace initiatives have been
undertaken yet peace can not be seen in the region.
There are number of causes which had hampered
the whole process and initiatives of peace.
Two simultaneous, but very different kind of
Peace Process are discernible in India’s North East.
On the one hand are those in which the Government
in involved in talks with any of the insurgent groups
in the region. The Goal of such talks is primarily
to bridge the conflicting interest of the parties
involved. They may culminate in the signing of
accords. On the other hand Peace Process that are
active mostly at the local level and make
coexistence of diverse bodies of people possible-
notwithstanding the conflict that take place at the
state or regional level. Peace is accordingly
negotiated by groups and communities within the
neighbourhoods and localities almost on an
everyday basis. These may be called “official” and
“unofficial” peace process respectively.
13
Official and Unofficial Peace Process also reflect
two different ways of addressing conflicts and of
defining the role that civil society groups and
initiatives play in them. Official Peace Process
addresses conflict by reducing them to the competing
interests of the parties involved. The State and the
Insurgent Groups are thus taken as two key players
and peace in always defined as some form of a balance
of power that obtains between them. The task of such
peace groups in this process- for example, that of the
Naga People’s Conventions (PNC), Peace Mission
(PM), the People’s Consultative Groups (PCG) and
People’s Committee for Peace Initiative (PCPI) - is
to make the first move in situation of conflict, bring
the warring parties to negotiating table, set forth
potentially agreeable ceasefire terms, and offer
alternative ways of settling conflicts. The purpose of
the civil society groups in the unofficial peace process
is to constantly negotiate across the ethnic divide that
otherwise hardens whenever conflict at the micro-level
breaks out, and to make it possible for rivalling
communities to live and co-exist within the same
village, locality, or neighbourhood without indulging
in violation, arson, and bloodshed between them. This
is predicated on the assumption that living within the
immediate society involves compromises at almost
every step and the resolution of local conflicts.
Organisations such as the Mothers Union of
Meghalaya, the Naga Mothers Association (NMA),
and Naga Women’s Union and Meira Paibis in
Manipur work mainly as large conglomerates of the
locally based bodies representing the interest of
respective villages, localities and neighbourhoods.14
State Level Convention in Assam was formed in
Guwahati on 24
th
April 2010 to have a dialogue
between the Centre, State Government and ULFA
which can also be categorized among the Unofficial
Peace Process of Assam. Dr. Hiren Gohain and Dr.
Indira Goswami are some of the eminent facilitator
groups of the State Level Convention of Assam
(Sanmilita Jatiya Abhibartan).
15
Media and the Peace Process: Media has always
been a part of our life. In fact, it is one of the best
means of getting information in today’s world.
However, in the era of globalization the role of media
has become more pronounced and more responsible
to the people at large. The media is having an
immense role in farming adequate environment for
peace process of any ongoing conflict. With the
increasing global importance to rising crime,
violence, anti-societal elements, corruption, misuse
of power, violation of human rights, insurgency,
/ 44
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
terrorism etc. in state, national and international
level, which is a matter of concern for every peace
loving society, where the role of media cannot be
ignored. In such a hostile environment, the media
can play a responsible mediator to create an
environment for the conflict resolution.
Generally media has been classified into three
categories-
Print Media : News Paper, Magazines,
Periodicals, Books, Journals etc.
Audio Media : Community Radio, F.M. etc.
Audio-Visual Media : T.V, News Channels,
Cinema, Documentary, Internet etc.
“Responsible media can be seen as an
important part of the natural immune system of
the body politics, which should be mobilized to
prevent conflict and to help resolve the factor which
gives rise to conflict”.
16
The Responsible Media
should inspire all (common people) to make
opinions and decisions on development, human
rights, in a society. Thus, responsible media can
serve to disseminate information about peace and
war. They can improve knowledge and shape,
perception and attitudes about a verity of subjects,
they can influence peace issues, and behaviour of
all directly or indirectly associated common people
with the ongoing conflict.
The need to study the media in a critical and
coherent way has become increasingly obvious in
recent years, as they have come to occupy a central
position in our culture and political life. Virtually
all that we know, or think that we know, about the
world beyond our immediate experience comes to
us through the media. The fact that the media have
remained outside the school curriculum at the same
time as they have come to dominate so many aspect
of our society, and indeed, our individual
consciousness, is a tribute to their power to
influence us on levels of which we are unaware. It
is not surprising then, that we have come to study
the media; it is only surprising that it has taken us
so long to start.
17
In the changing time and
circumstances every individual must have to be
media literate or he/she must have the capability
to analyze the various media reporting. Media
literacy is the ability to shift through and analyze
the messages that inform, entertain and sell to us
every day. There for we must be media literate.
Media literacy is the process of accessing,
analysis, evaluating and creating massages in a
wide variety of media modes and forms. It uses an
inquiry based institutional model that encourages
people to ask questions about what they watch, see
and read.
18
According to Wally Bowen, “Media-
literacy seeks to empower citizens and to transform
their passive relationship to media into an active
critical engagement- capable of challenging the
traditions and structures of a privatized,
commercial media culture, and finding new
avenues of citizen speech and discourse”.
19
Impact/Influence of Media on the Peace Process:
Generally, the media presents the report on any peace
process or conflict resolution measures adopted by
the government as well as from the individual
initiative or from the rebellion groups. When the
media reports any on going peace process then it
influences the Peace Process as a whole or direct or
indirect impact can be seen on the Peace Process.
The influence/impact of media on the Peace Process
may be found in the following aspects :
Firstly, the media helps in defining the political
atmosphere in which the peace process takes place.
Second, the media has an active influence on
the strategy and behaviour of the stakeholders to
the conflict.
Third, the media has an important influence
on the nature of debate about a peace process.
Fourth, the media can buttress or weaken
public legitimacy of the stakeholder’s involvement
in the peace process.
21
Role of Media in the Peace Process of North-
East India: In order to resolve any ongoing conflict
whether it is at a state level, national level or
international level the role of media and its time-
to-time reporting cannot be ignored. Media Reports
can bring up the necessary environment to hold
conflict resolution process in a cogitative manner.
These reports also make other stakeholders aware
about the time-to-time developments in peace
resolution process, which is directly or indirectly
related to the development of the country as a
whole. In the peace process, the role of the media
can be regarded as one of the fundamental pillars
in order to bring the consensus out of the conflicts.
During an on-going violent conflict the role
of responsible media are more circumscribed, but
45 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
may include providing necessary channels for
dialogue in crisis situation; facilitating and mediating
in conflict situation; mobilizing and providing
essential social services and humanitarian support.
21
The very role of responsible media has to be
played by the media print or audio or visual media
operating in North-East India as well as the
National Media and the International Media to
resolve the conflict in the states of India. It is well
assumed that the media operating throughout the
country playing an important role by disseminating
information to the people at the cost of heavy
trouble. Furthermore news channels are providing
and reporting day-to-day information to the people
on the basis of 24X7 even in regional languages to
reach all the sections of the greater society of North-
East India and India as a whole.
For example the Mass Media of Assam has
been reporting the various issues relating to the on-
going Peace Process of ULFA (United Liberation
Front of Assam) and the Govt. of Assam & Govt. of
India. There is a situation where we don’t have any
photograph of the top ULFA leaders who are now
in jail. We have never heard the voices of these
leaders who had created a great tension for the
security forces as well as to the Government Officials
of State/Central Government. Even one step ahead
where the ULFA cadres had never shown the
Commander-In-Chief, Sri Paresh Baruah, Chairman
of ULFA, Sri Arobind Rajkhowa or the ULFA top
leaders like Sri Raju Baruah, Sri Sacha Choudhury,
Sri Chitraban Hazarika etc. Moreover we have no
idea about the life style of the underground militants.
But due to the active and responsible role that played
by the mass media of the North-East India has
brought them more closer to the people after a long
struggle for their demands. No doubt still we are in
a state of uncertainty whether the on-going peace
process of Assam and the other states of India could
bring a desired peace to these states as it requires
both side initiatives for a peace treaty. While
discussing the role of media in representation of
different issues create different impression on the
viewers through their ‘NEWS’ reporting, which can
be discussed in the following way :
1. Different persons interprets messages
differently: Information percolated through mass
media is meant for the common people. These
messages can be interpreted differently by
different persons according to their level of
education, knowledge, analyses ability, prior
experience etc.
2. Medium of information dissemination: Each
medium of information has its own way of
working, style, language, technologies, codes,
convention and principles. Messages can be
percolated through any of the mass media
medium, but care is to be taken that the very
essence of the message remains intact.
3. Media Content: The content of media report is
based on the ideas, thoughts, beliefs and
perceptions of the reporter, editor or publisher.
While framing media reports utmost care is
necessary to be taken of as it can have significant
impact over the society. Every media message
holds a value message that can affect differently
to different persons according to the level of the
recipients.
4. Commercialization of Media: Mass media is
not only working for information
dissemination, but also has to earn revenue to
meet day to day expenses for providing such
information of the various sources of
information dissemination, each sources used
to generate revenue from advertising,
publishing, classifieds etc.
5. Impression of Media Messages: According to
Marshall Mcluhan, “The medium is the
message”. Different kinds of media might report
the same event but create different impression.
Some medium of message can articulate vital
events or messages as less important news, where
as sometimes very less important matters are
presented with a significant importance. The
medium of information can leave significant
impression in the minds of receiver from the way
he has received the message.
6. Social and Political Implication: A media
message leaves ample scope to affect social and
political scenario of a society. For instance, for
last few years, Government of India (GOI) is
taking help of mass media to make local people
aware to eradicate polio from India and to make
India a polio free nation by the stipulated
period. Such kind of promotional advertisement
can bring radical change to the whole economy.
/ 46
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
1. http://www.neportal.org/northeastfiles.
2. Bhaumik. Subir, “Negotiating Access: North East India”,
Refugee Survey Quarterly 19, no.2 (2000)
3. Madhab Jayanta, “North East and the Eleventh Plan” Yojana,
A Development monthly, December 2007, pp.8-9
4. Das. Samir Kr, “Conflict and Peace in India’s North East: The
Role of Civil Society”, Policy Studies 42, p.1.
5. Rajkhowa, J.P. “Peace and Development” in Yojana, Decem-
ber 2007, Vol 51 pp.13.
6. satp.org/satportgpt/countries/India, last updated on 12
th
De-
cember 2010 (visited on 23
rd
December 2010)
7. Verghese, B.G.: “India’s North-East Resurgent Ethnicity, In-
surgency, Governance, Development”, Konark Publishers Pvt.
Ltd. 2004
8. Muller & Seligson : Inequality and Insurgency, American
Political Science Review, Vol. 81, no. 2 (1987)
9. Market Skyline 2006
10. Source: Yojana, December 2007
11. Shekatkar.D.R, Resolving Conflict in NE Perspectives and
Response, in Peace Initiative a North East India Perspec-
tive, Ed. By Thomas Vattathara & Elizabeth George, Pub-
lished by Don Bosco Institute, Joypur, Guwahati, 04, Assam,
2004, pp-42-56
12. Coomarswamy Radhika, Dirukshi Fonseka, 2004.
13. Das. Samir. Kr., ibid. op.cit.
14. Das. Samir Kr., ibid. op.cit.
15. Gohain. Heren, “Working for Peace in Assam”, Economy
and Political Weekly, June 26, 2010, Vol. XLV, No. 26& 27,
p.4
16. Sarup Kamala, “Responsible Media and Peace Process”,
http:// bangaladesh-web.com/view.
17. http://www.aml.ca/home
REFERENCES :
7. Tendency to Influence stakeholders’
behaviour: In the end, information is presented
by various mass media holds a tendency to
influence the behaviour of various
stakeholders.
22
Negative Aspects of Media: Apart from positive
view of media, the negative aspect of media cannot
be denied. Media is like a twin blade sword, which
is having a tremendous potentiality to damage both
the sides of it, if the user does not use it properly.
1. Political Influence: It is very difficult to
prove the political influence over the media,
but the possibility of such occurring cannot
be ignored.
2. Commercialization of Mass Media: Media
is holding an influential position in the minds
of the common people. With the increasing
global competition in every sector, the mass
media is also not away from the track. In
order to survive in intense competition
sometimes the activities of mass media
become commercialized, which holds a
tendency to leave impact over the society.
3. Doubt over the fundamentals of
Journalism: The media should work
responsibly towards presenting reports.
Any act to attract higher revenues or fame
by presenting information in an
irresponsible manner can be dangerous to
the whole society. The receiver of the
messages interprets and analyses the reports
presented by media and react according to
their level of understanding.
Conclusion: The Media is a pivotal catalyst in the
success of the peace process, within an enabling
atmosphere as well as in the development process
of a State. Animating its involvement should be a
realization that citizens depend on the media for
information on the peace process. The relationship
between the stakeholders to the conflict, the
political and the public is a symbolic one, each
moulding the other, in a continuum that contains
within the key to conflict transformation as well
as the seeds of conflict formation.
23
It is imperative
that the importance of media in day-to-day life of
the common people cannot be denied. It is the
process of binding the news to the footsteps of
citizens. The media should try to behave
responsibly so that the environment prevailing in
the society is not going to be changed for the worst.
An active and responsible media is needed
for leading the social movement because a strong
and responsible media is the foundation of
democratic, stable, peaceful and developed
society.
24
The conflict situation in North-East India is a
politico-military phenomenon. Therefore, the need is
to formulate a multi disciplinary option comprising
the politico-socio-economic-military fronts. The use
of force on its own will not solve the problem. The
political socio-economic initiatives would be the only
alternative to resolve the conflict. While the
governments both as States and as National level must
respond appropriately to address the issues, it is the
will and effort of the people of North East, which can
resolve the conflict. The initiative of the people on
the part of Central Government only will not be
enough, the State Governments and the people must
decide as to how long they would like to suffer and
remain in a state of unrest, violence, insecurity and
underdevelopment.
25

(Contd. on Page56)
47 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
A
t the age when other children use to go
to school, play happily in the playground,
be busy with other childish activities, Nikhil
is busy as a helping hand to a roadside eatery
alongside Shyam Bazar, Kolkata. His works
include collecting used dishes, washing them
and arranging them for further use, arranging
water, helping the cook, Animesh, his co-
worker who of course, might be of the age in
which other children study at Class IX or X.
Yes, this is not only the story of Nikhil
and Animesh. Thousands, in fact tens and
hundreds of thousands of such children are
there throughout the length and breadth of the
country. Not only deprived from the basic
necessities in life, these unfortunate children
have to lead a very hard and miserable life.
According to a study conducted by
International Labour Organisation, the number
of children in India engaged as child labour
between the age group of 5 – 14 years is
estimated around 12.6 million. Though Child
labour is banned in India, the practical scenario
is exactly the opposite. These children can be
very commonly seen engaged as domestic
labour in middle class families, in cheap
restaurants and roadside eateries, garages, brick
fields, firework factories or even in many other
small businesses. The bosses use to engage
them as the remuneration and other facilities
like food and accommodation given to them
prove to be very cheap as compared to an adult
employee. Moreover they can be exploited more
compared to an adult employee.
Now, the question arises – why such a huge
number of children get engaged as Child labour?
A numerous number of factors work behind the
engagement of children as labour. Some of them
include – parental poverty, socio-economic
conditions, high rate of adult unemployment,
trafficking of children and migration (both across
the border and internal), lack of access to basic
education etc.
Around 20% of total child labour forces in
India are engaged as domestic labour. Around 2
million children in India work in hazardous
industries like brick fields, fire cracker industries,
glassware production etc. Child trafficking is
another major contributor to child labour in india.
Around 12000 – 50000 children and women are
being illegally trafficked in India every year from
the neighbouring countries. Apart from these, the
number of internal trafficking is numerous.
For Nikhil and Animesh, the day starts with
getting up early at 4.30 am. Last night they slept
on the Varandah of a Cinema Theater in Shyam
Bazar. This verandah is their accommodation
provided by the owner of the eatery in a condition
that the same can be used from 11pm to 5am. For
the natural activities in the morning, they have to
rush to a nearby vat of Kolkata Municipal
Corporation. However place changes depending
upon the crowd of the same age already in waiting.
Then a Bidi, a relaxing smoke being shared by
Anirban Ghosh
/ 48
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
*The Character of Animesh and Nikhil are fictitious and are based on my conversation with a child on the
way to Howrah from Chittaranjan a few weeks ago.
both, gives a freshness of mind.
The situation of child labour in India is
desperate. The children engaged in different types
of jobs are having different working hours and
pattern. For example, a child engaged in brick fields
has to work for more than 10 hrs each day under
any circumstances. Their work starts early in the
morning at around 7.30 – 8 am and have to work
tirelessly upto sunset. Again the children engaged
in roadside eateries and dhabas have to work upto
as late as 10 pm, though they start working at
around 9.30-10 am in the morning against which
they are given a little remuneration, meal for two
times and a place to sleep at night, that is too either
in their workplace or nearby footpath.
Around 6.30, it is the time to rush to office.
To them, it is the good old eatery of Manik, the
boss. For Nikhil work starts with sweeping the
surroundings of the eatery, washing it.
Meanwhile, the boss arrives and his day at office
starts with some hard words to both the boys. The
boys unload all the equipments from the
Rickshaw van, that already arrived. Then
arrangement for preparing the dishes, serving it,
other works related to this, all are handled by these
two-boy-army. No Customer time (5mins approx)
is the lunch time and the eatery closing time is
the dinner time. Menu for lunch is three – four
roties each with a plate of the cheapest-of-all-
dishes and the menu for dinner is whatever is left
unsold, though the quantity is not unlimited.
Finally the office is over around 9.30-10.00 pm.
There are other effects of this social evil as
well. Many of the children engaged in child labours
are often seen to become trapped in spider web of
crime. Lack of education, and proper supervision
by guardians lead this children often to the world
of crime. Theft, pick-pocketing are some other
activities that these children are seen to be engaged.
Consumption and trafficking of narcotics have
become common phenomenon by this children.
On November 21, 2005, India’s biggest ever
raid for child labour rescue was conducted in the
eastern New Delhi by NGO Activist and social
worker Junned Khan in association with the Labour
Department and NGO Pratham. As a result 480
children, engaged in over 100 embroidery factories
at the slums of Seelampur, New Delhi, were
rescued.This rescue operation opened the eyes of
the world to the threat of child labour operating right
under the nose of the largest democracy in the whole
world.
It is entertainment time for Animesh and
Nikhil. Exchange of Hard Slangs with fellow
children like them, a competition of throwing
stones towards the glow-signs of nearby buildings
are best entertainment medium. In between, a bidi
or two, being shared by the boys. Some of them
even have raised the “art of pick pocketing” to a
new height. The art is being shared by all of them.
Finally when the last show is over, this is the time
to practice the newly learned art. Sometimes it is
good earning. Sometimes hardluck, followed by
kicks and slaps thoroughly. Some unlucky fellows
reache upto the police station. Bad luck for them.
Around 12.30, it is sleeping time and the time for
a big fight, fight for the best place available. Best
is the area just under the fans and then the
surroundings. The weakest and the new comers
have the corners reserved for them.
A research conducted in 1997 said that over
40000 children were employed in the famous silk
weaving industry of Kanchipuram in Tamilnadu.
This included children who were bonded labourers
to loom owners. However, Rural Institute for
Development Education undertook many activities
to improve the situation of these children. As a
result of all these measures, the number of children
has gone down to less that 4000 by 2007.
Engagement of children in various hazardous
businesses do not only show the helplessness of
the law enforcement agencies to curb it but also
finger the ill attitude of the society as a whole. It is
said that unless and until the society is vigilant
enough the efforts of law enforcing agencies will
not yield enough results. So, Next time you come
across a child labour or think of engaging a child
for domestic help. Please think twice!!
(The author is an alumni of Tinsukia College and now works at Chittaranjan Loco Works, West Bengal.
For more articles on Environmental Issues, please logon at his site :
http://sites.google.com/site/planetgreenactnow & http://blogofanirban.blogspot.com)
49 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
W
omen are increasingly willing to get
empowered and contribute in the nation
building work. The increasing role played by the
women folk is also a welcoming fact. Women
empowerment stands for getting power for critical
decision making including finance. There is no
doubt of the fact that women empowerment has
emerged as a crucial phenomenon in the roadmap
of the national development. The Bill, Women
Reservation is the very instance of such
development. The question therefore comes in
mind is, why this reservation – (a) Is it because
they are not socially safe ? (b) If it is so, how
such menacing factors can be removed ? The
key issues in women empowerment, which
need due attention are awareness, social
support, education and publicity in
positive direction.
Since women population is
almost half of the country’s
population, they are the ‘Better
half’ of the society and hence needs
equal growth and development in
all respects. Although officially
women are at par with men but the
truth is otherwise. The ‘low
literacy rate’ which is about 40
plus percent at present against 60
plus percent to men and ‘low
working women’ at 30 plus percent
against 55 plus percent men clearly
confirms their growth position in the
society compared to men
2
. Frankly
speaking our socio cultural traditions and
mind setups have been directly arresting
the women to be there, within four walls.
Considering the low level of
women empowerment, we urge
upon the society to come forward
with certain positive action plan
predominantly taken up by some women NGOs
3
.
Our society, therefore, must come ahead with the
following definite steps to see women as social
partner :
a] Compulsory education for women has to
be given first preference.
b] Bonus – scheme, including financial
support, be implemented for women.
c] Women mobility be increased at a faster
rate.
d] Women must learn to protect themselves
under critical situation.
e] Family ties be
developed
t o
look
after
the children
jointly.
f] Advantageous working hours
may be arranged for working women, if
needed.
g] Division of work at home may come up
purposively.
Dr. B. K. Sen
/ 50
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
I
ntroduction : Violence against women
encompasses physical, sexual and
psychological violence. It takes place across
the world. Violence against women is more
than usual at the centre of attention today
especially since countries across the world are
beginning to advocate human rights within the
family. As the evil of family is being pulled off,
Rashmi Duttta
Baikuntha Das
h] Housewives be given financial
responsibility along with financial
management.
i] Women be empowered largely with
decision making right and power.
j] Certain category of works be specially
resolved for women, such as primary and
middle school teaching, salesmanship,
tailoring etc.
k] Women be trained with managerial skill
having different Women Cells in different
organisations and NGOs.
l] Women be trained with problem solving
techniques on war footing.
In certain cases, infact the sacrifice of men
cannot be denied in empowering the women.
However, women must not live at anybody’s
mercy, rather they should live at their own footings
as ‘social partner’. It is also the responsibility of
the society
4
, the other partner in particular, to pull
REFERENCE:
1) The Assam Trubune, Guwahati, 10
th
March, 2010
2) Khanka, S.S; S. Chand, New Delhi, 2004. P. 18-20
3) Majumder, A; Mimeograph, A.U, 1998-99
4) Banerjee, S; Women Empowerment, Seminar Abstract,
Digboi College, 30-31, Oct 2009
5) University News, Various issues, New Delhi, 2009-10.
(The author is Principal of Tinsukia Commerce College)
them out of the category ‘Abla’– the weakest
partner of the society as said.
Qualitatively women are more patience
bearing and good marketeer of products and
services compared to men. If we really want to see
women empowerment, we should begin on critical
issues. Only Govt. efforts cannot empower women,
however, house to house social effort is a must,
besides the formation of Women Club, Women
School, Women Market, Women Training Centre
and so on for faster growth and development of
women as social partner
5
.
To conclude, the ‘Better half’ of the society,
i. e., women must not live at the mercy of ‘Other
half’ of the society. Rather they should come
forward and act as social partner which is the only
alternative-behind women empowerment. Thus
women can become a good social partner to men
having equally empowered to the over all growth
and development of the country.
51 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
large number of incidences of violence against
women are being reported in developed as well as
in developing countries.
The Declaration on the Elimination of All
forms of Discrimination Against Women adopted
by the United Nations, defined violence against
women, under article 1 as ‘‘an act of gender based
violence that results in, or is likely to result in,
physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering
to women, threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary
deprivation of liberty, whether occuring in public
or in private’’ (United Nations 1993). Recognising
it as a fundamental abuse of women’s human rights,
it defined such violence as encompassing but not
limited to physical, sexual and psychological
occurring in the family, including battering, sexual
abuse of female children in the household, dowry
related violence, martial rape, female genital
mutilation and other tradition practices harmful to
women, non- spousal violence against women are
devastating, including life-long emotional distress,
mental health issues and poor reproductive health.
Besides these, the effect might extend to the future
generation as children who see violence, or are
victims themselves often suffer lasting
psychological damage.
Violence is not simply aggression or
inquiry committed by one individual against
another, it is more precisely, the abuse of power.
When this abuse of power occurs within the power
dynamics of a family, it is addressed as domestic
violence. Available data suggest that nearly one in
four women experiences sexual violence by an
intimate partner in their lifetime, though the
number of sexual abuse and aggression in the
United States is comparatively higher. The United
States has not ratified the committee on the
Elimination of Discrimination against women
(CEDAW) yet. According to state statistics, about
18% of women are being sexually abused there
(UN 2000). The condition in other developed
countries is no better. The UN Rapporteur on
violence against women regretted that countries
such as Denmark, Germany, Spain, Switzerland
and UK among others could not provide accurate
documentation and statistics domestic violence
(UN 1999).
In a recent comprehensive and international
study on interviews of nearly 25,000 women at 15
sites and 10 countries, researchers from World
Health Organisation presented some significant
data on domestic violence. The respondents were
from the countries of Ethiopia, Peru, Bangladesh,
Tanzania, Serbia, Thailand, Namibia, Brazil,
Montegro and Japan. The rates of partner violence
ranged from a low 15% in Yokohame, Japan, to a
high of 71% in rural Ethiopia. At six of the sites at
least 50% of women said that they had been
subjected to moderate or serve violence at home
at some point. At 13 sites, more than a quarter of
all women said they had suffered domestic
violence. This is alarming considering the fact that
most partner abuse is hidden and only a faction is
reported to authorities. (The Times of India, 2004)
Domestic Violence in India : Women experience
violence throughout their life cycles, across
regions, religious, communities and classes. In
Indian context it takes the form of sex-selective
abortions, female infanticide, forced pregnancy,
dowry related violence, mass violence and rapes
during riots and other conflict situation honour
killing etc. Of all the forms of violence faced by
women, domestic violence remains one of the least
disused in public sphere. As mentioned earlier,
violence that takes place in a personal space is very
difficult to talk about, especially in the Indian
socio-cultural context.
In India, the specific data on domestic
violence is sporadic and limited. Yet, there are
indications that reports of violence against women
are being recorded in large numbers than before.
In 1998 alone the total number of reported crimes
against women which among others include cases
of dowry deaths, rape, molestation and cases
booked under Dowry Prohibition Act (1986)
throughout the country, compared to the previous
year, increased by an alarming number of 10,210.
No state or union territory could be singled out for
showing a downward trend in the number of crimes
against women (NCRB, India 1998)
Violence against women continues
unabated. A total number of 1,55,553 crimes
against women were reported in the country during
2005 compared to 1,54,333 in the preceding year.
It was found that it increased of 0.8 percent.
According to the latest National Crime Records
/ 52
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
Bureau 2007, a total of 1,85,312 incidents of crime
against women (both under IPC and Special and
Local laws) were reported in country during 2007.
The total numbers of sexual harassment cases
were 10,970 in 2007. The total number of cases
pertaining to cruetly by husband and relatives was
75,930. There 61 cases importation of girls.
Altogether there were 38,734 cases of molestation
in 2007.
The number of rape cases has increased by
nearly ten fold from 2487 in 1953 to 20737 in 2007.
Young girls also become victims of child abuse at
the hands of their closest male relatives, which they
are unable to protest. There has been an alarming
increase in the rate of suicides too. Reports on
accidental deaths and suicides show that ‘‘family
problems’’, love affairs and dowry disputes
together contributed to around 30 percent of total
suicides in the country. Also in Assam the rate of
domestic violence is 37.5 percent.
Several measures have been taken by
women’s movenments in India since the past few
decades to prevent the domestic violence. The
Domestic Violence Act of 2005, is the result of a
decade long campaign by women’s groups, social
and legal bodies and NGOs for a civil law against
domestic violence. Domestic violence can be
prevented if we have appropriate legislation,
mechanisms to punish offenders and shelter homes
and also they are complemented with social
awarness against these violations. It is important
to focus not only on violation after it has been
committed, but also to address violence prevention.
Domestic Violence and Patriarchy : In patriarchy,
home is considered an unquestionable authority of
the male head of the household. Thus, acts of
violence against other members of the household,
whether women or children are perceived as normal
for maintaining the role of authority within the
family. The social construction of male indentity
and masculinity is fundamental to understanding
the problem of domestic violence. We made an
attempt to make girls and women aware of the
politics of patriarchy and their role in contributing
to its conception and thereby helping them to move
away from violence gender education and training.
A shift from the term ‘‘women’’ to ‘‘gender’’
was an important development in understanding
patriarchy and violence against women. It helped
in theorising patriarchy as an ideology and practice
in which both men and women participate.
Explaining what constitute gender and gender
roles, concepts of feminity and masculinity have
helped in understanding the social construction of
patriarchal society. In this concepts we got the basis
knowledge that women are feminine, closer to
nature and irrational and men are masculine, closer
and rational.
Femininities and masculinities are socially
constructed characteristics of gender. Both these
concepts are made up of extremely rigid
stereotypes.
Area of study : We selected Shantipur for our
survey area. Shantipara is a small area consisting
of 20-25 quarters of IOCL officers. Along with
these quarters there are also quarters of domestic
helpers which consists a colony. There are eleven
households in this colony (one from Muslim
community). Occupation wise, the husbands of
these domestic helpers are drivers, rickshaw
pullers, contract labourers and daily wage earners,
The residents fall within the income bracket of Rs.
3000-4000 per month. The resources available in
the location include 4 common sharing toilets. All
boys and girls under 18 are school going children.
All respondents belong to the age group of 25-30.
Aims of the Study : This study aims to increase
women’s involvement in reducing gender-based
violence in the community by forming a collective
of women in the locality.
The build the capacities of youth (both boys
and girls) in the community by providing them
training to prevent to violence against women.
To make the women aware of the
mechanisms of justice delivery system.
To increase practical information and skills
on the procedure of approaching and utilizing
various channel available for the redressal of
grievances i, e. the police, the executive and the
judiciary.
Methodology : The material for the study has been
collected from primary source by interview
schedules. The primary data forming the basis of
study are collected from the survey which was
conducted in shantipara locality of Digboi sub-
division, Tinsukia District.
53 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
Field Assessment and Analysis : Incidence of
gender-based violence is high in poor working class
people.
i) Reasons for Domestic Violence: In the situation
analysis, some issues were identified by the
community members and respondents as important
reasons or factors contributing to the incidence of
domestic violence in the community:
Son Preference Illiteracy
Alcoholism
Unemployment Habitual action and
acceptance of the same
A good majority of women who responded
to queries admitted that their partners abused them
(but gave their version in indirect way). To analyse
the actual situation we confined our study on their
education level, source of income, decision making
power and knowledge about legal rights.
ii) Level of Education : The level of education is
low in case of both male and female. Most of the
women respondents are illiterate except one. Most
of the women had never been to school. The
traditional myths about education and work, which
still continue to influence the education and career
of women, are –
Boys will support the family and girls will
get married.
Due to poverty women will do work instead
of going to school.
iii) Source of Income : Because of low level of
education and literacy rate of women, all the
women are employed in low income category jobs.
The male persons of their family are also employed
in low income category jobs. They consider more
children as an asset (means more children can earn
more income). One respondent reported that due
to son preference by the husband her health was
deteriorated. Many women do not want to report
about their husband directly. By our observation
we have come to the conclusion that most of the
women are abused by their husband. In this survey
work it has been observed that the men in the
community are also governed by a general attitude
that no one has the right to interfere in the private
affairs of their family.
iv) Impact of Socialisation Process through
Internalisation : Domestic violence are not
reported due to the socialization process. From the
childhood a girl is given the knowledge that
husband is all in all in her life. Because of that
most of the women did not want to report on
domestic violence. The participants responded in
the following way – ‘‘this (domestic violence) was
a matter of luck. We have to accept it, after all he
is my husband (how can I go against him)’’. The
above factors were important in understanding
women’s lives and reasons for violence against
women. Socialisation and societal pressures play
an important role due to the fact that the natal
family does not welcome a married women coming
back. Also women fear the loss involved in
breaking the marriage and thus continues to live
with the batterers.
v) Lack of Legal Awareness : The women
respondents are ignorant of the available laws and
provisions. Also they have a fear about the police
and court system. They said that they have no
money to spend for the legal procedure. They are
also ignorant about the procedure of recent
Domestic Violence Act 2005.
Effective Steps for Prevention of Domestic
Violence : Domestic violence need to be prevented
because violence cannot make a healthy
atmosphere in a family. This small unit reflects our
nature of society. There is need to involve all class
of women to fight for domestic violence. Today
activists and academicians alike, are
acknowledging the importance of involving all
classes of women in efforts to combat domestic
violence.
Secondly, it is extremely important to
organized gender - training programme. This is
essential to eliminate gender based violence and
creating an enabling environment for women in
mature into self confident.
Thirdly, a social consensus against violence
can be generated only when all the members of
society are made equal participants in the process
of creating critical consciousness.
Conclusion : In conclusion we can say
that the women (domestic helpers) are poor,
ignorant and suppressed. They have low access
to income generating assets, unorganized way
of work, multiple burdens and are victims of
domestic violence. So, along with researching
and t eachi ng on gender/ women’s i ssues,
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/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
women’s studies centers in the country are
expected to go beyond the academic world and
REFENRENCES :
India (2002) Crime in India, National Crime Records
Bureau, New Delhi.
India (2005) Crime in India, National Crime in India,
National Crime Records Bureau, New Delhi
United Nations (1995) Focus on Women and Violence, Fourth
World Conferences on Women, Beijing.
Young Men Against Domestic Violence - JMI, New Delhi.
The Times of India 7th oct, 2004 - Women face greatest
threat of violence at the home.
Websites :
http//www/who/int/mediacenter/news/realase/2005/pr62/
en/print/htm/
http/www. uniferm/org/gender-issues/violences against
women/facts-figure. php
http:/www. upfpa.org/SWP/SWP97?CHAPTER3/htm=/
violence.
(The authors teaches Political Science in the College)
reach out to different communities across caste,
gender and sexuality.
T
h e
survival
of an increasing
number of people
beyond their traditional
adult roles causes population
ageing. It is an inseparable reality of human
existence and a vital factor in the global
demographic transition. Since the last century,
human civilization has witnessed a silent
revolution, unseen and unheard by many. The
biggest achievement of the last century was
greater longevity that has resulted in an
increasing ageing population worldwide. At the
same time the most critical long term economic
dilemma is rising life expectancy and falling
fertility rate. According to projections by the
UN population division, there will be two
elderly person for every child in the world by
2050 this implies that the aged 60 and above,
which currently constitute less than 20 percent
of the world population, will account for 32
percent of the population by 2050.
Moreover, according to the UN agency,
future fertility levels in most developing
countries is expected to fall below 2.1 children
per women, which is the level needed to ensure
the long-term replacement of population at some
point in the 21
st
century. Thus with higher life
expectancy and lower fertility levels, there will
be more of elderly and less of young people in
the age structure. This changing balance between
the age groups would create multi dimensional
socio economic problems both in developed
(acute manpower shortage, for instance) and
developing countries.
The incredible increase in life expectancy
may be term one of the greatest triumphs of
human civilization. But it has posed on of the
toughest challenges to be met by modern society.
The term ‘‘old ‘‘always related to physical
incapacity, biological deterioration and
Monika Das
55 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
disabilities and psychological failures. A healthy
lifestyle is also required during old age. But in the
Indian context, there exist three different trends that
are seriously threatening the chances of meeting
of such needs. These are a rapidly growing elderly
population, the gradual erosion of the traditional
joint family system and the inability of the
government to sustain the incremental burden of
pension expenses for its own employees.
Population ageing is a worldwide
phenomenon, and India is no exception to the rule.
Census report indicate that the Indian population
has approximately tripled during the last 50 years,
but the number of elderly Indians has increased
more than fourfold.
In order to study the implications of an ageing
population in India, the changing Indian
demographic trends need to be highlighted first.
With this objective, the salient features,
representing the past trends of the Indian
population, are given in the following table:
Indian Demographic Trend:
Table. 1
Changing profile of the Indian population pyramid.
Sources: India economic survey, 2004-05, page
nos. S109 to S113 ; Census of India, 2001, 1991, 1981.
From the above table, it may be noted that the
size of the population is increasing, although the
decadal growth rate is decreasing. Simultaneously,
the number of older person, as well as their
proportion, is gradually increasing. This increase in
the population is driven by two separate forces:
A. a reduction in age – specific mortality
(longer lives)
B. a reduction in the fertility rate (fewer birth)
Higher literacy rate indicates better level of
awareness. A reduction in crude birth rate reduces
the supply of young people, while a decreasing
death rate signifies the increasing number of older
people with a longer life expectancy.
Indian societies are rapidly changing with the
process of urbanization, higher aspiration among
the youth and increasing participation of women
in the workforce. These are the outcome of higher
literacy rate.
Impacts On Economy: Population ageing can
directly affect macroeconomic performance
through both the labour and capital market. It can
also indirectly affect macroeconomic performance
via its impact on public expenditure.
Impact on the labour market: Since independence,
successive governments have favoured the growth
of manufacturing and agriculture sectors, neglecting
service sector. But with the economic liberalization,
the service sector is growing leaps and bound s due
to abundant opportunities. Young talent is drawn to
these areas in search of better prospects.
Consequently, Indian labour markets suffer due to
the lopsided effect evident in the exodus of young
people from manufacturing and agricultural areas
to the service sector.
The Indian population is ageing in line with
the world population and the population of the less
developed regions. But the age distribution structure
of the Indian populace is slowly moving from a
pyramid –shaped to hexagonal one, while the same
is gradually transforming to an inverted pyramid in
more developed countries. Consequently, more
developed region may face shortage of young and
dynamic working people. This fact may help India
export suitable personal to those countries. The
developed countries will be forced to outsource more
work force from India to reduce their social cost.
Another notable trend is that more older Indians are
remaining in the workforce after their official
retirement due to their physical strength. This
increasing in supply of older and experience people
in the labour market may reduce the wages.
Impact on aggregate labour productivity :
Population ageing will reduce the rate of growth (and
ultimately the absolute size) of the working – age
population. If age-specific labour force participation
rates remain at their current levels, the ratio of
inactive to employed people will rise.
1981 1991 2001
Population size 683.33 846.36 1,027
(in million)
Older population 43 57 77
(in million)
Life expectancy 55.5 59.40 65.34
at birth
Infant mortality rate 100 80 63
Crude birth rate --- 29.5 25.0
Crude death rate 43.57 9.8 8.1
Literacy rate % 21.6 52.2 64.84
/ 56
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
The ageing of the population will increase
the number of older workers relative to younger
workers in their skills, trainability, productivity and
reliability, an ageing of the workforce may have
significant economic impact.
Impact on inflation, saving, capital accumulation
: As well as affecting the size of the working
population, ageing will also increased the proportion
of the population that is retired. This could have
important economic effects on inflation, saving and
capital accumulation. Evidence on these issue was
presented by Prof.. Philip Booth (Prof.. of insurance
and risk management, city university business school).
An increasing in the proportion of non
working age will increase demand for goods and
services relative to the ability of the working
population to supply such goods and services, thus
leading to inflationary pressure., However such
pressure for a relative increase in the supply of
consumption goods are likely to be meet by a
reduction in the demand for capital goods.
Increase in the relative size of the retire
population could affect rates of saving, interest,
and capital accumulation. Because it is unclear how
the savings behaviour of older people in the future
will develop.
Fiscal impact : There is an important fiscal angle
to the problem of ageing, as large proportion of
the resources meant for development intimates
will have to be diverted to take care of the needs
of the elderly population. For, as a study done by
Gautam Bhardwaj of the invest Indian economic
foundation (IIEF), A think tank that works on the
pension sector, and ex-UTI chief surrender Dave
estimates providing a pensions cover for just the
civilian employees of the central and state
government adds up to 55 percent of the country’s
GDP. Less than a six of those about to retire in
the next decade are covered by some form of
pension, and only 2 percent of those not working
in government (where pensions are generous) will
be able to fund their retire lives if they cut
expenses by half, according to an All India survey
done by the IIEF.
Social impact: Longer life expectancy and
incremental dependency ratio will possibly strain
the family and the state support system for the older
people. Apart from economic impact, there are
serious social crisis also. With the growth of rural
population, the rural masses are forced to migrate
to the urban areas. These migrants, mostly the
youth, primarily relocate for better earning
opportunities, leaving their elderly parents in the
villages. Moreover, the higher cost of living in
urban areas and the lack of space for all members
of family to reside at the same place are causing
the distingration of the family system. In smaller
families, they are gradually marginalized in the
decision making process.
The population of elder person is increasing
every year and the changing social order is not
always conducive to their well being.
Conclusion: The age wave in the developed
nations is causing a steep decline in the ratio of
workers to retirees. With rising life expectancy and
falling retirement age, the developed nations today
are in economic dilemma. So, it is high time for
India to asses the impact of the forthcoming age
wave. Striking a balance between aspirations of
the young and the rights of the aged members of
society is a difficult task for a nation, particularly
for economies in transition such as India.
(The author teaches Economics in the College)
18. Wikipedia.com.
19. Bowen Wally, “Citizens for Media Literacy”, Asheville, NC,
USA, 96.
20. Hattotowa Sanjana, “ The Role of the Media in Peace Proc-
ess”, 14th World Congress of Environmental Journalists, or-
ganized by Sri Lanka Environmental Journalists Forum
(SLEJF), 27th-31st Oct.2002,Colombo, Sri Lanka.
21. Sarup Kamala; op.cit
(Contd. from Page 46) : Role of Media .....
22. http:/www.alm.ca/home.
23. Hattotowa Sanjana; op.cit. & “An operational Framework
for Media and Peace Building”, Ross Haward, IMPACS.2002.
24. “The Role of Regional and International Media in Peace
Building”, report on Workshop held by the Centre for Con-
flict Resolution (CECORE), 27th June-1st July 2000, Entebbe,
Uganda.
25. Shekatkar, D.B, ibid. op.cit
(Authors are Research Scholar of Dibrugarh University)
57 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
·.· ¤-=¶|-+| – :-==- '=+ =° · -
=šƒ= :·:= :-='··=· :-==+=+ ·'·
=:·ƒ=. ¬· ¬=·. '·· ==·+. =- +
¬'ƒ '·'=r =šƒ=+ '='== :-==-'=:+ ·»
-+· '·== ¬+ ='+=+ =r+:= ·=+ ==|=
'·=·+ ·'= '¤š ='+:= ™'ƒ· ·=·:=· ·=+
='= ¬ƒ s+ ·š+= ·ª š'+·:= '·· = ·
:=··:· ·-·-. :=|'=+·-+ š='·==
¬·+ =·== ¬'=· '·ƒ|·=· š:=|= ·=·:+
'==+ ==='++|=+ '·+:+ ='=·:- ·'·+=
·=:° == =·== š·'= ·'- =’· š'+ ·
:™'=+· === ·|'= + :ƒ='·ƒ= =+== ·°
'==·= š'+·°= ¬+ ¬'=== ·|'==· ·+.
:='=+· ·|'==:= =:= :=='·= ·°== ¬ƒs+
¬·'- ·=+ '·r:š '·:·r= =:+· =·=+
·ª:-=+ :¤== =:= š'+·°= =·'°= ·’:-
:=· :°:+ š++= =·+= :-='·· =:- š'+·'·=
·+· =:=ƒ:+ =·== :-='··=+ =·: ·+·
=· :-='·· =· ·= ··-¬··- ƒ :+°
‹+·· :š+ ™+· =·= =·== š r'-=
:-='··==·:· ·ª =·+= ·|'= =+= ¬+
=·= =+= '=+”= ='+ +:·· === ·=·+
=·:+š+ · = |:-:= :-='·· ==· :· ·ª š'+·:=
š=+ :š-+· :-='··==·· ·'= r'-·:-
™·:= ='r=¬='r=. š+:=š+ ¬'ƒ ‹+·:·+
=·== ='s ·+·
·.. :ƒ=¶| =+t~|t| – =='·= '·r+= :ƒ=+==-
·:·-+ :·r+ ¬+ =+='· = '·r+= r='=·Œ=+
=+ š'++-+ '=·Œ=·· ··+ ¬”·=· ·'=·:= »'=
:=:š+ =-:=· =· ==:·r+ :-===- ¬=·+
:=+· ¬«-:- ¬:· ¬+ ·¬š= =ƒ+ š+:= ·='=
-‚ š= ='+ '== =+=- '=+ š='= :·'-'=-· ···.
r=+ :-='š+- ¬=='+ ¬=·= :ƒ=+ ==:·r:°+
·: ===·| -..... == · ·+:+ ··.-·> ==
š + + ¬+ ··.·«· ·+= ·'·-· ==:·r:°+ r'+°
:=ƒ :·:= '=·.+. ·+·=. :°.+š=+ ¬+
š°+·=· :=+- '=·.+ :=ƒ+ :-===:-:·
·=·:=· :ƒ=+ =+ =+· ¬=·+ :ƒ=+ ==:·r
:-===- š ‹=:= -'··š +. :‹·=. :™+·°.
'='=r=+. :·'·=š+. '·+=·+ ¬'ƒ '=-= =r+'=
:· ¬:=·
..· :=| + | ¶- | º¶ :- -| | ¶= | ~ –
:-='··==··= '·'=r ¬:-r:= '·'=r =·= =·
='+:= ™'ƒ· š ·r '°= ¬:-r=+ = '·‹ :·+:= :ƒ= +
==:·r+ ·== š r'-= :-='·· ==· ·= =-= = :¤·
=++ ƒ:+ =· ='+ :-+ :·:=
(=) š='== =-š=+ :-='··=.
(·) =+=” =-š=+ :-='··=.
(·) r+·'r'+='= =-š=+ :-='··=.
:c·|=¤| ~t~
/ 58
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
(·) ·=·='= =-š=+ :-='··=
(.) ·· '=·= =-š=+ :-='··=.
(r) =+=· = (=·:. · = | . '···) =-š= +
:-='··=.
(=) ='+ =-š=+ :-='··=
... š+|= ººš+|r :=|+|¶-|º – š='= =-š=+
:-='··==·· +·:‹=. ='·=-š. '·='-:»:+='=.
·++· ¬'ƒ š='== š'+·°==··= :=·ƒ ='+ ·» :-
='::=·
(=) :ƒ=+==:- ¬= ==:·r=··+ ƒ:+ :·'=+
=·+= ·=+ ·+ ·’:- ·++· 'ƒ·+ ·:· :==-
'·+ š:=· :=·:-:= '··= =:+ :™ :==-
'·+ š'=:- ·++· 'ƒ:+·
š='=·==:+ :==- ¬+ š=+ ·== ==
=-š= ¬:=· :== - š ===+ =·+= =‹+·:=
·++· ·+ ¬+ ·-. š·+= š=:+ ='+ š:+·
:=· ·:· ·+ ·=+= :== -+ '·+ š'= š ===+
™· ='s ='+·:- '·r+ ·+·
(·) :ƒ= +==:- ·=š= š+ ·=+ · ° ·+= =-·+·
·++ '==+= ·= ·== ·=š= š'+:-
¬··-+ ¬·=== ·'- =:+ · ·++ š'==+
'·r:š ·=š= š+ ·=:=š+š+ ·'+ =r°
¬'= ·++ 'š==:- ‘=.+:ƒ= š =’ ='+· -:·
·'- :=·:-:= '··= =:+·
·=š== ·'=·- '·ƒ|= +'·: š·'·= ·+.
'™:° =+=”. ·=·='=+ ·:· ‹Œ===·
·=š= š+ ·=+ ·° ·+= -·:- :=:= '·ƒ·
·'= š·'·= :· ·=+ =-+= ·:=· '=”
=.+:ƒ= š=+ :=:= :·='== '='= =··
(·) ==+· =·'= :- ·= =·+= ='·=-š ¬'·:-
:=· =·:·+ ='° :š+'- ==:· ·'- ‹+·
=:+· :=·:-:= ='·=-š ¬'·:- =+'- 'ƒ·
-:· ¬+ ‘'==+ :ƒ· '==+ :ƒ·’ ·'- =’·
-:· ·'- '··= =:+·
=‹+·:= =·'= 'ƒ+ =· '-‚+ :· ·'=:-:·
º · ¬= '+= :· :š+- =:·· = '·=-š= š '·+
=š+ ·:· =·= ·= º·'·-= =s :· ™+
¬+ :š+- ==:··
..- =|-=” ººš+| r :=|+|¶- |º – =+=”
=-š=+ ¬:-· :-='··= :ƒ=+ =·== šr'-= :·
¬'·:=·
(=) ·=+'= ·+ :+ :·:- '-+· · '·+ :· = 'š
·'=:- ·=š= ·+ · '- := ·:-:= '·· = =:+·
·+ :+ :··'- · °= :== š=:- ·+·=+
¬··-+ 'r= ¬+ · ++ š '==+ '·r:š
··-'=+ ·r+= ··- :r+· ™· '·‹:=:+
š =š=- ='+:- =- ·| '·šƒ+ š+ ·= ='+·
š ' + · ' - ' ·· = = :+ · ¬=·+ ¬= =|
==:·r=· ·+ ·=:= =:= :-='·· = š r'-=
:· ¬'·:=·
='+=+ =·=+ ·:· ·+ ¬'= =š=+ =”·
:··- ·°= ·++ :== š= ·· ‹'+:- ·=|
:·+ =-+= ·:=· =-= ··-‚+ '·-+ ¤'=
·+· :=··:· :== š=· ‹+:° ¬··- ·'-
'·:·r= =:+·
(·) ™= š·= =š š·'-:= ¬+-‚= ='+:- :·+·
=+· š·r'+= =:š :·š:= ¬'· ƒ·= ='+·
š:+· ¬=:r=== ··=– š·'-:= š'+ ·=
=š+ ·š+= ·r= š'+:- '·šƒ :·+:° '='·r=·
(·) '™:=:= :š·=+ =” '·= ='+:- =r ×'r
™+ ·'- =”:°+ :=· '='. +'· ·+· =:=
'··=:·+ ¬=·+ š+:·+ ==:·r+ ·==
šr'-= ¬:=·
:š·=+ =”+ š'= ··-‚+ ·+·:r:=· =·:°
-='+=· ·'=:= '·= ='+·+ =·+= ··-‚·
¬”+= ¬·= š+ ¬+ =”:°+ :=·=-·=
:=· ·’:-· ¬ƒ:+ +'· :· ·='== =”'s -=
=:+·
(·) =+=” =-š= + :-='·· == ¬··-+
-·:= ··-='== -¤:· =' == ¬:=· :-=+
·++š+ = = +. :·= +. :··'· ¬'· · · -’:-
=-·
==+. :·=+:+· ·=·= =š=+ =‹= =:+ ·
==:+ '=· ··-‚= š·+ 'ƒ:+ ¬+ :·=+:+
=·ƒ+.'=·'= ¬'ƒ+ š+ +¤ =:+· :··'·
·+= ·· -’:- '·o‡ :·+= ·+:= :š+
™+ ¬+ ·++ ·=šr'-+ ¤'==+= '== ·=
:š=š=· ·+ ··-‚= =š=+ =:+·
..; r¶|c|r|¶+|r ººš+|r :=|+|¶-|º–
(=) ·×=. :=r. ªƒ ¬'ƒ r+· ·++ r-= · ·++
59 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
'==+= :=:·+:° ¬··-=r= ·'- '··=
=:+· :=:+:· ·++ š'==+ '·r:š :ƒ·‹·+
(··-'=) ·r+= :r+· š= 'ƒ:+·
·×=. := r. ªƒ ¬'ƒ ==+ r+· =· :·
=‹+·:= ¬š'+-+ :·= :·-šr ·- ·+·
=· r+·:·++ ::.+ =· ¬+ ::°= ·=·+
:··+ ·’· š+ '·'=r ·=· -'· ·:=· ·++
r-= · ¬:·š:· =:= r+· š'+:- :··++
·=· '·+š =-+= ·:=·
(·) ·++ :r·ƒ · :·'= š·+:= ==+. r=+
·'-= ¬'ƒ r+· :+ · · ==:° =- · '-
==:+· :=· r+·:·++ :š+'- =.+ :·++
š== ='+ :™++ -:· -:· :=·:-:= ·'-=
·’:- = = +:+. == +·×= ·’:- ··'+:+ š =
'ƒ:+·
·++ :r·ƒ · š·+= =:= r+·:+ ·· ='=:-
:=· ··+ =· ··:- ¬· =š.×· ¬'ƒ:+
·=·= ƒ·= =+ =-+= ·:=·
·) ··=+ ==+· ·= ==++ ƒ:+ == 'ƒ:-
¬··- =r+ ·'- =:+· ·= ==+· ·‹'- ·
¬=·+= == 'ƒ:- ·+= :=+- š-· ™· ·
-’+· :=+- š:-+· ¬'=· · '- '·· = =:+·
ƒ ° = = +· :r=-= · ·· '·:= =· š'= ·'=:-
·+:- ¬-· ¬·+ ¬·=== ·'- =:+·
=:= :-='·· ==· ·+ :=:= :·='== '='=
'·r'+ :š+ =™+· ·+« =· '·-== =:=‹+·+ ·°=+
š'= ·=·+ ·=–-'·= š=++ =·:· š'=='-= ·+·
..- ~v~v|+ ººš+|r :=|+|¶-|º –
(=) :°.==+ ¬+ =·°+ ·=. :™:= ¬·. ·
:°.. ··+ ·= ¬'ƒ o· ='::+· :ƒ'·· =š+·
:=:+:· =·:·+ ·= =‹+·:= ·++ ¬·=:-
:=:+:+· ¬:= '==·= ·:= ==:š=+ š+
+¤ =:+ · '- :-='·· = š r'-= ¬:=· :™:=
=”= =·: ·’:- ··+ ·=+ =- ƒ++ ··=
+:·. :='=+ = =:š = ¬'ƒ:+ ¬'· =” =:°=
¬'=s ='+· :=+:+ ·'- '··= =:+·
= '¤'·= :°.·='·-:= ·'°+ = · + ·'=
¬'‹==:+ =s =:+· =·°+ ··+ ·= ·++
¬·=:- + :- ·-· :=:=·· := = · :° '·r
¬·= ·:=· · :°. ·= ··. =.+ ¬+
:=:š· :·++ ·:· r+· 'r'+='=:+ · ·
=:=· ··= ·= =· ¬+ :š+- ··:-
=š ¬'·· š:+· =ƒ š'+ ·++ =++ · ·=+š+
· :°. ='+ ·=·+ ·= š+ =+ ·:=·
(·) ¬··+ ·= ·++ =+= ·'=:- ¬··- ·+
·'- :=·:-:= '··= =:+·
¬··+ ·=+ ¬·=-:°+ š'r ™+. ™’= '·'=r
‹+·+ ¤'==+= :š=š=·· ·· -+· ·++
=++ ¬··+ ·=+ =· :š=š=·=· :· :r·ƒ
¬+ ·++ '==+= š:+· ='+ '·'=r ‹+:· ¤'=
='+· š:+· =ƒš'+ =:= -‚== '·+= =š
==+ š·:+· ·· :-+:+ =-+= ·:=·
(·) :ƒ=+==:- ·++ :r=-= r'=+= ·= ·’·:-
'='ƒ:+. ·++ '·+ ·+ ·'- ‹+· =:+·
r'=+= ·= ¬'= ·· ·+ ¬+ ·==- r==·
:=:+:· ‹ · ·= r'=+= ·= ='. ·+ =. =- +=
¬'‹=· =ƒš'+ r'=+= ·=+ ¬: ·=·+ r=
¬+ ·+ =-+ ·:· ¤'==+=· r== š'+:-
r= :·+ ·+ ¬+ =-= š'+:- =- 'r'. ·+
-'· ™+·
(·) =- :=:·+ ·== =- ‹'+:-. =- ==-:=
=- ‹'+:-. ¬·=+= = - · =- ‹'+:-.
=-·== :š° ='° '=- ·-:- ¬=·+ =·=+
ƒ:+ :ƒ= +==:-· · ·-‚ ¬+ · ··=+ ·
¬«-:°+ =+:· ¬··-+ ¬·=== · '-
'·· = =:+· =:= :-='·· =+ :=:= :·='==
'='= :š+ =™+·
(.) '==·= ·:= ·=·+ =+=:- :==·| ='»+·
¬:= ·'- '··= =:+· :™:=:»=+ ·=+ =-
š:- =- ¬+ :š+== ‹= ·+·
:»=+ =- ¬'= ƒ-šš| · ¬'= :==·|=:=:·
=:= ·- š·:- =¤· ·+·
..« ~c |+·|- ººš+|r :=|+|¶-|º – ·+ ==+
¬·:= ·++ :='° š+-š+·= ··-'= š·:+ š+¤
='+ :-+:° :ƒ=+==-+ =° :-='··=· ·+'·-=
=‹+·:= š·š'·r·:= '=·· =:+ ¬+ ·- ƒ++·=
š +· +:= +·:° := ·:-= + =·'== '=+· ·
:ƒ= +==:- ·+:·+ š +· +:= =:=+ :=· ·°·
:·='== '='= '·r'+ :š+ ™+·
(.) š · 'ƒ:·:+ =:=+ r ·++ =·: ·= ·=
/ 60
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
:r=-:= ‹'+ ·='- :=:= +’ƒ š+ ='·‹
·:=·
(·) :ƒ= +==-+ :ƒ··+=· · · ++ š · 'ƒ·= ·:=
¬+ :ƒ··++ ··| ƒ++·= š'·r··+:= 'ƒ+
·+· ·++ =ƒ=|==:- ·++š+ ·:-+ =·+=
=·-= (=:r×) = :+ š+ 'ƒ·:- :=+ ='=
==·:- ='·‹ ·+·
(·) š · 'ƒ·= = 'ƒ= :·+ = ™ · ¬r + '·=· :š·+
'·:-++ ·:· ¬= ·ª ==:·r + ƒ:+
:ƒ=+==:-· š· 'ƒ·:° š'+= 'ƒ· '·r:š
'·:·r= =:+·
..e =·: ººš+|r :=|+|¶-|º –
(=) 'š=·=:+ =+ =·+ ·š+:= =”=+ ='++|=
'==+ =:+ · :=:+:· 'š= · ·=·+=:+ ·==
=”= ·= ¬+-‚= '™ :=:= =+ ·‹ ='+:-
=”='°+ ·= =·· š× :· =·: ·’· š:+ ·'-
:-=·=+ '·· =· ·= += '=:+=·+=:+ ·==
¬=·+:= :-+ ¬- +'·· -:·· :='=+ :ƒ·
= := =” =:°+ =:= ¬'=s ='+· :=+:+· =” =
·== '-‚'= :-++ š+· '=:+=·+=+ -·:+
×'° -· ·= =°. =+ ·=| =+ ¬'ƒ =·
='+:- =”=:°+ ¬··- ·+ ·'- :ƒ=+==:-
'··= =:+·
=:= :-='··==··= =·=+ '·sr+:·‹=
:='== '·¤:· ='== ¬:= ·'- =’· š'+·
(·) ·= += '=:+=· =:š== ·- ·= ‹'+:- ·= -‚
=”= š= ·+ ¬+ :== :ƒ'·:- '·šƒ+ ¬·=
¬:= · '- =:+· =+- 'ƒ+ ·+ =+-+ ·š:+:+
š+ :· ·’:-· =”=+ ·= ===- š= ··
¬:· ·'- '··= =:+·
=:š=+ :=:= :·='== '='= ¬:= ·'- =’·
:=+'+· '=” ·+ =+-+ ·š:+ ·= += '=:+=
š+ ·’:- ='+= š= ·· š'+ =”= =s :·++
=+ ·:=·
(·) =”= =·: :·++ š== :=::°= ==+ =·
¤-· '·=== =·+ . =°+ · = 'r +:··
=·:·+ ·'=:- =”=:°= :=:= :ƒ·=:=
¬'· ¬·'= ='+· :=+:+ ·'- :ƒ=+==-+
'··= ·
=·+ =:š =”= ¬+ ·=+ --‚| ='-‚+ +·=
=·+ =:+· =·+ ·+'‹ ×:· ·ª‹+·+ :··++
·=· =· =:+·
..- ·=i ººš+|r :=|+|¶-|º –
(=) :ƒ=+ =·== :=:= :-=+ ·=| ·’:- '='ƒs
'ƒ=+ '==+= ƒ·== ='+· -:· ·'- ‹+
·r '=+· =· · := ·:-:= '·· = =:+ :™ · ==+
ƒ·== ==+:-:= ¬=:° ·++ r'+:·++
·=:= ·:=·
:=·:-=+ =·== ƒ·== š=:° ¬'= ·|+
·ª- =™ · '·'°+= ° · ¬+ · ++ ==:-
:-=:= ·ƒ(r:=). ··'+ ·=:+ :====
'ƒ+:° š+-š+· ƒ ·+ :-===:- ==:-
=·+:= =:= ·|+ ··= ='+·:- =·· =·+ ·:·
'='„ s 'ƒ== ƒ·== =š'= = '·‹ ·:= ¬= '-‚ =
=:+· ¬=·:= · ==+ ƒ·== =+:°
=·'== =-++ == ·‹|=·-= ¬=-‚=· =·
'=+· ™:= =· ='+· :=+:+ :=··:· ƒ·
== ==+:-:= ¬=:° ·++ r'+:·++ ·==
·:= ·'- :=·:-=+ :-= '··= ·
(·) ·++ :=:= ·|'=+ ·=| ·’:- ·=:= =+-+
-'·· :- ™· ·'- ='· =+-+ ƒ++·= ··
=:š:+:+ »'= 'ƒ:+·
=+-= =‹+·:= ·ƒ| =·~ ='«= ='+ +:··
:=:= :+·= :™'=+ ·++ ·|'= ·=| ·+. :=·
:+·+ ·=· :+ ='«= ·ƒ| =·~ = ¬= ” ='+·
:=++:= =+-+ ƒ++·= ·· =:š:+ »'=
'ƒ:+ · ·· =:š+= '™ :=:= ‹+·+ =°
š=· -šs=:+ '='-'= š:+·
(·) ·+= :=:= ·|'= ·=| ·’:- ·++ ==:-
:-:= ·- ·'= =:+· :=·'ƒ= ·- ·:- ‹=
·=:·+ ·+'· ™+ ·'- '··= =:+·
·++ ==:- +·:= ·- ·'= =+ =-= ·==+
=·=+:= ‹'+ :·==”œ ·==+ š'++-=
+·:= =·+ =·:™'·= ¬··»·:- ='·‹ ·+·
· ++ ='++:= =·'== ===+ '=ƒ ·= š '=='-=
·+·
(·) ·:° ¤:-++ š== ·:·== =·'=· =-
=·:=:+ »'= :· ¬:· ¬+ š='ƒ=·= :=· ·=
ƒ'. r+:·· :ƒ= +==:- '·· = =:+ :™ · ==:=
'™ +:š š'·+= š=+ =·: -+. :=· =+:+
61 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
:·=:° == ·'= ™+·
·:° =·=++ š== =- · =-· »'= 'ƒ++
·:· ==+. '·+- ¬'ƒ =”:+ +'= ·:·==
š'= :·š ¬+'·s ·= ¬'ƒ ·'·+:- ='-+·
'=· :=+:+·
.) ·==+ =·=+ =:+:= =·= ='++· ='=+:-
==:š= ¬=:+ ·'- :ƒ=+==-+ '··=·
·==+ =·=++ =·+= =‹+·:= ƒ·r ·-+·
=·= ='++· š'+ =:= ƒ·r ¬=+· =·'r
š'+:+· ='s ='+ =·=+ =·+ -·= ='==
:-=+ ¬='·‹ ƒ+ =+ ·+·
(r) :ƒ=+==:- ·=+= '=:+= ·'+:- =·-=
·=- =° ·'+ 'ƒ:+· 'š: 'ƒ+ :·= ='r:+
¬= ·'+ 'ƒ:+ ™:= :=· 'ƒ=+ š+ ·=:=
=:š== :ƒ· 'ƒ · ¬=| š=:+ ·’:-· ¬·'=
='+·'· :=+:+· =:= :-='·· ='·-=+ :=:=
‹+·+ :·='== '='= '·r'+ :š+ =™+·
..- |¶¶|c ººš+|r :=|+|¶-|º –
(=) '··· =-š= + '== ·= :-='·· = :ƒ= +
=·:= ·'= r:-· '·++ 'ƒ= =’- ¬+ ··
=:š+. :·=. :-· ¬'ƒ ƒ= ='+:- ·'= ¬ ='+
™+ ·'- :=·:-:= '··= =:+·
(·) '·++ 'ƒ= ·+™=+ -·= ƒ ° š'r= (=° =.+.
=° =+) =:·-š·. r:+(·ƒ)+ =-·. ·=.
=-=. =r ¬'ƒ '=++ '=+·· =· š'r ƒ°
·=·:š= ·= :=+-:+ '=+:° '=+·· ·=
·:š= =·= · '·‹· '=:+=+ =”:= '=:-
ƒ+=·= ¬··- ·+ ·'- =:··
(·) :ƒ=+==-+ =·== ¬=-‚'== '···+ -·:=
·r· '··:· šr-= ¬:=· :=·:-:= '··=
=:+ :™. ·r· š··:= '··· :·++ :-=+
:™' = +:-:= =·' == = :+ ' ··· =·+
:='=+:-:= := ·:-=+ ==|+ ¬= -‚ '== '···
š'=· :=+:+· ¬+:·| -’++ '··· š'=·
š:+· =·'===:+ '··· š=+ ¬·:= ™'ƒ
==|= '·+ 'ƒ:+ :='=+ ==|+ ¬··- ·+
·'- :ƒ=+==:- '··= =:+·
= '¤'·= '··· =-š= + :-='·· ==· ·= =·'==
š+-š+ š '= ===‹+·= ¬='+ = ='+ =·'== · ·-
¬+ š'+·'+= · ·- ¬° ° +'··:- :rs =+ ·+ · '-
=’· š'+· :=· '·-== ¬'· '·:·+ :·='== '='= =š· ·
..÷ + |º ººš+| r :=|+|¶- |º – :ƒ= +==-+ ='+=+
· - š· ·’- = '+· ¬=|=| = ' +='+ =·=+ ƒ:+
:=·:-=+ =·=:= ='+ =-š=+ '·'=r :-='··=
šr'-= ¬:=·
(=) ·- ··:= =.- ='·:- ¬··-+ 'r= ·'-
='+ ·:-+=:= === == -:·· 'ƒ+:°
:=·:-=+ :-='··=·
=.:-· :·:= === :·'=+=+ ='+=+ ·-
=='-· ·- ··:= =.-:° ='.:- === =°
='= :-+:-:= :=··'ƒ=· ·- ·'= ·+ ·
:=··:· ¬··-+ 'r= '·r:š '·:·r= =:+ ·
=:= :-='·· := ===‹+·= =+‹==
¬+--= ='+·:- ==· ='+ 'ƒ:+· ¬=·:=
:·'=+===+ ·- =='-:° =s :·++ =-=
¬”+= ·=+ ¬·= š+. :=:= ¬+-‚= :·+
·ƒ| ·=· =·+ ·:· == = ·’:-· -:·· 'ƒ:+·
(·) ='= '·ª= š·+= ¬+ =+-= r'= ¤-·
š= =:+·
:=·=·+= :·+ ='° ‹=+ :·= ·-+· r'=
·'” ¤-· 'ƒ++ =-= :š=š=·:·+ ==
š'+ =· ·+ ¬+ :·='·-= =s :·++ š+
+¤ š:+·
(·) '=:+=· += ·= ¬+-‚ = = +- r :- · :=·:-
-'·· ™+ ·'- '··= =:+·
+=·= ¬+-‚= =·+= =+ ·'++= =:+ ·ª
š'+·:· ƒ·- :· ·:=· :=:= ¬+-‚= =·-
··· =+-= ='::- š'+ :™+ =-+= ¬'‹=·
=ƒ š'+ += ·= ¬+-‚ = š'+- +š'+rr :·
·=:° š:+==· ·'=:= =+-= =': =++
:=·+ ¬+ ‹ '-·'- :-+:° - -‚ | =·:= =·+·
(·) š·++ š+ -'·· ¬:=:= 'š=:- ·'+ r:-
-'·· ·'= ¬:· ·'- :=·:-:= =:+·
=‹+·:= ·+:- -'·· ¬:= := '=:+= :-:=
·+= :·= :- ¬:=· :=:= ¬+-‚= 'š=:-
·'+ r:- ='+ 'š=- ·+ ¬·= šœ :·++
=-+= ¬'‹=·
(.) š· ·= '™:+ + :+ := ·:· '='.· -:·· ¬:=
'='.:- š· ·= ·'+ ™+· š··+= '·::=- · '·
:=·:- · '='.:- š· ·:+ · '- := ·:-=+ '·· =
/ 62
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
š· ·= ¬'= ™·= =: ='·‹ -= ==+ ='Šƒ·
¬-š =s š:-· š· ·= ·'+ :™+:° '='·r=·
:=· ·:· '™ =:= š· ·= š '=š-= =:+ := ·:·
·=:=š· =s :=:š+:= ====:+ '='.·
š:+· · ++ = š'+· š·+ :'+= '·::=- -'·:-
:'+ :·'- ™+·
(r) ¬ƒ :·'= ·++ ·r+= · ·++ = š+ :·=
='+:- '·šƒ+ =-+= ·:= ·'- '··= =:+·
¬ƒ ·= :=:š· :·+ ·:· =‹+·:= '·+=
:š=š=· ¬+ =š ==+ š · :=·· ·:=·
=· '·-=+ = š'+· := ·:-=+ =·== =:=
'==·= :-='··= šr'-= :· ¬:= '™'·-=+ :=:=
:·='== '='= =·· ·++ '·š+:= ·=·= =·'·-==
¬r'··= ·'-:· =’· š'+ · :™:=
:ƒ= +==:- ·'°·· ·'=·+ ¬+ ·.-·:+ '==:r
¬+ :=:=:-. ¬='= =·:+·· · ==+ =·=++ š==
= = + ·=:+ '·'r'+ +'r · ==+ ·r+= 'ƒ ¬·+ '=+··
· += ‘=='- ==’ · ‘=-'š:’ · '- =+· =· ==
'='ƒ:- · ====+ ¬= :=== ·:= · '- :ƒ= +==:-
'·· = =:+· · === ·:·=:- '=· := ·· = + = = š'+
™+· := ·:-:= '·· = =:+ :™. =+· - · +š+ =·'=
+= (·=+ +=) + = + = =:+ ·= |:- ='· ¬'·'=-
¬+ · = |+ š=:= - · :- š =|+= = ='+ · '= -= =+·:-
=·= =:+· := ·:-=+ =·== ·:·=:- '=++ ¬·:=
=° :-=r+ š r'-= :· ¬'·:=· =·= =-= == = ·:·r
=·= š'+ =+ ·š+= · ==+ := ·=·= ·+ ¬+ =+
·š+:= '= + ‹+==+ · ··=·= :- ¬. '- = := = :=
‹= :· ·'+=:+ ::'- =-+ ·:·r·== :š-+· · =·+=
š + + ·’:- ·°. ·'·- ·’:- «° ¬+ · ++ š =+ ·
=·:=+ ·|'= · ’:- >° · ..° ‹= 'ƒ:+ ¬+ :=· ‹=
:=· ° =:š+= ·'r ·š+= :· 'ƒ:+· 'š: = ° ·++ 'ƒ=
= = ‹=:=· ° '·rš ='+ r+· ™'ƒ ‹=+ ×'° =:= ·:=
š'+'-‚ '= - ='+=. :·'= ·-:- =-+ -¤· ¬+ =·
·-:- :·++ -¤· · '- := ·:-=+ '·· =· ·++ '==+=
·= ·== ·=š=.·+= ·×·. := r. ªƒ ¬'ƒ š'+:-.
=- :=:·+ ·== =- ‹'+:-. = - = = -:= =- ‹'+:-.
¬·=+= = - · =- ‹'+:-. =-·== :š° = '° '=-
·-:- :ƒ= +==:- · ·-‚ ¬+ · ··=+ · ¬«-:°+
=+:· ¬··-+ ¬·=== · '- '·· = =:+· · ++ š '==+
'·r:š ··-'=+ ·r+= ··- :r+· '·'=r ‹+:= ·+°
··= :=+° š = š:=· =:= :-='·· ==· :· :ƒ= +
=·== ¬'· ==:+· ¤'=~ - ='+ ¬'·:=·
= šº:c|¶ – = '¤'·= ¬:-r=+ :·+= =-= 'ƒ+ '=‡ ”
:=·°= =š== ·’· š'+
.. :-='·· ==· ·+ ='++:= =° ='=+ ·:==·=
¬+ =·'== ··-+ š'+r+ š· š'+· :ƒ=+
=·== šr'-= =· :-='··==·:·· :ƒ=+
='=+ ·:==·= ¬+ =·'== ··-+ ='°
š'+r+ ƒ'. ‹'+:=·
·. :ƒ= + =·== š r'-= '== ·= :-='·· =+
:·='== '='= ¬:= ™'ƒ· ¬= '== ·=+ :¤==
:·='== '='= :š+ =™+· :·='== '='=
=·= '==·= :-='··:=· =·'== ··-
¬+ ·='== =”'s+ :¤== ·r= :™·+·
·. :ƒ= + =·== š r'-= ·ª:= :-='·· =
¬r '·· = '·r :š š'+·'·= :·:= · =·
¬r '·· ==· :· := ·:-=+ =·= =+=+
=r'== ·‹+ ='s ='+:=·
-. šr'-= š+:·+ :-='··=:+ :=:= '-'·=
+š :š+ =™+· :·='== '='= ¬+ =·'==
··- ·=· +· :-='··==·· '-'š+‡ ='+
=+¤· =+ ='r=·
=·+'·= =’· š'+ :™. ™·+ -·= ·š ·+·:-
=·= ¬+ =-'=+ š'++==+ -·= :-='··==··:+
š'++== :·+ ='r=· :ƒ=+ =·== šr'-= '™:·+
:-='··:= =·=·=+ ··- =s ='+:=. ·=++==
¬·= ·'=:=. :=:= :-='·· ==· · š'+·+ =+:°:+·
=·=·=+ ·:· ··-===· '™:·+ :-='·· :=
=·'== ··- ¬+ === ·=· +·= =·+ ='+:= .
·=·+= +¤ =+= ¬'+·· :™··:= ¬+ =·=·=+
= š=+ =‹= ='+:=. :=:=:·+ :-='·· = :ƒ= +
=·== =ƒ+ ¬ƒ+·+ :· ·= ='r=·
(:-'·= ¬=·+ '·=·+ '·¤'+=)
There are two ways to live: you can live as if nothing is a miracle;
you can live as if everything is a miracle. – Albert Einstein
63 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
:=°
:·:= =°
'·=+ ·++ ¬+-'·:=
·=+:°= =™ |+-+ š - '+=
¬+·|++ '·rš· ¬·+ =+=·+ = '·=+
·++ ¬+- ·+ == ='š-= ¬+ :·+ ·+ =='=·
·r =· ·:=°+ š ‹= ƒ ° '·== ·:= ¬+ '·==
¬+ ·|+ '·==· =· ƒ :+° '·==:= +=· '·rš
¬+ · -‹= '·rš= =· =+ ·+· +=· '·rš=
¬++ '·=== ¬” = = =+ ·+ o‡ =+ +=· ¬+
· : ¬==+ +=·· +=· ·|++ ¬” = = ·+ =‹+·
:=+. š '=+¤ :=+. =·'== ¬+ =· ·+ :=+.
¬· :='== :=+ ¬'ƒ· · -‹= '·rš+ ¬+ '·===
¬” = = =+ ·+ r+=+ ˜·. ¤ ‰ =«+. ='++|='='‹.
¬= '·:·+ š 'œ· · -‹= '·rš+ ·|++ '·=== š:+
=‹+· :=+. š '=+¤ :=+. =·'== '=+š=.
¬· :='== :=+. ˜· ¬+ ¬·‹=·
š'+='t= =r+=+ ¬r'= ~·· =++ š+· ¬·+
:ƒ·+ ¬·:='== =r+== =‹+· ·:=:° == ×+·š·
='·= š-= ='+ ¬'·:=· š'= ·=++ =‹+· ·:=°+
='++:= :ƒ·+ ¬·:='== ·'='·'‹ ='=· š+ =š'+·
='++|=+ ¬·:='== =™+- '=‹'+= ·+· :=·ƒ+
'·=·” š·+ ··=:+ ··...· ·++ ·:· :™+
·- :=+ ++ ='+:· ==ƒ= = ¤š= =+ =‹+·
·:=°= š-'+= ¬++ (+=·)'·=== ·: >··--·
:='° °= ¬+ ·|++ '·=== ·: .·«···> :='°
°= ‹™ ='+:= · ·'=:= ·=+:°= +=· ·'° š'+··
·’· ··«·-> :='° °=·
¶ir |-=|+ ·o .·· šcr|
¶ir |-=|+ šcr|
.. š'=+¤ ..
·. += =·™| >
· ¬= š'+=t= ·'·== ·|+ ..
-. =++ +'=|= ¬· .·
«. +=|. :=·ƒ+ ·'== ¬«-+
š'+=t= ·'·== ·|+ «
.. +=| ¬+ :=·ƒ+ ·'== ¬«-+
š'+=t= ·|+ ·
·. :=·ƒ+ š'+=t= ··
-. == š'+:·‹ .-
¤|r |-=|+ ·o .·· šcr|
=·º šcr|
.. ¬+=+ ..
·. =· o= .·
·. ¬·=+ o= ..
-. :=+ =+ ¬+ ¬=|=| =+ .
«. ¬==+ +=· -
.. ˜· ·'·== ·-‹= ¬+ ·
·. '=·· =+ ·-
-. ˜· ··
º™i r=|r|
º:|¤œt= =c ¶|t=r= r+|tr|¶ ¤|r ¤|¶· ¶ir¶ v|=r|+ === ƒ||÷ ‹¶| c’=
/ 64
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
·:=°·=+ ¬= =:¤·=+ 'ƒ·=·· :·:= –
¬+=+ :+··+ =· ..····+ š+ .-····
:- ·'‡·
:=|r =·'+=+ :¤== :™·|= '=·=+ ·+= .·
·=+:- ·= ¬+ ¬+=+ :+··+ =· ·.«· -·
°=:- ·'‡·
-· ·=+ =‡+ =·'+=+ :¤== « -· °=:-:=
¬+=+ :+···
-· ·=++ =‡+ ·|'=+ ·:· ·‡ :š«= ··· °=+
š+ «·· °=:- ·'‡·
·+ + :=-š=+ :¤== ¬'='+= o= ·.« ·=·+
š+ « ·=·:- ·=·
==|=· '·=t =+ .- ·=·+ š+ .-.« ·=·:-
·'‡·
.·· '·‹ =·~ = == =:= . ·=· :=·ƒ + ¬·=+
o= ¬:+š· =‹+· ·ƒ| ¬+ ·r=. ·-|+= +·.
:=· ¬+ +š+ ···= :+···
:·-=+ ¬·:='== š'+'-‚'=+ š'+:š'¤== ·'·=|
o=+ =:·r ·+ .· ·=·= ¬°° +·+ š-+·
= '+ == ” + ™” š'=+ · - ·'·=| o= « ·=·+
š+ -.« ·=·:- ·=·
=· ·+r ·++ '··= :=+= «· °=:= ¬+ ¬”–
+s+ '··= :=+= ·«· °=:= :=+ =+ ·'‡·
:-· ¬=++ +œ'= o= ·· ·=·:- ·'‡·
--‚| ·:= ¬··°= ·· ·=· ·'‡·
=~š”‚+ '·+:‡ ™== .·· ·=·· ¬¤· :·+
'=+š= =·r+:- > -· °=+ ===-= =·™·
¬'='+= .« ·= :·· =°š= -‚š=·
¬·=+ = =· + š'+· '·= .«·· °=+ š+ ····
°=:- ·'‡· =·'+=+ š'+·'·= ·«· °=+ š+
.«·· °=:- ·'‡·
š'+:+'·= š '==+ =™ = r+ ·:· ··· :='° °=·
=+·.ƒ·· :· ·+ ¬= = 'r= ='=. ¬= = 'r= ==='=+
====+ ·:· =-š'= ¬r'=·
:=+'r=+ :¤== += =·™+ š=|¤ ·-”+·
'='·'=:+==+ -¤| -···· :='° °=·
:=== =+= '·==+ ·:· ··· :='° °= ¬··°=·
=·:=·:+:- ¬: :·=+ :='° °= '·:·+ š'=·
'r'=·:= ‹'+ = =+š · «-+ +=|=· ·:- ¬: :·=+
:='° °=+ :š:==·
'·:ƒ·= =· +· =’- ‹= ·==· ¬=+ ·:·
'·:·+ šƒ:¤š·
¬~'‹=+ '='== ·· ˜·+ =· ·« -· °=:-
·'‡· .« -· °= š™” ·· ˜·+ ==+ :¤== .
·=· +==·™·
ƒ'+‰ =·:+·+ =-+ š'++-= ·ƒ|·=| ¬+ · r =+
:¤== +==·™| =·ƒ ‹= '·r:š šƒ=+ š-+·
¬”–··'=+ ·:· ·.-··· :='° °= ‹™·
'·¤·:= ·- ·=· š'= ·'‡·
~·| ·· '=··+ ·:· ···· :='° °= ‹™·
=+= '=·· ¬r'=+ ·:· ‹™ =+ :·:= «-···
:='° °=·
·==š+ ¬· ¬· '°+ ·:· ··· :='° °= ‹™·
'ƒ¤ -- ¬+ ·=’='·=:-· .· :='° °=·
·‰= -- ¬+ ·=’='·=:-· .· :='° °=·
=·'·¤+ ·:· ·. ·=+ :='° °=·
š'=+¤+ '·=== ..--.« :='° °=·
··.· r== > ·=· ·+= '·=·+ -¤|·
:ƒ·+ =‹+· ·:=° =·= :=+- ¬+·|++ ·'=+:=·
=·+. ·:=°·=+ '·'=r 'ƒ·=·:· :ƒ·+ š‹= ¬+
:·'-= =·=|:·+ =·‹=+ š·· '=+ š· =:+ ·
··...· ·+ + ·:=°·:= :ƒ·+ '·'=r :·'-= =·=|
:™:= ·‰-·'= '=+”·. =’- ‹= ¬+ ƒ='= '=+”·.
=:ƒ|'·= ¬+ ='+ =r+=. =· =-‚š= ='s ¬'ƒ=
:=:=ƒ:+ š=+ :š-· == š™:-r= ='+:- ‹===
¬+ ˜·== ƒ:+° 'ƒ:·· š'=='-= ·+·
=+=·+ =·= = '+ š ‹= :ƒ·· :ƒ·+ · : ===·|+
·· ·=· :-= '==+ =+ ='+·:+ '·=·+ ¬'··:=
š==·= :ƒ·+ š·'= =-+ =·+ ·'- =’· š'+· :ƒ·+
¬·=·'== ·:'=+ ·- :='° ='+·::- ·:=°=
š'= ¬··°= ·.·« -· :='° °=+ š+ -.·« -·
:='° °=:- · '‡ . '·=· :™== ¬ r'=+ š '== .·««
:='°+ š+ ·-.· :='° °=:- · '‡ . = +=:- · ·=·
== :+··. ·++·+ =°'= :·+ ¬«-:- ··· :='°
°= ¬··°=. ='+ =='- '=··+ ·:· ··· :='° °=
‹™. :=== =+= '·==+ ·:· ··· :='° °= ‹™
¬'ƒ+ ='++:= ·:=°·:= :ƒ·+ =+= =·=:- ¬·+
·=+ ='»+· ¬'=:= ·'- =’· š'+·
=:=ƒ:+ '··= ·+ + = -== - -‚ |·:+ š '= ¬··°=
·· ·=· · '‡ . '·¤ ·:= ·- ·=· · '‡ . ¬·=· =
=· + ·= '+ · '‡ . ƒ'+‰ :· ·= ==· 'ƒ++ ·:· =+ ¬+
:=+'r== :š=š=+ +==·™| š ƒ=+ :·+·. · '·ƒ+
65 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
·r +s + · ‡ :š«= ¬ r'= ¬'‹= = ƒ+=+·. «·· :='°
°=:+ ·'·- ¬==·+= :·° '·=· š '= ·:=. ·- = =
'·t+ ·:· ···· :='° °= '·'=:+·+ ‹™ | ¬'ƒ ·:=°+
==· · š - +=· :· =· =‹+· :-=+ =-|· · '‡ =++ = š'+·
·'·-==-= - +-- =+= = š= = ='+· · '- ¬· ='+·
š'+· -·:= ~ ·· ¬” –· :'= '=· ·+ ·:· ·:=°= .-·
-· ·=+ :='° °=+ š '= ·:=. ¤ ‰ ¬+ ·=-+
= :ƒ|·=· ·:- '·=+ =·™| « ·=+ :='° °=:- · '‡ .
~ ·| ¬«-+ :-=+ · · '=· ·+ š '= · '‡ š - :+ ·:=°=
:-+ :·:=· =:= ~ ·| = r+=+ ¬ r'== ¬·'·°= ‹=
=ƒ ·|+·+ ·’:- · ·|«-=· ·+ ¬” –· :'=+ = r+:= =·:=
'==+ + ¬«-= ¬·|+· = :· ·= š = '== =-šƒ=· ·
= ·šƒ= =™ |= -·· š+ ·’· ¬+ ¬=·:= = '° ¬+ ¤ ‰
= :ƒ|·+ '·=:· ~ ·| '=·= + =·=| '== -·+ ='+· · '-
¬· ='+· š'+· =:+š'+ '··= ·+ = :ƒ·+ = r+= ¬+
'·=·= :=· ··:= ¬ r'=:+ ×+ · š · = '·= :-++ š '=
-¤| +'· =· ·:=°= =+= '=· · ¬ r'=+ ·:· «-···
:='° °= ‹™ | =+. :ƒ·= ·'= :-š= ° · :=:-=+.
=·=:+- · :··= :=:-=+. '·'=r = r+=· -= ¬ r'=+
‹= ¬==· =+:= ‹'+ '·:ƒ·+ :·== -· -· :='°
=’- ‹= =· ='+ +· ¬'ƒ ƒ = '=:+ =+= ” ='+ :=-+
=·+= =:= ƒ = '= '=+” ·+ ·:· ·:=°= '·=·” :+ š r°
š™ |+= '·:·+ :=·-+ =· :·+· =+:° ·:=°+ ¬=
== = :¤·=+ 'ƒ· · ¬+:·| =’- ‹= ¬+ ƒ = '= '=+” ·+
:¤== =· :=·-=· :· :=:=ƒ:+ ==-= -= =:+ =·+=:·
='=· š+ ™··
·:=°·== = '¤'·= :™·== 'ƒ·=· · š '=='-= :·:=
™'ƒ· ˜·== 'ƒ·=· :· = :¤·=+· · ‰-·'=:+ :ƒ··==
= + - ='+ :=- =·+:= ·:=°= · ‰-·'= :+‹ =+ :=:=
'·:·+ ¬ r'= :·+· =+ =·’-· r+=:+ ·:=°= :š° ’-
==+ =·~ · -| · =+ :=:= -šs ¬ r'= ~ ·· ==+:°:+
¬·” = 'ƒ== '==| š :+==+ ‰·| =·~ + · -| · '‡ :·+
· '·= 'ƒ:=· '·=·” :+ ··.· r=+ :·++=:- ƒ+- + · =
š· · '- :=+:° == ·=··|o= =··
:=·ƒ + r+=:+ ·:=°= =·: =·:+ = r+=+
:¤== '==·= '·:·+ :š:==+ =· :·+· ='+:=·
+=|·== =r+= ¬+ '·=·+ ·:· :=·ƒ+ =+ ==
=:¤·:™·| šƒ:¤š ·'- =’· š'+· '=” =:= =·+:=
'·'=r =-” =·=|· =+=” ='+ :=- ¬=·:= ‹'+
==+š·«-+ ¬= ¬= +=|=·:· '·:·+ :š:==+
:¤== =·:=·:++ ƒ:+ =· ×+ · :=:š+. ¬= +=|+
·ª:= '·¤=-‚=:- :='° :='° °= ¬··°= 'ƒ++
=·+= ¬=· =· = =+š · «-+ '·¤= -‚ ==· ·
=-š · =:+ = :š'¤= :·+. ¬=·+ ·=š=. ·+··=+
¬+ ·¬š= =r+=+ :¤== :=:= ‹+·+ ·|+-‚ ~··+
=· ·:=°= =:¤· =·=. ==+š·«- =r+= ƒœ++
·:· ·:=°= š·=:= .· ·=· =·· .««· :='°
°=:· ‹™| =+ ¬'ƒ:+ :ƒ·+ ==:- ¬«:- =r+=+
:¤== =· ×+· -= ==+:°:+· š'=='-= ='+:=·
=·:° =° ·:=°·=+ :='=·r= 'ƒ· '·r:š š'+·'·=
='+· š'+·
·:=°·:= ===·|+ · :'== ™:·š™ = ×+ · 'ƒ+
š'+-'¤= :·+ =· · ¬·+ :ƒ·+ ===·| .« ·=·
:-= ·« ·=++ =-+ ¬+ -· ·=· :-= ·· ·=++
=-+· :ƒ·+ ===·| .· ·=· :-= .-·- ·=++
'==+= š:+· '=:+·+ ·:· = š™ = =· :-===-= =-‚ š=
'ƒ+:° r+=++ ƒ'+· · š '= ·=:+ =+=·+ = š + >· -·
'=·= + ™ +=™ +=:+ =· =-‚ š=+ ·=+·== š :+· =:+·
·'=:= š '= ·=:+ >· -· =· =-‚ š= = 's ='+· š'+:-:·
'=·= + =·=| =·‹= ='+· š+ ·’·· '=” ·- += :=:=
·+ :=· =:=ƒ:+ =· =-‚ š= = 's ='+· š+ =· . ™+
=-= '=·= + =·=|· 'ƒ:='ƒ:= =++· + š :-:=· =:=
=° :·'-= =·=|· ·:=°·== :™:=ƒ:+ ×+ · š· -'·'=-
:=:=ƒ:+ :š+ =· · =:=ƒ:+ :=+ =+ ¬š'++'= = :·
·=+ =-= =‹+· +· = ™:·s ¬= '·‹ =·: ·= ·’··
'·:·+:= === :-:= 'r'=·=-+= 'r'=·= ~ ··+ ··:=
:=+ =++ =·= ¬'='+= ‹= ·|+ ='+· -'···
'·=·”:+ :ƒ··=+ š+ == r=·· ·: +s+
=·šƒ= :r+ ‹= '·r:š ·= ¬·+ :ƒ·= '=ƒ:+
'·rš ·'· = = ¬+'·'== '·rš+ ¬·=:- ¬'=·. r š+
:=:-=+:·+ ='++|:= ™:= =·':= =·+ =+ ·:·
'= šƒ:¤š -’· :=· '·+:+ :=:= -šs ='= ·:=°=
:·+· ='+· š+ =· · =’- ‹= š '=:+‹+ ·:· ·:=°=
šr ƒ=+ ¬r'= :-+ :·:= ™'ƒ· :=· ¬r'=+ '·+:+
'··ƒ=:+ :=:= ·|·| ¬··:»+ =··
·:=°= = r+=+ ¬ r'= ‹™ | ='+ °= ¬··°= 'ƒ:-·
:ƒ·+ = r+= =·+· = r+=· -= ¬ r'==· · =':= + š+:=:·
·:=°+ -¤| š +· ='+· š:+· =·=+ š '=:° - +:= ƒ = '=:+
r'= ‹+ ¬·+ =·== ¬ r'== ¬·'·°= ‹= =ƒ ·|+·+=
='· s ==:- š¤· ==·=:+ =':= šƒ:¤š -:-:· ¬·
=+ ·:= = =- -= ='+· š+ ™·· =· :¤== '·:·+:=
¬=·= ·ª =- ++ š :+== ¬:=·
(:-·= ¬·='= '·== '·=·+ '·¤=)
/ 66
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
Humanism
is a concept
both in
Western and
I n d i a n
philosophy which is
related to the feeling of
well-being of human in a
society. It gives importance to
the attainment of perfection of human
beings as well as human existence like
Existentialism. It is the most featured philosophical
trend of modern times. After centuries of
philosophical speculations and meditation man has
learnt that the end of all human actions is the
improvement and development of man and man is
not to be sacrificed to any eternal power or a
political and social institution .Humanism is a way
of viewing things by relating them to man’s
concern. It centers round man and asserts that the
capacities, the qualities of man have to given the
fullest expressions.
We all know that in contemporary Indian
philosophy Rabindra Nath Tagore was a true
humanist. Among the contemporaries he occupied
a very important place. He synthesized a poetic
vision of the future of human society with a
missionary zeal of a social reformer and keen
insight in human affairs of a novelist. Throughout
his life he had developed a philosophy which is
always attached to the true sense of humanism.
Rabindranath Tagore was basically an artist rather
than an intellectual. Moreover, Rabindranath in his
lifetime never tried to propagate his thoughts and
refrained from creating any sort of Rabindra-ism.
In this regard we can refer to the famous statement
of the Nobel laureate after Chandidas “Sabar upare
manus srestha, tar upare keo nai.. .” - i.e man is
the supreme,. nobody is there above man. Rabindra
nath Tagore was basically known for his idealistic
and spiritualistic tendencies. According to him the
realization of truth or self – realization should be
the goal of philosophy. Though, being a
metaphysical or spiritual philosopher the ideal of
his thoughts is humanistic His religion is the
religion of man. He felt that in man there is the
divine. So service to mankind should be one’s goal.
There is difference between the humanism of
Rabindranath and the western humanism. Man is
the centre of humanism in west, there is no place
for God in it, but in the humanism of Rabindranath,
God is the superior. He advocated that there is the
divinity in man. He said that man feels the mystery
of unity as he does in music and in the social
communion. This sense of unity leads to the
realization of divine humanity. In the writings of
Rabindranath the love for human and humanistic
feelings are expressed as prime ideals. He felt that
the love for humanity, fellow feeling, well-being
of mankind should be the religion of man. He said
man is the incarnation of God. Through the service
towards man one can worship God, i.e., service to
mankind is the service to God.
Humanism came naturally to Rabindranath
Tagore, as he was basically a poet. But
Rabindranath’s concepts could and will traverse
great amount of space and time chiefly because
of his finely balanced spiritual inclinations, the
Debananda Bhattacharjee
67 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
premises of such spirituality being based on a
classic orientation with the cosmic reality – a fairly
universal concept. Rabindranath remained unique
in the sense that he could blend his spirituality with
his creative instincts in poetry and music. Without
belonging to a definite class of religion, he could
easily express the ideas of a universal human
religion, which would like to be described as
‘humanism’ in its purest form. Rabindranath was a
profound believer of freedom of individual selves;
in fact he tried hard to establish this concept by
establishing an educational institute at
Santiniketan, where he professed, but never
preached. This second aspects in his personality
makes him a true ‘humanist’, a crusader for
freedom of self, a crusader to acquire the power of
pure and free expression for each and every human
soul, without really being a revolutionary in the
stricter sense Rabindranath made us believe that
we are humans and intrinsically modern, to the
sense that we can traverse light years of distances
of human existence, and enjoy our freedom and
marvel at the beauty of a human soul.
We may get an idea about the kind of humanism
that Rabindranath professed, where a human being
becomes a fulfilling, purposeful and inseparable from
Almighty. Almighty is a very intimate, powerful,
brilliantly beautiful, and yet a humble entity for
Rabindranath. Life, in all its splendors, is an integral
concept in Rabindranath’s spirituality, making him
always appreciative of and engaged with life.
There cannot be any doubt over there that
Rabindranath’s philosophy revolved round mankind
which is known as humanism. He was deeply
influenced by the humanist tradition of Buddhism.
His view was that man must come out of the shell
of individual self in order to enter into the larger
self of humanity. His poems especially those written
in later part of his life reflected his philosophy of
humanism by pointing out divinity in man.
Tagore’s humanism pervades all aspects of his
thought. The humanism of Tagore is just the
application of the belief that feeling anything as human
in the human way is a source of joy. It is the human
mind that reveals the meaning and significance of
things. Tegore’s idealism is humanistic. He said it is
almost a truism to say that the world is what we
perceive it to be .We imagine that our mind is a mirror
that it is more or less accurately reflecting what is
happening outside us. This speaks of the primacy of
the human point of view. The one effort of man’s
personality is to transform everything with which he
has any true concern. The writings and poems of
Tagore are full of human touch. According to him all
the human concepts such as life, beauty, harmony or
the lough, delights become meaningful when they are
related to human values.
An approach with the heart full of feelings
and interests is a human approach. The
philosophers usually neglect this, but a philosopher
who is also a poet, makes truth live in the form of
beauty and therefore establishes a personal bond
between man and objects. That most probably is
the reason for Tagore’s humanistic convictions.
Tagore himself admitted that, when he said “I have
great faith in humanity.Like the sun, it can be
clouded, but never extinguished”.
The view Tagore was that the best way to
seek complete union with God is to seek contact
through man. He found his God in man. Through
man alone God is accessible simultaneously by the
path of knowledge, devotion and service. Man is
the centre of interests because he manifests God in
the most effective form. There is no point in
looking for God in the temples and offering flowers
and burning insane there. One should seek God
among the common man. The man of piety should
meet his God in toil and sweat. Humankind in
general should be the object of love and service.
Radhakrishnan says about Tagore : “He
(Tagore) gives us a human God, dismisses with
contempt the concept of world illusion, praises action
over much promises fullness of life to the human soul”.
Rabindranath wanted that there cannot be any
discrimination in mankind. All are equal,
irrespective of caste creed, economic status, color
of body etc. He felt that if humanity is illumined
nobody in the world would be able to exploit and
harm other. As he loved man, he wanted to realize
the world staying among the people. So, he said –
Morite chahina ami sundar bhubane
Manaber majeh ami basibar chai.
(I donot want to die in this beautiful world, I
want to live in the midst of man.....)
Rabindranath also advocated world peace. If
humanity is practiced in its proper order this kind of
/ 68
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
peace be attained all over the world. He hoped, the
man of the world are approaching towards a
beautiful, peaceful future, where there will not be
any bloodshed conflict and disorder. Thus he said :
“Victory to life, to joy, to love
to eternal light.
The night shall wane, darkness shall vanish
Have faith brave heary” (The cycle of man)
The humanism of Rabindranath stemmed
from his living faith in God and he drew his
inspiration from religion. The urge to offer
service to God was both universal and strong.
He realized that the nectar of love removes the
transitoriness of man and he comes in contact
wi t h uni versal humani t y. Aft er t hi s sel f
realization the individual man realizes that there
is no difference between man and man. He said
that man is the eternal truth despite personal man
bei ng i mpermanent . He st at ed, “rel i gi on
inevitably concentrates on humanity, which
illumines our reason, inspires our wisdom,
stimulous our love”. He declared that man is the
right object of love and worship. In his theory
of humanism there is a strong fervent and desire
to serve God through mankind and hence it is
more inspiring and appealing.
Concluding remark: I have tried to make an
assessment of Rabindra nath Tagore’s humanism.
In theoretical sense the humanism prescribed by
Tagore is very much adorable, but question may arise
regarding its practice or practical use. In these days
the prevailing social situation is very critical .People
become more self-centric Respect towards humanity,
fellow-feeling are gone. Consumerism, materialism
hurdle the paths of humanism .But it should be the
duty of present day man to think for human society.
(The author teaches Philosophy)
=·· -šs ='+ 'ƒ:+· =+· :=|'=š =ƒ+ ¬ r'=·==
·r =+ ‘~ ·- +=’+ ‹+·:+· ='° + š = '° = '::=·’’
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=+-:+'·= +š= =+ ·|·| ¬=-+· :=·+ :r===
'·'=r ¬ƒ··= ‡–‡+ :=++=° ¬'=-. '='·-==
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+·–ƒ =·+ š'= ¬'=- :=·+ ¬=· ·‡· +·–ƒ =·+
š=+ :=·+ ·š+= ·=+ =:· ·=:°= ¬=-=™·
'=” ==·+ ··r:+ :=++ ƒ:+ ‘‘+=='= '·r+=
¬:= +·–ƒ =·+ =’:= :=|'=š =ƒ+ ™:·s ¬'·-
š'+-'¤= ·+· š·· =+== -‹== ¬:–ƒ-== ¬·
~··+ =:= :=|'=š=ƒ =:~=+ =:= ™= ·'=:-·
:=· + ··š”‚ 'r” ‹++ š'+r+ ·ª:= ¬=·+
·'‡=+:+· ƒ'. ‹'+:=· =:=:·+ '·++= +·–ƒ=·
'=” ¬'=- - + - =” ·’’ '·+° +·–ƒ š '===
:=|'=š=:ƒ '··+ =:·=· š'==+ ·== -‚= 'ƒ+:=·
· '=· š'+ +·–ƒ =·+ š '= :=· '=·= · ‡ ·- ¬'=-.
¬+ :=·+ :r=== =· '·+° š'==+ š=+ '=·=
·=+:- ¬'=-· ‘·:=|'=’+ =·= '-· ‘+·–ƒ =·’
·+= +r== :=|'=š=:ƒ ··='· ·ª:'= ¬+ ··='·
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==·+ ··r+ +·–ƒ=· ¬+ :=|'=š=ƒ)· '·t+
š '·+= :=· :-'·:= ‘‘....=- '== ·'·+
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=· :°:+· ¬'=· =·‹= :=:·+ =·=|· ·= ·+
=·:°:+· =·‹= ='+· -·+ š‹= '·++· =:= :rs
='+ ¬'·:= =·=+ ··×+==:-· ·=+·. ™o·s·.
·‡·. ··-::ƒ =:=· :rs ='+:= ·:=. :-'=:=.
¬+'·–ƒ·. +·–ƒ =:·. ·r:+. ¬·+ ··” ·=:+·
.....·=+. ··” ·=+ ¬+ +·–ƒ=· ==·+ =-:=
'==+ š '== '·=· ¬+ š =· ='+'=-·’’ :=· +
‘=+=-+ =-'=’ š+r:= :=· :=:= ‘‘:™:=:=
'·· ='·:+ '='·- '·· š ·+ :=:= '==:= =:= · '-
=š-'= =:+ :=·+ ==:- =· ¬+ 'r” :=·
'·+° š·+ =° ¤‰ ¬· '·r:š ='+ =· '·+° ='s=
:=· + :=· '·'= ƒ= · '- =:·. :=· ƒ:+ ¬'=+ =·'+:=·
=·=+ =-r= '==+ '·'·s= =-:= ·'= -’· -'···
:='=+ ·’:-· ·=·+ :·:°· =+=:°:+· :™ =°
=-'== ¬'=™= == =š-'= ='+· š'+··’’
(:-·= '='=r=+ =· ¬=·+ =š'+'r= ='·. :-·=. =°|=+ ¬+
'='=r=+ :r=·+· =r=+ ·‹|'·= '·ƒ|-++ ¬+=+šœ '·¤=)
(-e št|¶ š¶| ) |¶- +|¶ ¶¶|·ƒ +|< ¤|¶· ¶št+ |-¶ :=i||=š º|ƒ
69 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
ii=+ii
·'··|=
¬+ ·'·ƒ= š++
+·–ƒ =· := + :=+- =·+=
='·:+ ='=-. :=:·= ¬'=- ·ª×·‹+. ·ª··
š '==+. '·-:+·|'== · 'r” ·=++ = ¤- =¤=·
=· ×·‹+ ='·+ = 's :¤=·== = ¤'- ¬:= ='·=|
'·t=·== =|·ƒ| =- '=+ ‹ šƒ ×··=
=-šr ==:- =-šƒ· :=:·= :-·=. ='·.
='·'=|=. ·'=·==+. 'r”'·ƒ. ·'==+. ·+=.
=°|=+. ¬'=:==. ==| '··+ƒ. '·¤'·ƒ ¬'ƒ
:=‹+ ×·+ ¬·- ·|'=·+ ¬'‹=+ ·=+·
='·×++ ·ª· · š '== ¬+ ·|'= · + '==+=
¬'=- ¬=| == ==. :=:·=+ '·· š'+=·+
¬==| ·'=·=· ‘'·· š™°=’ =· '·++:+ ¬:=
== ƒ·-+ ·'=·=· +·–ƒ=· :=++ =· 'ƒ·+
·š+:= ·ª 'r”rr ¬+ =r=·:·+· r'-:=·
='· ×++ =·= ƒ·:= ·= :==+ ·=+ ·+=:=
'·:ƒ· š'+=·+ o=+-'= :·'=-· =· ™= ¬'=-
'·-== ¬‹|+=+ ·:·· '=” ¬‹|+= ¬=·œ ='+
:=:·= '·-=+ š+ :=+ ·=++ 'šr:= -:ƒ·:-
· '+ ¬'·'=-· '‡=+·+ · ++ ƒ· ·=++ 'š==
=:=|–ƒ=· ¬+ :-:== š'-=+ :=:= '·-=:-
:· == :=··· º·· =-= ·°'- ¬+ == º··
='+'=-· =· º·· ·'=·=+ ==:- 'ƒ· '-'š·‡
:·'=- :=:·=+ ‘‘+:rš ™=r =+'r’’ ~”‚=
.
·
'·-== ¬‹|+=+ ·:· :™+ š·· ™= ·ƒ 'ƒ:-
'‡=+ '·:ƒ· º·=:- :·'=- ·++ ·· ·=++ 'š==
.>.· r==· =· ™== +·–ƒ=· ¬+ š'=· :ƒ+·
=· ¬'=-· =· º·· =-:= ·ª ·'°= :-·=. '·t.
'r”'·ƒ+ =-š· -= ='+'=-· '··|= ·+= ='·
='·='··:+°r ¬+ '·t +:·=:s= ¬'ƒ+ ='r‹|
-= ='+'=-· =· ==- š·|= '·t ='·'=|:= '··
='·= ™·:™·| ¬ƒ+ ¬=|·= =–:= 'ƒ :=:·=+ =·|
·+= =+:- ¬=·ƒ+ š+·· 'ƒ'=-· :=· :š+·
='·+ ·:· == š =++ ¬·· ƒ :· š'+'=-
‘·=o'-’ =·|+ ==- ¬= ·:ƒ ==:- '·:ƒ· š » :+=
¬=|·='·= ¬+ ·+ ='+'=-· 'š== =· :š¤š:°·
:=:·=+ =:·- ·° š'œ+ š· š·- ='+'=-
·
· '‡=+
'·:ƒ· º·· =-:=· ='·:+ · = :+š+ š+ ·'·:+ ·'·:+
¬:·'+= º··:- :·'=-· =· ™= =-= =· ¬'=-
¬“:+=. 'š++== ¬+ ·=- :ƒ· ™=š·= :=:·=
šr| :ƒ· ·|=·+. :š=. ·=.. '=¤š+. °'=¬’
š™°= ='+ :·'=-·
š=a ~t~
It is a multi-lingual column. Our valued writers can contribute write-ups in any of the four languages —
English, Assamese, Bengali and Hindi. — Editor.
/ 70
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
='· ×++ '·· š'+=·+ '··ƒ ¬:-r= ¬=|
== š· ·’·· =· · : =·+ ·+ '·:ƒ· º··=+
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·=+. '··-. =ƒ+ 'r” ƒ·+ ·- ·” ¬'=- ‘‘™=
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·
·
iiƒcii
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-· ¬·°:= ·'°=+ ‡+· :·'=-. ='-+=··
=+·=| --+ š'=·ƒ=· =:= ·ª r¤= ·°= r=·
='·+ 'r” ƒ·== ™:·s š=+ :š-·'=-·
= =+:=. =+=+ š+‹= :š ¤š°= -= =+
··='”= :r==:·‹ +r =·|·ƒ ··=”+ -+š+
·== ¬=·š=- š· =| ='·+ ·:· =t===
¬'=-· ='·+ ¬'=== = -= = ·- =–ƒ|+ =+:=
=·=+ ƒ'+‰. :·'+= š'== ·'«= -'«=
=+=+ ==··+ ƒ ·ƒ ƒ ·+ š = = ='··= ='·:+
·=+=:+ ¬==+ =+· =-+ ='=-· ¬+:·| ='·:+
=·:+ =·:+ · '°= ·‡ ='-. = ·==+ '·+ ‡ r+·.
š '=·ƒ ='+'=- =+ ¬'=- ='·+ ··='” =
:r==:·‹:+ =·”+· '=” ¬”='== :¤== ='·+
··='”= :r==:·‹+ =·= :ƒ· :·'=- ·°'-
º·· =-= :™'=+ :=· :ƒ·+ :='rs ·== ··+ ‡+
¬·=·+=:+ š='== ·’· -· :·'=-· ¬+:·| :=·
:ƒ·+ ··= 'r”'·ƒ. ·'‡=+ +· +- š='= =r·
š·'=·ƒ. ·=+=·ƒ :-:= ='·= ™·:™·| =–:=.
¬'=·| š ƒ= ='+ = ·='·= ='+'=-· :=r·ƒ+ ·· +=+
'·+ :‡ = '·× + :+ .>·. r == ‘Manchester
Guardian’ š'=== š '=·ƒ :°= š =· ='+'=-·
¬=·:= =š:= r= ¬=·· =:+:=· +·–ƒ=:·
=š= :=r·ƒ+ ··+== '=–ƒ =++ =š'+· r=+
=·™:· ƒ= 'ƒ·:- :ƒ··=:- ¬c= ==·'=- ¬+
:=· ·|'= ·==:+ š r· °= ¬·· »· '=-
«
· +·–ƒ =·+
:='r·ƒ =-=|·ƒ '·:+'‹=+ ·ª ·'=·= ¬:=·
=· ==:- =·|· +·–ƒ=·+ ··='”= :r==
ƒ· + ƒ s” ƒ'. ‹'+:-· ¬·+ ¬:-r| '·+:+ +r º··+
:·'-= ==+ š'+:·· ='s :=:·+:= ·= ='=-·
¬:ª·+ =·=='” = '·š ++ ==-|+ 'šr= + r
=·=='”= =·= '=··+ :¤== '··+ '·'=r š”++
· '‡ =+'r” '·ƒ==- ™:·s '·º” :· ·=+ š ·· :š+
™+· :=:= '·º'”+ š+ +·–ƒ=:· ·= ='=-· =·
:¤== +·–ƒ=·+ =–: š'==· 'ƒ+ =·-=–ƒ| =+
=+=ƒ· ¬+ =+=+ =š'=+ƒ+ ¬‹|'== ƒ·= ··+
· -|:·‹+ š'+=·· +·–ƒ =·+ 'r ” :r = =+
=·=='”= ·-+=+ -+š =š-'‡= :·.+ :·
·=:°:+· -='+=· '=” +·–ƒ=· :=++ +r º··+
·'=·= ‘+'=++ 'r':’ º·· ~”‚= -= =+ :·:=
=+ =ƒ· = '·š+= ='· =:+· ='° =:¤'š= =r =
71 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
¬+ š™:-r= ='+· :·= :·:=·
ii |=|+ ii
'··+ š·· =·=='”= '·š++ ==-=+ ·'=·=
+:r= :='=:+= + 'r+· - ‹== -= =· =·= ='” =
=·=·== ·|+-‚ š ·= = ='+·:- =¤· :·'=- .>.·
r=+ ¬:ª·+ ··+ š+· =+ ·= .· ·=++ ==+·.
š·'= ·-'+=:= :ƒ· š·'=- .>·· r== +r :ƒ·:-
:™+ +·–ƒ=· :=:+· .>·· r=+ .. :r:œ-+ ;
='·×++ +r º··+ =·:™· ¬'=- ¬'·+ r=+=.
¬™ =+=·. =
·
·'+ '°- r . '·= ¬· =s· = ¬+
:=:·–ƒ=· :=+· =· ™== .. :r:Ÿ°-+ š+ ·-
:r:Ÿ°-+= '·ƒ+ ¬=|·= š™” ·: :=+'ƒ=+ =· º·:·
='·= ¬=|'‹= :+·'·°= ='+ ='-'=-· ·- :r:Ÿ°-+=
House of Trade Unions + ‡+ ¬:+'== =· '·ƒ+
=== ='·:+ '==+ ·=== :='=:+=+ '·¤+ š·'=
¬+ =·'== =-|·+ =+= š·= ='+'=-
.
· '=+:=
='·:+ =+=ƒ·= =-=|·ƒ+ ··=+ +š :ƒ'·'=-.
=+ š'=·ƒ ='+'=-. =+ ¬=:=¤- =·| ‘š=š°’
¬+ '·:·+=:+ ‘¬'==’ =·+ ='·=· ·'=·= ='+
+'·:= '=” ='·×+:+ +'r+ ƒ·=+ š:· =·=
=+=+ ¬·šƒ. -=–ƒ =·=+=ƒ·'=+ =·= ='· :ƒ·
='=-. :=· === =·=ƒ·. === ¬:-=+ =r= šƒ=
=+. '·· ·=+=:·‹+ =·:·r ·=+ =·: ¬'·º+
='+:-
·
· ‘+'=++ 'r':’+ š·· ·=|· :=:= ¬· =„œ
··-+š – ‘r'·+r ¬·:·:+ ¬= :·-· ™ :ƒ·'=
¬·r™ ::=:=· ¬=| :=:= :ƒ:·r ·:=· =+· =:=·:r
·:- š:=ƒ· ¬·:·= ==- ·=+:=· =r =·= =:r
='·:+ =-:=·’’
º·· ~ ”‚ ·=+ š ·· ·=|· =· =·· š '=šr ='+:=
:™ :=:= =:-· ·+:= +·–ƒ=:· ='·· :=++.
=·· =·+ ¬+=· =·= :·+·| ™=. :··'··= =·=
=·= š '=r ·’· š:+ ; ='·×+ '·'-:= :·'=-. š -'==
:·'=- :·· '='·:·:+ ==:- ·=·+ ···š·=··.
·™ƒ š'='r= :·+:°=·
+ r º·· =-= ='·:+ :=· :ƒ·+ ·==·· + ·ª:=
š'='='‹. ·'‡=+. =-'==·=+ š·|= ·|'=. ·'·=.
=+=. '=:·+'=:·++ ƒ- ¬'ƒ == =·= '=·=
=- =·-+ =¤= -= ='+'=-· =ƒš'+ =:· =:·
:=:= =·'== ƒ-+ === :™·ƒ= ='+ =+· 'ƒ'=-.
·= '·'=·+ ='+'=-·
‘+'=++ 'r':’ ..· šr+ =·= ='=·'==
º·· ='·=| (='·=)· ~ ”‚ ·'== + r :ƒ·+ =·==- '=.
='+·'·=|. ‹·. ¬r+¬r+·. =·=+ ·'=š·'=.
'·¤+=='=¬·='= ==:- 'ƒ·:+ ‘¬=|¤- ='·
š'=='-= :·:=· +·–ƒ=· :=++ +r ƒ·=+ ·='==
¬'=·™ '=+=+· '·++= ƒ'°·= =:¤· =:=‹+·+
‘‘=· '·š+ +'r+= ·ª 'ƒ=+ š+· ¬'=·™ :· ¬'=-·
·ª š ='¤= =· '·š + ·'°-. == :-=+ š ·+ '·'=·+=·
¬=·| ƒ:·. ™”=. =·š=='=š==+ =·'œ ·'°-·
'™ƒ:+ =·- ·+++ :== ƒ '+= ·’:- :=:= ƒ · -
·++·= '·· :=· =': š= 'ƒ:+· ™+ ·== ‹=.
¤·= = '¤·=. :=:= ·'= + ·r+= ·-·=. ¬¤· ==:-
·ª ™”· ='· ¬+:·+= '·š++ š-+ ='s ='+ ¬=·|
ƒ+ ='+ ·=+=+ =+·= ··:- =¤· ·’-·’’ (¬=·+
=·”+. š.·)
+ r ·==·· ·-:='== ƒ-+ ¬·” · = :··
='·×+:+ :=· º··:- :·'=- ¬+ º·· =·œ ='+
¬'=== ·’- =:=ƒ:+ – ‘‘= :·= ¬š== r'·++
=:='= = =:- = =:·:r =· ƒ·= ¬=|” ¬=·œ
·==· =·:= =r ™ =: =r:= =r =:-··ƒ '·rr
=r·r š:·· =· š·:·· ·:= ·+. '= ¬=-· =·=·’’
(š..)
=·~ '·· + ƒ ‹ + ƒ ƒ ·=+ =++ ¬·= '+=
·===”+ '·+:‡ '·=+ =·|- ='+ +r š=··· ==
=+ =+=+ =r= ='+:= =· =+'='·= =·= ·|+-‚=
¬:= – ‘‘'·š :·r =:·=:· =· :™ =· =·:=r ¬·r™
=r=. = :™·= :='=:+° ·='=+:=r =· :ƒ:·r =·
:··r ·:‹| ==:=. :=·'= '·¤+. -:-‚|. =r·=+.
r:+ =·:=r =r'=r =· :¤:=· =r š=· ··· -šs
·’-· ...’ ··:rr · '==:rr ·ª ·‹· ·|· ·’-· =·
=== =··|š '=·:·r ¬”r· :šr· :·:= ='·=|
'·t· ·ƒ š:='=·’’
-
+'=++ =·=='” = =·= '=· · == '·š +
¬'=-· =· '·š++ ==-= š'=='-= :·:= '·¤
=- '== – ‘‘r'·++ '·:+'=- · ·:ƒr '·¤'·'‹ :ƒ··r
=:=|· :ƒ:· ··· '·'-:= ·:+'=· ¬° ·=:rr ·:‹|
'·¤r :=:r =·- :ƒ:·r :-:=r ·:=r :r·r ·ƒ:-
'ƒ:+:=· ™r ·= '=- =r =+ :š:+:=. ™r ·» '=-
=:ƒr 'r:=r ¬·r· =-·'°=. ™r ¬¤· '=- =:ƒr
¬=·'= =·r=. ™r ¬··==r =-+ ='-:+ '=-
/ 72
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
¬= =r =·:=r ¬r =:'r :·:= :·'r:+ =:= =·r
=:· =·= ¬== š·r ¬'‹=r·’’ (š-·)
+ 'r '·š ++ =·+= .>.· r== = +=+ ¬+-‚ ¬'=-
š== · · =r+ '·‹+· ·==+ >>· == = +:= :=·
=·+= :=:= ¬‹ '== =.- š ™ '= :ƒ· ='=-. ¬··
=t= =+· =- + ='=-· '=” ¬'= :ƒ· ·’- – ‘‘=r
:='ƒ= ¬·r:ƒr· r+:ƒr ·:= =-š· ƒ·- '=-
'=rr. '=–=·+. '=· =· ¬= :ƒ·:= :ƒ·:= =:ƒr :·:=
·=r ·=r ·-™” :=:·:=· ¬:· =r '=- ™:=
¬·r:ƒr =++ ·:- =:+r =· ¬= =r ·:+:=
·-r:·r ƒ-·’’ (š--)
¬·+ =+=·+ = '™ =·+= =- =|·ƒ · '°:=
= ·==. ·· +=:+ :=+- ·= ·+ :==. ·-. :·™ ·™ .
=-šƒ ==:-:= - º= ='+ ·=+ ==|== =-'== ='+
¬'=- :=· =:= =·+:= +·–ƒ =· := :+ +'r+= :· '=
:ƒ'·· :=+ ·+:= ='··· š+ ='=-. ¬+:·| +·–ƒ =:·
=- =|·ƒ+ · =| ¬= ··¬=|r+= · · ='+ '·'=r '·t
+r= '·:+‹ =++ š ·· ¬:=· =°=='·=· =+ š ‹=
·‹|·· ‘¬'= =’ ='·=+ ='° š'= –
‘‘=- ·r :-·r ·= ='= '=:+
=· ™:ƒr == :=·r :==:=r :r:+
=- ·=+ ‹rr ƒ-
·:· ™r ¬r :=·r =™·r ¬r:·|r :r:+
=:=|r ··r :-=
=~ =r- ¬š= '=-= ¬·=+=’’
+·–ƒ=:· +'=+= :· ·ª= '=· :ƒ'··. š·
· '- ¬· =+ ='=-· '=” :· :ƒ'·:- ==:-:=
'·-:+=+ š'+·==. =·|·ƒ+ ==- ¬'=™=· '·¤.
=- '=¬· ='=. ·'·=|. = '+. ·:ƒ|'·= '·=·. ™=+=
·|+-‚+ ‰= =r'= ==:- 'ƒ:·· =+ =+=+· ='·+
=+= – ‘‘¬'· '=:=r :r:· = :ƒ·:- :=:=·:=·
'··= =r:= šr=· = :™ ¬'·¤· ¬··==r
'=·=- :·:= ¬= :=·- ·= ƒ· ··=:·r ·:‹| -¤
-¤ ·=+:= =r o‹ = · · · :··+ '=. ·=+|:=
=·:'== =:r:=· o‹ '=:=r ==:= =+. ¬=| =:=r
=:=|· =:ƒr =·:= :rs·’’ (š··)
+'=+ƒ· = +·–ƒ =·+ =+=+ ·:· ¬'=- ¬=|=·
==- =· ™=· =· =· š :· = :¤· =+ :·:=· '··
š'+= ·= ='·:+ :ƒ·'·:ƒ· º·· ='+:=. == 'ƒ·
:ƒ'·:=. '·'=:= ; š '··+ '·'=r š ” + =·+·+:= º··
='+:= ¬+ š +:·+ º·· ¬'==== '-'·= + š 'ƒ:=·
‘+'=++ 'r':’ =·= º·· ='·=| · º·· ='·=· =·
='·= º·· =-= '==+ =·+= =:+=:- '-'·'=-·
š':= :=·+ =:+ ==| · '–ƒ+:- '-· 'r'::·+= :™:=
='=·'== ×+ · ¬:= ='· ×+ + 'r':+ ¬=:+ '-·
‘+'=++ 'r':’ :=+- ··+ =·=='·=| '·t+ =-šƒ
:· ·= =· . =· '·t =+=+ :=:·'-= =·+ '·t :·
·= =· =· ~”‚· '·· ='·=|+ ·™ƒ -= ='+:=·
=+·. =· ~ ”‚ = +'r++ ·‹|:·:+ =·~ '·· + == :ƒ·+
š =·¬= +·= ƒ·+· · –ƒ ·· ¬:=· ¬'· ='° =:¤š
¬+:-== ƒ 'sš= ='+:-· ¬= ='r ·= . :== ·- š::=
=· ~ ”‚ + +=- ƒ= ='+:=. ==+==:- ='+·. ¬+
'·· · '=·= ¬‹|+=+ ¬= =+ ·’· ¬+ =·==” =·|·ƒ+
¬'··:= ·=+ š '··= ‹· =+·· . ‹=ƒ ·++ :· ··=
=·=+ =·= '=· ·+ '·=t š· =· =:+ =·|= =r =
-= ='+··
=<i |+tƒ |-+|–
.· '==· ·= ‘r··ƒ =·’ š ··
‘~ ”‚ =· ’ š =·. . · š =·····
·· -- ·= ·ƒ+ ‘¬·+ ='·’ š ..
¬= ·ƒ :™:·· ƒ=. ='·=| ¬=:=·. .>...
š .·
·· = š .·
(:-·= r·+ '=. '=. ¬+ =:-=+ ¬=·+ '·=·+ '·¤=)
-· š :=='=· :r‹ + ‘¬=| == +·–ƒ =·’ š >> s :=·°
s’+r. ×+·°. ···.
«· = š .·.
.· '==· ·= = '¤'·= = ·=. š ··
·· =
·
¬'== = ·+ ƒ= ‘ = ='·· ·==r ·-r =·=·r·
· r··ƒ =·’ š ··
-· '·+ :ƒ r 'r · š ·'= š «· :ƒ’= š·'-'·. .>-.
I slept and dreamt that life was joy.
I awoke and saw that life was service.
I acted and behold,
service was joy.
— Rabindranath Tagore
73 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
‹ '== ¬=·+ ='·=+ '·+= = ¬+ '·=· '·++=
'=:·· ¬+ ·-'=r ¬:-r= ‘¬=·+ ='·=+
='·=’= =+=–ƒ ƒ=· =+=+ ==+ :r==+ :+·
+š ¬+ '·=·+ =–ƒ== :=:= ‘‘·+= ·==+
š ·· ¬+-‚ = š·r=| ==|= ¬+ ·'= :+ ==+ :r===
- '- = ¬+ ¬='·- = ='+'=-. '==+ =- :r =°
=r'== ·:==+ ¬'= 'ƒ'=-· '=” -:· -:· š·r=|
==|=+ ·|'= =+=+ ·™ ƒ ¬+ ='·= ·'= + ··:+
==+ :r=== ¬=-‚ ='+:-. ==+ ¬= š '=r+ =‹==
= ‡ ‡ ='+:-· =· =+· '= + š·= ƒ · '·š+= =-+
š+ ƒ ° '·+° ·‹ :ƒ· 'ƒ'=- =° :·:= ¬·+
·‹|™ ·+ =·'== = =- +=· · ¬+ ¬=:° '·:ƒ·
·==+ :·+· ¬+ š = · · :=:+ ==+ :r== ƒ · · ·
·’- =° ·’- =- +‹· . ·=+=·ƒ. ='·= ¬:··+
· '= =· :+·'·°= :r== ¬+ ¬=:° ·’- š·r=|
·== ¬+ ==|=+ š+ ·'==·. šr= :·++
-: '=·':= ¬= =:r== =+ =~ = =~ · š ·+ ¬= '=·’’
=+=–ƒ ƒ=· :=|'=š =ƒ= '‡=+ ‹+:°+ ='· '·r:·
'r'· = ='+:=· =· '‡=+ ‹+:° :=:·=+ =·=
‘‘='=+ =·'~ = ¬+ ·=+ ¬= = '=+ ‹+. ·'=:=
·= ·=+ =·| ='·=|· · '·:·+ =:+ =· = ·=+ š+·
:š +· ¬·+· ='+· -'··. · += == · = == + š 'ƒ·
-'·· ¬+ · ++ =· ·= '·=·+ =·+= ·’· -'···’’
=+=+ :r== š +·+ =· ‹++ ·š+= =+=–ƒ ƒ=·
=·|= ¬:-r= ='+:=· :=:·:= :=:= ‘‘==+
:r==+ '='=° ='=·'== - + ¬'· :ƒ· š· . :™:=.
¬=·+ ==+=·ƒ. =·=+=+ ==+=·ƒ ¬+
=- =|·ƒ '·:+‹ '·r:· ='=+ ¬+ ¬'= =+ š+‹=
='= =· ·+ :=:= ==|:·‹· '=” · ¬·+ ==+ 'r=+
¬= = '=+ ¬'= ·=+ =- ™'ƒ·. '= ·= =° =-:··
==+ 'r=+ ¬+ =° =- ¬:= '™:° = ƒ+ ·=+=·ƒ.
·|'= =+=+ ='·= · ƒ+:··+ · '= =· =-· ¬·+
='= š+‹= ·=+ =+:· ='· · ƒ++
=· ƒ · :š +· ƒ · · · :· š'+-·
š·r=|'·==. ™” '·t ¬+ '·· ===
= ƒ+ ·=+=·:ƒ ==:- '·· =·== ¬·+ ='· 'r==
¬:š= ='+ = '-:-. ='· ·’- š = '=:š ·. ·=+ :š ·.
= –ƒ++ =‹=· š =· += ™ ·+ =+=+ :r=== '··
š = '= ¬'=- ·+·+. ==+ ¬'=- ¬'==| ¬+ ƒ :=·+
; ¬=+ - ==. =· ·r ¬'ƒ ¬'=- :··ƒ 's ·=·
:=:+ = –ƒ+ ¬'=- ·= š+:-==. ·+:= :·= º=. =·’:-
:=:= '=× · · ¬+ :š· '=” =+'·'¤= ·‹|'·= ='·
'r=· =· ·'°+ š '·+. =· ¬=·. =+. = -. =· :=
'==+. '·'+=:+. =· ·= ·+ =·== :š ·š '= ¬'ƒ
¬= = '=+ ¬ƒ=š ƒ=+ ·‹ ™ |. ·= :· ·= :· ¬” +¤
š'+r+ =· :·++ ·:='ƒ = –ƒ++ '·=· ¬= =+ ='+·
‹'+:-·....... '=” ¬·+ =·=+ ¬· :='== =+== ¬+
š = '== =-š · =+ =++ :¤== '·==+ š :+· ¬'=
=·=|·= :·:= ; ™+ =-= ='·+ 'r== ‘= –ƒ+’+ ‹+·
·’- = :·'-=·+. ¬:r= ¬·r :™= 'r+š'+'r= :·š=
· ƒ+=«+ ¬·r = š-'=+ ¬==· · :™= =+·+
š :·'-=·’’ ='·'r=+ =· =·+‡ =
· ƒ · -= · :ƒƒ -|·==+
·:·· =· ¤= +·
=·| = 's =- + :·
= ::· =·=–ƒ
ƒ=· =·
·- +==
¬=·+ (=+=+) ='·+
=+=+ :° :='= · '-:= ‘‘= –ƒ++
=· ·- +'·· ·=+ =+:·· =+:=· :· r ='· +·–ƒ
=·+ =·| = 's:= ·ª :· = ƒ · -= ¬'= 'ƒ:=·’’
=–ƒ++ =š-'=:= == '=r= ¬:=· =·=–ƒ
ƒ=· :=· =-š=:= ··-· ¬:-r= ='+:= ™'ƒ·
ct¶·ƒ +|< ¶¶o|+¶
/ 74
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
ƒ° š‹= +š= '·:·+ -¤· -+:š 'r'·= ='+:=· =°
='·+ ‘‘¬:š= · ƒ++ :š · ¬+ :r== =·= '·· ·’’
¬+ '‡=+:° ‘‘¬=·™|ƒ:·‹ ¬+ =·== ·'=+
·™ƒ= š'=r =+ ¬+ :r== =:=+:· :ƒ·š· ¬+
¬”='==·’’ =· ƒ· +š+ ·=+ ƒ·-= · =·+‡=
·’- .) :+·'·°= ='· ==:- ··=+ =·==+=+
:š+·= ¬+:·- ='+:=. ·) '·š+ ='·==:- =·=
=+=+ :š+·= '==+ ¬”++ ==” ¬”+¤ ==·+
¬= = '== '== š'+·:· ¬+:·- ='+:=· ‘‘=· ƒ ·
¬=='=+ ==| ¬+ =·r+=:· :·r '·t+ ='s ·’·
š:+’ ’· '- ¬=·+ :=+- '·š + = + '·t :=|'= š =ƒ+
=+==:· =· ƒ· :š+·+ =·= =·:·· :ƒ· š·:=·
=
·
·:+· :·· · :+ +·–ƒ =·+ = 's+ ·== =··ƒ
š+-š++ š =+ -¤| ='+· :=:=. ‘‘=+ =· š ‹= 'ƒ·
:·:= ='·= =+= = r=. = –ƒ+ ¬+ ··= ='+·:- ·= ·+
¤·= ¬+ :=· ¤·=+ š+ =·: ·= ·+ ƒ'+· ·
:=|'=š =ƒ+ 'r” ‹++ ·== +·–ƒ =·+ =:= 'r”
=·=+ š '=‹·'= š r +· ¬+:·| :=· == =·- ='+ '==-
'r” + == 'ƒ· = :–:r= ='+'=-· +·–ƒ =·+ ƒ:+ :=:+
‹· + =+ ‹++ = š= - ='+ ·ªƒ + ¬×+· ¬'·'=-
·=+ =” + 'š:=·’’ (=·=-+ ·'==+. š : .-)· =
·
·:+· :·· · :+ ¬:= :=:= ‘¬'= :=:= :=:=
·|+=+ ·:=· '=+ '·t:+ = :™· · '= == ··+ ·:” =+
¬:··¬= = '= · =·'+= + 'r+ š '= -¤| +'· +r=
=+ '·t=-· ¬= =š · =='š += -= ='+· š:+· '=”
===+ š '= '·t+ ƒ'+· :=:=ƒ:+ š-= =+ ·’· š:+
· '- :=|'= š =:ƒ =· ='=-· :=· + ‹+· ¬'=-
++–ƒ =·+ =:·= : ‘‘:=· =· · » - = · :· 'ƒ:= ·’:·
=+......·’’ (=·=-+ ·'==+. š : .)
:=|'=š =ƒ+ ·š+= =+=+ ='=·|š+-š+. ¬==
:·+++ · '=·=. :·ƒ” = š'=+ƒ. ·=. · ¬+'·–ƒ. '·:·==–
ƒ. ·- ·¤‹+ '=-=. ·r =. +·–ƒ =·+ ¬‹|'===+
š =++ '·r'+:- ·ª =·|š'= :š+ ™·· '=” =· =· ·
= ·=+ ·ª- š =+ =:· · :=· :=· + '==- š· ¬+ ¬ƒ·
·'= -’· š'+'=-. ™+ ·:· :=· + ¬ƒ· ·= = =+· ·'°'=-·
'=” = :¤'·= = ·=· ·+ ·=:= +·–ƒ =·+ š =+ :=· +
·š+= =+=+ ¬'” · =-:=+:-:= ¬š'++'= = :· ¬'=-·
= = ·+ ··r+ ‘+·–ƒ =· ¬+ :=|'=š =ƒ’ ·+ = š +r =
:=|'=š =ƒ+ +·–ƒ rr ¬+ :=· + = 's= +·–ƒ =·+ š =+
=-š:= '== · -|·= =·| = '- ‹'+:=· ¬+:·| '== =·|
:=:·:= '·'·s ·:++= = ++o= =¯r™ + ‘+·–ƒ =· ¬+
¬=·’. '·+=· ·· = ¬+ š+·=–ƒ ·= ·ƒ+ =-š'ƒ=
‘+·–ƒ =·’ ~ ”‚ + š+ =~ · ='+:=· :=|'=š =ƒ+ ‘+r=+-’+
= '·== =
·
=:=|–ƒ =· ·· · :=|'= š =ƒ+ ‘=«= =·+
· +o’ ='·=+ ¬· '·:·+= +·–ƒ =·+ ‘= =|+= = · ·’+
š =+ = ‡ '=:+ = :¤· ='+:=· = = ·+ ··r:+ ='·=:°+
¬= '=+ƒ· +·–ƒ =·+ ‘'· '° =°’ ='·='°+ ¬·
'·:·++ = ‡ '=:+ ‘:=|'=š =ƒ+ ·= :™== ¬+ =–ƒ+
·'=:··+ ='° '=ƒ· =’ '·r:· = '- ‹'+:=· ƒ :+== ='·+
+r=+-+ =·|= ¬‹|+= ¬+ = = š™ :·¤·+ ·:='ƒ ·+:=
=:= ·ª =ƒ ·| · š =+ '·r'+ :š+ ™·· ==¬- ='+==
=:= =· · = = ·+ ··r+ =·:= :ƒ·'+ =’· š'+
‘‘+ š:= +:+ :™'=+ :-·:·-+ =·=:- š :+· ='+:=.
+·–ƒ =· :='=+ ·|'=+ ·‹| ··==·..... :=· =-+ ·-
='·=|+ =·='·= +·–ƒ ¬== ··==:- š™ ” ='·==+
'·+° š '==+ ¬:-= ·-++ š'+=·+ ·'·+:- ™· š+
='=-·’’ ='-=== š »o= =+ ¬‹ '== '·¤:+ '·'¤=
™ += :=|'=š =ƒ :=· '·+° +·–ƒ š '==+ ¬=+ ·+ š+
· = ¬'=- · '- ='··· :=+'+· :=+ ·-+ ·=·+ ƒ:+
=='° ·:+ š+'· :™+ '·‹:+ =·+. :=· + ¬” += = +·
:™+. :r==š +·= '·:¤- :=-. '·+ =:·+ :=|'=+
:- =· +=='=+ '·r+= :=|'=š =ƒ ¬+ +·–ƒ =·+ ·==
™:·s ¬'·- -¤| ='+· = = ·+ ··r:+ :=:= ‘‘··š”‚
=· ‹+š s :·+ =:· · +·–ƒ =·+ -·= :=· + ™:·s
'r” ‹++ '·- ¬·+ ƒ 's:·r+ ·+· +·–ƒ =·+ '='r=:=:+
:=· + '·t :r=== - =–-· = =:+· '·'-= :·:=
:=·ƒ™|:·‹ ¬+ :=··:·· :=|'=š=ƒ+ '·š·ƒ·+
:=·ƒ-‚- ¬'‹=+ ='+:= =-'=:+. :=·+ ™+=+
=·- ¬'=™:=· =-'= -'-=·’ 'r”:r==+ ·==
=· =ƒ ·| = š:++ · ===-+ =·+. 'r=+ ·=+:-:=
=š=· :=··:· :=|'=š=:ƒ +··ƒ=·+ š '= ·=+
· ‡ ¬+ ¬-‚ :š+· ='+'=-· +·–ƒ =·+ ='+= =-:=·
:=|'=š =:ƒ ‘+·–ƒ =·’ ·+ = ='° ='·= +r= ='+'=-·’’
=· =·| ··r:+ '·'·s ·:++= =
·
= ++o= =¯r™ |+ š+
=~ · ='+:=· (= ·=. =¯r™ |+ ‘+·–ƒ =· ¬+ ¬=·’)·
='·=:° .· ¬·s .>.- =·|+ ‘¬=·+’ ==== š =·
š· '=-· = = ·+ ··r:+ =·- =++· :r‹ ++ :™:·'ƒ
-= =+ ¬= =° =·|·:= .>-- r== '· -.+ :·=+
:=–ƒ + = :‡‹= =·= '·r:· '=· 'r= ¬'- ='·+ ++ :r‹ ++
‘¬'= ·:–ƒ '= =:–ƒ:+’ ·=:° ·'=- ='+ +·–ƒ =·+
‘== ·· ·=’ ¬” = = =+= = 's :·+ š ·- š '=·ƒ=
:=|'=š =:ƒ ~ ·· =+ ·'-r = '·=· ='-= ·- :ƒ+
75 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
==:== ¬+ :=|'=š =ƒ · ·| ¬'='· :· = š'-‚ = ·=
š '=·ƒ ==·== :=|'= š =:ƒ :=· š '=·ƒ :™ ='·×+ ·
·- =++ '·+ :‡ =·+ =+ '··ƒ ·|·| = '- ‹:+ ¬+
'=:= ‘== ·· ·= ¬'‹=+=’ ·=:° š'+:··= =:+· -·:=
+·–ƒ =·+ ·=:° ƒ+r-:= · =-:°+ š ·'- ·= · '- :=·
=·+= :=:= :=:=:+ =·:-r= =++ š =¤:=
:=|'=š =:ƒ º'” ƒ + ='+ ·=:°+ ™·· = ™ '= =·=:+
š '=šr =:+· .>-. r=+ .· ¬·s+ ‘¬=·+’
:=|'=š =:ƒ :-· ‘- · + +·–ƒ =·’ ·+ = =-šƒ=+ '=+r +
'== ¬· = = ·+ ··r:+ =
·
= ++o= =¯r™ |+ ¬·:=
= :¤· ='+ ¬· ~ ”‚ + š+ = ‡ = ='+:=· = = :-·:=
+·–ƒ =·+ š '= ·= :=|'= š =ƒ+ ·=+ · ‡ '=+·'=š=:=
š =· š· :=· +·–ƒ =·= :=:·:= ‘‘'·· ·:+·| ·=+.
=+=+ ==+ ·· ='·. =+=+ ==+ =- '= ¬+ š '==+
š == - + :š '·+° š + +’’ · '- ¬·| 'ƒ ‘:=:·=+ · = |=
=·~ '·· ·=:+ '·· =·=+ === :== -‚ =+ :-= :·+ +:-·
:=:·= ¬=- === '·· '··|= ='·:+· ='=-. =·~ '··
=·=+ '·¤ ¬+ =- '=+ :¤== === ¬ƒ· - + š š + +
¬'=-’ · '- · ‡ '=:·ƒ= ='+:=· ‘¬=·+’ ===+ '·o
'·=== š ='·= ‘· :=|'=’+ =·= ‘+·–ƒ =·’ ·+ = :=|'=
š =ƒ+ ¬= ='° '·o +r=· š =· :š++ =·| = = ·+
··r+ š +r :°= = :¤· ¬:=· =· =·|:+ = ·= =
·
= ++o=
=¯r™ |· ¬'· :=· +r=·= š' »·:- :š+ =· · ··r+
š +r :°= = ‡ = :·+ +r=·=+ ¬· '·:·+ (™= = = ·+
··r:+ ‘·· -š· ’ · '-:= ¬+ ‘='·+ š '= + š:= +++
'='· = · ‡ + · +=:= = ·= s ƒ s” ¬+ '= ·’· š:+·’ · '-
·” ·| ='+:=·) = '- ‹++ :-= =·'+· :=+'+:- :
:=|'=š =:ƒ ¬='·· == = :„:·| :-'·:= ‘‘¬·+ :ƒ·+
=:= ¬+-‚ = +·–ƒ =:· :=· + :·=+ :·=+ ·=:·++
·:='ƒ ¬·= ·== ·- = · +· 'ƒ ·’-· ¬·+ · = =: ='+
'ƒ ·’-· š '·++ ¬= ¬= ='=:·++ =·:= · + ƒ'.
= '+·:- :=· ¬·+ ·=:° ·ª= ·š+:- = '- 'ƒ ·’-·
¬=··'=· =. :=· :=:== + +·–ƒ =·= =ƒ+ ·== +'···
:=· + '==š. ='·= =.+ ·’:- '·r'+ '·r'+ š' »··......
:=· + =· =ƒ:+ ='··. ¬+ š '= 'ƒ:= o· = '::+· .
š +'=+ :·'-'°:- r· +·–ƒ :- ='° :=+ ==··’’
.>«· r== :==š += ¬= 'r= :·+ +·–ƒ =+” =
š: =+ :=|'= š =ƒ+ =+·:°= (=·–ƒ ª= +:+ =~ ·
=+. '·+=· ·· = ¬+ š+·=–ƒ ·= ·ƒ++ ‡+ =-š'ƒ=
‘+·–ƒ =·’ ~ ”‚ = š ='·=) +·–ƒ =· =-š= = :=|'=
š =ƒ+ '™ · -|+· š =· š· :=. :=:+· =:+ :=· + '==+=
+·–ƒ š '==+ š =+ '=·= ·=+:-:= :š '·= :· ¬'=-·
š+‹= =+=+ ·=++ š ·= ·+·+ -¤·
:=|'=š=:ƒ š=|¤ ='+'=- -· '·:·==–ƒ+ š'===
¬+ =+ ·= š=· :ƒ· š·'=- +·–ƒ š'==+ ·==·
·r=:+ :=· =·+·= ·|š== ¬+ -== 'ƒ:-·
¬·· :=·+ :r=== =+=++ ƒ=·+ š+ ·'=+ ·:·
=+ š+== ¬·ƒ+ :·+= '·:·==–ƒ. +·–ƒ=·.
·r+ ¬‹|'== 'r”· ·=+ š=+ :š-·'=-·
·.- ¬‹'== =¤== +·–ƒ=:· :™:=:= ===
¬+ ==+ ‹+ =° ='s ='+ ·’-. ¬=·= ¬=·+
¬‹'== =¤=+ :·'-= :=|'=š=:ƒ =ƒ· ‹+ =°
='s ='+·:- =¤· :·'=-· =· ‹+:° ¬'=- =+=+
¬+ š·r=| =·=+ '·-:=:+ =+'r= :·+ ¬‹'==
=+=+ =¤=+ ‹+· =:–ƒ· =· =· :¤== :=|'=
š=ƒ+ ·š+= +·–ƒ =·+ š=+ š'+'=-. '=” :=·
š=+ =·= ¬·= '=r= š=+ ='=-. :=:+ :=|'=š=ƒ
¬+ '·+ +=+ ™·: 'r”:+ =·‡ :· ¬=·+ ¬‹'==
=¤== :š+··+ === ‹+ ='s ='+:-· =:¤·:™·|
:™ š·r=| =¤=+ š =+:=· š·r=| ·· = ¬+ =+=+
:·-'=+ =·r+= ¬‹'== ·- =·=+ -=” ‹+ +r=
='+·:- :· +·–ƒ=· :™:=:= =·=·'+= '·'¤= =‰
=·=+ '·+š =·:-r= ¬+ ='=-|+ =–:·= ·’·
-· :·'=-. ¬=·= :=|'=š =:ƒ =:=ƒ:+· =·
=·:-r=+ =·: ·= ·’· -· :·'=-· :=· '=:=
‘+·–ƒ =¤=’+ =='=r ¬=+· ¬'=-· +·–ƒ =·+
‘= · ·’ ¬+ ‘'· '° =°’ ='·=+ ‹·'=š '=‹·'= :=· +
‘=«==ª·+ ·+o’= o'=·:- :š++ =· ¬·:=
=='=+· ¬· :·:=· :=·+ ‘'=·= =·=’+ ·==
+·–ƒ =·+ ‘:™ =ƒ ·+š:· ·:+:= ·+’ ·='°+
¤· š'=‹·'= ¬=== ·+· ‘===+ š==’ :=· :=:=
‘‘¬'· ¬'= ™:= ¬·+ =+=:- ¬'·· :·= ··
+š”+= =r:=:+ ·=·+ ·+o= ·=+ š·'=+ ¬+
== =+ š== ·'- ·:· ·:· ¬==+ ='+· š:+·’’
‘+'= š ='=- = 'ƒ- +'·='· š · = ƒ+'·'+ =:-·
·:· '··¤· š·| =·+· =+=+= += »:-··’
+·–ƒ =·+ =· ='·= ¬'= =+=+ =+== ¬·:+
¬·:+ ='-+·=·’’
š·r=| =¤= ¬+ =+=+ =¤=+ =·r+:+ ¬‹ '==
=+=+ =¤=+ ‹+ š += == '™ '·== · '·+ š =·:-r=+
= r= :·'=- :=· š =¤= :=|'=š =:ƒ ‘r–ƒ = ·+ ¬·++-’
·+ = =+= ~ ”‚ = r–ƒ = ·+ =+| (¬==·) = '- ‹'+:=
/ 76
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
‘‘'·· ='· +·–ƒ =·+ ·= ¬+ = +:·+ ·¤ :ƒ·= ·:-++
¬·:= ·¤:ƒ·+ =¤= =·== =° ‹+· ·‡ · - :· ¬'=-
:™ ·.- =+= ·= ·’· :=+:+· ·.- =+ '™ ·= ¬:=
'= ·= ~ ·| ¬+ r·+ =+:·:· = š™ = · :=· =·+=
'·–ƒ -= ·=:+· ·.- :ƒ·+ ==:- :· := ¬ƒ+ ¬+
š =+· ·.- ·= · = ++ =· ·.-:+ =:š=:= :·
'='ƒ'=- ¬+:·| = r :· ·+ =¤= '·r:š· '=” +·–ƒ
=·+ ·= ¬+ = :+ :™'=+ +·–ƒ š '==:+ = Š '== :·
¬'· ·.-+ ¬·= = ¤'- = ':-'·· :='=+:+ š+ ·¤:ƒ·+
:=· ‹+·+ š'++= = :· ='=+ ¬· - š'++= = ·’- ¬+
¬='= ·.-:+ ·¤ =+· :· = ++ ··= '·r:š :· r =+
=:= ƒ· ='+·:- ·--· == = ·- :+ ¬+ =:= '·=·
·’· ‹+ š '==· š ··:= '-‚ '=·- =·=+ š+ '™ š '='= +·-
š '=:+‹ š+ '=· :™ +·–ƒ =·+ ·= ¬+ =++ -:·
-:· +··ƒ =·:+ =·|= ·° =· :=:= =·+· +··ƒ =:·
:=· :=· '==+ :=š'-·= =-:=:+ ·· -·+= š'+'=-.
'=” -:· -:· = ƒ+ :· ¬· :·'-+ ¬·+ š+ = +-
¬ =+'ƒ =· :·+ ¬+:·+= ¬ ='+ ™·:- ·‹| ·’- ¬+
+·–ƒ =·+ ·== :+ ·¤:ƒ·+ =¤= =·== +’ƒ'-:+
:=:·+- ='+. ·¤:ƒ·+ =¤=='·=|=·=+ ¬·= = ¤-
='+:- +·–ƒ =:·· '·· ='· :··’’ =·'·'= ™'ƒ· r–ƒ = ·+
¬·++-+. :=|'=š =:ƒ r–ƒ = ·++ ‘¬==·’ = '- ‹:+ :=
:=:= ‘‘=· š +r '°:= r–ƒ = ·++ '-·+ ·:='ƒ:+· ==:-
¬=·+ ==++ ¬” ++ · =. ·:==+ ¬+ ¬·¬=ª¤
= '° ·-· := · '- =’· š'+·’’ ‘¬=·+ =¤=+ ‹+’
·+ = š +r = :=|'=š =:ƒ '=:=· r–ƒ = ·++ = +:= :=:=
‘‘š·r=| =¤== ¬·+ =¤=+ '==+= = :·+= ·ª=:+
¬š'= ·= :ƒ· ™+· =· '·+:+ '·· ='· +·–ƒ · ¬-š:=
:='=- :·:- ¬'=:-:= =+=+ =¤:= š·r=| =·=
'==+ :=:= =· '=+· -’· :=++:° ¬·+ ·=·=
=+=+ =·=+ ƒ · -=+:· -¤·· '= = r =··’’ ¬+:·|
-‚ š=|=-+ :¤== :=· '=r ƒ 's=¤ :š+· ='+'=-·
‘¬=·+ -‚ š=|+ =++ š’ ·+ = š +r = :=· :=:=
‘‘· '°= ™ ·= =+=+ '·t+ =-+ š+· ¬+:·| =° ¬‹ '==
-‚ š=| · »+ :rs :·'=-· :=· :·++ '=ƒ· = :·:= š ‹=:=
·:+ƒ+ -¤'·-= š =ƒ. =· '·–ƒ '·· '·ƒ|-+. '==·+
+=|+ '== ·= ·+ ¬+ ·'” '=:===+ = =++·· ......
+·–ƒ =·+ = =++· · :·- + ·: · =·+ '·· '·ƒ|-++
-‚ š=|+ :¤=:=· '=ƒ·= ¬=·+ -‚š=|+ ¬ƒ· ·’··
:=+:+·’’ =·=+ :¤=:=· ··= · -‚ š=|+ :¤=:=·
··= +·–ƒ =· :=|'=š =ƒ+ :š +· ¬'=- '=” ¬=·+
=- '== =++ š 'ƒ·:- ™· := :=· ¬=·++ =- '==
='=·|= =ƒ+ ×+ · 'ƒ'=-·’’
=
·
·:+= :·· · =-š'ƒ= ‘:=|'= š =ƒ
+r=+-’+ š='== =
·
:···:+ :=|'=š=ƒ+ ·š+=
+·–ƒ=·+ =· :š+··+ š=++ =· =:¤· ='+:=
‘‘=+=+ ¬'”· =-:=+= ·‹|'·= =··:-+ š+
¬='+ === š·+ =r= =+= :=· ==· ¬=+
- ==+ š+ š = = ==· ¬+ =·=· :-:= ·ª=+
=:–ƒ·. ¬'··= ¬+ '·:‡++ š= :·'=-· :=·+
· ƒ+ ·'· ·= =· :·+ ·|·. :¤= ¬+ ¬'=·=+ -·:=
=·~ ·=+ =·=+ == ¬'==+ ·'··'r= = =+·+ =:š=
-š'–ƒ= :· ¬:= :=·+ :=· =·++ ·=:·+=· '==
š'+·:· +·–ƒ=·+ :·+ ·+=+ =š-'=. :·ƒ= ¬+
¬·+ -·= == '+=· š'+. '=” +·–ƒ =·+ =-==
:=|'=š=ƒ =·=+ =+ '=··+ 'r”= ¬'‹= ¬=+=
:· š'+'=-·’’ ‘= –ƒ+’ ¬+ ‘=- '=’ =· ƒ ° ·=
:=|'=š =ƒ+ +r=+ š:= š:=· ·+:= ·= ƒ ° :=·
+·–ƒ =·+ š+· ~ ·· ='+'=-· ‘= –ƒ+’+ +·–ƒ =·+
='·=:= = :¤· ¬:=· :=|'=š =ƒ+ ¬·:= ‘=- '=’+
:· = ‘= 's’:· ¬=·+ ='·=|= ·ª-=:+ ·|+· = :·'=-·
'·+ +=· · ‘= 's’ ·=:°:· šr–ƒ ='+'=-· ·=· =· -
¬+ ¬'·- ·:·+ ‘= '++ š+ ·’- ¬:= ™ '=:-:· :==’
~ ”‚ = :=|'=š =:ƒ -=š =ƒ :·- ·:- '-· š= =·=
š =· š· :=· š=·=+ š =¤= == :=+ :·:=
‘:·-·+ 'r':·=:=· ·'·= ¬:= :™ =œš«+=
·===” + ‹+·· :=|'=š =ƒ+ ·== ·ª ¬:·:+· = · '=
·'+'=- ¬+ :=· + =· ¬ r'=+ '·+:+ - ‹== ¬:–
ƒ-=+ :=:= :=:= =~ · ==· + ¬·= š =:·
='+'=-· =· '·'=:= = :¤· ='+· š'+ :™ - :ƒ· ¬:–
ƒ-=+ 'ƒ=:·+= ·· :ƒ·= +·–ƒ =· := :+· - :ƒ·
=·= š '=r+ ·:· == ¬ r'= ™ ×=· '=- ¬+ :=· +
='·ƒ++ ¬” · = š·=. +=· '· ¬+ ='ƒ+ š+··:=
=· ¬ r'=·= ·- ·'+= =++ š :rs· :-'=-· =· ¬ r'==
~ · š«+=+ ·== '·'=r ¤·= š ƒ= =++ -·:= :·r+
¬'ƒ '·r++ ¤·=· 'ƒ+ :·'=-· ..... :=|'=+ =œ š«+=
¬ r'=+ š =+=- '·+'¤·+ ¬==·=+ =·+:=+ (- :ƒ·
¬:–ƒ-=+ =·+ ¬'=- .>··.>·-)· ·+:= :=·
=·+= =·=·ƒ==:- ƒ'. ‹+ -‚ =+ ·==+ ¬ r'=+
š+· · ++ ¬= +· ·'°'=-· =œ š«+=:+ :=|'= š =ƒ+
·š+= =+=+ :·+ ·+=:-:= ·= ·r =+ ¬=·ƒ| š =++
(š r= .- r·=)
77 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
·=r:=r ¬'”:·. ··<-‚:=r :=·
‘¤r‹r ·'== ƒ·· ƒr=|+’ ™=+. ™·=.
™'‹'rr '=r ¬=| ==:-·. =:·. ·:-= =š'==.
=·=. ‘= =-·+:ƒr :=. ':= :== :r:·
:ƒ:·'=:-=. ™ '‹'r:rr’ ¬=” ··=· :== = = ·:=
º+ =:r'=:-=· :== = š'r=œ ·:+'=:-=
¬=~ '=:=. šr=:+· <'===· '·'-:= ·:+'=:-=
¬šr =:=r š== :ƒ:·· ==:= :r:+ '=:-= š=:=r
=r· ™'‹'r:rr =:=· =r·×'- ·:-· 'ƒ+'=:-=
™ '‹'rr· =:=ƒ r ¬·r :=:='= · :=:='= ·|=:ƒ:·r
'==°· '=” ¬·r ='='=. '== '== š== =·
=r ™'‹'rr ·'·= =r· ··:· =š'==:ƒr ==:-·
'= ·:+'=:-= =” s· :·:= '=:= :š:r'=:-=
™'‹'r:rr ƒ·:= =r··
=:ƒr <:=|:=·. ™'‹'r:rr =··:=r =
·:-·. ƒ·'==· =· '·š- ··=r:=r :== =
:=:= š™ |:+ ¬·r o:='= = :ƒr <:=|:='r
ƒ·'== =š-'= · =:- ™'‹'r:rr ==- ··:=r ··
=š-'= =r:=. :‰šƒ =· =r ==:-·. =¤·
™'ƒ· :·= =·'š '=:=:ƒr š==:= =:·· :·:=
:=·+. ==:-r '= ·:+'=- =-·· ™'‹'r:rr ·:=
:‰šƒr š=:=r :·= ‹=o:+r <'= š¤š=·
=·:ƒ:·r š== ¬='·==r ¬·=r :·= ·
==:-r '=- r:šr ¬·=r· ¬=:=r ·r····
=:·r ·-··· ¬'= :===· o‹ ™'‹'r:rr ·=
=+. š:= '·=:· ¬·r· ··=r:=r -‚:= -‚:=
™ '‹'r:rr =· º= r= s+ =· :‰šƒ:= :ƒ:·'= ¬= r š
¬rr:·· = =r = r :™ š'== ·:-= =:= ··=r:=r
š:= '·=:· :=:= <'=™'= ·:== ¬·r ·:··
'=” ¬'· =·:= :rs ='r =:ƒr ·:+...
¬= =· ·+. :™. ¬šr ¬r :== = ·:-· ¬” =
¬= :=r ·:· . =· ƒ :·|. =· =·=r = ƒ+ ··+ '·'r=
=+. :™. ™ '‹'rr ··= =r:== = ·r =‹:='r= ‹:··
¬r =· :™ š==. ¬= :=r. =·. ·+ =‹:='r=· :===
™:=· ·r· · ·+ ¬·=r :·= ¬= = = :=· := · = +
o'=:+'=:-= ·=. :ƒ'·:+ '=:-= '·· r š... š¤” :r
=· ·-™+ :™. ™'ƒr '='= o:='=:-= ·=. :ƒ:· '=:-=
'·· r š =·'š =·r:r - · -= ·+'= = r ...
¬= = ':= '= :=:·'=:-=. ™ '‹'r:rr =· =·r:r
-···:= = == = :·:-· =’:= -šs. :™. ™'ƒ
r··ƒ=·:= :=· ··š'·= ·:- =t= =r ™+ =·:-
=· ':= :™ = r = ····:=r ¬= ··:ƒr ·:‹| ¬=|=·
'=:-= =·==·ƒ· ... =·==·ƒ r··ƒ=· :=:rr
'··-· := :=· ™ :· =· '‹= = š-'= =r:= :š:r'=:-=
... '=” = =:=· :·+ š™ |” ¬·r :r:· '='= ¬= =·
...:=== -·‡:r š r·:= š:r='= '='=·. ¬'”·
<-:· ... <·· '·=:· =· ·ª:=· ·:- ™·+ ™+
r··ƒ=· '·+:+ =·==·ƒ '-'·= <·r · ='·=
×'-r =·. <=·=- · ·=:·|r =r=· ... ¬r
:=·=· ='·= · <·:rr '==r 'ƒ:+ ¬r ==·r
ºœ|º |¶-|º
š¤¢ &A¡ :– &A¡[i¡ >Û¡y "àìÎ
/ 78
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
:™:= :™:= ==·· ·:=·+ :™. r··ƒ =:·r '··-· :=
·ªƒ r = š-'= =r =:=·. =·==·ƒ · -= '=” r:+:·:-=
:··:” r = +·r ·:= ...‹ =r. ·'· =. = „š=·= ... ·:=š: =
:=· =· ===r ... === ·-:==. ‘‘·-== :™ =' =
·:= · :r :· =:== =’:= :-· ·=:= ‘š '··r =· ·‹:=·
¬'· r · ='r’ ¬r ¬'·. = = = ===. · :r :· =· :™
¬ƒ ·| =' ='° '=:+ =:= :-· ·:= ‘š '··r =·- ·‹:=·
'·r · ·· ¬'·’ ...’’
·· ƒ· ··
r··ƒ=·:= '=:+ =·==:·ƒr :™ =’'° rr=r
=r= ¬'· :š:+'= ==·· =r ='-= '=·rš –
¶¶|·ƒ+|<t+ |+tr :=v| =|¶+|+t·ƒ¶ +|¶=| –
‘r··ƒ =·’ =:·r rr'° ='·=. '-'·=. ™·= :·
.>-·..>-· · .>«« =:-· ==+'° .>-« =:-
‘<'=¤:·’ <='·=· ·- rr=r ='r· ·=·= :-·:=r
== :=··
¹¤ã@ƒø>à=ìA¡ [>ìÚ ëºJà \ã¤>à>ì@ƒ¹ ߤÞê¡ –
‘r··ƒ=· · ¬‹'== ·- ='·=’ .>-· =:-
:-·· '=·:=°<='·= ‘='·=r =·’+ ·'‰=·
‘==r:r'·= ·- =·|’ .>-. =:- :-··
'=·:=°<='·= ‘='·=r =·’+ ·'‰=·
‘r··ƒ=·’ ·- rr=r ='r· ·=·= :-·:=r
== :=·· ‘'·=·=·==·ƒ =·|’ .>>- = ·'‰=·
=¤:· <· ·: - ='·=. :™.=·==·ƒ - +.
r··ƒ =·:= '=:+ · · :·· = ·:-· ™:·s =·|= <·:r
=· ='·=+ '== ·=·= ™:·s ºšs=:r '-:· ™·+
=:=· r··ƒ =·:= '=:+ =·==:·ƒr =·= '·+:+ ¬-ƒ
=:r '== '-:· r··r <:+== ƒ =:- :==· = =:r
·-:= ·+. :™. <··=– ™ r =='° rr=:= o‹ ·= ‘:°=° ’
'·=:· :ƒ:·'=:+ ‘~ |: :=:r'°=’ =·= ‹r·:= ¬- =r
=r:= r= = :ƒr =:= =· :-· ¬<:+==+· =:· ™ r
·:= =:r= '-'·= ¬¤r <= = <- :· ¬'-'·= ¬:r
'== =·=r · '¤=··= = :ƒr ==|· =· :-·· '‡=+=–
=·==:·ƒr :™ ==- <·r r··ƒ =· '·+:+ =+ :=·
×'-:=· ·r =·==:·ƒr r··ƒ =· =·=r = =×'- · -=–
<=r· =:· :=· =· rr= '=:+ ¬:-r=r ™·+r ¬:·
==·r :ƒ:· :=·+ ™= . =r·:· . =·==·ƒ ƒ·
r··ƒ =·:= '=:+ '-'·= = r <·:r · ='·=+ ':= '=
·:- '·:+:== · :r:+:== ·-:= ... ‘r··ƒ =· · ¬‹ '==
·- ='·=’r · -=·×'-. ¬=| ¬:== <=:¤r =°=-
=' =:+ ™'ƒ :ƒ·™+. =:· = =· r=· –
‘r··ƒ=· ¬·:ƒr =+. ='·=|.=·=ƒ·= ·
=·:+r '==r 'ƒ:+ =·+” :rr ·'r·r 'ƒ:= ¬~ =r ··+r
š· :™ r=· '=r=· =:· ·:= =:r:·:== š'··r
¬'ƒ=:-r ··='· · ··=‹r· = šr:== ·ƒ=
·ª™· ‹:r š'··r :=:= :ƒ·· =r=· :-:==r
šr+:= ‹r· =:r='=’·
‘r·:·ƒ =r <= = ¬‹ '== ·- ='·=r ¬= |¤=
·:+:= =:=|·ƒ =:·r · = |r šr· ... ... r··ƒ =:·| r:+:=
=='° '·-= ™:·r <· š'r=r =· =·= ¬:== '== ™
=·+==· '=” r··ƒ =:·r :=· =·:+=r ='·=×:-:=
=· =-š· '·'=r =r:· =r ·'=o‡. <·r.=~=
·:=r <·r×:-:= ™'ƒ ·ƒ 'ƒ· =·:- :ƒ·:= š· :™
=r <== =·|:-:= =·= · ·'=·= :r== ==°
'=‹'r= =·+ =:= =ršr ·”‚r ·:+ :·:=· ... =r
:·+ =·:=r ='·=+· ‘š =·r’. ‘:r··™|+’.
‘¬:r·|’ <='= =·|~:”‚· =· '='== r··ƒ=:·|r
<‹= -:r·+ '·++ =+...’·
=·:= ='·=r :¤:= =·= · ·'=·= :·:‹r
=·==·ƒ+ ‹r='°· ·+:= <='¤= – · '=·=:·:ƒr
ƒr=r =· =·=:·:ƒr '=” =· ='·=+· ==· =:·
¬·· :==· ='·=+ ==·· '·:=:· =+ ='·=r :r:+
=r =š=r· ·= ·:· =· =·=· :·:ƒr ==” ··=:=r
'==r :·:= :™ ='·=×:- = :· = :· =ršr = ='r=
·:+ =:=:=. ¬·r ·:= ·™. :==· ='·=™ :·ƒ
™·-‚:= ¬:=. ='·=×:-:= ~= =r:= š:r'=·
r··ƒ='·=| · ='·=·= :ƒ· · ='=r :·rƒ:
·:= =r:= ·= š«·+° ·=r ‹:r :™=:· '=:=:=
¤'+= =:r:=. ·- == ¬=| :=:= :ƒ· ·:- ·+:=
=r ¬:š¤== =·|··r ·=’·
‘... r··ƒ=:·r == :·:= =·™| · ·'¤= :š:+
¬= :™¬‹ '== =:·|r º+· = =š= ·:+:= =r
š'r·· ·- ='·=| · r··ƒ =:·r '='= :=:¤ :=:-
:=:= =-š· ¬'==· =+·+ '·:+ ƒ=:· ='·:=|r
·'=·= =r=· :=:= ¬===-·- '='== =+· ...’
‘‘ ...‘:==r =r’:= = r =·| ·r:rr :™ :=·ƒ™ |
¬·r :ƒ'· = =‹r·=-= · =r- ·:-· ·:r'=:=
™:= ·:- glib = :·:°· =+· ‘¤'·=’r =r =·==r
™:· ·+:= ƒr· · === ·:= ·:+'=- ... ‘·-=’+
:ƒ'· ƒ·Œr :-=· =r =r ·:= '·:·+= ™r
79 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
elan vital =r '==r =·'š =='° '=:°- =·'= :ƒ·:=
r= r··ƒ=· ‘·-=’r ='·=×:-r :r:+ :·:+=r
=·| ¬r :-:·='=· ‘·=o-’ · ‘·='-’ =·
·=×'-r = ¤ r== = '= · ¬š= =·= r š+:=r
:·'r:= =='ƒ= š'·r· '·:·'·= ·:+'=- ¬:= ·+:=
·:= šr:=. ¬·r· š'r ·:= ™'ƒ rr'ƒ==r
š'rš'·= == :·· =:='== = ·=...’’
¬šr ƒ '° rr=r ·:‹| ‘= =r:r'·= ·- =·|’:=
r··ƒ=· ·-= =='° ='=·'== ··-:s= '·=:··
= '¤'·= ¬r ‘r··ƒ =·’ =·= '‡=+ rr='° · -=
‘r··ƒ =· · ¬‹ '== ·- ='·=r’ · =='° =-<=r··
'== '=r ·” ·| ¬:= =:· ·= :·|r :=:= '=r= :=· –
‘ ... ƒ:” <:·· =:r:== == r=· ·=·=·:=r
¬=- ·=r=r ¬” -‚ :-. :==š+r r š'+= =’:r
= :-:== ƒ:” r = -=+ ·= :+r =·:=r :·'r=:=·
š'rš · =:·. r··ƒ =:·r ='·=| ¬·r ·:=·+ ƒ:” r
- =+ ·=r=r =:= ¬t '·- r šr·= :==š+:rr
¬· - :·'r:=r :=· '·-:+=r ¬·°=·°= š° :· r '==°
- = '=” =· ƒ · r=· ==:-r ·‹ ™ |· = r ='·:=|
r:+ :·:= =· ·+:= '='= ¬‹ '== :·='== š '··r
=· ·š'=+'ƒ= =r=·:+ r ·= + ·’:- =='° = =+
= ¤= = '= · =:·ƒ=·-= =· =·:+· = r ='·:=| r:+:=
™ '·:ƒ:·r š · ·· ='·:ƒr '==:r :=· · ...’
‘... r··ƒ =· ‘·-=’r ='·×:-r :·:=
:·:+=r =·| ¬r :-:·='=· ...’
‘ ... r··ƒ =· '=:=· '=:=r ¬== = '·=r :·:=
·r·r š·:=:° ¬~=r ·:+ ™:== ='sr ==| '= =·
==·r =:=|. :=· ·· =:=|r = :„:·|· :·+:·r
··'·-= =r =:- :-:·'=:- '=” '='= = ~··
=:r='=· ·š'=+'ƒ= ==| ™ ·:- ·=:= ==:=
:rs =r:· = '=” ·=:= ==:= :rs =r:·. rš:=
=+ rš'··:= ... =:ƒr = '·==:=. = ==| ·=r
'='=+ ·:° r··ƒ=:·| =r <'==-= r:+:=· '=” =
ƒ·= ¬·+ =:r =-š· '=·'= :=·· =r =·| š· :·:=
š·”:r r:-:= ¬šrš ==- ='-:+. :=:= '·'·s ·
·· <rr =:= '·r'= 'ƒ:= š:r=· '='= ·:-:== –
:=· := ¬'· r· =‹= :™ :·+ ·:· :·r :=
=·= := =··· / =:-r =:r =+ := :·=. := ··:·
:=· '·+· :·+/ :™· =:- =- ‹-+ :=:- ¬·r
=- =°··· / =·'= =’:r :·r =·:= ¬=· ·|=-=./
'==| === =‹=:= '==|=== ·|· !/ :š:-· := :=
='r:+ :='-. ¬·r ¬'· ƒ ·= :·'-/ '==| :ƒ·+
=r+ = :™. '==| :=·+ =·’·· ...
¬·· =·==:·ƒr ·=. r··ƒ=:·r =·|'··
'·+:+. =·= =++.=r=· –
(=) ‘:==r =r’ r :=·ƒ™ | =‹r·= -= · =r-·
(·) ‘¤'·=’r =r =·==r ™:· ·+:= ƒr·
·:=·:+'=- =· ·:= ·:+'=- ===··
(·) ‘·=o-’ · ‘·='-’r ¬:·ƒ= š'·r:·r
=:= :™·=. :=·'= ¬·:ƒr =:=· ='r:+ '·:+:=·
(·) ‘·-=’ :·r=· :=== :=·:= ƒ·Œr :-=
·+ š'r-'¤=·
=¤:· :™ =·×'- ¬·r ·:= ¬=:= –
(=) ‘:==r =r’r :=·ƒ™| =‹r·=-= ·-:=
':= '= ·'+:+:== =·==·ƒ· =r ==:rr ·'¤= '=
r:+:·:= =r '=:=r <·· ~”‚ ‘+r š-=’:= ¬-=r
=rr ·:‹|·
(·) ‘¤'·=’r =r ‘ƒr·’ :==· ¬·r =:=
=r :=:= ™ '= =·= = =r :=· · ¬” = ='·=r ·::=
:=:= ƒr·=r ·'¤= ¬'· ·ª š::=· š·'=· =·:-
¬r ™ ··+ =-· = =:·r ƒr·= · =·= '= =-·.
:™. r··ƒ =:·r =·r=|'° š'rº r '=:- = =·==:·ƒr
=:=· =’'= '=- :=:= ¬<=|+·
(·) ·=o-’ · ‘·='-’r ¬:·ƒ= š'·r:·r
=:= :™·=. :=·'= ¬·:ƒr =:=· ='r:+ '·:+:=’
... ‘·=o-’ · ‘·='-’r ¬:·ƒ= := =š-'= =r:=
=:=ƒr =¤· ·:+'=:-= š'·r:·r =·=-= ¬:==
<== <'==‹r 'r” · '·tš'·=:=r·
·:+°= '=:=· :™ == =·+ r··ƒ=·:= :=:=
:·:-= =· :·:-= :™ ™'=r '='=:= =’:= = ¬=
<·'·= :™ '='= r··ƒ=·:= ¬·r· ‘'·'s=’:ƒr =:¤
×'-:+ :=:-'=:-=·
¬:r=° ='·:+ '·:+ ™'ƒ r··ƒ =· =-š:=
:·:· :=r ·= ·|×'- ¬= ‹·= =r ™+ =·:- =· ×'-:+
:=-r ‹r·'° ¬:r š'r=r ·:·· ¬=|= = '=:+·
¬:-r=r ·= r·:-·
(·) ‘·-=’:= =·==:·ƒr ==·= -¤|=+ =·
=:--·r '='== o‹·= =r ƒ·Œr :-=·
‹:·ƒ š:= ™· =·==:·ƒr =· =·×'- '=:+·
‘= ==| (·š'=+'ƒ= ==|) ·=r '='== ·:°; r··ƒ =:·|
/ 80
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
=r <'==-= r:+:=· '=” = ƒ·= ¬·+ =:r =-š·
'=· '= :=· · = r =·| š· :·:= š·” :r r:-:= ¬šr š
==- ='-:+. :=:= '·'·s · ·· <rr =:= '·r'=
'ƒ:= š:r=· '='= ·:-:== –
:=· := ¬'· r· =‹= :™ :·+ ·:· :·r :=
=·= := =··· /=:-r =:r =+ := :·=. := ··:·
:=· '·+· :·+ ...’
‘= ƒ·= ¬·+ =:r =-š· '=·'= :=··’ ='°
=·==:·ƒr '==- ‹r· ·:=· š:r '=” r··ƒ=· :™
=· ƒ·:=· '=:-= '=·= = '= '=:-= <·'·=· ¬r
'=:=r ·” ·|:= :=r 'ƒ:= r··ƒ =:·r :™ rr='°r = :¤·
=:r:== =·==·ƒ = =·:=· =-- '·=:· :·'ƒ= ·
= š'=+ƒ+ =·=:= =|· =:r ¬=|= ··:=r =· ·:-=.
‘=:-r =:r =+:= :· =’ ·-:=. =·= =·+. <'=‹Œ'=
:=:- ‘· =:-+ =ƒr=’ =· =š'=+ƒ+ '=‡:”'r ...
·· '== ··
=·r :ƒ· ™= ‘r··ƒ =·’ =:·r ='·= r= s:+r
'ƒ:= ...
‘¶¶|·ƒ+|<’ (.÷--)
='·= '·=:· ¬=‹r· =='° ='·=· =:· =·-
='·='°r ·r:r =:-r r===r ¬==:·r =rr··
<·-· =r·:‹| r··ƒ =·:= '=· :=:= ====
··=:= ·:=š·+r ==×'- '=·rš –
'=:=r :='·ƒ= ×:· =«'r= ·:+ =:: ¬š=r
'=r:-= :·:r / ¬=r = ·=. =+. = ·==
¬:‹'r:= ¬š=r =ƒ 'r:= '=:= / = r:=:=
ƒ=:=:= · ='· =:= '-‚r :<'·:=r ·:= ¬·+·
'ƒ:= / :=· =· '·='=:= :=:=:·:- '=r·+ ¬'ƒ'=r
:=:=· ............ ............ ............
............ / '=r :=:¤ == ƒr =r:=r '='= :=:·
¬:=· / ==ƒr :=š:=r ·:= ='· š=:-r <'==
:='‹:+ / ¬·'r==:· ·ƒ š'·r ·== :=· ·:r:=
¬‹:r / '=:= <·'·= ·:+ ¬==· =:r'=:- :·r=r
=· ·=:+r ¬'·:+r =+· -'=· ...
‘¶¶|·ƒ+|<’ (.÷-;)
¬·+:· ·= ·:r š'=r =· ='·='°· ='·=
·=:· ¬=·=|· š:·r ='·='°'r ·== =· ='·='°·
‘:=:= ==== ··=r ( =·:= ='·+= :·= ) 'r” r
‹|:= ·~ ·:+ ™:·r =· ¬r=r :·:= ·'= :š:=
·:·’ =·'= =='° ·'¤= :r:·™+ ...
¬= =· š'··:= ¬:=:=· =· =:·· / =··
¬:== :·· :-= ¬= ·==='rr ¬=·:+ / šš
· =šr ····:=r =:= =r°= / ·:+ ¬·= ·:·
=·:rr ·'-. š=:-r ='- ¤:+· / :=·· <”r
š:· =- š'· ·:=r '==:r / =·+ '=:=:= ='= =
'ƒ:+ ·+:= '='·- r-:=:= / ¬ =· r:-r ·:= r:= r
r«- =- / :=·:= ƒ== :·= ·:-. -='·= ·:+
:·:=· / '='·:+ ¬'·=·'= ==:r- ·:+·:: ·|·:·r
š:r ·=:+r· / ='· · '==° :-:=r ·:=. ·:=
== '<+ / ¬r :·r:= =:· ='·:+= =:™|r :==
:ƒ:·'=- '··ƒ <=:¤ ¬= =:='‹= =:· -:r·+·
·r .>-· =:- '-'·= ‘r··ƒ =·’ =:·r
¬:r='° ·:r š'=r ='·= ƒ'· r:· :·'· ºšs=r
‘·= :+r ·:= ƒ'œ ¬:= / =· :r= =¤= · = ™
·‹ r’ / =r=· =· :™= :·=:™:= :=:= =='ƒ=/
¬= :=· ·= :»r ƒ r / r:- :·:= ·:= ·+ =· / ¬·:ƒr
¬=:=r · '=·= '·:· / '=·'== ·:+ ¬:= ·:- / ·r
=:· -= ·:+ '·:+:= ¬'” :· / = 'sr <·· =ƒ '·· ·
:=·ƒ:™ r / =· · · -| '=:r ¬:= / == = =·+=:r =· :=·
=:=|r ·== / ·= :+r :r==+ ¬·+ <+:=· ...
.>-« =:- <'=¤:· <='·= ‘r··ƒ=·’
=·= ='·= ™r ·- rr=r ='r· ·=·= :-·:=r
==:=· :='° ='·= '·=:·· '·'·- š:·‡= ==-
='·= ×'-r :r:+· :=· ='·=+ ·= =='° -·=·
·+:= ·'¤=··. ·+:= '=™|= :·° ='·='°'r –
= '· =· š '··:r :=·r ·:=r = = 'ƒ:+ ¬=:·r
¬=|=· =¤:=r =:· :·:‹ 'ƒ:+ r:- :·=· /¬=·
=· =¤:=r == =:=. =·ƒr '==:° == ·'”.
:<·. ¤·· ...
.>-· =:- '-'·= ‘r··ƒ=·’ ='·='° ¬·r
·:‹| =·: :ƒ+ '=·rš 'r”r –
‘·=:+r ·:= ƒ'œ ¬:= / =· :r= =¤= · =™
·‹r’ / =r=· =· :™= :·=:™:= :=:= =='ƒ=/
¬= :=· ·= :»r ƒr’
<·· ƒ · '° š'= := ·- ™+ =·==:·ƒr :r:· r··ƒ
ƒ· :=r =r·=r (:™:·= ='·='°r =· ‘r··ƒ =·’) =·
= ™'ƒ ·+ =·:- ·-:= ·+ :™ =· 'r” r '·- r··ƒ
ƒ· :=r :r:+ ‘:=='° += ='·:=’r =:¤· :»r :·· ¬··
:·:š=··+:rr ‘= · - ’ =r =:¤· ¬· · =· 'r” :=:=
= :=:= :· '·r ‘¬'- · ·ƒ’=r · '¤=··=· =r · :·· '·.
81 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
¬:-r=r = '·‹:· . ™'ƒ ƒ = =r:= ™+ r··ƒ =:·r
‘·|·-’ ~ :”‚ r :=· ‘¬'·’:=. =·:-· =·:- ¬š=
=:· ·:=·:=· š:r :™ =·==·ƒ ':= =·· ·-:== :===
‘¬'·’r ¬r- . ==:-· =:==. =· =:· –
¬·r· :r==r r:. šr ·- =·=. / r'= =:-
r. ·:+ · / ¬'· :r· :·--· ¬=:·. / ¤:- =:-
¬:- / š:· š'·r:· · / :·-:šr 'ƒ:= :r:+ ·--·
‘=·ƒr’. / =·ƒr ·- := ·
'=” =ršr· =ršr :=· ‘¬'·’r -rš :™·:=
·|·| =r:== r··ƒ=·. :=·:=·
¬=· '™'= '='= -+ =:r:== =‹= / ·=:+r
=·=+. / =:=· ·:- ‘¬'·’ · / :=· ¬'·r ··:=
¬:- ¬‹:rr ·°- =··. :ƒ· 'ƒ- rš . :=:·
=:- r= · /‘=’ =·= =:° =:: ·- ‘·’ ·+r ·:” /
:r·+ r:. =:· ƒ–:· ·
¬·· =·==:·ƒr :=· =rr:· =· ·¬::r
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/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
'=r·+ :=·'= ·-|·= r··ƒ=:·r ··=r ·|'=:·r
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·- ='·:=|r =š'r'r= ='·š·'r= =œ'+ '··:=r ·- '=·= ='r··o· =·= '··|= ·=·:+r :=-š=
=· r .'š (HP):= = = = rr = ·:ƒ ·= = :r· ·¤- r := · · = r :-· š = := :ƒ· = – http://
amarsonarbanglaamitomaybhalobasai.blogspot.com
83 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
T
he representation of gender in
Shakespeare’s plays has interested
scholarship over the years. People like Dr.
Johnson have been known to remark that
Shakespeare’s comedies have no heroes,
only heroines. During the late nineteen –
seventies and eighties critics motivated by
the feminist movements began the
examination of gender in the works of
Shakespeare and the ways in which he
addressed the problem as a key determinant
of identity.
By gender we mean the division of
male and female and the attributes
considered appropriate to each masculine
and feminine. Gender exists primarily as
constructions of particular societies. Men or
women desire to be what they are or try to
acquire the attributes of the opposite sex,
depending on the cultural background and
the social cross-currents.
It follows that gender is a social, not a
biological, construct. In fact sex and gender
are both constructed, As pointed out by
Simone de Beauvoir, ‘‘One is not born a
woman, but becomes one.’’ The contention
that women are made rather than born has
been central to the theories of gender –
especially in some of Shakespeare’s plays –
assumes importance. Gender may be seen as
a set of acts and rituals we repeatedly go through.
It has an imitative structure, it is performative and
fluid. Gender deals with socially constructed
masculinity and femininity, that is concepts defined
by social, cultural and psychological attributes
which are acquired by becoming a man or a woman
in particular society at a particular time. While
gender differences stem from sexual differences,
the characteristics of gender are performative to be
feminine is to perform femininity. It follows that
gender is not something one puts on or discards at
will. One is constrained into gender.
The question of gender ensured that certain
roles were determined for women in society by a
patriachal ideology. Any trangression or refusal
to adhere to a set pattern was seen as unnatural
and deviant. Again, interpretations of actions and
ideas were made along gendered terms. Certain
type of behaviour or conduct including work and
participation in the public world of power, politics
and social welfare were deemed as a masculine
preserve and so out of bounds for women. Women
who showed any interest in education, work (other
than domestic) of public affairs were discouraged
and even penalized. Their territory was restricted
to the home and the hearth.
A study of Shakespeare’s plays, especially the
history plays and the plays otherwise dealing with
power politics shows that the stage of English
history or even the world of statecraft was deemed
to be no place for women. In Henry IV, Hostpur,
Anjali Baruah
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rushing off to battle, refuses to answer his wife’s
queries with the rejoinder, ‘‘This is no world / to
play with mammets and to tilt with lips’’ (III. 3. 85-
6). In Richard II, when the Duchess of York goes to
plead with the new king Henry IV, her conduct is
presented as an indecorous intrusion. Similarly Joan
and Margaret (Henry VI) are demonized for their
intrusion into the historical arenas of court and the
battlefield. The more active the female characters
become, the more negative is their characterization.
On the other hand, helplessness seems to be an
essential component of female virtue. The women
are confined to enclosed domestic settings ; they
are kept away from the council chambers and
battlefields. The picture become more complicated
if we look beyond the prominent English History
plays. King John, Henry VIII and the Henry VI plays,
however, do include female characters who intervene
in the historical action. In the opening scene of King
John, Eleanor announces that she is a ‘soldier’ and
both Eleanor and Constance play leading roles in
the conflict for the English throne. In Richard III,
too, women have more space and pose a theatrical
challenge to Richard with his daemonic energy.
Interestingly, Shakespeare’s London had a
visible female presence: they could be seen assisting
in household matters as well as buying and selling
in the market, engaging in litigation on their own,
and frequenting the playhouses. In Southwark, the
immediate vicinity of the theatres, some of the
households were headed by women. While the
projection of energetic and somewhat emancipated
women might have attracted a section of the female
theatre going public, the male spectators would have
responded with anxious hostility to representation
of women’s power and autonomy.
Shakespeare’s plays address some of these
troublesome areas in the representation of gender and
the roles given to the women characters. They also
touch upon certain key patriarchal assumptions
concerning gender. The world of realpolitik is
considered to be outside the province of women: the
stage of history is no place for women. This, despite
the reigns of Mary and then Elizabeth in England.
Then again, marital valour is presented as a monstrous
anomaly as far as woman were concerned in
Shakespearea's play. In fact women are seen to be
caught in a double bind in the Shakespearean play.
Strong women like Goneril, Cleopatra and others are
unchaste and unwomanly ; virtuous women like
Ophelia, Octavia, Lady Percy and others are confined
to playing roles of helpless tools or bystanders,
powerless to affect the course of history. Thus the
female characters are confronted by a dilemma they
can be either womanly or warlike. They can be either
virtuous or powerful, never both. This suggests that
the construction (and constriction) of women’s roles
was well under way in Shakespeare’s times and
gender-specific territory was being charted out, with
a little resistance no doubt.
As pointed out by Sherry Ortner, female
subordination is universal and has its roots not in
the biological differences between the sexes but in
the controlling cultures of the times. Starting from
the idea that biological differences between men
and women take on significance only within
culturally defined value systems, she located the
problem of sexual asymmetry at the level of
cultural ideologies and symbols. She goes on to
suggest that common to all cultures is the
devaluation of women. Culture attempts to control
and transcend nature, to use it for its own purposes.
It seeks to mark out or socialize nature, in order to
regulate and maintain relations between society and
the forces and conditions of the environment.
Women are identified or symbolically associated
with nature and men with culture. It follows that
women as an extension of nature are controlled,
contained and even sublimated by men.
Women, by their physiology and reproductive
functions appear to be closer to nature. Men have to
seek cultural means of creation and represent the
creative power of culture. Women are limited to
certain social roles which are seen to be closer to
nature. It is seen that while sexual ideologies and
stereotypes vary, certain symbolic associations
between gender and many other aspects of cultural
life occur across a wide range of societies. The
differences between men and women can be
conceptualized in terms of pairs which resonate with
other oppositions. Thus men may be associated with
‘up’, ‘right’ ‘high’, ‘culture’ and ‘strength’, while
women are associated with their opposites ‘down’,
‘left’, ‘low’, ‘nature’ and ‘weakness’. These
associations are not inherent in the biological or
social nature of the sexes, but are cultural constructs,
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/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
which are powerfully reinforced by the social
activities which both define and are defined by them.
It is in understanding how men and women are
socially constructed And how those construction
define and redefine social activities that the value
of a symbolic analysis of gender becomes apparent.
Such demarcation of masculine and feminine
space continued well into the nineteenth century
although there were voices of decent to be found
amongst them. It is interesting to note that in the
plays of Shakespeare, women are allowed some
space, both textual and social. It allows the reader
to examine the variety of ways in which
Shakespeare responded to gender as a crucial
determinant of human identity and political power.
However, women continued to operate under
strong social constraint as evident from his plays.
Certain kinds of work or certain areas of work were
denied even closed to them. The forms of control
included non-admittance of women to forms of
training, such as apprenticeships and formal
degrees which are a condition of practising a
particular trade. The natural association of women
with children and the family provided an additional
level of categorization. Since women are confined
to the domestic context, their main sphere of
activity was restricted to intra and inter-familial
relations, as opposed to men, who operate in the
political and public domain of social life.
It followed that the state became a site of
patriarchal relations. Yet it is not basis of patriarchal
power. Rather its action should be seen as the
outcome of the representation of patriarchal interest
which are mediated in the political process. While
the actions of the state are linked to the economic
level of patriarchy, they have a level of autonomy
in which the actual outcome of conflicting interest
is mediated by conflicts and negotiation at the
political level. That is not to say, however, that the
state authorities do not assume patriarchal role
while deciding or legislating over women’s affairs.
Women who are subordinated with the
productive process, have little access to forms of
political representation. This is partly because of
their lack of power in the sphere of production and
partly because the particular forms of the state and
its mode of functioning act to suppress the effective
representation of women’s interests. Further, it is
not the world of power-politics alone that affirms
gender differences: perceptions of gender
differences occur developmentally as well.
Most people develop an unambiguous core
gender identity, a sense that they are female or male.
It is seen however that maleness is more conflictual
and more problematic because of a sense of oneness
with the mother. Thus it becomes important to men
to have a clear sense of gender differences, of what
is masculine and what is feminine, and to maintain
rigid boundaries between these. The male’s self
becomes based on a more fixed ‘‘me’’ and ‘‘not me’’
distinction. For girls on the other hand core gender
identity is not problematic. They grow up with a
sense of continuity and similarity to the mother. The
difficulties that girls have in establishing a
‘‘feminine’’ identity do not stem from the
inaccessibility and negative definition that girls of
this identity or its assumption by denial. They arise
from identification with a negatively valued gender
category and on ambivalently experienced mother
figure whose femininity are accessible but devalued.
Women are presented as a source of disorder in
the state. They are held to be a source of disorder
because their being or nature necessarily leads them
to exert a disruptive influence in social and political
life. The family is seen as the most natural of all human
associations and specially suited to women, who
cannot transcend their natures in the manner
demanded by civil forms of life. Popular
contemporary beliefs about women, no less that
seventeenth century patriarchal arguments, rely on an
appeal to nature and also on the fact that what is natural
or ordered according to nature is widely believed to
be good and desirable. The family is grounded in the
natural ties of love and affection and has its origin in
the biological process of procreation, in the natural
differences between the sexes, Rousseau argues that
the family provides us with a major example of a social
institution that follows the order of nature because, in
the family, age naturally takes precedence over youth
and males are naturally in authority over females. For
Rousseau, the family is necessarily patriarchal. Again
Rousseau and Freud hold that women are incapable
of developing a sense of justice. Both agree that for
women anatomy is destiny. Women are naturally
made to be at the mercy of man’s judgement. This
kind of perception was common to Shakespeare’s
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/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
times. Women were deemed to be incapable of
handling matters outside the home. They went out to
work although they were debarred from certain types
of occupations by informal barriers and restrictions.
The class of father and husband and a woman’s own
occupational attainment continue to divide women.
Gender is classed, just as economic and political
stratification is gendered.
The representation of gender becomes a key
issue in unravelling the social and cultural structure.
In the public sphere under-representation of women
has been a common factor. In gendered terms it is a
male preserve. In fact certain fixed gender
assumptions have continued over the years and still
lurk in present critical practice. The term
representation is used because it indicates a necessary
distance between experience and formulation. It
recognizes the fictive in our understanding. It allows
a gap between how we see things and how, potentially,
they might be. As pointed out by Beer, ‘‘It
acknowledges the extent to which ideologies harden
into objects and so sustain themselves as real
presences in the world..... Their encoding of
assumptions and desires reinforces as natural and
permanent what may be temporary and learnt. So
representations rapidly shift from being secondary to
primary in their truth-claims.’’ Representations tend
to become representative and acquire authority.
Figures settle into assumptions. On the other hand,
any study of gender would call for representation, that
is making present what is absent. This awareness can
reinforce our understanding of things in the present
and underline at the same time the relative nature of
concepts. Thus the processes of gender formation and
gender change cannot be taken as absolute.
Any study of gender representation requires
the fullness of resources from past texts as from
present. The text fights back, but it can do so with
meaning only if the submerged controversies and
desires are taken note of. It does not tamely submit
to fresh inscriptions of meaning. In his search for
gaps or tools to access the text, the reader assumes
an inquisitorial position. The changing significance
of images have to be understood, signing the shifting
categories of gender difference and representation.
To understand gender during Shakespeare’s
times or in his work, the patriarchal setup at home
and in society has to be examined. In the late
sixteen century patriarchy meant the power of the
father over everyone in the household, including
servants and apprentices. Women were deemed to
be less rational than men, and in need of male
protection and guidance. A sense of inferiority was
instilled into the women mainly because of their
financial insolvency: they had to depend on their
husbands, fathers or guardians for support.
However women did venture out in Shakespeare’s
plays. Some of them even held productive roles in
the economy. But Shakespeare limits his
representation of women’s economic labour to that
of household servants, tavern-keepers, bawds and
prostitutes. This is not to suggest that women in
Shakespeare’s plays do not push against the
patriarchal structures. Their most powerful weapon
is speech as seen in the case of Isabella in Measure
for Measure, where she denounces Angelo and men
who play fantastic tricks on assuming a little power.
Shakespeare’s characters, especially the
major characters, realize their identities through
political domestic or psychological chaos. Social
order is restored at the end of the plays mainly
through the platonic concept of marriage.
=+=·+ ¬=|=·· ¬'=:= ƒ = ·|+ '·++ :™ = =+
š··«-+ =:=·= +=| ¬·+ :ƒ·+ '==+:= ¬'=
= =-š= š +· · '- 'r'· =· = '·=-š =:= =° ¬='-:=
š='== ƒ:™·. ™+ šr: ·'=+ =-= '='·+:= :=:=
¬·=== :=:·+ š'·++ =š'+=·+ == =· =+
=·== '·='+=+ = 's ='+ ==:- '·=· ='+ 'ƒ· š:+·
=:= =° š'==- š'+:+· =· ··=:= ·'°· š+ r+·
š='== ƒ:™·+ =-+= ·= ¬«-= ·= =+ +·=
'·r:š. ==·· '·r:š ¬·+ =+= ‹+·+ š ·- ¬'=
·- +‹· ·’· -'··· ¬'· =+· :=++ =:=:·+
'·š™ ++ š+ :=:=·:= ·'r ·'=·:- ™:·s š'+=t=:+
¬·+ :ƒ='–ƒ= =+=+ ‹+ š-= ='+ -’· -'···
(The author teaches English in the College)
[:-·= -•== ·+ ·++ (=-) ==]
(÷. št|¶ š¶| ) ==|¶ƒ i· š +a – =|-ºi= ¤º·
87 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
.
...r··ƒ=·. ='·· 'ƒ:- ƒ¤
¬:-=·:·· :··:·r 'ƒƒ¤·
:=·r =:rr =o·=-š:·
=r=·= :™=‹r= ·:+....
= ‹=|·ƒ :ƒ· =·r ==|!
=··. ™'ƒ =·· ¬š=r.
·'- =:·. šrr ·|=·|='=
r'-:+ :·=. š·š'· – š'=
+’:r· :·:=. :=·-. · :·= ·:·
:‹= =’:r! .... :=·+. == ¬·
-'=:+ :r:·'=:-. '·š- ·:¤!
:== · =r :š'=- = :·:¤ –
:=· =·=r =:r. :™·+ ·=
:=|'=·:+. r··ƒ :=r
·'r:+™·r. -œ ·:+™·r
=· '=-! :·+·™|+ ¬·r
·-:- :==. ¬š= š'rr+'°
š·'= ='·! š:r= :=· =+'°
=·- ¬·r! =r· ·- '=+r
·rš:·! =:- :=r ·'-r +=...
...r··ƒ=·. :=·:= ·r·
·’:-· ='=! ='·· :™ ¬··
·:=· šr. =·:= š'r = =
:rs =’:r·· ·:-· 'š=·=
·‡. =· ·‡. =:ƒr š:r –
=:· = =! ·r =:‹Œ r:=
·
=:™·| =”:=r! ¬·r :™·|
·· · = ··. :=·r =·=™=
:ƒ'·:= =! :=· š:·|· ‹=|!
:=· =:=|·. :=·:= =··|
=:=r =·=. =r+. '= ·‹:=|
·:=:ƒ·. =:· = =· ·:¤!
·¤ =:°. :==. ·¤ =:° –
™·= ='·. :ƒ'·. š¤·:°.
=°+r =|+. ·‡. š= =:·!
:·+'ƒ·:=r =™. --° r:·.
:·:+=r'° =:š:+·. ™+ š:° –
·¤ =:°. =·= ; ·¤ =:°...
...r··ƒ=·. ·- ·=·==|
=·:- ƒ·- '= ==··....·=
:=·r =:r. =:·|. ·:= :™==
¬=·. :=·+ :š'=:· ¬r :·ƒ=
=·r =:·! –¬š=:r =r :r=
==r+. = =r= ; :-=:ƒ=
=·· =r r-:· :ƒ==ƒ:rr
=:¤ =· := =r:· =·r. ·:rr·
:™·= =:r'=:- ='· · ·=r
=r='°r :·:+. š=. r=r
:š:+ ·:= · '·= ='-r '-'š'°·
¬'··=r ·|¤·'=r '='š'°
'ƒ:+ ™·r ··'° 'rr¬° :·!
:=·r ·=· :=’· = ™:· =°:+
=·=. ¬·- ·-==·. =‹r
:·+ =:š:+ · – ·‹:rr· – ·=‹r·
P¡¹ç¡šøoà³, Îà‹¢Åt¡¤ìÈ¢
"[>¤¢ào ‹[¹yãšåy
(¶|:=| º||ct=i¶ ºš|¶|r= +|¶ ¤|+¶|- ‹|¶=|š= <|t++ +=+|=|ri ‘¤+¶=+’ +|t· =+ ºš|¶|r= :v|r +|~t=¶
=·: =+ :<t+c ººš|ƒ+|¶ ƒ||rt¤ =|=tr ¤|tv+i)
·
....r··ƒ=·. ·‹r=·. :=·r·
:·+ š·'=. ¬·r! ™= :··r ·
ƒ:” š'= ; š'= · ·-:·· ;
==:= š:r ƒ”:= '= =r:·+.
™=· =·=! – :=·=· ':=. :·:='°·
·=:-š ¬r ¬r '=:+·. :·:=°+
š=r:··. š-š. r'- ·'=:+ –
¬·r. ¬=·! – ·:=r š:r ƒ'=:+
:™='·. =r rr·š” ··:=
:=·+ '·-+! – ·= :·:·. ¬·:=!
– ==- ™'=š:rr :™==. :™='·
==:= :r:+'=- o‹. := ='·!
¬'-=· := '=-. ='= ='-=·
='·º:· == =:· – ·='='·.
o=š¤. =+š¤. ·=r šr –
– :r'r:+ r:- ·:=r ƒ:-. :·šƒ!
r··ƒ=·. ¤'·· =·. =-š‹ ... ...
/ 88
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
‘š|všr’
=
·
+·t=- +|==|
:·= =·= ‘š=š°’ -:·
¬:= =·+ =·-+ ·r+= ·'·
·=+ ·‹'- ‘¬-š'+’ ··:-
:·= =·= ‘=·=-’ -:·
=:·- =·=
™’= =·‹=:·++ =+=
=·=|:·+ š-· š= 'ƒ:+
‘=-’ =·= ·==+ '==+:-··
¤|t¶|= =|r= :=«
r·ƒ·| +|==|
=+š:= '+'.+· ·= ¬:·'-:°=.
:=· ·ª =· =:+·
¬'=-:= =·'=· :=·
=:+·+ =:–ƒ·‡ ¬:··+ '·:+=··
·’· š'+'=-:=
·-‹+ :ƒš=:+ =·+ '=r
=== ¬='·= ¬·· =·'+=·
:··”+ ×·×·'=:·+ o'= o'=
:=· =:=š šr= ·= :· :=+:+.
='° :·:== -· ¬==.
'= :·+·++ =+=
:=· o'=· o= ='=-
:=== š=+ ¬++ ='·+===+ ·=·
'= =+'°+ ·'=
:=· ·°'-· š+ ='=-
šƒ'-= =+ =+r=+ š'··
'·'+'=·=+ '=š:+:+ š+ :· :·'=-.
¬:-· :=== =:š=+ '·'=-·
-š—=+ '···== :··
:=· :=== r· :=+'+:-·
'·+ƒ~- ·ƒ+·== =ƒ+ ··| :· +’-.
'·+r š='°+ ƒ++ :·-+ =·=·
·'·+ ·-:-·:™ :='=+
'=++= '==+ =+....
(=
·
=·:-· ='-= =:·- '·=·+ '·¤=
r·ƒ· ='-= =+=+ == '·=·+ =·r+
·÷||=«|t = =|÷«|+ =|++| ‘|:| := ·=|+ ‘ |=o| =t+ r -
http://bhadas.blogspot.com)
÷| := )= ......
:= := )= |= =r|+| r « ,
+: +r| )t|¤| r « ,
:+= ~r=|= ~|t =-+|+ ,
‘t ~-’|= ~|t ‘t| =+|+| r «.......
÷| +t| |+ot|= =-’
r‘|‘ = |+==+|,
~|t « ~¤|+= ‘t| +r| ¤= ~|+| ,
ro=|t )t +t ¤‘=+| ÷| =+t|-º- ~|+ ,
n++‘ =‘· == =|: |o=+| r~| +=|+ ,
~|t ÷| ¤|+| =· +t| ¤+t| |¤+|+| r: ,
+t=|+| r: ¤·| r| == ,
|:= ‘t| tr+| =|+ ‘ == ,
+| =|+ =+ « =÷ ‘t ,
ro=|t = =+= r| +« +t ,
÷| := )= .....
r| ,÷| := )= ,
~|=t ¤=| +«| « ~¤|+= ‘+t ,
=|+ =| =r|t| : +«| +t ++t ,
÷| := )= .....
|=-:| r ~|= ¤| ~¤| +=
r| ~|= ¤| ~¤| +=....
dmo BH$ nb
=+|+| ‘|:| `n‘|`
89 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
¤||= =|+-|¶|¶ š<·tr| |ƒ+
«|= ·|¶+ ?c :™|-|tr| ºr+|
=|=š|« ¶|= +’t= v|= :š=|·
¤c:+|¶¶ :r|=|
r·|r :º|t-|-|=
‹· · '™·= 'ƒ= ; =‹· · '=·= 'ƒ=
=·'š ¬š'= ·· ·š'. =:+
=·++ :»=· š·+ ='. ·:= '·šƒ
'··=+ :='° ·'»·:- :· ·= =:+
·- ƒ-=· ·= ='+:- ¬š'= ·· =°· š:+
¬=· ¬'·= ·:+:° =+=· ¬'=
š'·- ==++· =:= =· ==’:+ ¬'=
r·=
š:=°= :·+ :=:=:=
ƒ·= '··°=+ :=:° '·- '·-· ·'·:=
=:+ :='= ¬:š== =° :==· 'ƒ· :='= =š·+
:ƒ· -· +'=+ ='-=:š+ =:š=
¬+:·| '·· °= ƒ·=+ ·== ¬= ¬:=
ƒ·= ·ƒ+· š+·=· ™’= =='+ ·:=
=·=·== ; ·= ·’:- '=·:=
='–ƒ·· =:=· ·’:- '= ·’·
ƒ·= '··°=+ ·’· :=+:+ ¬:š=+ '='r=
:··| :· =-· ·:= '·==· :=:=:= =-· š:+
š:=°
=+== ·’:-· ¬=+= '=·=+
:·+ =+= =r’:-· ª'š· š:+ 'r·:+°
='+· š:+ ='”+ :‹+
™'ƒ· r'- ·:= ·'- :=š=
¬'·- ·:· '··” '·· '=–ƒ·ƒ·ƒ·ƒ ; ¬'·· š:+
×'= ¬:š=+ ·:= =°
¬'° '='r:+- o:==··· 'ƒ=+ :š·+= -·= :·+
:·'-:·'-
¬'= ==+++ š··:° 'ƒ=· ='+ ¬·
'ƒ=+ =· ==’·· ×'- ·+=
:· :™+:° ·°=
:r·· r· :='= ·=+ =:=·+ '==· r· :='=
r· ™·= =·+
'··°=+ ƒ·=+ ¬=‰'·=
:=·¤ '==·+ '·+ƒ+ r=š=· =·=
+==°+ ¬:+'·= ·'·
š'='ƒ= š'=+'= '=+ :· =:: ¬š'=
:·+ ·r+= ·ƒ=· ='·=· =-š· ·'- =’:-
·'- :š-· ¬·=++ :r-
ƒ·= '··°=+ :=:° '·-'·-· ·'·:=· ·'·· 'ƒ+=
== ¬:š=+ :·+ '= ¬:· ™+· š·'+ :š-·=
='ƒ=+ ·:· '·rš '==r+ š'+=·|· ··'+ ¬·=
==·+ ƒ'-== ¬'=+ ·:·
š·+ +’ƒ= '·+ :· ·++· ·'=·
:™'=+:-:= ==+ ¬š'= :·= ·· ·· =-š· ·:·
¬š'= =·:==:= ‹=+·
(°·r :=:·+- +=+= '·== '·=·+ =·r+)
/ 90
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
ƒ|· =·šƒ=+ ·:· =-·'=+ ·|+·+
¬==:+ š+· šr'-= :· ¬'·:=· =-
'·ƒ|· š=t+ ‡+ =·š'ƒ= '·ƒ|· ·'= =‹+·:=
š·=š·++ ·:=:+ ·· ··- ¬'==· ='+
¬· ·+:-= :·+= š=+ ·'=+ š+ ¬·+·
=+ ·+· =- '·ƒ|· š=t= ·- ··'= '·r:·
:·+= =ƒ+ '='ƒs -‚== =ƒ·r '=·· ='+ ·r+
=š'+=·= '··- =- =:++ ='s =+ ·+· =·
=- =:++ š+ =š™= š'+··+ š= '·ƒ|·
=·šƒ= ='+· š+ ™”+ ·:=:+ :·+· '=+ ·+·
¬'= ·+:-= š= =:·:+ ·+· ·'= š:+·
='+ '·ƒ|· =·šr =+ ·+· =‹+· =+= '·ƒ|·
= ·šƒ=+ =· ·|+-‚ := :=+ ·+ ‘=-'·ƒ |·
š=t’·
···. r== =+ ¬‹|+= ¬= ='+ = =+
š··«-+ =- =-šƒ+ ·š+= '='= ='+ ·¬š=
=š=|== ·: ..- =-'·ƒ|· š=t '=·· ='+
.·. ··- :··+° '·ƒ|· ·'= =·šr ='+·:-
'·r'+:=. =+= r+=:+· · '=·:‹| ¬+ ·r-
š:ƒ·= ««.««. :··+° '·ƒ|· ·'= =·šƒ=+
-¤|:+ .·- ° š =t+ ·:· '=· ·=+ :·° =· ·+
:=:= ·=·'= r'== -¤+ ='+:=· :=+·'·'+
=ƒ= · : ·· ° =-'·ƒ |· š =t '=· · ='+
.«..>> :··+° '·ƒ|· ·'= =·šƒ=+ -¤|
'-‚+ ='+ :·:=· :·+=··= '=·+·= ····
:··+° ¤·= =-šr ... '·°+ =r=+ '=·· ='+·
:·= .· ° =.+ š=t+ '==+= ···· :··+°
·'= =·šƒ=+ -¤|:+ 'ƒ· ·ª·· š=t+ =r=
·’· ·-- '·°+· =+== ¬'=:-:= ··= =r=+
=ƒ ·r '=· · :·+ =· · =ƒ ·r + ·:· +s +
=-'·ƒ|· ·'= '=·:· ¬+·r- š:ƒ·= .-· :='°
°= ¬·‹= 'ƒ:=· =ƒ ·r =-š· ·’:- ¬+·r-
š :ƒ:· ·='+ -··· :='° °= +:+'-'° š·· :=+·'·'+
=-'·ƒ|· š=t+ ·:· š:+== :·+ -···.«. :·ª+
·== '·+ --·.·. :·ª+ ¬=·:+ ·== '· ™'ƒ·
¬+·r:- =·š'ƒ= '·ƒ|=+ .· ·=· +=· š·
'=” ¬=:· == ·=·· =š+· :=–ƒ+ r+=++ ='=
¬=='+· š=t '=··+ +=| '·r:š ƒ:+·= +=|·
+=· š· -'·'=-· '=” ¬+ ·r-= =” s =++ - · :=
=· =™| =+ =·’-· '=:+·+ :¤=:= :=· =:=·
=·· ==+š··«-+ ·= :=·==·= :-== '=™'=
'ƒ 'š+·r=ƒ+. · =r-=. ·- :-:= ¬'=:= ·'·++
:-=· =:=-‚ -= ¬«-:°+ '=·= + =·=| ƒ + ·’·:=·
š·++ ¬+·r- š:ƒ·= ·r '=·· ='+:-
==:-:·+ š =t+ =·'= ¬· =·=- ¬=·· :=:+:·
=· š =t =· ·+ ·r + š+ ·:· ·r + '=+š=+ - · = ·
¬= '=· =+·= ¬- ='+= ·+= š= · '- 'ƒ:-. ·
š = '== ƒ :™ · · ='+=+ = -+ ·:· ·r ='·:-. ¬=·=
=t=== š -+=+ ·=+ = 's =·’·:=· :™+ ···-
r=+ ·'++ ='š-. ='· -'š ¬+ = °=+ = '+· + ·r +
š+ ·:· ='+ 'ƒ+ š=:+ ¬=·+ :=· ··:= '=-
·t+|¶o+ ·¶|- ‘«¶·:’
91 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
=r =r ='+ ·· :='° °=+ ==-š'= ¤'= ='+'=-·
':= =:=ƒ:+. ···- r=+ .- = == +.=ƒ š =t+ š+
='+ 'ƒ+ š=:+ ·· == :-=+ š · =' » '=++ -·:=
-¤·š + =·+:= ‹'+ '=-·=+ «·· ·= · · '='·+:=
· +· :š-· '=-· +.=ƒ š =t· = 's =+ ·=+ š== ¬=·
r+=:+ =š:= == š¤= ·== ” ==-= ¤'=š +· 'ƒ·:-
:=+ =:=· =š:= == š¤ ·'” =·’-· ¬+ ·r- š :ƒ·=
'=· · ='+·:- :-+ · ·=:·+ ·r š =t· (='++|:=) ¬=·=
·=š= = 's ='+:- '='·r==:+ ¬=· r+=:+ :='=+·
¤'=š +· 'ƒ· :=+'+··
··· =ƒ ·r š=t =·:· š-+=+ ·= ='s
=++ -·:= ¬=·+ =·'== ¬+ š'+š'·= 'ƒ·:=
™:·s š=+ :š-·· =ƒ =·=+ =--+ ='· ·’:- ·
·::= ·'‡ :· ·=š=+ ='s ·’:-. š'+:+·+ -·:=
=·'= ¬·= ·= '==+. '·-. =-·+. = '+= '· ¬'ƒ=
·|š= š =+ š'+·· =ƒ =·== ·r '=· · ='+:- š-=.
'·-·'-. ·'+ ¬'ƒ· ·r+ =='=:= =· :· š'+··
=-= ·ª:-:= ='+= š™ ” :·+ +· -·= š'+· š:+·
¬=· =· ==+š·«-+ ='·=-š+ « = ·:-
·'- 'r== =++ -·:= š··:= -.« + š+ -.·
'+·°+ :--+ ='·=-š :·++ š'+:š'¤== ¬+·r-
š:ƒ·= ¬+ ¬=·= '=·· :·+ ¬+ '=·· =™ r'-
·= ··· =ƒ·r+ ·:· ¬ƒ+ ='++|:= ¬=:· =+=+
ƒ :™ ·+ =–: ·= :·++ ¬·= ¬:=· ™+ =-= '™:=:=
=·+:= · · ·· '='·r· =++ -·:= ·=+·=+
'=+· :-== =++· =·=|+ ·+·= :š-··
···« r=+ '==+= ···ª · ¬š = o=· ™··
r:= · ¬š == ·r '=· · =+ ==+= :- =·~ :ƒ·:=
r'- ·= =· '·== + ·=:= +s =·· =:= =·| š =·
='+:=· +s =·+ · ·°+ ·=· :·:·°- :š:=- ¬= = · :·°
:r:o (I.P.C.C.) + == =·| ¬= ='+ · ¬š =+ -·:=
'··-++ '····+ š+ = ·š'= :·+ =+=+ == ·=
=ƒ+ =+= '·šr ·’·· · -=: š '·++ = += · '‡ ¬+
= ··‹ ·= š'+:+· š ƒ +·+ ·:·· ='++|:= =· =++·=
='· ¬'··· ·« ·=++ '==+= · ¬š = =·= ·+ =-=
:· ·= =ƒ:- š'+·= ·’·· '··= .·· ·=+ ‹'+ '··-++
'···· ·'- ¬:= ™'ƒ· :··=+:= =· ·-= ‰ = ·’·:-
‹'+:=· =:=ƒ:+ '·· š +· ·'- ·'=:- ==·++ « -·
·· '=:-'·°+ '···· ¬· ···« r== == -· ··
'=-'·°+:- == 'r= ·’·· =ƒ =· ·+ = ·š'=+ -‚ -+ š+
'== '=-·:= =ƒ·r . =- '·ƒ |· š =t· · ++ == ¬=|=·
=+·· =-‹+ š =t· š'+:+· '·=s =+· =·+. = =
¬«- =· · = '·=-š= =:-=:- š'+·= =:+· =+=+
='++|== '·· š +· ·-= ¬+ · ·· =- '·ƒ |· š =t·
¬'r:+· -‚ '++ ='+ = '-· ¬=·++ ===+=·
¬+ ·r- š :ƒ· ¬+ :‹·'= '=-+ =·” = ¬+'-‚ =
:·+ =· ·= '=· · ='+ ·= =·'= :=+·'·'+ =-'·ƒ |·
š =t:°:+ =ƒ = š=|=:°+ =·'== =++· ¬+-‚ + = 's
=++ ¬·= ¬:=· N.H.P.C :+ '=· · ='+ ·= = =+
š ·· «-+ '==++ '‡=+ =· :° =- '·ƒ |· š =t ·r ='+·:-
=·'=·== š '='='‹· =+ = '+°:+ ¬'‹= =·::= ƒ· 'ƒ=
‹'+ š '=·ƒ =·|- ='+ ¬:=· '=” r+=++ '°-·:= ·+
:=· -+ =· · N.H.P.C + ···· :··+° ·'= =-šr
=·'= :=+·'·'+ =- '·ƒ |· š =t:°+ '=· · =-š · ·’:-
= ·š'ƒ= '·ƒ |· ·'= :+ ¬+ ·r- š :ƒ·+ ¬· :='== =::·
·'= ·- ='+ = '-··
=+=·+ = '·='·= =++ :¤== :=–ƒ + r+=:+
·'= ·:= ¬'‹= ×+ · 'ƒ++ š'+:š '¤== ·'= + = ·=
-‚ š=:° ¬~ =+ :·:=· '·· + ¬··++ :ƒ· =· ·+ :=:=
:=+ ·'+· š+:= =+:= ¬” :· ·'= = r= ='+ ¬:=·
:=· = := =- =-šƒ+ =':= ·|+·+ ·= =- '·ƒ |·
= ·šƒ=:= ×+ · ¬:+š ='+ ¬'·:=· -¤|·+ =· :™
'·· + = r= :ƒ· =· ·+ :=:= =·=·'+= =:+ =+=
¬··' » ™·:- :rs r-· := ™'ƒ· ¬” :· ·'= = r= =+·+
:¤== · == š'+··+ =·'+= ·+·'- :+ =–: ·= :·:=·
=· ƒ ·r· ¬:–ƒ-:=· == ··= r+=+=:+ ·+·'-
=++ ¬=|=· = ƒ·+·· :=· ¬:–ƒ-=+ ¬= =+· =-<'=
:·+ = · ·+ š =t:°:- =-<='+= :·:= ™'ƒ· :·‹
š°=++ ƒ:+ = :™·| :==+ ¬=+= =·'= :=+·'·'+
=-'·ƒ |· š =t· ¤'= ='+· š+ ¬·= '·- = + š=
š =· :š+ =· · '='=·= '=-+ =+ -¤'‹= :-=+
=+= ¬+ =-š'=:- =· '= =' »+· ¬'=· -· =·'·
:=+='·'+ =-'·ƒ |· š =t ·r =++ :¤== +=| r+=:+
:=:= ‹+·+ šƒ:¤š ~ ·· =='+:-· r+=:+ =:= š =t
·r =++ ='=+ =· ·:· · += r+=++ r'+= š '=='-=
:·+ · '- ‹'+ -’· š'+·
=== š = '== ƒ :™ ·+ ¬=|=· ‘= '·=-š’·
š = '=+ ¬=| == + š. ™+ ‹·=== ¤·= = -='··=·
š'·++ ¬'= ='·=-š= š+·= ·= =·= :ƒ·+ '==+=
(-. šrr r·=)
/ 92
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
W
hat should be the precondition for statehood,
ethnicity, language, religion or economic
viability ? There is a clear cut answer to the
question. Here in India in the past sixty years or
so of our nationhood all the criteria have been given
a try, yet the answer remains elusive.
I can put forward some examples in this
regard. The self immolation of Potti Sriramalu only
hastened the process and Andhra Pradesh was
curved out of the Telegu speaking areas of old
Madras Presidency and Hyderabad followed by the
creation of Gujrat and Maharastra to provide the
homelands for Marathi and Gujrati speaking people.
But the idea of language as the main
consideration for statehood came unstuck when
Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh were
created. But then again ethnicity and linguistic
considerations coupled with regional political
fragmented Assam in to minuscule states, most of
which did not fulfil the criterion of economic
viability.
At present the ethnic consideration has
reached such absurd proportions that some day
the centre might have to accede to the demand
of statehood for Bodo and Kachari speaking
people in Assam, Jharkhand state with Santhali
speaking people in Bihar, Orissa, Madhya
Pradesh and West Bengal. In fact the way things
are taking shape it will be no wonder if one day
India becomes conglomeration of economically
weak small states.
In the past 45 years or so, divisions on ethnic
and linguistic grounds have only fanned regional
chauvinism. The example in this regard is that, most
of the Govt. services appointees from one state are
not allowed to take their new posts outside their
states due to pressure from ‘‘sons of the soil’’. Thus
we see that these basis have created more problems
instead of solving them. It seems that the spirit of
Indianess that was there before independence has
evaporated in the first 45 years of the republic. It
has become Bengal for the Bengalis, Assam for
the Assamese or Punjab for the Punjabis.
The creation or the demand for the small
states is quite meaningless because small may be
beautiful but it is not the sure fire way to survival,
which requires a greater understanding between
people of various ethnic and linguistic groups.
The ghost of language and ethnicity has been
haunting free India for decades, but the time has
come to put ‘ghost’ in the bottle. A tall order and
a hard task, but a beginning has to be made, and
that is possible only with the sense of unity
because any further fragmentation of the existing
states in India, one apprehends, will only help the
resurgence of separatist forces, which even the
votaries of small states perhaps do not want.
Bobita Bhoktiari
(The author is a student of B.Sc 3rd Year)
93 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
·++ š+ ×+·°:- š+ š«r °= =+·
·+:š°+ :s° :°=š° +. ¬+ ·-‹+ š'+
'ƒ+· +ª-+ '=:r· 'r='= ·+ ¬:š=· =:= ·==
='::+ '= ¬'= =° =:š= ='»+·:- ='+:=· ·ª
¬='ª¤= =° =:š=....·
=·++ š+ ×+·°:- :·'= ƒ+ =·+· ×+·°+
:™+= r«-. :=–ƒ™|+ š'+·· ¬'= :·'=· '=” ·+
=·++ ·+· ='=+· ~· =+ =· =+ r·+·==·
·'·++š+ :™+ === '·+ƒ ¬+ =+·=+ :‹+·
¬+'+ +:· š'= =·+:=·
=· :· ·'== ·ª
:=·° =+
=:ƒ|· ¬:=· =+ =:+'ƒ :·
:·:= =° ··· =-· +ª-+ ¬-:š =- =-'·-
=+· =-:°+ ¬‹ ¬· =·+:=·+ ¬'ƒ:+ ='+
¬'=-· :ƒ'·:- =+ =· ·+. =· ·=·'·-= =·=|.
¬·=+· =-:°+ =+:= =· =·+:=·+ :š-·
¬+= = ='+:=· '= :™ ƒ · r ! :=· :· + =° = :ƒ|·:=
+ª:- =· =:+·
+·-· =+ ·= ::+ :ƒ+=·= ¬-š ƒ'. =-:°+
=:+:+ ™· š+ =° =+ ·° = '-+· :-:=· ™:= '™:=:=
· · = = ·'·+:- ™· š'+· =+· · - :·:°'ƒ =·:= ·'·+:-
™·:- ·:= '='ƒ:+. ·’:- '='ƒ s =·+ '=‡ +· =+ ·:=·
=:= · - :·:°'ƒ ¬-š · +:· ·+· +ª:- '=” ==:=
·°:° :=:= :='=+ = '-+· '=-·
·+= '·'=r =:ƒ|·= '=r'+= :· ¬:= '=·=+
·+:+ ·ª:= ™+=· =· ™+===:- ·r= :='=+·
-· š+ ·=+=· =·’:- =°+ š== r· :·+ ƒ=
:·:°-=· ¬:= :='=+· :== ·+·= ·š+ =+:=
·= ·‹=o :·:°-+ =+= ¬= ·++ =·+=· '=·=
==:-:+ ·=+ =·+ '·'=·+ ·+· ¬+ ·++ =·=+
š-= =:+ ¬°:+ '·'- · ++ :=· = +r = ·=+ =+:=.
==:-:·:+ '·'-= '-. :==== ·+· '=·
ƒš+:-:= ·ƒ ·+ ¬= ·:+· =:+·+ ·= ='°
·-+ ¬:· ƒ·+ :·ƒ=. ·=:·+ =+ ·:+ ƒ+'·+
'==+ '==+ ¬:š= ·=·:·++ =+:-·
· · ·
·· ='=+ :=:= ¬:= = '· :·= = = '‹·
š'+'-:=....· '== ==+ =š- ·=:·+ :=·+
¬'··:= ·· :='=+· ¬'=· :=+:+· ¬+
:=· ='·=:·+ :=+:+ ·· ¬=:- š' »·.....· · ++
:=· = +r =+ =+ =+ š=:·+ :™= ·=·= ·'-
='- ='r ¬'=-· ¬+ ·=·= = '+ = '+ ¬'·'=-
=·+. =:š = -+ = ·=· ·=+ =-= = '- :=:==+
· = =+ = ++ ·=· ƒ ++š+ '+'·'='+'·'= ='· ¬·
:»-:š š···+ '·+ ·= ·=-+ =+ ‹·'=·
=:= =° 'ƒ=:= +ª:- · ++ :=· = +r =+ =-:=
=·= =· 'ƒ'=-· '= :='=+· =·= š·'+ =™+
¬+ ™· :=+:+· :=:+:· =·+ '··= '= :==
='+· == · 'r': 'ƒ·· ¬+ =· ···= '= · '+ ¬'··
=·+ =+:-· '=” =·+ =· =· =· :·:+
+-· +ª- ='·-· r· := r· := ··· š+ :·:+
¬:= ··· ¬'·-· +ª- '=” ='·-·
¬:= =·+ ··:+· '=+'·==:+ =· r:- =+·==·
+ª-+ ·=:° ¬'= =- =·+· -·++:·++ -·= =· -’·
š+ =· ¬=–ƒ+. š+ =· ·· :=· '·ª+ :====. =+
·=:= ·:+ ·:+ = + ·'+:= +š ++ '=· =+ :=· ¬'= ·+·+
'š + · ··=:-· ¬+ =·=· ·== š'+:= š'+'-:=:-·
rr|++| c|=|¶+|
/ 94
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
š'+'-:=. ™+ -·= :™+=+ ƒ š++ ƒ·-+
=·+:·+ š+ ='+'=-· ƒ·'+ ·== '=+++ ·== ·='=
š+ ¬:·'- :=· =+r=+ =-= ·'· ƒ:+:+ =+=+
+.· =:š=:·+ +'r'=-·
+ª-= :™= ¬'= -:'=:·:+ :·'ƒ ='+:= 'š:=
'š:=· ¬'= '= '·r'+ ='+:= ¬==+ ·== :·+· :™+
:=· =·=:·+· == :™ :=== '=· š+ =+ =· '=
:=· = +r =+ =-= ·'· :=+- š'+'-:=+ =·:= ='··
:=+ :™= +ª-+ ·:· ¬'= =° =:š=·
·ƒ+ '=r· == ¬'= '·'-· š+ =· · ·ƒ+ '=r
'™·:=· ·=+ :· ¬'·:= =+ · = ='° '=·:=· ·-·
¬'·· · '=:= ¬=· :·ƒ=· '= ·ª ™·— ='+· =· :·ƒ==
‹'+ +'·· :=+'+:-· =° =·+= =+ =:–ƒ= ·-· ¬'·-·
· · ·
=· ·:+ ='·-· =· ƒ:+ r'+° ··· š+ :· ·’-·
=·'š· +ª- ='·-· ·== =š'+- =· :- ¬+ ·==
=š'+- · ++ :=· = +r =+ =-= š+ =+ :=· 'ƒ=:·+:-·
='=+ š'+'-:=+ ·= ='. š:+· =·= :·ƒ=·
:· r ·'+ ‹:+· ·’·· ¬'·:-. ·=·='=:+ == '·š=
:·'-:-. ·=+ =-= ='-:=:==+ ·ƒ+ :=+ ·=
o'=:-· =·+ ·ƒ+= ¬+- ·+ ¬= == ‹··· =·
=· === ¬+ =o= =° ¬== :·:= =·+ ·=·=
·'–ƒ+· 'š'·='+ ='+ 'ƒ:+· ·=·· ¬+'+ ‹:+ =·+
·=š·· +ª:- :™ =·= š·'+ ™· :=· =· =·
=·'=· ='·· · =t=· ='+· š+ ='=-·
š'+'-:=+ ·+= ·:š=·= ¬+ ==:+=·
¬'=='- '=·=+ ·+= =·:= =·+ '·++ =· ='-++·
='=+ š'+'-:=+ '·++ =š™= ·+=· š'+'-:= ·++
==·= :=+-· =· = = '-+· ==:+:=· ·+·= š'=·
-:·· '·++ =· ·-:-· =·+ ƒ· -:· ; =·+
:='=+· 'r='+'r='+ ='–ƒ 'ƒ·+ ·= ™+· '=” =·
:=+:+· ==:- =· ·'- =’·:+ =·+ =·= =··
+ª-+ -·= =-š= =++ '=· =+ ·++ ·=·:š:=
¬+ ==:+= =:+:+ · = =· · '='=r =+ '=-+ =°
š '='r= :=-š== r='+ =+ ==:+:= +ª-+ = :°:=
:ƒ'·· :=+:+· ·ª·+ '=· =+ š'++-+ ¬=|r++ ·'-
:·:= +ª-· ¬+ š'+'-:=:+ ==:+= ¬+ ·=+ š+
=== ‹+·+ ·'-·š'= ·· -· :·:=· =· ==:-:·+
š'+'-:=· '=+:+ =·| ='+ ¬'·:= ==·= +ª-+ ·:·· ·
+ª-+ =· ='·:- =·+ ·ƒ+·= ··=+ ='+
=::· =+ :=· =·==+- ···=· š»'-· ¬+
=·+ ·'·:+ =:=:= ·'= :=:š+ -’+:°+ :=·-
·ƒ+= =·+ š'= '=·= :™ =-:š++ ·+·:·+ :·
·· ¬'=-· =+ =· ='·:- ¬'=· =· + r= + š=:+
·° :=:ƒ· ·+· +ª-+ ·++ ¬'·= ¬+-‚ ·+ =-
=·+· :=:+:· '= r='++ =r== °:-°:- := ·'+
:™'=+ =’:= =° ='·‹ ='+· :=+'+:-. :='=+ '=
'=‡” -’:-. :=-š=+ =· =°:= '·r'+ ·++ š+
·-· :™++ =·· ==·= =·+ ·:·· ¬'=- =+
=· '=‡”· ¬+ :='=+ =+ =-· ·’- -=· :='=+:·
'= ·'= š:- :™ =+· ·'=·:- ·=·+ =+==
°=+:· :·'= š:+==· :š°= ·:·r ·'r :=:=·
¬‹|+= · ='·=| rr ='+· :=+:+· =r= '·¤+ ·:·
°=š·r ¬+ ='·=| rr+ ·:· -'·· ··=+ ·'=·
:=:+ '= '=‡ ” -’:- š »o= ·ƒ 'ƒ ·= :=· °·=
°=+ ·:· ƒ +'·+ =-=+·=+ · = :- ×'r :™++·
=+· ·=+ '=‡ ” :- '= ='ƒ= ‹š'- :·'-:- =+=+
=r ==· =+ '=‡ ” + =· '™'ƒ= š'+'-:== :='=-
:='=+ =· ='. š'+'=-· r= = ·'+++ »- ='·'=-·
¬'== =:=· ·‹| :·'=- =· '·ƒ+ 'ƒ·:- ==· - ·=·
==· '=- =+ == = =+=+ =r ==· '=” š '=· '= ¬'=-
=· = š·'+ :=:™++· '=” +ª-· '= :ƒ:·= ¬'=
=·+ =-:š++ =:= ·™ƒ 'ƒ· :=+'+:-·
š'+'-:=· ='=+ -:·-:· +ª-= · '=·
:=++ :· š'+:=· ¬'= r'+° ·=:+ +ª-+ :=:=
···+ =· · ='=+ =· +ª-+ -: '= · = = :- :==:°
'··== :=:=:= =+· ·'=·· =·+ =· =+= 'ƒ:=
'ƒ:= ¬=·| :· ¬'·:=·
· · ·
=+·=+ ·+·+ ·=· 'r·'=+ :‹+ ·'·+=.
°= :-= =++ ·=· ·'·=+ °=+°=+ =·+ ·=:=
= ='+ ¬'·:= :=:= · '·=+ =+=+ ·=· r š+=· =+
¬'='=:= 'r='+ ¬:= =r|+ ¬:·¬:· =· =·'·'=
:·+ ='+· -'···
¬'='==+ ·= ¬'= =- -'·'=- +ª-+· ¬+:·|
=+ =+· =·=· =·+· =· ¬'='==+ =+:·· ƒ š+++
¬·+ '=· := =':= =·+= ··:- =š+· =·+ =· ¬=·+
=· :=+- 'r=+··+. ='·‹· '= ; ¬-:š =- =-:·
+ª-+· ¬'='=:= '==+ :='++++ ·:·· =ƒ+ =‹+·
(>> šr= r·=)
95 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
|-t¶|+|·c|+
~||=+|
=:š=+ =·'‹= ¬+- ·’-
·= =+- ·- š+
:·'-:° ‹:+ ‹:+ :·+· ·’-
¬'r= :ƒ·+ ·+-= ....
¬š'= :='=-.
‘‘=+= ¬r-:= =·= =ƒ:·.
·‹ '='ƒ+:= :· ™·:- 'ƒ+:==
='· =-:š+ ¬=··= ·++ r'-:-
='· ¬'·· ....’’
¬+ ·· :š·= '+=·'=:-
=ƒ+ :==+ -·= ...
™+ ¬·=·== =ƒ =–ƒ·= '·t·
¬'-:+ ™·:= :·+ =·= ƒ:™·=
'r='= ¬=+·+ +·:·+ '·‹·- ·’-
¬+. ·|·=+ ¬'====
-:· -:· =:š= =·'‹-‚ ·’-·
=–ƒ·=. =:š=·= =·= =ƒ
o=· :· ·:= ·++·+ ¬=+=
=:=. ¬r++ ·== ='·
·· ¬:š¤ ='+ ·:= =+= ·'+ ¬·:- ....·
:=·+ '=·:= ='+ :· :™+
:·+ +~— ·ƒ+ ;
š'=:° ·= 'š='- š:+
:·+ ƒ·-+ :·-:+= ·–ƒ ···
:·:+ =- -:·. ·=”+ :=-= o·.
=·'š· :·'- -'··+ š+=
:=:= :‹+ =:š=+ ƒ'-r= o·
r· ·:= ·+·+ r+·===·
=+=+ š'=:° ·=|:+ ='=-| =:+
:·+ ƒ·+=·
:=·+ =-= ƒr== ·· r· =··
· ™'ƒ =° =':= ·+··
:=·+ =+- š·+= :·+ ==+ ƒ·=
·= '·r'+ '·+s :·+ :·= š+ ·++
š'=:° š+ ·ƒ+ =+·
š='+= ¬=:=
¬'= ·· ·ƒ+='+ =- š·
:==+ =·r
+r'= +’ƒ= 'ƒ·”+ =:- ·='- š'+:=
:·+ ¬·. ¬:·'- ¬:·'- :·:r+ ='° :·š··
=|r :cš|c
š=|-t=i||= -·|
(š-·:=|'= ·· '=··= '··'·ƒ|-++ ·+= '·=·+ -•=:==+ ==
·ƒ- ·:· ‡ƒ· :··. '·== ··+ ==
·'== ‡ƒ· :·· '·== ··+ ==)
·¶·
·ƒ= ~t~
(.)
:::= ·+
·'+:= :='=
·+·:·+ :·°·
=+:==
'·=+ ==
š·- :==
(·)
:=:š·+ ¬:+
r+ ·+
=:= ='··
='· ·+ ==:=
:==
:·+ ·+·+ ·+··
/ 96
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
«=š|r| v|·¶ |r|o
:·|r·| :º|¶|tr|-|
=+ '-'··:- :-:= '=+= -·°+ :š·+=
×-š+ :·-š+ :·š:+ =+ =·= ×-š+ ··+ 'r':
r·. ='=:° :·'- ‹+
=·’:- '=+++ :°š:- :=:·=· ='-· :·+ ·=+ =+
···+.
ƒr= '-‚+ ='+ :-+. ='·= '=·'+· š:+
¬+ ··'·ƒ|-++ '·'+'= ·r ='+ :-+
:·+ 'r':+ =+ =+'=· š:+
™'ƒ :·+ :=:š+ =° =· =·
:=·+ :···-+ ·ƒ =·=:° ·r ='+ ·’·
:=·+ ¬='·‹ =·’:-· :·+ 'r':+ =+ :·+· š:+....
™'ƒ š+ ···'= ==- ¤-· :-+
='-+ =+:+ ¬'· :=::° ¬r+ ='+ :š-· š:+
=š· ='-· š:+ '='=r=+ ··'·ƒ|-++
r=. :°·-. :==:·«. =·=. =-· ¬+ ==:-:·+....
'š+ ···+.
=+‹= 'r':·= -:·:= ·'-·
×-š+ ··+ 'r':+ ·== '·'=r ·’· š:+
×-š+ :·-š+ :·š ¬·· ·ƒ++ :===+·
·=+ +'= ƒr= ·= ='+ r·
×-š+ =-:·+ =·· : +. :· š'+:=·
:='=+ ='· :·= '= ·'- =’··
=·= ='· := ·+· =+··
='·· :='= ='·=+ =+:+ 'r': '-· === ƒs :=+- ·'-
=-= ='+· :='= ·+ ='· š=+- ƒr=:+ =+ ¬=
=° ·‹'-+ :=:= :·=·
š=+ :=:= ···+.
¤'- ·= ···'= =- =·+· 'ƒ+
=š· 'ƒ+ :=·+ ƒr=
='=+ ='· ¬'·· =–:·=
+.. ×-š+ :·-š+ :·š
:=·- :·-š+ :·š. ·:· '-•+ :·-š+ :·š
·= :·'- -’· ×-š+ ··:°
'-'+'='·ƒ'+ r·
=:=· ·'=· :·+ ':==·
(:·r· :·+:r+ -•== ·+ ·+. =-+ ==
¬¤+'=· :š„+ ‡ƒ· :··+ ==)
=|¶¶ |ƒ+¶
¶’ƒ¶ ¶|t¶
¤¤r|=· :š· :š|„|¶
::°+ š·+ =+'==
'=·-+ =++ ¬š.+ =·'°=
=·+ š+ ¬'· š+ =° '='+.'==
¤'- =':'=- :·:°·:° +'=
rš+ rš:+ ·'·'=- ·=
'=+++ rƒ+ ¤- :‹+:+
»'= ‹'+'=- ·=- r=
··'+ ¬'·'=- :==+ :-==
:=° 'ƒ· ·'- =ƒ+ :===
·=+ =ƒ ™'ƒ· ··
¬·:·+ ='+ ™+ =·
'r== =+++ ™'ƒ· ·+·
·'++= :·-· :=+:+ =+=
:=:+ ¬š.+ ·'°=
+'=:° ¤'-'=-
·= =-= š+ ƒ'+=·+ ƒ:+
¬·:·+ ='š'=-
=+=+ ·:· =°=°·'=-
+’ƒ+ ·:· ·° r·'=-·
97 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
:=|·|¶ c||ctr|t¶c -š=
|šrºƒ|
¶š+·ƒ+ š|o+
:·+ =–:·:=
='· ¬=+ :·+
·· :ƒ'· ¬:=
¬+ :·+ '·:+ '·:+
··'+:=
:=r :š·+ ™”·
·· '=+š+
:·=+ ·’:-·
:=·=:= ··
·‹ 'ƒ· :=+:+
=+ :=·:+· š=–ƒ
:=·:+· ƒ·-=
'·+ƒ+ =’- =+:+
¬+'== :·+
‹'-=· ·ƒ+
+'= ··= ·+
¬·=-+ ·+–ƒ=
·'· ·'·
:===+ =:= =· š:=
:=:‹ '=+
'=+ ·+ =:==+ ·+
:·+ =-:š++
:·+ ¬·. =:š=:·+
'=+ 'r+-‚+ =·+
:==:=· =+
·r ='· =·+ ƒ:+
==:- =·+
·· =·'+ š:+
'= ¬Š=
·· =·+ ƒ:+:=
=:=:+· =·’-
·:·. '·+· =·=+ ƒ:+
='° ===+ =+=:-
š+ ='+:=. ·ª =·+
:=·+ ·'·:°:+· ·š=
'š+-ƒ
·· :=·+ ·= =·+
·:· =-:š++
='° '=== '=-= šr
(+š=·ƒ= š:= -•== ·+ ·+. =-+ ==
Shubhadeep Paul is a student of TDC 1st Yr, Arts)
January 4, the cell clock shows 10 past ten,
The sun at high ~ shines ~ upon earth, men:
Still my room is dark, as cold as a wild den
I come out so carrying a sheet and a pen..
Now once out, I make seat on a rusty chair:
No delay, I set the music cords at ears’ pair
Soothing songs now, no books kept in layer
With my girlfriend, I bear an urge to pair.
As this hour pass, the play of sweet voices
All hints me to express a few poetic verses,
Lack-a-dae, I fight with subject alternates
I go for Nature, she SMSes romantic choices.
No matter whatever I had thought to do,
I wrap up now, a poem in hand, Wooh!
What Should I do ?
Shubhadeep Paul
/ 98
/Vol. VIII, Issue - III, Mar. '11
=|-+¶ =+ š|=·v|¶
:=c=| ~t~
=+== ¬==:+ ƒ·+:= :·'+:=
==:= :='=+:= :=== ·’·.
'·=-=· ·= ='»:=
=+=+ °-. =+= š'+:-
==:= š+ š·:= =š·
·:+ ¬··'»:= == ¬'·+· ·'==
=· ¬”·= ™==
š'=:° :»+ ·–ƒ :™
:·:-· :·:-·
:=:=:°+ '='°='= :™=
== ¬=–ƒ·+ =·+
¬:= ¬=:° ·+ :·
== ¬=·|=+ ƒ·+
=·'š '=” ·’· :=+:+
== ·:'··= =+++
=+'° ¬:= ·:·
== ·‹·+ -š—+
¬'·· =:· :=:=·
=+:+ ='= :·
·=+ =·+= š- ='+·:-
‹·· ¬'·:-· ¬·=
··'= +’·. -:·:= ·’·
=+== =’=·+ ‹·· =:·
¬×+· ™· ‹·· :=·'r··
(·-· ·+· -•== ==+ ·+. =-+ ==
:=·= ·:· -•== ·+ ·++ ==)
:c’ :·|+ =|= š|¶
:+|-|¶| :·|¶ |šr +|¶|
¶|º- ·¶|-
:=·+ =-:š++ ¬=–:'==
:·+ :· =™+ ·=+ ··r ·|·- ¬:+·+ :=++
¬=+= +. ='-=:+ :·+ =· := '=++‹
:=·+ ·:·· =s :· =™+ :·+ :š'·= ==
¬·· ·¬š+:= =+ š· =: :=· =+= '·r+ ·=
··+ ·+·+ ƒ:+ =- š· '·'=:-:·:== :=·=
™'ƒ·· '=·:š° ='=- ='· ¬·· =:+=
¬=- +. :·-:š:+ ==· :š-:-:·:==
:=·+ :š·+ ···+ ·'·=
='=+ ==:-:·+ ·= =·'‹-‚ ='+
·ƒ+= =:·š:= ·'::= +.· :š·+ === -š—
:·’ :·+ 'š+ =+
='· =- =š:-·
==-:= =·:= ··r+ :===+ =-
-= :· =™+ :·+ ·'°+ =·- =:š=
='· =- =š:-·
=-:š+ :· ·'=· ·ƒ+ ·:~= ='-
= ·'=· :š'·= =·=·=+ ¬š· ==
='· =-:š+ · :=:š+·
:·+ '·+·'·+· :š·+ -·'°= :== 'r+ š+··=
¤'- ·'=· ·š== ¬·+ ·=+ r'=·=
'=:= ·‹'- +·–ƒ =·= ¬··
¬·'š=·+ š'=== ==+ 'r”
:·’ :·= =- š· :=++ :·+ 'š+ =+
:=·+ ·:·· =s :· =™+ :·+ :š'·= ==
99 /
/Vol. VIII, Issue -III, Mar. '11
· '·== 'r=+··+ ='+ :=-š=+ 'š + ·’· '·r:+·
'=” '=· := '==+ :='++++ =· ='· =‹+· · '·=+
ƒ ·=s+ ¬=:· ==:·· ¬'=+ 'ƒ== ==:- +=='=·
· · · · ·
+ª:- '=+ :=:= ='+:- ¬'=· =· ='·· š+
=· · '= =’= :·+· ·’-. '= ·’-. '= ='+:=. =+
:=:= ··+ ==:= š'+'-:=· · =· ==:= '= =+·
¬:= := =·· ·=· =:=:= :·+· ™· š:+ ·'- =··
='=- š'+'-:=· · š'+'-:=· =:· ·+:= +ª- ¬+
=· ==+= =· · '=· ƒ · °== '= ·'+-· =·’:- :=:=··
== ·'+ ·'+ :š-:-· :=:= ¬·°= =·’:- =· :- ··+
'='ƒ+:= '= · ·= 'ƒ= ·'=· :=+:+· =· ¬'=· ¬‹+
:· ·° r· ¬:= +ª-:- +ª- ¬'··· +ª- :='=+·
· ·= '=r + ·’· :=+:+· o'=· =· + · ƒ++ :=·- ·‹ +
=+ ¬+ = š-'= ='+· :š ·+ ¬= - ¬c=·
š'+'-:=+ ·+·=+ ·|-= ·'»:=· '·++ ==:-
š-'= š+ =-š· :· ='::=· '=·”·. ='·r+ ¬'ƒ+
¬=+. ·+ + =+ ¬'ƒ ==:- =· =-š· ='+:=
==:+:=· ==:+=+ '·+ ·'- ==:+:= =° :-:=
=··+· ='=+ =· =· ==:+=+ ·=· '=” š'+'-:=·
='»+· :- ='+:= ·== == ¬·|= :·ƒ=· -=+·:-
™·— ='+:= =· '==+ ƒ·· '=” š'+· =:= =·! =·
=:= '==+ =+=:° =·ƒ:+ :·+ :· ™· 'ƒ· š:+·
=·+ '= =+=:° =š:=· =++ :=:= ¬'‹=+ =··
'=+ =· ··= -·š+ :·:=· =· '=:=· =-ƒ:+
=:= :™ +ª-+ ·'·:+ =· ¬= =:+ -·= =· ·’·
:=+:+· =· ! =· =·:° :='=+· ·’· 'ƒ· :=+:+·
¬'= š'+'-:=+ '·+· '=” =· :° ='·- ·+ '·+:+
=:=:= ==:=· =:= === ·|'= + -·= =· :·:°·
=+= '=ƒ:+ =°·· '=” =· :·+ ¬+ ='·· =:= '=·
-= ¬:=· +ª- =:= = r:= = ='= ¬'··· š'+'-:=+
=· ¬· ·- += š'+·= ·’· =:=· =· + · ƒ++ ¬= -
·+·+ ¬c= '= o'=· =:=· =·'š· =· =· ¬·:=
:- ·° r· ¬:= ¬'=· +ª-+ ¬:š¤=· =· ¬:š¤+
=:= ¬” ·’·· =·'š· =· ·° r· ¬:= ¬‹+ :· š:·:+·
+ª- ¬'··· +ª- ='ƒ= ·’:-· =· + =+:- ¬'···„
(-•== .· ·++ ==)
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