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Some aspects of the History and Coinage of the Panna Area
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Some aspects of the History and Coinage of the Panna area My
previous work on these coins appeared in the ONS newsletters numbers 183 in 2005 and 193 in 2007. This is an updated article, combining old and new information with new illustrations, updated tables and revised conclusions. This has become necessary following the examination of more coins and the study of additional data, which have only become available since those articles were published. Introduction In his foreword to Prashant Kulkarni’s excellent “Coinage of the Bhonsla Rajas of Nagpur” (Indian Coin Society, Nagpur 1990) Stan Goron wrote, “The numismatic history of the declining years of the Mughal Empire, of the various states that carved territory out of that dying empire, and of the postMughal period generally, has, with a few notable exceptions, been badly neglected. The field is very wide, potentially fertile, and waiting to be ploughed.” Since then, there has been an increasing interest in the history and coinage of the Mughal successor states, and a large number of studies have been published. Much of the interest has been focused on the relationships of those states with the emerging ‘Paramount Power.’ It is well-known that the coinages of the several small states in 18th and 19th century central India, although familiar to us, have not been fully researched. I refer to states such as Bhopal, Dhar, Dewas, Rampur, Lunawada, Banswara, Sunth, Ratlam, Datia and Jhabua, among others. Of these states, large number of coins remain to be identified and properly researched. I do not intend, in any way, to denigrate the sterling efforts of numismatists of the calibre of Dr. Bhatt, Ken Wiggins, S Bhandere and others, merely to restate how much more remains to be done, despite their work. Dr. Bhatt, in particular, must have spent many thousands of hours poring over piles of dirty, worn, ugly chunks of copper to have produced the fine, pioneering work that he did. Despite all this effort, there are still many common coins, particularly coppers, which remain unpublished and somewhat enigmatical. Some are a complete mystery. Many are certainly ‘unofficial’ issues. A Brief History of Panna and its successor states Panna was a state in Bundelkhand, part of modern Madhya Pradesh, (Fig. 4) in north central India. The rulers were Bundela Rajputs of the House of Orchha. Champat Rai, sworn enemy of the Mughals, declared his independence from Dehli during the period of chaos in the Bundelkhand area that followed Jhujhar Singh of Orchha’s illstarred rebellion in 1635 AD. During the 1650’s, Chhatarsal, Champat Rai’s son, continued to gain in power, taking and holding territory east of the Dharsan River. He extended his territory into eastern Malwa, and by 1671 AD he was master of most of Bundelkhand. His state included Banda in the north, Rewah in the east and Jabalpur in the south, and extended as far as the river Betwa in the west. He never held Datia or Orchha. His first capital was Kalinjar but Panna became the chief town in 1675 AD. Chhatarpur (founded by Chhatarsal in 1707 AD) and Jaitpur were the only other towns of any importance in the territory. In 1729 AD., the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah sent an imperial army against him, which forced him out of Jaitpur, but he regained his lost territory the following year, with the assistance of the Maratha Peshwa Bhaji Rao I. In 1731 AD., the Peshwa took, as payment for his assistance, the town of Saugor and its dependent territory. Some of Chhatarsal’s vassals also received small pieces of the territory, and the
it is clear that Panna was a very significant state. before he passed it on to his son Anirudh (1777-1779 AD).15. in the resulting civil war (also referred to as the ‘interregnum’) much of the territory was lost. as shown above. therefore. and extensive labours by Dr. because these dates predate the separation of Chhatarpur as an independent state. Anirudh was a minor. and maybe other successor states of Panna. Jaso. bearing an effigy of the Hindu god Lord Hanuman. Khemraj took Paldeo and Sone Sah Ponwar took Chhatarpur. under Hirde Singh. following work by the late and greatly missed Ken Wiggins. The coins of Panna. including Panna. 20 and 21 of Chhatarpur “Princely” State) that carry the mint-name Chhatarpur (iv). 19. we must go to the coins themselves to find an answer. (vii) There is a well-known. We also have coins with the same mint name. wealth and power than Chhatarpur. but dated after RY 27. long after Chhatarpur State gained its independence (ii). If we want to know. Panna went to Hirde Singh and Jaitpur to Jagat Rai. Charkhari or Bijawar states. mostly undated examples were known and published. to govern independently. until year 27 (1784/85 AD). and even Charkhari are said. came into separate independent existence in 1732 AD. Received wisdom is that the Chhatarpur mint opened in 1816 AD. or earlier. and so these coins have been attributed to Chhatarpur state after that date. That coin. who made Panna town his capital. is now accepted as being a coin of Dhar state. When Chhatarsal died in 1732 AD he left numerous progeny (over 50 sons are known) holding bits of territory in the area. and as fixed years between date changes. unbroken series bearing regnal years and Hijra dates from year 3 of Shah Alam II (1762 AD).remainder was split between two of his sons. which had been mere parts of the whole. so where is the coinage of Panna? Krause shows only a single copper coin. (i) The state of Panna. Bijawar. I think it is also clear that some coins bearing the Chhatarpur mint name and regnal years of Shah Alam II after 27 are coins of Chhatarpur State. Ajaigarh. There remains the task of identifying coins of Bijawar. are fictitious. If we read the years on coins with regnal years up to RY 27 as the actual dates they were struck. Charkhari and Bijawar. but the regents fought among themselves and. This necessitates the assumption that all dates and regnal years on these coins. or have been shown to have struck their own coinage. Beni Hazuri took Maihar. up to regnal year 27 of Shah Alam II. I believe this to be the only viable option. Charkhari. At that time. an introduction From the above brief history. and had regents to administer the state on his behalf. Chhatarpur and Bijawar. we will place these coins in the period before Chhatarpur state was founded as a separate entity by Sone Sah Ponwar in 1784/85AD. Other coins attributed to Chhatarpur As well as the aforementioned rupees. Sarila. the KM catalogues illustrate and describe coins of two other denominations 3 . but we now know that these rupees constitute a long. This assumption was valid when only a few random. Aman Singh was murdered by his brother Hindupat (1758-1777 AD). and not Chhatarpur State. Charkhari. who ruled Panna for nearly 20 years. 17. readily available series of rupees (Krause includes a selection as KM. He was succeeded by Sabha Singh (1739-1752 AD) and Aman Singh (1752-1758 AD). S K Bhatt. brother of Anirudh. much greater in area. leaving only the rump of the original Panna state for Dhokal Singh. some of which are clearly the true coinage of Chhatarpur State. Jigin and Lugasi. and that these familiar coins are thus demonstrated to be coins of Panna State. attributed to Panna. Chhatarpur was an important town in Panna State.
about the copper. not without reason. The first probably is. 1784/85 Title – Raja 1785 – 1816 1816 – 1854 1854 – 1867 1867 – 1895 Title . The third coin in Fig. but they are probably scarcer. 1. Some of these have what might be a crudely executed Chhatarpur mint name. 1227/35.Maharaja 1895 – 1932 1932 – 1947 AH. and most seem to have nothing legible in the place usually occupied by a mint name. coins of Panna state. do not belong to Chhatarpur State. and could. Kunwar Sone Shah Pratap Singh Jaghat Singh Vishvanath Singh} } Vishvanath Singh} Bhawani Singh Chhatarpur State coins I believe that the foregoing is sufficient to indicate that coins bearing the mint name ‘Chhatarpur’. No comments are possible.9grammes’. just as easily be a product of the erstwhile Bijawar mint. and that some coins bearing the mint name Chhatarpur that were struck after that date. but are. 1199/1200 1199 . Other copies of the Chhatarpur mint rupees. (ix) AD.1366 Ruler. see below.1231 1231 – 1270/71 1270/71 – 1283/84 1283/84 – 1312/13 1312/13 – 1341/42 1341/42 . AH.5 is an undated quarter rupee with the regnal year 25. at this stage. are shown below. and to the preceding series of rupees. KM. 1203. others do not.68-2. with regnal year 30. but no date. but struck before 1784/85 AD. as the first two coins in Fig. Date.reputedly emanating from the Chhatarpur mint. prima facie. Two such rupees.. particularly as some appear to bear parts of the mint name ‘Ravishnagar Sagar’. are coins of Chhatarpur State.2 is an undated copper “paisa” (weight not given). bear a strong ‘family resemblance’ to each other. It clearly did not open for the first time in 1816 AD. exist in some numbers. Date. struck for Panna state. These coins are of substantially the same design as Panna coins from Chhatarpur mint. The first two. presumably for AH. in fact. weighing ‘2.1. Both these coins have the distinctive Chhatarpur mintmark of a sunflower. It is often suggested. KM. despite the differences between them. and the second may be a coin of Chhatarpur State It is certainly true that the Chhatarpur mint re-opened or stayed open as the mint for the independent and separate Chhatarpur State. that they may well be Maratha coins.1 also seems to have the regnal year 35. but little is known about them at present. The quarter rupee appears to be crudely engraved and has no mintname on it. erroneously. Chhatarpur State founded. They are dated “312”. and. such as the third coin in Fig. 4 . Rulers of Chhatarpur State. with regnal years 30 and 35.
which would put the date of the coin at about 1799-1808 AD. dated after the independence of Chhatarpur State.15 Aug 1947 Govind Singh Bijawar State coins The Krause Publications catalogues illustrate this series with a photograph of a single rupee. has apparently been read as ‘4’. if they had ever been on the die in the first place.Figure 1. and RY35(?) for the later copy of unknown attribution. Bijawar State Rulers of Bijawar State. which is almost off the flan in the example shown. Ruler 1765 1178/79 Bijawar state founded Title – Rajas 1765 – 1793 1178/79 – 1207/08 Bir Singh Deo 1793 . which has been given the catalogue number KM. there is no historical basis for 5 .. 11.1899 1282/83 – 1316/17 Bham Pratap Singh Jun 1899 . also dated ‘4’ or ‘4x’ is shown as the first coin in Fig. Dates: “312” (for 1203?)/30 and 1227(sic!)/35 for the coins presumed to be of Chhatarpur state.1802 1207/08 – 1216/17 Himmat Bahadur 1802 . RY 4 would indicate a date of about 1763 AD. and 10. It is crudely struck on a dumpy flan from which the date and mint name are missing. As far as I know.30 Oct 1940 Savant Singh Oct 1940 . Since these coins are in the name of Shah Alam II (1759-1806 AD). It is therefore considered more likely that the correct reading would be “4x”. Weights respectively 11.15. Two rupees of Chhatarpur mint. and a copy. and it could be argued that the coins might have been issued from a second Panna state mint. (ix) Date AD.9g. approx. at Bijawar. This is speculative.0g. but the calligraphy is barbarous. before the state of Bijawar existed.1. of unknown attribution.The first two coins have Shah Alam II legends and the second may have similar legends.Dec 1810 1217/17 – 1225 Keshri Singh 1811 – 1833 1225 – 1248/49 Ratan Singh 1833 – 1847 1248/49 1263 Lakshman Singh 23 Nov 1847– 1866 1263 – 1282/83 Bham Pratap Singh Title – Maharaja ( from 1877 Sawai Maharaja) 1866 . Date AH.2 below. The regnal year of this piece. A similar coin.
which is usually on the flan.415 of Dr. Lucknow).. RY 25 fell during the reign of Bir Singh Deo. even today. Dr. The first is thought to be an example of the coin type shown as Bijawar KM. These coins are scarce. and the weight is about 10. The Krause coin type reportedly weighed between 10.6 grammes. nor even an acknowledgement of my inquiry. depending on which authority we follow) by order of the British administration. in turn. and then later strike coins of the type with the regnal year 4x shown in Fig. and as the second coin in Fig. and it is rarely seen on coins of the second type. So even an attribution to Bijawar depends on the evidence of Mr. if such it is. tentatively determine the probable ruler at the time of its introduction or use. by reference to the name of the piece. We could. The second bears the regnal year 25. that the long period suggested for their production does not seem far-fetched. The mint name is partially on the flan.6 grammes. The regnal year is ‘4’. Allan’s catalogue. on the coins of the first type. or any other coins? As yet. like the coin illustrated in those catalogues. An example with more of the mint name showing. or more likely ‘4x’. and well before the reign of Ratan Singh. Fig.15 in the Krause catalogues and the one shown in John Allen’s catalogue.9 grammes.7 and 11. The picture in the Krause Publications catalogues appears to be a copy of that in Mr. and so adds no useful information. The coin shown below weighs 10. Did Bijawar state strike the lightweight RY 25 rupees. but these figures in Krause catalogues are often unreliable. Although Mr. similar to those attributed to Bijawar state in the catalogues above quoted. where it has been read as both ‘Bijawar’ and as ‘Zarb Chhatarpur’. “Ratan Shahi”. and. All similar coins seen in this study (30 or more) weigh about 10. nor of any other coins. Mitchiner’s coin also weighs 10. and the Bijawar rupee. Both coins were photographed in India in 2008 6 . John Allan. and weighs marginally below 10. so far as I know. Ratan Singh ruled Bijawar from about 1811 AD until about 1831 or 1833 AD. as reported by Mr. or with the mint name better engraved is required before the mystery can be satisfactorily cleared up. 2 Two possible candidates for the Bijawar rupee These coins area crudely engraved rupees of the Chhatarpur mint type. but is so crudely engraved that it has been read as both “Chhatarpur” and “Zarb Bijawar”.2. and it is illustrated on p. is presumed to have been struck during that period. John Allan in his catalogue (ii). There is another candidate for the Bijawar rupee. These coins are so superabundant. I have not been able to obtain a picture of it. from the museum concerned (The Provincial Museum. .9 grammes and bears the regnal year 25.. Allan includes a second rupee of Bijawar (not illustrated) in his catalogue. we do not know.6 grammes.this suggestion. as cited above. Mitchiner’s book on State coins (iii). This type of rupee is reported to have continued in production until the mint was closed (in 1892 or 1897 AD.9 grammes and bear the regnal year 25. upon his own sources. The mint name is usually off the flans of these coins. 2 below. although this coin shows a different part of the die.. The mint name has not been seen.
various deaths and succession disputes intervened before Parhar Singh brought stability back to the area by force. Bijawar and Chhatarpur States. Ratan Singh also received British sanads. copies of those of Chhatarpur and Panna. 1765 Title . Jai Singh Deo’s administrative powers were withdrawn by the British. as suggested in the catalogues cited. states that Rath was “………. Hence it is.Bijawar coins appear to be. He was followed on the gaddi by Bijai Bikramajit Bahadur Singh (1782-1829 AD with a short gap when he was driven out of his state. co-authored with Kamal Maheshwari. cited above. Bikramajit Singh was confirmed by British sanads in 1804 and 1811 AD. 1178/79 1178/79 – 1196/97 1196/97 1244/45 1244/45 – 1276/77 1276/77 – 1297 1297 . The foundation of the state dates from 1765 AD. This local coinage was replaced by British coinage in 1864 AD. Date.1326 Ruler Charkhari State founded Khuman Singh Bikramajit Singh Ratan Singh Jai Singh Deo Malkhan Singh Jhujar Singh Ganga Singh Arimardan Singh Jagendra Singh Charkhari State history and coins The tiny state of Charkhari stands astride the River Ken. year for year. (i) Charkhari’s currency was described as “The Srinagari rupee struck at Rath and the Raja Shahi struck at the mint in Charkhari town”.at one time in the Jaitpur Raj. and its capital town was also called Charkhari. with those on Panna and Chhatarpur coins. He was followed by Ratan Singh (1829-1860 AD) and Jai Singh Deo (1860-1879 AD). After Raja Chhatarsal had divided his territory into inheritances for his sons (see above). but it is not known whether the regnal years engraved on the Bijawar dies refer to a period specific to Bijawar. impossible to put a firm date to coins of either type. He settled Charkhari on Khuman Singh who ruled it from 1765 to 1782AD. or fixed and irrelevant. Ken Wiggins. are identical. or are fictitious.(ix) AD. during his invasion of Bundelkhand in 1797/98 AD). It was surrounded by Orchha. Charkhari town was also known as Maharajnagar (vii).Raja 1765 – 1782 1782 – 1829 1829 – 1860 1860 – 1880 1889 – 1908 1908 – 1914 1914 – 1920 1920 – 1941 1941 – 1947 AH. but was taken by Himmat Bahadur during his campaign in 7 . after which he was reinstated by Ali Bahadur. Date. at present.. Charkhari State Rulers of Charkhari State. in his book on Maratha coinage.
some of which may have been struck at Rath.. Panna State Rulers of Panna State. among those of other places. Interested readers will please refer to page 130 of Ken Wiggins’ book for a brief but lucid account of Bundelkhand during this turbulent period. but perhaps the matter is not yet settled. I mention it only because an eminent numismatist in Mumbai has read the bottom line of the reverse as ‘Charkhari’. clearly copied from Srinagar. but. (ix) AD Date c.1785 1785 .Raja 1675 . 1a and 1b. and specimens are illustrated in the KM catalogues as KM. They are reported to have been exported to Charkhari”.1. A mint was set up…(and)…. These particular rupees were struck at Srinagar in Bundelkhand.3grammes. The chiefs of these places constituted the groups loosely described as local warlords and Grassia chiefs.1840 1840 .1 is just one example of the coins struck by such chiefs. However.the rupee struck was known as the Srinagari: evidently another copy of the rupee of Srinagar.1731 1731 .247.1779 1779 .1450 1731 Title .Bundelkhand. The original Srinagari rupee is well enough known. Other experts do not agree with his reading. there are a number of known types that are copies of those rupees.1798 1798 . The third rupee illustrated above in Fig. as Ken Wiggins reports.1739 1739 . Among such we may some day be able to recognise the short-lived independent currency of Charkhari. 828 1143/44 1178/79 – 1143/44 1143/44 – 1151/52 1151/52 – 1165/66 1165/66 – 1171/72 1171/72 – 1192 1192 – 1193 1193 – 1199/1200 1199/1200 – 1212/13 1212/13 – 1255/56 1255/56 – 1265 1265 – 1285/86 1285/86 – 1286/87 1286/87 – 1310/11 1310/11 – 1315/16 Ruler Predecessor state founded Panna State founded Chhatrasal Hardesah Singh Sabha Singh Aman Singh Hindupat Singh Anirudh Singh Interregnum (civil war) Dhokal Singh Kishor Singh Harbans Rai Nripat Singh as Raja Nripat Singh as Maharaja Rudra Pratap Singh Lokpal Singh Madho Singh Yadvendra Singh 8 .1778 1778 . which has been tentatively attributed to Mahoba (Maratha) mint by Maheshwari and Wiggins. 248 and 249: also in Wiggins and Maheshwari’s book on page 129 as types T. Such chieftaincies were often short-lived. there are several types of coinage in existence. and currently loosely described as emanating from ‘uncertain central-Indian mints’.1849 1849 – 1869 } Title .1752 1752 . and consisted of small districts that were themselves fluid as regards borders. I know of nowhere else that any Charkhari coinage is reliably catalogued or discussed. but we shouldn’t hold our breath! There is one other coin to mention here.1758 1758 . Kora and Chhatarpur coins and almost certainly struck at about the right time. a copper double paisa(?) weighing about 15.Maharaja} 1869 – 1870 } 1870 – 1893 1893 – 1898 1898 – 1902 1902 – 1947 AH Date c.
Coins with regnal year 20 have been seen 9 . Figure 3. It is not common for all five symbols to be fully visible on a single specimen. The last three symbols mentioned appear to remain constant throughout the series. along with some very distinctive symbols or marks. because bursts do not have stalks) between the words “Alam” and “Badshah” on the obverse face. and his installation was probably the reason for this date change. AH. similar to the weights found for the possible Bijawar rupees in this study. 4 and 5 in Fig.. minted at Chhatarpur The Panna rupee minted at Chhatarpur was known locally as “Raja Shahi” (not a very useful name) and displays parts of Shah Alam II’s “fadl Allah” couplet. The few date/year combinations I have seen are listed in table B. This is towards the end of the reign of Hindupat. below the word “sanat”. the accession year of Dhokal Singh. 3. and that is probably the reason for the date change. more marginal positions than those mentioned above. Mitchiner states that his coin weighed 10. 1199 falls almost entirely in 1785 AD. left of the sunflower and right of the ‘mim’ of ‘Alam’. The coins examined all weighed between 11. but this part of the die is rarely visible. Coins with the RY 18 are dated AH 1190. respectively marked 3. there are two symbols that vary from coin to coin. where they were visible. on the reverse. the date moves to the middle of the bottom line of the legend. below. The most noticeable of these is the large. is at the bottom of the reverse face. crudely executed. absent from many specimens. resembling a flywhisk. Coins with RY 27 are dated AH 1199. From these few dates. AH 1192 is the succession year of Anirudh. a quatrefoil to the right of the regnal year and another in the loop of the “S” of fulus and another mark. The weight stated for the Chhatarpur rupees in KM catalogues is 10. From RY 18. 4 and 5 remained essentially unchanged on all coins examined.7-11. stalked Sunflower (not a sun-burst. and this is clearly too wide a range.. but these were fragmentary and are typically wholly or nearly off the flan. 3 below. In positions marked 1 and 2 in Fig. The mint-name “Chhatarpur”.9 grammes. the date is AH1192.Panna coins.9grammes). these coins are frequently described as undated. Coins without definitely recognisable parts of both symbols at positions 1 and 2 on the obverse cannot be fitted into this scheme of classification. the coins have the date to the right of the word ‘Muhammad’ in the top line of the obverse legend. Positions of the five symbols discussed above. and the reason for this date being chosen for such a change is obscure. There is also. Symbols at positions 3.3 grammes approximately (one worn example with regnal year 25 weighed only 10. and have therefore been ignored in this study Up to RY 17. I tentatively suggest that they are probably the correct dates visa vis the regnal years. From RY 19 to RY 26. Dr. Some coins examined displayed parts of symbols in other.6g.1 and 11. and consequently.
Bijawar and Charkhari states as independent entities. but it is safe to assume that this is an error for 1192. when present. The combination of the symbols in the positions 1 and 2 does vary from coin to coin. on at least some of the coins examined. The best are as good as any other handstruck rupees from central India. in translation: “Struck coin in the seven climes. with the Kora symbol of a trident being replaced by the Chhatarpur mintmark of a sunflower. excepting. and hence. The mint name. Bijawar State as well. but the 10 . After R. Emperor Shah Alam [‘King of the world’]” This couplet was used on coins from a number of Mughal. one of which replaced the three diacritical dots over the Sh in the word ‘badshah’. one coin seen during this study. The earlier coins are usually the best in terms of execution. on average. (Saugor) and Kora. It may be presumed that some coins with regnal year 27 will prove to be coins of Chhatarpur State. Only the very beginning of the word appears on most flans. of course.Y. and the founding of Chhatarpur. Coins with regnal years above 27 are coins of the Chhatarpur state. Coins of the civil war period appear to be somewhat scarcer than most other years. and it is not clear at present whether rupees of the two polities can be differentiated in R. which was at the end of the interregnum and civil war. Those early coins of Kora appear to have been used as a model for the Panna (Chhatarpur mint) rupees. It reads “Chhatarpur” (literally “Che Te P W R”) with another word above and to the left. The symbols 3 to 5 display only slight changes from time to time. those of Chhatarpur State and. when present. mentioned above. including those at nearby Ravishnagar Sagar.27. of Panna state before it was dismembered. is at the bottom of the obverse face. but could be read as “sharh” (town) (vi). and it is upon this combination of symbols or marks that classification of these coins must depend. They are also. and is often entirely absent. the date.the seven climes). the shadow of divine favour: defender of the religion of Muhammad. with a coin bearing the regnal year 27. divides the Persian words “haft kashuar (kishwar)……zad dar” (struck in……. This possibly reflects the steadily deteriorating political. marginally the heaviest. but the weight varies little from coin to coin. stalked or not) in place of the top-most ‘petal’ in almost all coins noticed in this study. The complete “fadl Allah” couplet of Shah Alam II reads. The series finishes in 1784/85. The quality of the silver. from hand made dies. including calligraphy and engraving. probably. It has a dot (round or lozenge-shaped. It is also present on the later coins. to the spot above the Wa of the mint name. The sunflower may fairly be regarded as the mintmark of Chhatarpur mint. with the regnal year 17 had two symbols in position 1.17. The coin in Table B is almost certainly a Panna State issue. as would be expected on coins struck over a protracted period. but the worst are significantly cruder. The coins themselves are somewhat variable in fabric. The three-dot diacritical mark above the Sh of sharh seems to have been displaced. as used in the Krause catalogues. Native State and Maratha mints. may also have become progressively more debased as time went by. This word is not “zarb” (struck at) as might be expected. and marks the breaking up of Panna State. from its appearance.with the date 1129. economic and security situation during the twenty-five years or so over which they were struck. the change in the position of the date. not on one symbol only. and are discussed in the section of this paper that deals with that series. quality of engraving and execution of strike. The design or ‘Type’ remained constant throughout the period. Exceptionally.Y.
and also to record that variation. It is not the misplaced three-dot diacritical mark for the ‘Sh’ of ‘Badshah’. that I have included some of the most distinctive varieties of type (iv) both to show the kind of variation I have ‘lumped together’. rather than ignore something that may later prove to be significant. where Y or N means present or absent. because both groups of dots appear on many examples The symbols in Table “A” have been found in the combinations shown in Tables “B” and “C”. Readers of the JONS should please be aware that I have reduced the number of ‘flower’ symbols. should be regarded as a work of pure fiction. or attributable to ‘creativity’ on the part of the engraver. 11 . which is a more accurate description. date listing for Chhatarpur. however. The KM. I have also decided to refer to them as ‘plants’. The symbols Drawings of all symbols noted at positions 1 and 2 in this study are shown in table A below. The drawings are not to any constant scale. because I have become convinced that some varieties shown in that earlier paper are aberrations.significance of this (if there is any) can only be guessed at present. Its presence or absence has been recorded in table B below in the ‘dots’ column. On some coins there is a small group of three dots above and between symbol 1 and the head of the sunflower. however. The Krause-Mishler (KM. This little mark may or may not be significant. inevitable when dies are cut by hand.) numbers are also shown. where the variety appears to have been included in the KM varieties listing. The variation is so wide in the plants with 5 heads.
(Not to scale) 12 .Table (A) The symbols found in positions (1) and (2) on Panna and similar rupees.
15.Table B.17f 1179 118(0?) KM.17d 10.17c 10. Chhatarpur mint.1 KM.9a 10.12a 10.15a 10.16a 10.15.8b 10.13b 10.8a 10.15.20 KM.20 DATES To Be Added Table Contined on next page … 13 .5a 10.2 KM. number My number AH date 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Winged dots (i) Winged dots (i) Opening bud Lotus Chakra (6 rays) Chakra (9 rays) Chakra (7 rays) Chakra (7 rays) Up-turned crescent Winged dots (i) Winged dots (ii) Winged dots (ii) Winged dots (ii) Group of 5 dots Cross with 4 dots Group of 5 dots Group of 5 dots Group of 5 dots Group of 5 dots Circle and 8 dots Chakra (6 rays) 8 dots and a circle Up-turned crescent Narrow leaf with droplet Cross and 4 dots Chakra (6 rays) AND plant (i) Narrow leaf with droplet Narrow leaf with droplet Group of 7 dots Group of 7 dots Group of 7 dots Group of 7 dots Group of 7 dots Group of 7 dots Group of 7 dots Group of 7 dots Group of 7 dots Trident (i) Trident (ii) 8 dots and circle Trident (ii) Trident (ii) Trident (ii) Trident (ii) Retrograde ‘f’ shape Group of 5 dots Group of 5 dots Chakra (6 rays) Group of 7 dots Chakra (6 rays) Group of 6 commass 3 dots and a circle Group of 5 dots Group of 7 dots Group of 6 commas Plant (iv) N N Y Y N Y Y Y N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N KM. Dot s KM.15.17e 10.2 KM.13a 10.1 KM.10a 10.20 KM.11a 10.17b 10.7b 10.15.16b 10.20 10.15.7a 10.1 KM. and other details found on the varieties of these coins examined R.14a 10. Panna State. 1.15b 10.03a 10.1 1185 KM.12b 10.6b 10.17 KM. Yr.15. None 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Symbol at Position Symbol at Position 2.10b 10.4a 10.6a 10.20 KM.1 KM. The symbols found in positions 1 and 2.17a 10.
10.22b 10.26b 10.22d 10.21c 10. number Retrograde Nagari “1” N Plant (iv) N Plant (iv) N Plant (iv) Plant (iv) Plant (iv) Plant (iv) Trident (ii) Plant (i) Plant (iv) Plant (i) Plant (iv) Plant (iv) Plant (i) Plant (iv) Plant (iv) Plant (iv) Plant (iv) Plant (i) Plant (i) Plant (iv) Plant (i) Group of 5 dots Plant iv Plant (iv) Plant (iv) Trident (vi) Y Symbol at Position 2. Yr.20a.25a 10. Trident (vi) Narrow leaf with droplet Trident (vi) Ankus Symbol off flan Battle-axe Quatrefoil trident heads Battle-axe Chakra (6 rays) Battle-axe Quatrefoil (ii) Opening bud Up-turned crescent Opening bud Upturned crescent Double pennant Double pennant Group of 5 dots Group of 5 dots Double pennant Down-turned crescent Single pennant Double pennant Ankus Mace Group of 7 dots Flower head of tear drops Dots KM.25c 10. 18 19 20 Symbol at Position 1.25b 10.24c 10.24b 10. prov.22a 10.18a 10.18c 10.22c 10. My number 10.21b 10.22e 10.21a 10.24b 10.25d 10.26a 10.23a 10.27a AH date 1190 1190 119x 1196 1192 1129 1192 1192 1192 1192 1192 1192 1192 for for Y Y Y N N N N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N 21 22 23 24 19 25 1192 1192 1192 1192 1192 1192 1192 1192 1192 1192 1192 1199 26 27 14 .R.20b 10.24d 10.21d 10.18b 10.19a 10.
The symbols found in positions 1 and 2. a mint name on the dumpier kind of flan. and whose calligraphy tends to be cruder. 35 Trident (v) Plant (v) Chhat. and that is the KM 15 coin. This is not true for the Chhatarpur minted rupees of any other year or date. and weighing about 10. There are some coins intermediate between these two kinds. 2 Bij.7 to 10. thicker flans.1 grammes. 1 Bij. 15 .. * 28 29 30 Scimitar coins 8 dots and a circle N Chhat.15 under the entry for Bijawar. it appears to be of the same type. and those whose flans are dumpier. and other details found on the varieties of these coins examined Chhatarpur State begin here. on narrower. I have never seen a date. I have attributed the wider.Table C. and has been shown as such in the table a above. so the picture is not clear-cut.9 grammes. another kind of (probably) Bijawar rupee. * 25 N 4x Symbol off flan Circle with 10 dots N Other coins possibly from same series. ‘better’ coins to Chhatarpur under Panna State. There is . Most of the year 25 coins are of the latter sort. and I have tended to regard them as the ones most likely to have been issued by Bijawar. May be copies from elsewhere. The flans of coins of RY 25 can be roughly split between those whose diameters are about 18 mm. lighter versions of the year 25 Chhatarpur rupees. This is simply because the catalogues tell us that the Bijawar rupees are dumpier. and only on one occasion. 1 312 1203 for 31 32 33 34 35 Trident (iv) Plant (ii) N Possible Bijawar coins. ** Although the Bijawar coin with RY 4x shows a different part of the die from that shown in the Krause illustration of KM. however. Chhatarpur State and miscellaneous other coins discussed above. Additional note on the RY 25 rupees of Chhatarpur/Bijawar There appear to be two kinds of year 25 rupees. The matter is not yet resolved. at around 15 to 17 mm. with regnal year 4 or 4x. The first is the normal Chhatarpur mint rupees weighing 10. 2 ** 1227(sic!) 15 *Details of the probable Chhatarpur and Bijawar State coins have been added to the tables. and the second is a much cruder product.9 to 11.
defined by the symbols in positions (1) and (2) .have been given the suffices a. up to RY 27 of Shah Alam II. b. Chhatarpur mint. changes to the mostly fixed dates after AH. and are coins of Chhatarpur State. c etc. I have referred to the rupee as Panna type 10. 1190 seem to be related to the starts of new reigns. I conclude that there are not. Polite request to readers I would be grateful to hear from any person who wishes to offer additional details for inclusion in the above tables. with one or more sub-types or varieties for each regnal year. Please see column 6 of tables B and C. These coins are not coins of Chhatarpur State. The combination of symbols . Coins with regnal years higher than 27 (and probably some RY 27 coins) were struck after the independence of Chhatarpur from Panna. Similar coins may be have been struck in other states that split away from Panna after the civil war period.. but one type only. as described in the Krause catalogues.one or more combination for each regnal year .Conclusions From the evidence expounded and summarised above. The AH. or might be copies of Chhatarpur mint rupees made by neighbouring polities. Please let me know the regnal year and the symbols you find in positions 16 . or both. and have allocated the regnal year as sub-type or variety. but of Panna State. several types of Chhatarpur rupee.
from time to time. C J Brown’s “Catalogue of Coins in the Provincial Museum Lucknow” (v) lists seven such coins. It must be remembered that the excellent catalogue published by Mr. which is otherwise a useful reference work. Mitchiner were correct. He is silent about the possibility of the mint operating prior to this date under the auspices of Panna State. 3). in the name of one or more Mughal emperor. We may. photograph or drawing will be gratefully received – ‘a picture is worth a thousand words’ .Dilip Rajgor. states that the Chhatarpur mint dates from 1816 AD. If Dr. I would also like to hear of similar coins with any readable mint names. Brown’s catalogue are in the range outlined above for the Panna type. All the dates and regnal years of the coins in Mr. of course. Maratha and some other polities. in his monograph “Collectors’ Guide to Mughal Coins” intimates on page 32 that Chhatarpur was a Mughal mint which struck specie for Shah Alam II. (B) and (C). in the 21st century. and how much we owe to very recent researchers. End Notes. in his “Useful Tables”. but they were not of the type apparently referred to by Mr. certain that some rupees were struck at the Chhatarpur mint after Chhatarpur became independent from Panna. 35 for Chhatarpur 17 . perhaps it would have been less confusing to beginners and experienced collectors alike if he had made this clear in his book. Mitchiner suggests that the regnal years on “Chhatarpur” rupees may refer to the time since the founding of the state “in 1806 AD”. A very great number of such coins are now more correctly attributed to the Native (‘Princely’) States and “Independent Kingdoms” (with which. by default. and circulate copies to all contributors.Dr. Such coins would logically be expected to carry regnal years from 48 of Shah Alam II and the regnal years and legends of Bahadur Shah II or Queen Victoria. for my personal collection. Prinsep and Dr. as I indicate above. along with the date. attributed to the Mughal Emperor whose inscriptions they were. RY and symbols.and I will be happy to reimburse any reasonable expenses incurred. Most authorities agree that the founding of the state actually dates from 1785 AD. they could usefully and logically be combined. 2). It is. from their dates and regnal years. State the position of the date. and that it was closed by the British in 1882 AD. within the inclusive and more helpful description of the “Mughal Successor States”) (iii).1 and 2. Mitchiner. a brief inspection of Mr Rajgor’s list of “Mughal mints” indicates that it includes a number of other mints that never struck specie for a Mughal emperor. However. along with Sikh. The latest number for a regnal year seen in this study for that type of coin was 27 for Panna.Prinsep. Mitchiner follows him. and any variation of the symbols 3 to 5. and does not belong to the Mughal series at all. including an indication of whether any of its numerals is retrograde. This now appears to be an error. all of which are apparently of the type(s) attributed by Krause and other modern cataloguers to the Native (‘Princely’) State of Chhatarpur. It is easy to forget just how young the modern science of sub-continental numismatics is. stating that these rupees were struck between “about 1816 and 1882 AD”. with new combinations of date. ask why. Readers outside India please note that I am still interested in acquiring coins of these types. and which are the main subject of this paper. 1). and it is clearly of this type. known coins. Brown was written at a time when all coins bearing Mughal inscriptions were. Mitchiner further states that these coins were last struck for Jagat Singh between 1854 and 1867 AD. but did so for other. A scan. Mr Rajgor thought it proper to include Chhatarpur mint in a listing of “Mughal Mints” when it is now generally accepted that it was never such. and are therefore believed to be Panna rupees struck at Chhatarpur mint whilst it was part of the Panna territory. perhaps. and hence that suggestion seems unlikely to be correct. or in any way wrongly engraved. If this were his intention. would have been struck between 1789 and 1811 AD. One of these (#4873) is illustrated on Plate XX. which may be available for purchase. I will compile all replies received into the tables (A). Dr. independent and semi-independent authorities.
Oxford Clarendon Press (first printed 1920) reprinted 1976. Calcutta. I suggest that these series require to be treated as single types. no doubt. each with one catalogue number. 1977. the identity of whose originator is. but other specimens will. and a tentative RY 4x for a possible Bijawar coin. 18 . allow a more accurate reading of that name. Some years above 29 have also been seen on later copies.Coins of Native States” John Allan. and issued similar coins for use in their own and adjacent territories. Vol. but a number of other historical sources were consulted. would it not be better if the errors and omissions could be rectified? Alternatively. Some people would rather abandon the Krause catalogues altogether. Other local rulers took the same design. Even many of the symbols found on the Kora series are identical with (or nearly so) those found on Panna coins. published by R C Senior Ltd. USA. 1908. modified it. 1976. as Maratha types KM. VIII was the source of much of the historical material.1). However. 1989. which are included in the “Peshwa’s Mints” section of the Krause catalogues. the Peshwa. (vi) This was read by Stan Goron (vii) “Maratha Mints and Coinage”. but it was not very successful because one man cannot cope with such an enormous corpus of material. (i) “Imperial Gazetteer”. and subsequent editions of the same publisher’s “Catalogue of World Coins” (Century editions).Students of Native State coins have been struck by the close resemblance of the Panna rupees here described to the Kora rupees bearing regnal years 1 to 5 of Shah Alam II.. It was not. probably from outside these states. or their intended sphere of circulation. and that the changes in symbol need to be studied and elucidated. and as KM 116 of Najibabad mint in the Krause catalogues. (iii) “Oriental Coins and their Values . (ii) “Catalogue of the Coins in the Indian Museum. we probably could not tell the resultant hybrid coins from normal Panna rupees. Bibliography and Acknowledgements. vol.. does someone among us relish the task of producing from scratch. are mine. Other series could benefit from the same treatment. An experienced and dedicated team. the splitting of those Kora rupees into a number of types by Krause. New Delhi. Krause Publications. such as used to work for Krause publications. The partial mint name on the RY 25 rupee of Bijawar(?) muddies rather than clears the waters.1980. C J Brown. would be required. 4). Nasik. seems to be wrong for the same reasons that apply to the Panna coins of the Chhatarpur mint described here. 5). Indeed.160-163 inclusive. and the useless order of entries in recent issues of the Century editions. reprint by Indological Book Corporation. K K Maheshwari and Kenneth W Wiggins. because of the muddle caused by the inclusion of erroneous data and incorrectly read coins submitted by inexperienced contributors. To date. Lucknow”. for the time being. IIRNS. or a pre-existing copy of it. uncertain.As well as the Kora rupees mentioned above. IV . Iola. Michael Mitchiner. by common consent. (iv) “The Standard Guide to South Asian Coins and Paper Money since 1556AD”. we do not have a very clear idea as to the origin of many of these coins. Hawkins Publications. and then keep it updated every year? A brave attempt was made recently by S C Gupta (Coins of Indian States Pt. Incidentally.The World of Islam”.state. London. a worthy replacement for the India section of the Krause catalogues. (v) “Catalogue of Coins in the Provincial Museum. There can be little doubt that the model for the Panna rupees was that attractive coin from just across the river. if we replace the trident on these coins with the sunflower mintmark of the Chhatarpur mint. the rupees included under the Awadh entry as KM 36 of ‘Muhammadabad Banares’ mint. are two other examples of series with many variations in symbol being treated as if every change in symbol ushers in a new type or sub-type.
through forgetfulness he might have omitted. About The Author: Barry Tabor was born in 1945 at Bishop’s Stortford in Hertfordshire. 19 . Chandrasekhar Gupta. England and educated at Newport (Essex) Grammar School and Manchester University. in his opinion. Jan Lingen and others. Through membership of the ONS. Rajesh Somkuwar. a number of Local Government municipalities and finally retired from an audit job with an Agricultural Company in Ely. how can one begin to understand our coins? He encourages anybody who wants to know what his coins mean to read a little history. He conveys his apologes to those who should be named here. He stated above that my gurus have included historians. European Colonial Powers and the Sikhs. He started randomly collecting Indian coins in 1997. most of whom were very willing to encourage new interest and educate a beginner in this strange world of collecting coins from India.org” with some modification and additional information. Frank Timmermann. He feels he did not meet many who begrudged time. the use I made of their input. anyway. Stephen Album. he feels. He then worked for the Home Office (Prisons Department). (ix) The Ruler Lists used in this article are based on the lists available on the website “WorldStatesmen. However.(viii) Some aspects of this subject were discussed with Stan Goron. Indian Native States. Dr. Ashok Singh Thakur. Having found the massive corpus of those st coins from ancient times to the 21 century just too overwhelming. Kamal Maheshwari. as well as numismatists. deserve a mention. Stan Goron. Prashant Kulkarni. great Ken Wiggins. epigraphers and linguists. The state flags were lifted from the same site. but whom. He wishes to especially mention the late. and the very few who fell short in such matters do not. Marathas. Kashinath Pandit and so many more – historians. Sri Lal Dennison. he was fortunate to meet and become friends with a number of experts in the field. Raju Bhatt. Without at least a basic comprehension of the history. effort or the sharing of what they had discovered. Shailendra Bhandere. the views expressed and the errors made are mine. Jan Lingen. That. he soon restricted his studies and collecting activities to the late Mughals. is particularly important. and my thanks are due to them for their helpful input. Cambridgeshire in 2005. Shailendra Bhandare. and I acknowledge this with gratitude to the owner of the site.
Onwards and upwards !! Barry Tabor can be contacted at: barrytabor@aol. introducing him to other like-minded souls and even entertaining the couple in their own homes. He have published a few small articles. as far as Barry has seen. The Oriental Numismatic Society (or. He has worked on ‘meeting’ coin buffs. There are no more open. Barry has enjoyed half a dozen trips to that complicated but enchanting country.Org) is thankful to Barry for allowing us to publish and distribute this document free as part of the Coins Encyclopedia project. but in an attempt to understand and interpret Indian history and coinages since the Mughal Empire began to disintegrate until the British assumed the rulership of the whole country from their rivals for power. generous people on earth. Generally speaking.com Indian Coins Encyclopedia (www.Org is a project of Shastri Numismatics Academy 20 .Among the fine people listed above. rather its active membership) have done a great deal since about 1980 to dispel ignorance and encourage students and experts to share their knowledge. to take the first opportunity to go there and place themselves in the hands of trusted local enthusiasts. this is a well-documented period of about three centuries of complex and colourful history. the Maratha Confederacy – and help others do so. including dealers. the ONS Newsletter). and he encourage all non-Indians who collect Indian coins and who have not already done so. friendly. You can download numerous free PDF volumes on Indian coins and other numismatic subjects from the above website WWW. but also in a number of periodicals in India. busy. via e-mail and the internet (a blessing and a curse if ever there was one!) and then meeting some of them in India. and how many errors and omissions are to be found among their pages. It is surprising just how much of the numismatic corpus was poorly covered by the coin catalogues in circulation. experience and other intellectual property they have picked up over the years.IndianCoins. mostly in the Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society (and its fore-runner. too. None of it has been done for profit.IndianCoins. But there is still a great deal of work to be done. errors and biased reporting among the many versions of that history commonly available. albeit there are numerous examples of contradictions. some readers will probably notice a few that have rarely or never been outside India. Some of them have been unstinting in their kindness and generosity in showing him and his wife around their localities.