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Wasim shaikh (C-1152)
The University Of Huddersfield, UNITED KINGDOM APRIL 2009
Leavening agents are used with some flours. especially suitable for baking yeast breads and similar products. Durum wheat is the hardest wheat grown. which are necessary for making good pasta. (which includes bread flour. This characteristic makes hard wheat flour varieties. It is the main ingredient of bread. which are both used for products. which are complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides. . such as cakes. TYPES OF FLOUR One of the primary reasons for the popularity of wheat flour is due to its gluten forming capacity when the flour is mixed with liquid. which has the ideal properties for making the best pasta. especially those with significant gluten content. It is used almost exclusively for making pasta and is most often ground into a granular flour with a light yellow color known as semolina. cookies. and hard red spring wheat have a high protein content (ranging from 10 to 14 percent). but it is not used for this purpose as often as other wheat varieties. such as cake and pastry flour. Flour contains a high proportion of starches. Various types of wheat are milled into a wide range of flours that are used for specific purposes: • Hard wheat varieties. The protein content of soft wheat varieties. Flour provides bulk and structure to baked goods.) Durum is high in protein and gluten. (Italian pasta makers never refer to semolina as flour . which means the gluten forming capacity is also higher. the more gluten is formed when the flour is mixed with liquid. including hard white.INTRODUCTION The most frequently used-and therefore the most important-ingredient in the bakeshop is flour. and pastries that do not require the same level of leavening capability as yeast breads. gluten flour. usually ranges from 6 to 10 percent. Flour is a powder made of cereal grains. to produce lighter and softer baked products by embedding small air bubbles. The more protein in the wheat flour (as is the case with flour milled from hard wheat). It is occasionally used for baked goods (especially risen breads). Gluten is the substance that provides dough with elasticity and the ability to stretch as the leavening agent produces carbon dioxide gas. Flour is produced by milling wheat kernels (berries). which is a staple food for many civilizations. • Soft wheat varieties include soft white and soft red winter. and many of the whole-wheat varieties). hard red winter.they refer to it as grain. which enables the dough to rise effectively.
which is lighter. This eventually became impractical because of the time and space required for large quantities of flour to oxidize naturally so chemical bleaching was developed. Bread flour is most often used in the commercial baking industry and is often confused with gluten flour. therefore bread makers often prefer unbleached flour. cakes. and other food items intended for frying or sautéing. however the chemicals affect the gluten strength of the flour. Unbleached all-purpose flour is often better for preparing several types of dough because the dough is easier to handle and the resulting baked goods are quite tender. and as a thickening agent for gravies. high-gluten flour that typically contains 99. sauces.9 % hard wheat flour with malted barley added to increase the yeast activity. The combination of the flours gives the all-purpose flour just the right balance for most baked goods. It is produced from a combination of high protein bread flour and low protein cake flour. The use of bread flour results in larger bread loaves with a lighter and less crumbly texture. all-purpose flour is suitable for most purposes and is perhaps the most commonly used wheat flour for general baking and cooking. and results in baked items that are tender and less dense. Bolted Flour Bolted flour is a type of whole-wheat flour in which nearly 80 percent of the bran has been removed. which hastens the whitening process. The bread flour is milled from a variety of hard wheat. The advantage of using bleached flour rather than unbleached is that the chemicals used for bleaching (usually chlorine. contains lower levels of gluten. The high gluten content is necessary in order for bread to rise effectively.All-purpose wheat flour is available in bleached and unbleached varieties. Bolted flour may also be referred to as reduced bran wheat flour. which in earlier times was the method used by flour millers to create white flour. . and stews. Wheat flour becomes white (actually off-white) naturally through oxidation. which evaporates after it is added to the flour) act as a preservative so that the flour will not develop an off flavor or spoil after a short period. making it ideal for bread making.All-Purpose Flour As the name suggests. and pastries. which has a higher gluten content than bread flour. which contains high levels of gluten. as a coating for meat. Bread Flour Bread flour is unbleached. All-purpose flour can be used for almost any recipe requiring flour such as breads. vegetables. Bread flour is also referred to as unbleached flour. The chemicals also prevent dough from becoming discolored and provide more consistent results when baking. The cake flour is milled from a variety of soft wheat. This is a necessary component for baked items to rise properly.
The gluten content of the flour has nearly twice the strength of regular wheat flour. Subtract 2 tablespoons from each cup specified in the recipe when using all-purpose flour as a substitute for cake flour. The Food and Drug Administration mandates that every package of all-purpose flour be enriched due to the removal of the nutrientrich bran and germ during the milling process. iron. Enriched Flour Enriched flours have been processed from grain to remove the bran and germ. which contain most of the nutrients found in wheat grain. and then reformulated with nutrients. It is very useful for the preparation of pizza dough.Bromated Flour Bromides added to flour help to ensure consistent results in baked goods. It is often confused with bread flour. cornstarch makes a good substitute. Bromated flour is rarely used in the United States because ascorbic acid is now used to strengthen wheat flour that is specifically used for bread making. Gluten is the protein that gives bread its elastic quality and aids in the rising process of the dough. It is high in starch and has a low protein content. The bromides help to strengthen the flour to achieve optimum gluten formation for bread making. which is fortified with additional gluten. If cake flour is not available. and flat breads and rolls. Gluten Flour Gluten flour is produced from hard wheat that has been treated to remove the starch. but has a lower gluten content than gluten flour. . niacin. Cake Flour Cake flour is produced from the endosperm portion of the wheat kernel of soft wheat varieties. but it tends to toughen bread if used in excess. It contains a greater percentage of gluten (at least 70% pure) than other types of flour and a lower percentage of starch. Gluten flour is most often used as an additive for various flours that are low in gluten or are gluten free. It is necessary to add the nutrients because of the removal of the bran and germ. bagels. The main advantage in removing the oily germ is that flour keeps for much longer periods. making it suitable for cake recipes. All-purpose flour can also be used although the results will not be quite as light and airy. and calcium added in accordance with established government guidelines. Vitamin D. such as thiamin. Many types of commercially milled flours are enriched. which means that it contains very little gluten. bleached to whiten the appearance. riboflavin.
Self-rising flour may also be referred to as biscuit mix. Three granulations (particle size) of whole-wheat are produced: fine. it is often best to combine wholewheat flour with all-purpose flour or bread flour. lighter color. Salt is also commonly added to the mixture. and a texture that is not as course. It is available in bleached and unbleached varieties and is most often used for making flaky pie crusts. such as cake mixes. and coarse.Whole-Wheat Flour Whole-wheat flour is produced from grinding the full wheat berry (kernel). Self-rising flour is most often included in commercially prepared packaged mixes. It is very popular in the southern United States where it is used more frequently than in northern states. germ. creates the speckled brown color that is characteristic of the flour. Coarse whole-wheat flour has a much larger bran particle and consequently is most often used to provide breads with natural. so the sodium content is much higher than other types of flour. Self-rising flour should not be used in preparing yeast breads and it is also worth noting that the leavening agent tends to lose its effectiveness the longer the flour is stored. biscuits. and the endosperm. but will provide a coarser crumb. and pastries. thus affecting the preparation of the dough. The leavening agent is generally in the form of baking powder. It is not suitable for bread making because the gluten content is too low. which hinders the dough from rising fully. Medium grained can be used for the same types of foods. which when milled. Pastry Flour Pastry flour is produced from soft-wheat and it has a fine-texture and a high starch content. . Whole-wheat flour used for bread making is usually milled from red wheat. rolls. and assorted pastries. White whole-wheat flour is milled from hard white winter wheat and has a milder flavor. cookies. Whole-wheat flour used alone in bread making results in a nutritious. Fine grain whole-wheat flour is used for all types of baked goods. and was developed as a means of saving time for the home cook. but it is not as fine as cake flour. In order to create a bread loaf that is a bit lighter and of greater volume. but smaller and denser loaf due to the bran. All parts of the wheat berry are used in the flour including the bran. such as breads. but its gluten content is greater than that of cake flour. Finer grained flour absorbs liquid at a faster rate than medium or coarse grains. nutty flavors and rough textures. Self-Rising Flour Self-rising flour is wheat flour in which the leavening agent has already been added. medium. Whole-wheat flour may also be referred to as entire wheat flour or graham flour (although there are some differences). Pastry flour is finely ground. The particle size influences the rate liquid is absorbed into the flour.
Potassium bromate and chlorine dioxide gas rapidly age flour. its major source of energy giving nutrients is namely the carbohydrates and protein. Natural aging and bleaching are somewhat unpredictable. so chemicals are now used to do both. flour turns white through a natural oxidation process referred to as bleaching.Whole-Wheat Pastry Flour Like refined white pastry flour. AGING AND BLEACHING Any flour develops better baking qualities if allowed to rest for several weeks after milling. pastry items made with whole-wheat pastry flour are more nutritious than pastries made with white pastry flour. Food for yeast: The simple sugar present and breakdown of starch by diastatic activity helps in making sugar available for the yeast to grow and act. Because of the presence of some of the bran and germ. however not all of the bran and germ portions of the wheat kernel have been removed during the milling process. Texture: Gluten is the main component of flour responsible for the sponge like texture to the baked product. which is replaced in fortified or enriched products. Freshly milled flour produces sticky doughs and products with less volume than those made with aged flour. . Crust colour: The uniform golden brown crust of the bread loaf is dependent on the breakdown of starch granules to maltose which caramelize and give colour to the crust. time-consuming processes. but they are not quite as light and airy. Functions of flour Volume and structure to bread : Flour because of its ability to stretch and extend depending on the quality and quantity of gluten and the starch content helps in attaining and maintaining the shape of the dough after baking the structure and texture of the bread depends upon two main factor namely fermentation capacity of the dough though fermentation is brought about by presence and multiplication of yeast cells its activity is governed by flour quality the protein portion of the flour forms the structure of the loaf so that leaving gas produced by the yeast can be entrapped and along with starch a firm and rigid structure is obtained on baking. whole-wheat pastry flour is produced from soft-wheat and it has a fine-texture and a high starch content. Nutritional value:Flour is the major component of bread . however. While aging. Bleaching destroys small amounts of the flour's naturally occurring vitamin E. Chlorine dioxide and other chemicals bleach flour by removing yellow pigments in order to obtain a uniform white color.
they change shape under pressure) and elastic (they resume their original shape when that pressure is removed). Starches comprise 63% to 77% of flour. as flour readily absorbs odors. however. Fat and minerals each generally account for less than 1% of flour's content. The higher a flour's protein content. In damp areas. The moisture content of flour is also relatively low-when packaged. flour absorbs moisture from the atmosphere. known as gelatinization. Even unopened bags of flour should not be stored near items with strong odors. It provides structure and enables dough to retain the gases given off by leavening agents. This process. Flour can be stored in a refrigerator or freezer if necessary to prevent the onset of rancidity. moisture. starches and proteins. Gluten is the tough. only a dough or batter can contain gluten PURCHASING AND STORING Most flours are purchased in 50. They should he stored in a lit. ventilated room at temperatures no higher than 800F (270C). Starches also provide food for yeast during fermentation. which will limit the flour's ability to absorb additional moisture during actual use.and 100-pound bags. minerals. Gluten is responsible for the volume. texture and appearance of baked goods. . there could be no raised breads: The gases created by yeast fermentation or chemical leaveners would simply escape if there were no network of gluten strands to trap them in the dough. But its actual moisture content varies depending on climatic conditions and storage. it cannot exceed 15% under government standards. Without gluten.COMPOSITION OF FLOUR Flour primarily consists of five nutrients: fat. An open bag of flour should be transferred to a closed container to prevent contamination. Refrigeration may cause the flour to absorb moisture. Flour does not contain gluten. and are necessary for the absorption of moisture during baking. Gluten strands are both plastic (that is. The proteins responsible for gluten formation are glutenin and gliadin. Flour proteins are important because of their gluten-forming potential. occurs primarily at temperatures above 1400F (600C). rubbery substance created when wheat flour is mixed with water. the greater that flour's gluten-forming potential.
'Flours are generally high in carbohydrates and low in fat. Some of these nutrients. however. niacin and iron are added at levels set by the government. like other plant foods. its proteins are "incomplete" because they are deficient in the essential amino acid lysine. flour contains no cholesterol. Flour is a good source of iron and the B vitamins. . gums. The fat in the wheat germ is primarily polyunsaturated. All wheat and rye flours also provide some of the food fibers.FLOUR NUTRITIONAL PROFILE Energy value (calories per serving): High Protein: Moderate Fat: Low Saturated fat: Low Cholesterol: None Carbohydrates: High Fiber: Low to high Sodium: Low (except self-rising flour) Major vitamin contribution: B vitamins Major mineral contribution: Iron About the Nutrients in Flour Flour is the primary source of the carbohydrates (starch and fiber) in bread. thiamin. and baked goods. The grains from which they are milled are often rich in vitamins and minerals. In enriched flours. including pectins. and cellulose. riboflavin. Iodine and iodophors used to clean the equipment in grainprocessing plants may add iodine to the flour. are lost during milling. pasta. Flour also contains significant amounts of protein but.
CONCLUSION Flour is classified as one of the essential ingredient in bakery. It is also one of the structural ingredients used in bakery in simple words flour is noting but a powder made from ceral grains it is main ingredient in bread making . The type of flour used will ultimately affect the finished product. . which gives elasticity and strength to baked goods. The most frequently used-and therefore the most important-ingredient in the bakeshop is flour. Different types of flour contain different amounts of protein. Therefore using a different type of flour than what is called for in a recipe (without compensating for this change) will alter the outcome of the baked good. Flour contains protein and when it comes in contact with water and heat it produces gluten.
recipetips.html#ixzz0FZifZDg4&B .com http://whatscookingamerica.joyofbaking.naturebake.BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.com http://www.net http://www.com/flour.
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