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 Any operation (other than preparation and coloring) that
improves the appearance and/or usefulness of fabric after it
leaves the loom or knitting machine.
 Impart certain special properties
 Stiffness
 Softness
 Water proofing
 Flame proofing
 Moth proofing
 To improve wearing qualities of cloth by making it shrinkage
resistance, crease resistant or free from pills & soiling
Based on degree of permanence:


Permanent Durable Temporay
Finish Finish finish
 Permanent Finish: Usually involve a chemical change in fibre
structure and do not change or alter throughout the life of the fabric
 Semi-permanent finish: Last through several laundering or dry
cleanings and many are renewable in home laundering or dry
 Temporary finish: Are removed or substantially diminished the
first time the article is laundered or dry cleaned.
 If the finishing effect in the fabric does not disappear and
remains unaffected through all the conditions of wear and
washing treatments, then the finish is said to be permanent
 Sanforising
 Fulling
 Mercerization
 Napping and sueding
 Resin Finish
 Water Proof
 Flame Proof
 Sanforising is a process where the fabric is run through a
sanforizer, a machine that has drums filled with hot steam.
 It is done to control the shrinkage of the fabric.
 Rubber blankets and needles are used
 Cellulose fibres(cotton) are known for their comfort during wear
and various other favourable properties.

 Resins are used for various wet finishes basically on cellulose and
cellulosic blends .

 Resin based finishes create cross –linking that increases

intermolecular rigidity.

 The resin finishes had been mainly been developed for the basic
problems of crease formations on cellulosic fibers, thus these
finishes came to be known as – “Anti crease or Anti crush or
Crease Resistant or Crease Recovery finish ,easy care finish
or Resin finish since resins are used for these finish”.
 Minimize shrinkage

 Weight of fabric

 Appearance

 Dimensional stability RESINS


 These resins form a surface coating on the applied substrate
 No reaction between fibers and the resin molecules.
 These type of resins give stiffness to the fabric and some extent of
crease recovery, which is lower than cross-linking resins.
 If cured these resins show behavior similar to cross-linking type of

Some resins of this category are as follows:-

 Phenol –Formaldehyde resins
• Cross-linking type of resins chemically react with substrate
molecules and form intermolecular cross-links.
• These are much durable and better than deposition type.
• They are also known as N-Methylol compounds as methylol groups
are attached to the nitrogen .
• These resins are called as precondensates which require further
polymerization to form resins.

• Some Cross-linking type of resins are as follows:

• DMU – Dimethylol Urea


This finish consist of treating the material with cold,
concentrated sodium hydroxide solution. Mercerization is a
permanent finish, and it is one of the few finishes applied
prior to dyeing.

This finish imparts luster to the cotton, increases its strength

by nearly 25 percent, and improves dye affinity, producing
brighter shades than are possible with un mercerized cotton.
It also enhances fabric hand and drape ability.
 Napping is a mechnical finish in which the woven or knitted
fabrics are passed through rotating,bristled , wire covered,
brushes, resulting in raised fiber surface.
 Napped fabrics have a softer hand and provide better
insulation than the same materials un napped because they
can entrap more air, hence their wide use in blankets,
sleepwear, and winter clothing.
 The finishes that repel/resist water to penetrate into the fabric
thereby preventing it from soaking the fabric come under this
category of repellent finishes.
 The term flame retardant or fire resistance or fire repellent
can be defined as one that does not propagate flame
although it may burn or char when exposed to heat. Flame
retardants are materials that inhibit or resist the spread of
 Finishing on the fabric is said to be semi permanent finish if
it is stable to more than 5 to 10 washes and not afterwards.
 Schreiner Calendaring
 Schreiner calendering produces a low, soft-key luster on the
fabric surface as distinct from the high glaze of the glazing
calender or the luster shine of the simple calender.

 The finish is widely used on nylon tricot, cotton and cotton-

polyester sateen, and damask table linens.

 To produce this effect, one of the steel cylinders of the

calender is embossed with very fine diagonal lines, about
250 lines per inch. These embossing are barely visible to the
naked eye.

 In addition to the soft luster, Schreiner calendering also

produces a softer hand and improved fabric cover.
 A finish which is not stable and goes off after the first wash is
known as temporary finish and these finishes disappears
during subsequent washing and usage.
 Calendaring
 Embossing
 Starching
 Softening
 Calendering is a process where fabric is compressed by
passing it between two or more rolls under controlled
conditions of time, temperature and pressure.
 A calendar is a machine consisting of two or more massive
rolls which are compressed by means of hydraulic cylinders
applying pressure at the journals.
 The calendering finish is easily destroyed, and does not last
well. Washing in water destroys it, as does wear with time
 Smoothening of the surface of fabric
 Increase in fabric lustre
 Closing the threads of woven structure
 Decreasing air permeability
 Increasing fabric opacity
 Improving handle of the fabric
 Flattening slubs
 Obtaining silk-like to high gloss finishes
 Surface patterning by embossing
 Consolidation of nonwovens.
 chasing calender
 glazing/ friction calender
 embossing calender
› cire
› moire
 felt calender
 schreneir calender
 rubber coating calender
 Embossing is a technique to produce a raised or 3-
dimensional image on all sorts of fabrics.
 In the general course two ways to emboss are:
› dry embossing and
› heat embossing .
 Dry embossing, also called relief embossing, with the
help of a stylus, stencil, and a few other supplies.
 In the heat embossing, also known as the stamp and
heat embossing, we generally use special powder, ink,
and a heat source. Both of the embossing techniques
used by our side are fairly simple and offer the striking
images to the fabrics.
 Required for more pleasant hand and better drapability
 Fabrics are harsher and stiffer because of their construction
or due to some prior finishing process
 Softening can be done by either mechanical or chemical
 Simple Calendering softens hand, but it is temporary
 Silicone compounds are used mostly as softener
 Silicone finish is a durable finish and require curing
 Different types of emulsified oils and waxes can be used but
they are semi-durable finish
 Some fabrics need to be made stiffer and more crisp than
hey would otherwise be in order to fulfill the intended end
 It is done with chemicals applied by pad and then dried or
 Resins are widely used for stiffening.
 Example buckram,crinoline, lawn, and voile.
 Basics of Dyeing and Finishing; Includes Dyeing Primer
 Textile finishing by R.S.Prayag
 Textile finishing by W.S.Murphy
 Joseph’s Introductory Textile Science - Sixth Edition, Peyton
Hudson, Anne Clapp, and Dianne Kness; Harcourt, Brace
and Jovanovich
 Dictionaw of Fiber & Textile Technology , Hoechst Celanese
1978. Available from Hoechst Celanes