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Effective interfacial area and liquid and gas side mass transfer

coefficients in a packed column

Department of Chemical Technology, University of Bombay, Matunga Road, Bombay-l 9, India

Abstract-The theory of gas absorption accompanied by fast pseudo-m th order reaction was used to

obtain values of effective interfacial area in a packed column, irrigated with aqueous solutions and

provided with 1 in. ceramic Raschig rings, 1 in. P.V.C. Raschig rings, 1 in. ceramic Intalox saddles,

1 in. polypropylene Intalox saddles, 1 in. stainless steel Pall rings and 1 in. polypropylene Pall rings.

The values of liquid side mass transfer coefficient were obtained by physical absorption of carbon

dioxide in water. In addition. the values of eas side mass transfer coefficient for a range of gas and liquid

flow rates were obtained.

PACKED columns are used in industrial practice accompanied by very fast irreversible reaction

for absorption, humidification and distillation was used to obtain the values of gas side mass

operations. Ceramic and stoneware packings transfer coefficient.

have found wide applications in the process

industries. It has been reported that polypropy- THEORETICAL TREATMENT AND METHODS

lene and high density polyethylene packings can OF ANALYSIS

be advantageously employed for a number of The theoretical aspects and systems that could

industrial operations. Thus, polypropylene Pall be conveniently used have been discussed in

rings and Intalox saddles are used for absorption detail by Jhaveri and Sharma[2], Sharma and

of carbon dioxide in aqueous (hot) potash solu- Mashelkar[3] and Sharma and Danckwerts[4].

tions and alkanolamine solutions. There is a It was decided to absorb oxygen from air in

limited information in the literature on effective dithionite solutions to obtain values of effective

interfacial area, and liquid- and gas- side mass interfacial area. In addition, some experiments

transfer coefficients provided by a number of were made with absorption of lean carbon dioxide

plastic and metal packings. Recently, Danck- in aqueous caustic soda and diethanolamine

werts and Rizvi [ l] have reported data on effec- solutions to obtain values of effective interfacial

tive interfacial area for 1)in. ceramic Raschig area. For obtaining gas side mass transfer co-

rings, 13 in. polypropylene Pall rings, 14 in. cera- efficient lean sulfur dioxide or chlorine was

mic Intalox saddles and 2 in. polypropylene Inta- absorbed in aqueous caustic soda solutions.

lox saddles. The present investigation was Vidwans and Sharma[S] and Sharma and

undertaken to provide data on effective inter- MashelkarU] have discussed the methods of

facial area, and liquid- and gas- side mass transfer analysis pertinent to the various systems.

coefficients for a number of plastic and steel

packings of 1 in. nominal size. EXPERIMENTAL

The theory of absorption accompanied by fast A schematic diagram of the experimental

pseudo-&h order reaction was used to obtain set-up is shown in Fig. 1. The work was carried

the values of effective interfacial area. The out in a 20 cm i.d. perspex column provided with

values of liquid side mass transfer coefficient a cross-armed multiport liquid distributor and a

were evaluated by absorbing pure carbon gas injection type of gas distributor. Most of the

41

B. N. SAHAY and M. M. SHARMA

the calculation of gas side mass transfer co-

efficient on the analysis of outgoing gas stream

rather than on the basis of the analysis of liquid

streams and material balance because .an insig-

nificant error in the liquid analysis can affect the

coefficient significantly[5].

Some experiments for liquid side and gas side

mass transfer coefficients were carried out at two

different depths of packing. The values so

obtained agreed closely indicating that there

were no appreciable end effects.

Table 1 lists the salient characteristics of the

packings employed.

Fig. 1. Experimental set-up. 1. Storage tank (Feed), 2. Pump, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3. Blower, 4. Storage tank (outlet), 5. Liquid Rotameter,

6. Packed column, 7. Barometer, 8. Manometer, 9. Air rota- Efective interfacial area

meter (Carrier), 10. Solute gas rotameter, 11. Surge vessel, Figure 2 shows the variation of effective inter-

12. Solute gas cylinder, 13. Trap, 14. Scrubber, 15. Soap-film

meter, 16. Control valves. facial area with superficial liquid velocity for

1 in. stainless steel Pall rings, 1 in. ceramic Inta-

lox saddles and 1 in. ceramic Raschig rings.

experiments for effective interfacial area and

liquid side mass transfer coefficient were carried

out at a packed height of about 87 cm and that

for gas side mass transfer coefficient at a packed

height of about 61 cm.

The solute and the carrier gases were metered

precisely by accurately calibrated rotameters.

The absorbent solution was sent to the column

by a pump through a rotameter. The actual liquid

flow rate was measured for each experiment by

collecting the outgoing liquid in a measuring

cylinder. The liquid rotameter was used to en-

sure that the liquid flow rate remained essentially

constant during an experimental run. tq,, , , , , ,

Air was supplied by an air blower and solute 0 0.2 D4 06 06 I.0 1.2 I.4

gases from cylinders. To ensure proper mixing of Superficial liquid velocity, V,. cm /set

the solute with the carrier gas, a mixing length

Fig. 2. Effect of liquid flow rate on effective interfacial area.

of over 200 times the diameter of the pipe carry- Curve A: 1 in. Stainless Steel Pall rings. 0 Dithionite-air

ing the gas mixture was provided. The absorbent system (1 st order region) Vc = 21-l cm/set, A Dithionite-air

solution was allowed to flow through the column system (2nd order region), V, = 21.1 cm/set, n NaOH-CO*

system, V, = 30cm/sec, 6D DEA-CO, system, V, = 30

for about 15 minutes before starting the actual cm/set. B: 1 in. Ceramic lntalox saddles. ‘0 Dithionite-air

experiment. system (1st order region), V, = 21.1 cmlsec, A NaOH-

In the case of experiments for gas side mass COz system, V, = 21*6cm/sec, q DEA-CO, system,

V, = 30 cmlsec. C: l-in. Ceramic Raschig rings, 0 Dithio-

transfer coefficient, a bleed from the outgoing gas nite-air system (1st order region), V, = 30 cm/set. B’: 1 in.

was scrubbed in a suitable absorbent which com- Ceramic lntalox saddles (Mannford Doble). C’: 1 in. Ceramic

pletely removed the solute and the solution was Raschig rings (Mannford Doble).

42

Effective interfacial area

Geometrical

Number/m8 surface Free

area space

(a) (b) (cm-‘) (%)

1 in. P.V.C. Raschig rings

(wall thickness = jg in.) 48OOOt 51400 1*9t 74P

1 in. Ceramic lntalox

saddles. 84500 75300 2.54 77

1 in. Polypropylene Intalox

saddles 56000 53500 2.06 92

1 in. Stainless steel

Pall rings. 50009 49000 2% 94

1 in. Polypropylene Pall

rings. 50500 51000 2-06 90

(a) Stated by Manufacturers.

(b) Observed.

Figure 3 is a plot of effective interfacial area Pall rings show lower values of interfacial area

against superficial liquid velocity for 1 in. plastic than the polypropylene Intalox saddles and

packings. P.V.C. Raschig rings. This may be attributed to

Mannford Doble ,(as cited in Ref. [6]) has also the shape of the packing. The construction of the

obtained values of effective interfacial area as a Pall ring is such that it does not offer continuous

function of superficial liquid velocity for 1 in. surface for the liquid stream to be spread on its

ceramic Raschig rings and 1 in. ceramic Intalox surface. Polypropylene Intalox saddles and

saddles by the chemical method and these are P.V.C. Raschig rings, which offer continuous

also shown in Fig. 2. The agreement for Raschig surfaces for spreading of liquid, show higher

rings is quite close. However, in the case of 1 in. values of effective inter-facial area than poly-

ceramic Intalox saddles our values of interfacial propylene Pall rings.

area are about 25 per cent lower than those of The importance of wettability and shape could

Mannford Doble, below superficial liquid velocity be seen when the values of effective interfacial

of about l*Ocm/sec. In the case of Intalox area are compared for stainless steel Pall rings,

saddles, the packing density in our work was ceramic Raschig rings and ceramic Intalox

75300 pieces/m3 which may be compared with saddles. Though stainless steel Pall ring is less

the corresponding value of 84000 pieces/m3 re- wettable than ceramic packings, it offers the

ported by Mannford Doble. The lower values of highest values of interfacial area.

the effective interfacial area obtained in our work On a comparative basis, the values of effective

could, therefore, be at least partly attributed to interfacial area offered by stainless steel Pall

the lower packing density. rings are about 70 per cent higher than those

It is seen from Fig. 3 that all the plastic offered by plastic Pall rings. Amongst the plastic

packings, though having nearly the same packings the highest values of effective inter-

geometrical surface area and packing density facial area are offered by 1 in. polypropylene

give different values of effective interfacial area Intalox saddles. Thus, for instance, the values of

at any specified superficial liquid velocity. This effective interfacial area offered by polypropy-

indicates that apart from other factors, the shape lene Intalox saddles are about 40 per cent higher

of the packing is also important. Polypropylene than those offered by polypropylene Pall rings.

43

B. N. SAHAY and M. M. SHARMA

up, I = O-10. In this case the condition,

unreacted carbon dioxide in the bulk. However,

in the condition,

Superficial liquid velocity, V, cm /SEC unity showing that there is some reaction in the

film.

Fig. 3. Effect of liquid flow rate on effective interfacial area.

Curve D: 1in. Polypropylene Intalox saddles. V Dithionite- Thus, in view of the above it was decided to

air system (1st order region), V, = 21.1 cmlsec, use the physical absorption method for obtaining

values of liquid side mass transfer coefficient.

X V, = 21.6 cm/set

A VG= 15.0 cmlsec I NaOH-CO* system. Figure 4 shows the effect of superficial liquid

E: 1 in. P.V.C. Raschig rings. @ Dithionite-air system (1st velocity on liquid side mass transfer coefficient

order region), V, = 21.1 cmlsec, for various 1 in. packings employed. The values

Cl V, = 216 crn/sec of liquid side mass transfer coefficient obtained

V VG= 150 cm/set I NaOH-CO, system. for all the plastic packings are practically the

F: 1 in. Polypropylene Pall rings. 8 Dithionite-air system same at any specified value of the superficial

(1st order region), V, = 21.1 cm/set,

W V, = 26.2cmlsec

liquid velocity. _

A VG= 21.6 cmlsec NaOH-CO, system.

0 V, = 150 cmlsec I

of effective inter-facial area offered by 1 in. cera-

mic Raschig rings and 1 in. P.V.C. Raschig rings

are comparable.

P

It would have been advantageous in some s

.- I I I I I I I I

J 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.3 I.0 1.2 I.4 I.6

respects to adopt the chemical method for

Superficial liquid velocity, V,, cm /set

obtaining liquid side mass transfer coefficient by

absorption of carbon dioxide in carbonate buffer Fig. 4. Effect of liquid flow rate on liquid side mass transfer

coefficient.

solutions[4]. However, in the case of packed Curve A: 1 in. Stainless Steel Pall rings

columns the necessary conditions for the case (At packed heights of 61 .Oand 87.0 cm)

of the above method are not satisfied. Consider a B: 1 in. Ceramic lntalox saddles Absorption of pure

typical case where: C: 1 in. Ceramic Raschig rings CO* in tap water.

D: 1 in. Polypropylene Intalox saddles

pseudo first order rate constant for the reaction E: 1 in. P.V.C. Raschig rings

of carbon dioxide, k, = 3-O set-‘, F: 1 in. Polypropylene Pall rings i

the diffusivity of carbon dioxide in the solution, A By Norman’s Generalised Correlation for Raschig Rings

and Berl saddles,

DI, = l-8 x 10e5 cm%ec, Cl 1 in. Ceramic Raschig rings

the true liquid side mass transfer coefficient, 0 1 in. Ceramic Intalox saddles Vahies by Mannford Dob’e’

44

ERective interfacial area

The liquid side mass transfer coefficient, kLa, vary as FLo.%.The exponent of O-95 appears to be

depends on both, the true liquid side mass trans- on the higher side.

fer coefficient, k,, and the effective interfacial The data on liquid side mass transfer coeffici-

area, a. The fact that interfacial area is different ent were correlated by the following equation:

for all the packings, indicates that the flow

characteristics of the liquid over packings are kLa = cr(VIJy (2)

different. It is likely that the variation in a parti-

ally offsets the variation in k,, in such a way that where, V, = superficial liquid velocity, cmlsec.

the kLa values are practically the same for all the Table 2 lists the constants and exponents of

plastic packings. Thus, Norman[7] has shown Eq. (2) for various packings.

that even for different size packings ($2 in. Coughlin[9] has reported data on overall

Raschig rings and Cl4 in. Berl saddles) where liquid side mass transfer coefficient for Qin.

the values of effective interfacial area are marked-

ly different, k,a can be predicted within +20 Table 2. Exponents and constants of Eq. (2)

per cent by the following generalized correlation:

a Y

g= 120(;)B”5(J&)@5 (I) 1 in. Ceramic Intalox saddles 20.0 x 10-a 0.806

1 in. Stainless Steel Pall rings 25.2 x 10-S o+u%

where, 1 in. Plastic Packings 16.0 x lo+ 0.784

hr-’ Raschig rings made of ceramic, polyethylene and

L = liquid flow rate, lb/hr ft2 Saran (a copolymer of vinyl and vinylidene

pL = viscosity of the liquid, ft/lb/hr units chloride). The values of overall liquid side mass

pL = density of the liquid, ft/lb/hr units transfer coefficient were the same for both Saran

D = diffusivity of the dissolved carbon and polyethylene rings and were about 25 per

dioxide, ft/lb/hr units. cent lower than the ceramic rings. Couhglin[9]

has reported that the overall liquid side mass

The values obtained from Norman’s general- transfer coefficient, &a varies as L”.452. This

ized correlation (for Raschig rings) are also exponent appears to be on the lower side. Thus,

plotted in Fig. 4. The calculated values are about Sherwood and Holloway[lO] have reported an

45 per cent higher than those obtained experi- exponent of O-54 of liquid flow rate, L for 8 in.

mentally for ceramic Raschig rings. Our values Raschig rings. Further, for instance, for #in.

agree with those obtained by Yoshida and Miura ceramic Raschig rings Vidwans and Sharma[S]

[8] from absorption of carbon dioxide in water. have found that the effective interfacial area, a

The packing density reported by Yoshida and varies as FLW3.It would be expected that liquid

Miura[8] is almost the same as that observed in film coefficient, kt would vary with about O-2-0.3

this work. Mannford Doble (as cited in Ref. 6) power of liquid flow rate. In the generalized

has also obtained values of liquid side coefficient correlation of Norman[7] which includes Qin.

as a function of superficial liquid velocity for 1 in. Raschig rings also, k,a varies as L”.75.

ceramic Raschig rings and Intalox saddles. The An improvement of over 60 per cent was

agreement for Raschig rings is within 10 per cent. obtained for the stainless steel Pall rings over

However, our values of kl,a for 1 in. ceramic plastic packings. The liquid side mass transfer

Intalox saddles are about 35 per cent lower than coefficient for plastic packings are the lowest

those of Mannford Doble, as can be seen in Fig. of those obtained for the packings studied. The

4. The values of k,a for 1 in. ceramic Intalox k,a values for ceramic Raschig rings are about

saddles as reported by Mannford Doble seem to 15 per cent higher than those for plastic packings.

45

B. N. SAHAY and M. M. SHARMA

Gas side mass transfer coeficient Raschig rings and found that kGa varies as Loez5.

The values of gas side mass transfer coefficient Dwyer and Dodge[ 121 have reported that kGa

were obtained for various 1 in. packings. The varies as LO.*. The values of exponent of liquid

values of gas side mass transfer coefficient for flow rate, L, are rather unrealistic as can be seen

one of the packings, 1 in. polypropylene Intalox from our data on variation of effective interfacial

saddles, are plotted against superficial liquid area, a with the superficial liquid velocity, V,.

velocity with superficial gas velocity as para- Figure 6 shows that the true gas side mass

meter in Fig. 5. transfer coefficient is independent of the liquid

The data on gas side mass transfer coefficient flow rate at any specified superhcial gas velocity

were correlated by the following equation: in the range of gas velocity studied. It appears,

therefore, that the effect of liquid rate on the gas

&a = P(IG)YIQn (3) side mass transfer coefficient, kea, at a given gas

rate, can be accounted for entirely in terms of the

where, FG: superficial gas velocity, cm/set variation of effective interfacial area with the

VL: supertlcial liquid velocity, cmlsec. liquid flow rate.

Table 3 lists the constants and the exponents of

Eq. (3) for various packings employed.

Whitney and Vivian[ 111 have reported some

data on absorption of lean SO, in water in a

packed column provided with 1 in. ceramic

20-

V6-85 cmhc

efficient. 0 1 in. Stainless Steel Pall rings (V, = 65 cm/set),

I I I I I I I

A 1 in. Ceramic Intalox saddles (PC = 45 cm/set), V 1 in.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 04 0.5 0.6 0.7 Polypropylene Intalox saddles (I’, = 45 cm/set), H 1 in.

Superficial liquid velocity. VL, cmhec Polypropylene Pall rings (I’, = 25 cmlsec), A 1 in. P.V.C.

Raschig rings (V, = 30cm/sec), 0 1 in. Ceramic Raschig

Fig. 5. Effect of superftcial liquid and gas velocity on gas side rings (PC = 15.4 cmlsec).

mass transfer coefficient for 1 in. polypropylene intalox

saddles with NaOH-Cl,/air system.

CONCLUSIONS

Table 3. Exponents and constants of Eq. (3) 1. The values of effective interfacial area

m

offered by various 1 in. packings differ substanti-

B n

ally. Polypropylene Intalox saddles are better

1 in. Ceramic Raschig rings 1.28 x 10-S 064 0.48 than the polypropylene Pall rings. Highest values

1 in. P.V.C. Raschig rings 0.81 x lo+ 0.735 0.41 are offered by stainless steel Pall rings.

1 in. Ceramic IntaIox saddles 1.3 x 10-S 0.70 0.48

1 in. Polypropylene Intalox 2. The values of liquid side mass transfer co-

saddles 0.92 x 1O-5 0.75 0.45 efficient, at any specified superficial liquid

1 in. Stainless Steel Pall rings 2.29 x lo+ 0.58 0.38 velocity, are practically the same for all the

1 in. Polypropylene Pall rings 1.18 x 10-S 0.68 0.47

plastic packings used irrespective of their

46

Effective interfacial area

shape. Ceramic packings are better than the k, pseudo first order reaction rate constant,

plastic packings. The best performance was set-l

shown by stainless steel Pall rings. kc true gas side mass transfer coefficient,

3. The values of true gas-side mass transfer g mole/cm* set atm.

coefficient are independent of the superficial kL true liquid side mass transfer coefficient,

liquid flow rate, at any specified superficial gas cmlsec

velocity. 1 fractional liquid hold up

m, n exponents in Eq. (3)

Acknowkdgement-One of us (B.N.S.) wishes to thank the

University Grants Commission, for an award of a scholarship V, superficial gas velocity, cmlsec

which enabled this work to be carried out. V, superficial liquid velocity, cmlsec

a effective interfacial area per unit volume (Y constant in Eq. (2)

of packing, cm*/cm3 p constant in Eq. (3)

DL diffusivity of solute in the liquid, cm%ec y exponent in Eq. (2)

REFERENCES

[l] DANCKWERTS P. V. and RlZVl S. F., Trans. Znstn Chem. Engrs 197149 124.

[2] JHAVERI A. S. and SHARMA M. M., Chem. Engng Sci. 1968 23 669.

[3] SHARMA M. M. and MASHELKAR R. A.,Absorption with Reaction in Bubble Columns. Proceedings of the Sympos-

ium on Mass transfer with chemical reaction (Ed. J. M. PIRIE), p. 10. Institution of Chemical En8ineers London 1968.

[4] SHARMA M. M. and DANCKWERTS P. V., Brit. Chem. Engng 1970 15 522.

[5] VIDWANS A. D. and SHARMA M. M., Chem. Engng Sci. 1967 22 673.

[6] DANCKWERTS P. V. and SHARMA M. M., ChemEngrl966 Oct. CE244.

[7] NORMAN W. S., DistiNation, Absorption and Cooling Towers. Longman’s Green, London 196 1.

[8] YOSHIDA F. and MIURA Y.,A.Z.Ch.E.J11963 9 331.

[9] COUGHLIN R. W.,A.Z.Ch.E.J11969 15654.

[lo] SHERWOOD T. K. and HOLLOWAY F. A. L., Trans. Am. Znstn Chem. Engrs 1940 36 39.

[l l] WHITNEY R. P. and VIVIAN J. E., Chem. Engng Prog. 1949 45 323.

1121 DWYER 0. E. and DODGE B. F., Znd. Engng Chem. 194133485.

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