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‘08
For: Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Page: 1 / 92
At: Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand Designed : C.R
Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008
LVL Portal Frame Design
CHH Woodproducts New Zealand
Disclaimer
This design example has been prepared solely to provide guidance and recommendations to suitably qualified engineers and other suitably qualified
design professionals for diligent and professional use by them (and no other person) in the calculation of design solutions for LVL portal frame systems
in accordance with currently available New Zealand Standards.
To the best of Carter Holt Harvey’s knowledge and belief this example has been prepared in accordance with currently available technology and
expertise however good design and construction practice may be affected by factors outside the control of Carter Holt Harvey and beyond the control and
scope of this design example. This example is not intended to be used as the sole recipe, nor is it to be considered the authoritative method, for
producing the relevant design and it is assumed that the relevant designers will employ sound and current engineering knowledge and will take all
reasonable care when designing LVL portal frame solutions using this example.
Accordingly, Carter Holt Harvey and its employees, agents and design professionals accept no liability or responsibility whatsoever and howsoever
arising for any losses, damages, costs or expenses (whether direct, indirect and/or consequential) arising from any errors or omissions which may be
contained in this example, nor does it accept responsibility to any persons whatsoever for designs prepared in reliance upon this example or any other
information contained in this document.
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Purlin design
2.1 Dead Load
2.2 Live load
2.3 Wind load
2.4 Proposed Purlin Layout
2.5 Connection Design
2.6 Lateral restraint design
2.7 Purlins supporting axial loading
3.0 Portal frame design
3.1 Proposed Portal Frame
3.2 Serviceability
3.3 Strength
3.4 Design Actions
3.5 Rafter Design
3.5.1 Combined bending and compression
3.5.2 Combined bending and tension
3.5.3 Flybrace design
3.6 Column Design
3.6.1 Combined bending and compression
3.6.2 Combined bending and tension
3.6.3 Flybrace design
3.7 Gusset Design
3.7.1 Knee Gusset Design
3.7.2 Ridge Gusset Design
3.7.3 Nail Ring Design
3.7.3.1 Knee Nail Ring Design
3.7.3.2 Ridge Nail Ring Design
3.8 Column to Footing Design
4.0 Girt Design, Side Wall
4.1 Wind Loading
4.2 Connection Design
5.0 Mullion Design, Side Wall
5.1 Wind Loading
5.2 Connection Design
6.0 Eaves Beam Design
6.1 Wind Loading
6.2 Connection Design
7.0 Girt Design, End Wall
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7.1 Wind Loading
7.2 Connection Design
8.0 Mullion Design, End Wall
8.1 Wind Loading
8.2 Connection Design
9.0 Longitudinal Bracing Design
10.0 Bibliography
Appendix 1  Mullion deflection, bending and shear equations
Appendix 2  90mm thick hy90 compared with 63mm thick hySPAN
Published by: CHH Woodproducts New Zealand
September 2008
Enquires : Free call 0800 808 131
Free fax 0800 808 132
Web : www.chhwoodproducts.co.nz/engineerszone
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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1.0 Introduction
This design example has been provided as an aid to engineers in the development of design solutions for LVL
and Ibeam portal frame systems. The development of loading and the design of footings are not covered as
part of this example as their nature is not specific to timber. The design example has been prepared assuming
the building is proposed for Auckland, is within an Industrial Estate, and is subject to the following site
information:
Building Span 30.0 m
Building length 60.0 m, consisting of 6 x 10.0 m bays
Building Clear Height 6.0 m
Dominant openings 6.0 x 6.0 m in one end and one side wall
Cladding Pierce fixed sheeting of weight 6.0 kg/m
2
Region A6, v
500
= 45 m/s, v
20
= 37 m/s
Terrain Category 3
Directional Multipliers as per AS/NZS 1170.2:2002
This example has been based on relevant current design standards as detailed below:
• AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 Structural design actions. Part 0: General principles
• AS/NZS 1170.1:2002 Structural design actions. Part 1: Permanent, imposed and other actions
• AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Structural design actions. Part 2: Wind actions
• NZS 3603:1993 Timber structures standard
• AS 1720.11997 Timber structures. Part 1:Design Methods
Note: Snow and Earthquake loading have been ignored due to location.
Other Referenced Design Documents:
• Technical Note 820704  Limit States Design Information for Specific Engineering Design for New
Zealand Construction.
• Mitek Specifiers’ and Users’ Manual.
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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2.0 Purlin Design
Purlin Span 10,00090 = 9910 mm
Purlin Spacing 1600 mm (max.)
Propose HJ360 90 hyJOIST for use as purlin
Typically a hyJOIST purlin roof system becomes cost effective at spans above 6.0 m whilst hySPAN or MSG pine
pulins remain cost effective for spans less than 6.0 m.
2.1 Dead load
Assume roof sheeting mass of 6.0 kg/m
2
plus a miscellaneous load of 1.0 kg/m
2
kN/m . w
t self_weigh
. . .
w
g
g
17 0
1000
81 9 6 1 0 7
*
*
= ∴
+
× ×
=
Serviceability
Deflection of timber ibeams requires the consideration of shear deflection as well as bending deflection.
Additional guidance on the calculation of shear deflection can be found in many Timber Design texts and is briefly
discussed in Technical Note 82. Timber components subjected to long term loads such as dead load require the
consideration of creep effects. Table 2.5, NZS 3603:1993 demonstrates the relationship between duration of load
and creep. The k
2
factor is applied to elastic deflections. LVL products are considered dry at the time of supply
and can be assumed to have a moisture content less than 18%.
Refer Technical Note 82 for Section and Material Properties.
495 0 20
10 39 2 8
9910 17 0
10 2338 384
9910 17 0 5
0 2
8 384
5
6
2
9
4 2 4
2
2
Span or mm . δ
.
. .
. .
.GA
w.l
.EI
.w.l
k δ
) δ (δ k δ
G
w x
shear bending T
= ∴
× ×
×
+
× ×
× ×
=
+ =
+ =
Serviceability limits for timber purlins are the same as those applied to other building products. For long term
deflection of industrial purlins span/300 or 30.0 mm are deemed acceptable.
2.2 Live load
Live load of 0.25 kPa applied in accordance AS/NZS 1170.1:2002 Table 3.2.
m kN w
*
g
/ 40 . 0 6 . 1 25 . 0 = × =
Serviceability
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421 5 23
10 39 2 8
9910 40 0
10 2338 384
9910 40 . 0 5
0 1
6
2
9
4
Span or mm . δ
.
.
. . δ
G
Q
= ∴
× ×
×
+
× ×
× ×
=
Strength
Based on respective k
1
and load combination factors, combined dead and live load design actions will always be
more critical for design than permanent loads where low roof masses (less than 20 kg/m
2
) are applied.
kNm M
l w
M
m kN w
w
*
Q G
*
Q G
*
Q G
*
Q G
8 . 9
8
9 . 9 80 . 0
8
.
/ 80 . 0
40 . 0 5 . 1 17 . 0 2 . 1
5 . 1 2 . 1
2 2
5 . 1 2 . 1
5 . 1 2 . 1
5 . 1 2 . 1
= ∴
×
= =
= ∴
× + × =
+
+
+
+
Check Bending Capacity
The bending capacity of an Ibeam is based on the critical flange stresses due to bending. For composite timber I
beams the bending moment capacity can be based on a lever arm action about the centroid of the flanges with
one flange in tension and the other in compression for a single span application. The restraint offered to the
compression flange is instrumental in the capacity of the Ibeam. Further guidance on the bending moment
capacities of Ibeams may be found in Technical note 82.
Purlin design assumes the use of pierce fixed roof sheeting providing continuous lateral restraint to the
top flange of the purlin. Since compression edge is fully restrained k
8
=1.0.
So for bending about XX axis
Since k
8
>0.73
kNm D A f k Ø ØM
f t bx
6
1 1
10 . . . .
−
× = Refer Technical Note 82
where:
( )
mm D
mm A
A
MPa f k Ø
F
F
t
324 36 360
3060
12
2
288 318
36 90
33 80 . 0 9 . 0
1
2
1
= − =
= ∴
×
−
− × =
= = =
*
6
6 . 23
10 324 3060 33 8 . 0 9 . 0
M kNm ØM
kNm ØM
bx
bx
> = ∴
× × × × × =
−
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Check Shear Capacity
kN v
v
*
Q G
*
Q G
0 . 4
2
9 . 9 80 . 0
5 . 1 2 . 1
5 . 1 2 . 1
= ∴
×
=
+
+
From table 14, Technical note 82
*
1
1 . 10
6 . 12 8 . 0 6 . 12 .
v kN ØV
k ØV
> = ∴
× = =
2.3 Wind loading
θ = 0˚, Lateral wind critical (by inspection)
a = min(0.2b, 0.2d, h) = 6.0m
m kN w
w
m kN w
w
c c k k spacing q w
pi pe l a u
*
i
/ 02 . 2
) 61 . 0 9 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 1 ( 6 . 1 84 . 0
/ 63 . 2
) 61 . 0 9 . 0 5 . 1 0 . 1 ( 6 . 1 84 . 0
) . . .( .
*
2
*
2
*
1
*
1
− = ∴
− × × × × =
− = ∴
− × × × × =
− =
+ −
+ −
Calculate w
eff
Calculate Reactions
kN R
R
84 . 11
000 . 3 63 . 2 955 . 1 02 . 2
*
*
−
− −
= ∴
× + × =
Calculate Moment
kNm M
M
kNm M
M
Wu G
Wu G
Wu
Wu
8 . 28
67 . 30
8
9 . 9 17 . 0
9 . 0
7 . 30
0 . 4 0 . 2 02 . 2
2
0 . 3 63 . 2
955 . 4 84 . 11
*
9 . 0
2
*
9 . 0
*
2
*
− = ∴
+
×
× =
= ∴
× × −
×
− × =
+
−
+
−
−
−
−
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Calculate w
eff
m kN w
w
eff
eff
/ 50 . 2
9 . 9
8 67 . 30
*
2
*
−
−
= ∴
×
=
For uplift
m kN w
w
Wu G
Wu G
/ 35 . 2
50 . 2 17 . 0 9 . 0
*
9 . 0
*
9 . 0
−
+
+
= ∴
− × =
Serviceability
To obtain the serviceability wind load the ultimate uniform loads can be factored by the square of the ratio
serviceability wind speed to ultimate wind speed.
100 0 . 99
10 39 2 8
9910 69 . 1
10 2338 384
9910 69 . 1 5
0 1
/ 69 . 1 50 . 2
45
37
6
2
9
4
2
2
Span or mm δ
.
. . δ
m kN w
w
v
v
w
w
w
s
s
u
s
s
= ∴
× × ×
×
+
× ×
× ×
=
= × 
¹

\

=
×


¹

\

=
− −
− −
The acceptance of serviceability is at the engineer’s discretion. On the basis of applied local pressure factors and
the instantaneous nature of the wind gust span/100 is deemed acceptable.
Strength
Since the tension flange is fully restrained under uplift actions and the hyJOIST purlin is a composite section, use
Appendix C of NZS3603:1993 for stability calculations.
Check Capacity
Calculate S
1
5 . 0
1
.
. 1 . 1
=
y M
EI
S
E
x
Eq. C1.1, NZS 3603
where:
?
180 2 / 360 10 2338
4 9
=
= = × =
E
x
M
mm y Nmm EI
Technical Note 82
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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Eqn. C7 may be employed due to the continuous restraint offered to the tension flange by the pierce fixed sheeting.
A suitably designed lateral restraint system provides intermediate buckling restraint to the purlins.
Calculate Euler Buckling Moment
( )
( )
h o
ay
o y
E
y y
GJ
L
y
D
EI
M
+
+


¹

\

+
=
. 2
4
2
2
2
π
Eq. C7, NZS 3603
where:
mm D mm y mm y
h o
360 180 2 / 360 180 2 / 360 = − = − = = =
2 6 2 9
10 1848 10 7 . 57 Nmm GJ Nmm EI
y
× = × =
mm L
ay
2478 4 / 9910 = = (Restraint at quarter points)
( )
( )
kNm M
M
E
E
7 . 43
180 180 2
10 1848
2478
180
4
360
10 7 . 57
6
2
2
2
9
= ∴
+ ×
× + 
¹

\

+ ×
=
−
π
1 . 18
180 10 7 . 43
10 2338 . 1 . 1
1
5 . 0
6
9
1
= ∴
× ×
× ×
= ⇒
S
S
Calculate k
8
Since 25>S>10
76 . 0
1 . 18
5000
1
1 . 18 0116 . 0 1 . 18 175 . 0 21 . 0
. . .
8
3 2
8
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
+ + + =
−
k
k
S a S a S a a k
Since k
8
>0.73
kNm D A f k Ø ØM
f t bx
6
1 1
10 . . . .
−
× = Refer Technical Note 82
where:
mm D
mm A
MPa f k Ø
F
t
324
3060
33 0 . 1 9 . 0
1
2
1
=
=
= = =
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*
6
4 . 29
10 324 3060 33 0 . 1 9 . 0
M kNm ØM
kNm ØM
bx
bx
> = ∴
× × × × × =
−
Note: Where k
8
< 0.73 the moment capacity becomes a function of the compression flange buckling
rather than the tension flange being critical. The moment capacity equation is altered to represent this
where the characteristic tension stress is replaced by the product of the stability factor k
8
and the
characteristic compression stress.
ie. kNm D A f k k Ø ØM
f c bx
6
1 8 1
10 . . . . .
−
× =
Calculate shear and support reaction for wind load.
Considering local pressure factors
Case 1
m kN w
w
m kN w
w
w c c k k spacing q w
g pi pe l a u
*
i
/ 88 . 1
17 . 0 9 . 0 ) 61 . 0 9 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 1 ( 6 . 1 84 . 0
/ 48 . 2
17 . 0 9 . 0 ) 61 . 0 9 . 0 5 . 1 0 . 1 ( 6 . 1 84 . 0
. 9 . 0 ) . . .( .
*
2
*
2
*
1
*
1
− = ∴
× + − × × × × =
− = ∴
× + − × × × × =
+ − =
+ −
+ −
kN R
R
Wu G
Wu G
81 . 11
9 . 6 0 . 6 48 . 2
2
9 . 3
88 . 1
9 . 9
1
*
9 . 0
2
*
9 . 0
− = ∴
× × − + × − =
+
+
Case 2
m kN w
w
m kN w
w
w c c k k spacing q w
g pi pe l a u
*
i
/ 88 . 1
17 . 0 9 . 0 ) 61 . 0 9 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 1 ( 6 . 1 84 . 0
/ 09 . 3
17 . 0 9 . 0 ) 61 . 0 9 . 0 2 0 . 1 ( 6 . 1 84 . 0
. 9 . 0 ) . . .( .
*
2
*
2
*
1
*
1
− = ∴
× + − × × × × =
− = ∴
× + − × × × × =
+ − =
+ −
+ −
kN R
R
Wu G
Wu G
2 . 12
4 . 8 0 . 3 09 . 3
2
9 . 6
88 . 1
9 . 9
1
*
9 . 0
2
*
9 . 0
− = ∴
× × − + × − =
+
+
Calculate dead & live load combined actions
kN R 0 . 4
2
9 . 9 8 . 0
*
=
×
=
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Timber capacity is dependant on the duration of the load in question, this must be taken into account in the
determination of the critical load case. One method of assessing the critical design load is to remove the duration
of load factor,k
1
, from the capacity equation and divide the load action effect by k
1
,
kN
k
R
k
R
Max
2 . 12
8 . 0
0 . 4
,
0 . 1
2 . 12
max
1
*
max
1
*
− = ∴

¹

\
 −
=
Check shear capacity
Since k
1
was taken into account in the calculation of design
action, apply k
1
=1.0
*
1
6 . 12
6 . 12 0 . 1 6 . 12 .
v kN ØV
k ØV
> = ∴
× = =
Table 14, Technical note 82
Therefore the HJ360 63 hyJOIST is suitable for use as a purlin based on the implied loading at
a spacing not exceeding 1600 mm
2.4 Proposed Purlin Layout
2.5 Connection design
Connection of hyJOIST purlins to LVL rafters needs to ensure that the structural integrity of both the hyJOIST purlin
and the hySPAN rafter are maintained. Connection to the hyJOIST by nailing through the plywood web provides
the most cost effective method of connection for purlins typically subject to high wind loads (please note this type
of connection is not recommended for ibeams subject to high permanent and/or live loads). Nailing through
plywood allows for nailing close to the end/edge of the plywood. Packing out the web and using proprietary joist
hangers can also provide a suitable connection however the cost of the packing, brackets and labour involved can
make this an expensive alternative.
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Purlin connection blocks, or seating blocks as they are sometimes called, have been used in a number
of design situations for connection of C or I beam purlins where the connection block is either screwed
or nailed to the rafter and the web of the composite purlin is connected directly to the connection
block. A purlin connection block is proposed for connection using Ø2.87 diameter nails through the
plywood web and 14g type 17 screws through the connection block to the rafter. Target the connection
for design shear capacity, ØV
ps
of the purlin.
Note: The selection of a suitable purlin connection block needs to take into account the end and edge distances of
the fasteners as well as the spacing along and across the grain. The use of 4 xbanded connection block reduces
the tendency of the long band to split, allowing for the spacing of fasteners into the face to be similar along the
grain to across the grain. The orientation of the connection block is important where the plywood web is fixed to
the face of the connection block.
Calculate minimum number of Ø2.87 FH nails
Joint Group J5 Table 3, Technical note 82
k
ØQ S ≤
*
Eq. 4.1, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Q . . = Eq. 4.2, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Ø ØQ . . . =
where:
kN Q k Ø
k
526 . 0 0 . 1 8 . 0
1
= = = NZS 3603
k=1.4 since nails are through plywood with flat head nails.
k=1.1 since we are proposing 20 nails per connection Cl. 4.2.2.2(g) NZS 3603
(linear interpolation between 1.3 for 50 nails and 1.0 for 4 nails)
Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry, nails are in single shear and are nailed into the
edge or face of the timber.
From Table 14, Technical Note 82 ØV
ps
=12.6.k
1
4 . 19
526 . 0 1 . 1 4 . 1 0 . 1 8 . 0 0 . 1 6 . 12
= ∴
× × × × × = ×
n
n
Say 20/50xØ2.87 FH nails, nailed through plywood web into purlin connection block
Calculate minimum number of 14g type 17 Hex Head screws
Type 17 screws are preferred for timber connection as they are a self drilling screws through the timber.
Joint Group J4 Table 3, Technical note 82
n
ØQ S ≤
*
Eq. 4.5, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Q . . = Eq. 4.6, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Ø ØQ . . . =
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where:
kN Q k Ø
k
303 . 3 0 . 1 * 8 . 0
1
= = = NZS 3603
Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry, screws are in single shear and are screwed into the
edge or face of the timber.
*Ø=0.8 is applied as Type 17 screws are as reliable as nails in service.
From Table 14, technical note 82 ØV
ps
=12.6.k
1
76 . 4
303 . 3 0 . 1 8 . 0 0 . 1 6 . 12
= ∴
× × × = ×
n
n
Say 5/100x14g type 17 Hex Head screws, screwed through the purlin connection block into the rafter.
Proposed Purlin Connection
2.6 Lateral restraint design
The lateral restraint system needs to prevent the top and bottom flange of the hyJOIST purlin from
moving independently of each other. Many systems are appropriate but may require the fabrication of
special components. One of the most effective systems is to use hyJOIST pieces together with a
hyCHORD bottom flange restraint and continuous mild steel galvanised strap over the top, as shown
below.
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Calculate force on lateral restraint
( ) 1
05 . 0
. . .
35 34 33
*
+
=
r
A
A
n d
M
k k k F Eq. B9, NZS 3603
where:
0 . 1
33
= k (Wind loading)
4 . 0
34
= k
5 5 ,
2
1 22
min 5 ,
2
1
min
35
= 
¹

\
 +
= 
¹

\
 +
=
m
k
kNm M
A
79 . 28 =
mm d 360 =
3 =
r
n
( )
kN F
F
A
A
0 . 2
1 3 360
10 79 . 28 05 . 0
5 4 . 0 0 . 1
6
= ∴
+
× ×
× × × =
Check capacity of lateral restraint – propose 90x45 hyCHORD
kN N N
t c
0 . 2
* *
= =
Typically a 45 mm thick section is recommended to allow for a 75mm long screw through both the lateral restraint
and into the flange of the hyJOIST. Using hyCHORD for the lateral restraint is a good choice given its high strength
and lower cost.
Consider column action
Since L
ay
=1600 mm and L
ax
=1600 mm (defined by purlin spacing)
ncx c
ØN N ≤
*
and
ncy c
ØN N ≤
*
Eq. 3.17, NZS 3603
Minor axis buckling is critical by inspection
A f k k N
c ncy
. . .
8 1
= Eq. 3.19, NZS 3603
A f k k Ø ØN
c ncy
. . . .
8 1
= ∴
where:
2
4050 45 90 45 9 . 0 mm A MPa f Ø
c
= × = = =
4050 45 9 . 0
8 1
× × × × = k k ØN
ncx
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kN k k ØN
ncx
. . . 0 . 164
8 1
= ∴
Calculate k
8
for buckling about the minor axis
b
L
or
b
L k
S
ay
.
10
3
= whichever is less Eq. 3.15, NZS 3603
6 . 35
45
1600
3
3
= ∴
=
S
S
Since 25>S
3
>10
23 . 0
6 . 35 5 . 235
.
8
937 . 1
8
5 8
6
= ∴
× =
=
−
k
k
S a k
a
Since k
1
= 1.0
*
3 . 38
c ncx
N kN ØN > = ∴
Consider tension strength
nt t
N Ø N .
*
≤ Eq. 3.20 NZS 3603
A f k k N
t nt
. . .
4 1
= Eq. 3.21 NZS 3603
A f k k Ø ØN
t nt
. . . .
4 1
= ∴
where:
0 . 1 33 9 . 0
4
= = = k MPa f Ø
t
Technical Note 82
2
4050 45 90 mm A = × =
0 . 1
1
= k
4050 33 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0 × × × × =
nt
ØN
kN ØN
nt
3 . 120 = ∴
Consider connection between purlins and lateral restraint
Use screws for increased withdrawal capacity for practical purposes
Calculate minimum number of 14g type 17 Hex Head screws
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008
Joint Group J4 Table 3, Technical note 82
n
ØQ S ≤
*
Eq. 4.5, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Q . . = Eq. 4.6, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Ø ØQ . . . =
where:
kN Q k Ø
k
303 . 3 0 . 1 * 8 . 0
1
= = = NZS 3603
Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry, screws are in single shear and are screwed into the
edge or face of the timber.
*Ø=0.8 is applied as Type 17 screws are as reliable as nails in service.
Consider Q
k
reduction due to the penetration into the receiving member (Purlin/blocking)
Penetration = 7545 = 30 mm
Since d
a
= 6.3 mm Table 4.5, NZS 3603
Therefore portion of diameter in penetration = 4.76
Calculate reduction from capacity relating to 7 d
a
Cl. 4.3.2(e), NZS 3603
Reduction factor = 68 . 0
7
76 . 4
=
N Q
k
2247 303 . 3 68 . 0 = × = ∴
So:
11 . 1
247 . 2 0 . 1 8 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 2
= ∴
× × × = ×
n
n
Say 2/75x14g type 17 Hex Head screws, screwed through the purlin connection block into the rafter.
2.7 Purlins subject to axial loads
Purlins in end bays may be subjected to tension and compression forces from braced bays. These
forces need to be considered in the design capacity. Refer to section 9.0, Longitudinal bracing.
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3.0 Portal Frame Design
The following portal frame has been analysed using elastic structural analysis with Microstran. Elastic
structural analysis of a timber portal frame differs little from that applied to steel members except for
the different section and material properties. For solid timber a five percent allowance for shear
deflection is included in the average modulus of elasticity which removes any need for the separate
consideration of shear deflection.
To achieve portal frame action rigid connections need to be made at both the ridge and eave. One of
the most efficient methods of providing rigid connections is via use of nailed plywood gussets. The
additional stiffness provided by the knee and ridge gussets is generally ignored in analysis.
3.1 Proposed Portal Frame
Refer Technical Note 82 for Material Properties.
3.2 Serviceability
Serviceability design limits for timber and steel buildings are very similar where the consideration of
cladding and absolute clearances need to be taken into account in the relative stiffness of the frame.
Short term duration of loading for wind, live and earthquake loads may be calculated by applying a
duration of load factor of 1, hence using the elastic deflection directly from analysis packages. For long
term loads the effects of creep need to be taken into account. NZS 3603 Table 2 defines k
2
as 2.0 for
loading of twelve months or more where the moisture content is less than 18%.
Serviceability – 900x90 hySPAN portal frame
Deflection
Load Case k
2
Vertical Horizontal
Dead load* 2.0 96.2 mm or span/302 16.2 mm or height/396
Live load 1.0 75.5 mm or span/385 9.6 mm or height/668
Wind loading
Lateral wind
1
1.0 134.7 mm or span/216 28.4 mm or height/225
Lateral wind
2
1.0 74.5 mm or span/390 15.7 mm or height/408
Longitudinal wind
1
1.0 108.5 mm or span/268 13.5 mm or height/475
Longitudinal wind
2
1.0 64.6 mm or span/450 8.1 mm or height/792
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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* It is typical to precamber the portal by its unfactored deflection (ie. Approx 50 mm in the case)
3.3 Strength
The selection of design moments is important in the design of timber portal frames. The nature of the
interaction of gussets provide specific locations for the selection of critical design actions for the
design of rafters, columns gussets and nail rings. Hutchings and Bier [2000] provide guidance on the
design moment locations as shown below.
Location A – Rafter design actions at knee
Location B – Column design actions
Location C – Knee gusset design actions
Location D – Gusset to rafter at knee connection actions
Location E – Gusset to column connection actions
Location F – Ridge gusset design actions
Location G – Ridge gusset to rafter design actions
A further check along the rafter is require where the critical design actions may not to be at the
gusseted location and should be taken as the maximum along the rafter.
3.4 Design Actions
The consideration of critical design actions also needs to take in account the effect of duration of load factors for
capacity, hence affecting the determination of critical load case. As with steel portal frames the bending moment
diagram should also be taken into account together with the lateral and torsional restraint offered by purlins,
girts and flybraces. The following design actions have been tabled as being of interest, other actions have been
dismissed by inspection. The point of contraflexure is within close proximity for each case meaning that the
critical load case can be determined by inspection.
Critical Design Actions
Column Rafter
M* N* V* M* N* V*
Load Case k
1
kN kN kN kN kN kN
1.2G+1.5Q 0.8 240.0 84.1 71.5 268.0 60.4 50.5
0.9G+Wu  Lat 1.0 271.0 101.0 55.4 293.0 67.3 87.6
1.2G+Wu  Lat 1.0 276.0 113.0 62.3 307.0 79.2 95.0
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k
1
factored Design Actions
Column Rafter
M*/k
1
N*/k
1
V*/k
1
M*/k
1
N*/k
1
V*/k
1
Load Case k
1
kN kN kN kN kN kN
1.2G+1.5Q 0.8 300.0 105.1 89.4 335.0 75.5 63.1
0.9G+Wu  Lat 1.0 271.0 101.0 55.4 293.0 67.3 87.6
1.2G+Wu  Lat 1.0 276.0 113.0 62.3 307.0 79.2 95.0
3.5 Rafter Design
A check of the capacity of main frame members of a timber portal frame involves a check of combined bending and
buckling action, both in plane and out of plane, and a check of combined bending and tension.
3.5.1 Combined bending and compression
Design Criteria
0 . 1
* *
≤


¹

\

+


¹

\

ncx
c
nx
x
ØN
N
ØM
M
Eq. 3.23 NZS 3603
0 . 1
*
2
*
≤


¹

\

+


¹

\

ncy
c
nx
x
ØN
N
ØM
M
Eq. 3.24 NZS 3603
Critical Design Actions
Critical load case  1.2G+1.5Q
M* = 268.0 kNm N
c
* = 60.4 kN V* = 50.5 kN
Consider Bending Moment Capacity
n
ØM M ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
Z f k k k k M
b n
. . . . .
8 5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
For solid sections with member depths greater than 300 mm, apply size factor (k
11
, AS 1720.1). For
further information refer AS1720.1 (Clause 2.4.6) or Technical Note 82.
Therefore Z f k k k k k Ø ØM
b n
. . . . . . .
11 8 5 4 1
=
where:
MPa f k k Ø
b
48 0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
= = = = Technical Note 82
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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83 . 0
900
300
300
167 . 0
11
167 . 0
11
= 
¹

\

= ∴

¹

\

=
k
d
k
Cl. 2.4.6 AS1720.1
3 6
2 2
10 15 . 12
6
90 900
6
.
mm Z
b d
Z
× = ∴
×
= =
kNm k k ØM
k k ØM
n
n
8 1
6
8 1
. . 65 . 435
10 15 . 12 48 83 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
= ∴
× × × × × × × × =
Since k
1
=0.8
kNm k ØM
n 8
. 52 . 348 =
Calculate k
8
The timber structures standard does not talk about ‘critical flange’ like the steel structures standard however
similar principles apply to the restraint of LVL beams. Guidance is provided for solid sections in Clauses 3.2.5 of
NZS 3603:1993 for endsupported beams with discrete restraint to the compression edge (Cl 3.2.5.2) and tension
edge continuously restrained (Cl 3.2.5.3). Typically these can be useful in the calculation of slenderness of simple
beams and secondary framing however composite sections and members within structural frames require
analysis using Appendix C of NZS3603:1993 for slenderness calculations.
Consider slenderness equation
5 . 0
1
.
. 1 . 1
=
y M
EI
S
E
x
Eq. C1 NZS 3603
Since for 900x90 hySPAN
mm y
Nmm EI
x
450
2
900
10 17 . 72
12
90 900
13200
4 12
3
= =
× =
×
× =
Therefore:
5 . 0
9
1
10 418 . 176
×
=
E
M
S
Calculate Euler moment, M
E
Consider compression edge unrestrained from edge of column to point of contraflexure.
Some authors including Milner [1997] have developed theories based on the contribution of lateral restraint
offered to the tension edge by purlins and girts, such theories are beyond the scope of this example.
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Consider Moment Diagram
( ) [ ]
5 . 0
5
.GJ EI
L
c
M
y
ay
E


¹

\

= Eq. C3 NZS3603
where:
0
268
0
= = β β = ratio of bending moments between buckling restraints
5 . 5
5
= c Table C1 NZS3603
4 9
3
10 71 . 721
12
900 90
13200 Nmm EI
y
× =
×
× =
Since for rectangular sections:
3
63 . 0 1
3
B D
D
B
J
×
×

¹

\

× − = Eq. C2 NZS 3603
2 9
3
10 25 . 135
3
90 900
900
90
63 . 0 1 660 Nmm GJ × =
×
×

¹

\

× − × =
Therefore:
[ ]
kNm M
M
E
E
68 . 350
10 25 . 135 10 71 . 721
4900
5 . 5 5 . 0
9 9
= ∴
× × × 
¹

\

=
From previous:
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43 . 22
10 68 . 350
10 418 . 176
1
5 . 0
6
9
1
= ∴
×
×
=
S
S
Since 25>S
1
>10
56 . 0
43 . 22
5000
1
43 . 22 0116 . 0 43 . 22 175 . 0 21 . 0
. . .
8
3 2
8
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
+ + + =
−
k
k
S a S a S a a k
kNm ØM
n
2 . 195 56 . 0 52 . 348 = × = ∴
ØM
n
<M* so consider flybrace. The flybrace needs to be located relative to purlin spacing along the
rafter but also needs to offer the appropriate level of stability to the rafter. Propose 3
rd
purlin from eave.
Consider moment diagram
Calculate Euler moment, M
E
( ) [ ]
5 . 0
5
.GJ EI
L
c
M
y
ay
E


¹

\

= Eq. C3 NZS 3603
where:
64 . 0
0 . 268
1 . 171
= = β β = ratio of bending moments between buckling restraints
82 . 3
5
= c Table C1 NZS 3603
Therefore:
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[ ]
kNm M
M
E
E
51 . 685
10 25 . 135 10 71 . 721
1741
82 . 3 5 . 0
9 9
= ∴
× × × 
¹

\

=
From previous:
04 . 16
10 51 . 685
10 418 . 176
1
5 . 0
6
9
1
= ∴
×
×
=
S
S
Since 25>S
1
>10
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
. . . S a S a S a a k + + + = Cl C2.10 NZS 3603
86 . 0
04 . 16
5000
1
04 . 16 0116 . 0 04 . 16 175 . 0 21 . 0
8
3 2
8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
−
k
k
*
7 . 299 86 . 0 52 . 348 M kNm ØM
n
> = × = ∴
Check remaining unrestrained section
M* = 171.1 kNm L
ay
= 3160 mm c
5
= 5.5
Therefore:
[ ]
kNm M
M
E
E
78 . 543
10 25 . 135 10 71 . 721
3160
5 . 5 5 . 0
9 9
= ∴
× × × 
¹

\

=
From previous:
01 . 18
10 78 . 543
10 418 . 176
1
5 . 0
6
9
1
= ∴
×
×
=
S
S
Since 25>S
1
>10
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
. . . S a S a S a a k + + + = NZS 3603 Cl C2.10
77 . 0
01 . 18
5000
1
01 . 18 0116 . 0 01 . 18 175 . 0 21 . 0
8
3 2
8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
−
k
k
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*
4 . 268 77 . 0 52 . 348 M kNm ØM
n
> = × = ∴
Consider region along rafter between point of contraflexure and apex along the rafter.
Bending Moment Diagram
Since purlins provide restraint to compression edge, L
ay
= 1600 mm where c
5
= 3.1 (moment ratio
between purlins = 0 (conservative)).
Calculate Euler Moment
[ ]
kNm M
M
E
E
33 . 605
10 25 . 135 10 71 . 721
1600
1 . 3 5 . 0
9 9
= ∴
× × × 
¹

\

=
From previous:
07 . 17
10 33 . 605
10 418 . 176
1
5 . 0
6
9
1
= ∴
×
×
=
S
S
Since 25>S
1
>10
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
. . . S a S a S a a k + + + = Cl C2.10 NZS 3603
81 . 0
07 . 17
5000
1
07 . 17 0116 . 0 07 . 17 175 . 0 21 . 0
8
3 2
8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
−
k
k
*
3 . 282 81 . 0 52 . 348 M kNm ØM
n
> = × = ∴
Consider column action
Major axis buckling XX
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A f k k N
c ncx
. . .
8 1
= Eq. 3.18 NZS 3603
A f k k Ø ØN
c ncx
. . . .
8 1
= ∴
where:
2
81000 90 900 45 9 . 0 mm A MPa f Ø
c
= × = = =
81000 45 . 9 . 0
8 1
× × × × = k k ØN
ncx
kN k k ØN
ncx
. . . 5 . 3280
8 1
= ∴
Calculate k
8
for buckling about the major axis
L=L
ax
=14221 mm (rafter length from ridge to column)
d
L
or
d
L k
S
ax
.
10
2
= whichever is less NZS 3603 Eq. 3.14
k
10
= 1.0 (Conservative)
80 . 15
900
14221 0 . 1
2
2
= ∴
×
=
S
S
Since 25>S
2
>10
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
. . . S a S a S a a k + + + = NZS 3603 Cl C2.10
87 . 0
80 . 15
5000
1
80 . 15 0116 . 0 80 . 15 175 . 0 21 . 0
8
3 2
8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
−
k
k
Since k
1
= 0.8
*
1 . 2278
c ncx
N kN ØN > = ∴
Minor axis buckling YY
From previous:
kN k k ØN
ncx
. . . 5 . 3280
8 1
= ∴
Calculate k
8
for buckling about the minor axis YY
L
ay
=1600 mm (purlin spacing)
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b
L
or
b
L k
S
ay
.
10
3
= whichever is less Eq. 3.15 NZS 3603
78 . 17
90
1600
3
3
= ∴
=
S
S
Since 25>S
3
>10
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
. . . S a S a S a a k + + + = Cl C2.10 NZS 3603
78 . 0
78 . 17
5000
1
78 . 17 0116 . 0 78 . 17 175 . 0 21 . 0
8
3 2
8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
−
k
k
Since k
1
= 0.8
*
03 . 2047
c ncx
N kN ØN > = ∴
Combined actions
0 . 1 92 . 0
1 . 2278
4 . 60
7 . 299
0 . 268
≤ = 
¹

\

+ 
¹

\

Eq. 3.23 NZS 3603
0 . 1 83 . 0
0 . 2047
4 . 60
7 . 299
0 . 268
2
≤ =

¹

\

+

¹

\

Eq. 3.24 NZS 3603
3.5.2 Combined bending and tension
Design Criteria
0 . 1
*
*
≤


¹

\

+


¹

\

n nt
t
ØM
M
ØN
N
Eq. 3.25 NZS 3603
Critical Design Actions
Critical load case  0.9G+W
u
Lateral wind
M* = 293.0 kNm (at eave)
M* = 171.8 kNm (along rafter)
N
t
* = 69.9 kN V* = 87.6 kN
Consider Bending Moment Capacity
From previous:
kNm k k ØM
n 8 1
. . 65 . 435 =
Since k
1
=1.0, wind gust
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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kNm k ØM
n 8
. 65 . 435 =
Calculate k
8
Calculate Euler moment, M
E
Consider compression edge restrained by purlins at 1600 c/c until point of contraflexure.
Bending Moment Diagram
( ) [ ]
5 . 0
5
.GJ EI
L
c
M
y
ay
E


¹

\

= Eq. C3 NZS 3603
where:
60 . 0
2 . 293
2 . 176
= = β β = ratio of bending moments between buckling restraints (purlins)
9 . 3
5
= c Eq. C3 NZS 3603
2 9
4 9
10 25 . 135
10 71 . 721
Nmm GJ
Nmm EI
y
× =
× =
Therefore:
[ ]
kNm M
M
E
E
54 . 761
10 25 . 135 10 71 . 721
1600
90 . 3 5 . 0
9 9
= ∴
× × × 
¹

\

=
From previous:
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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At: Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand Designed : C.R
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22 . 15
10 54 . 761
10 418 . 176
1
5 . 0
6
9
1
= ∴
×
×
=
S
S
Since 25>S
1
>10
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
. . . S a S a S a a k + + + = NZS 3603 Cl C2.10
90 . 0
22 . 15
5000
1
22 . 15 0116 . 0 22 . 15 175 . 0 21 . 0
8
3 2
8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
−
k
k
*
1 . 392 90 . 0 65 . 435 M kNm ØM
n
> = × = ∴
Check remaining sections between points of contraflexure (ie. Negative moment along the rafter)
Propose flybracing as detailed below
Consider region along rafter between point of contraflexure and apex along the rafter.
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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Bending Moment Diagram
Calculate Euler Moment
Three buckling zones exist for wind uplift, each restrained at strategic purlin locations by flybraces.
Consideration of bending moment diagram and restraint locations display.
Region 1 c
5
= 5.5, L
ay
= 5183 mm
Region 2 c
5
~ 3.1, L
ay
= 2x1600 = 3200 mm
Region 3 c
5
= 3.1, L
ay
= 2x(1050+229) = 2558 mm
Since:


¹

\

=
ay
E
L
c
function M
5
Therefore Region 2 is critical buckling region
[ ]
kNm M
M
E
E
66 . 302
10 25 . 135 10 71 . 721
3200
1 . 3 5 . 0
9 9
= ∴
× × × 
¹

\

= ⇒
From previous:
14 . 24
10 66 . 302
10 418 . 176
1
5 . 0
6
9
1
= ∴
×
×
=
S
S
Since 25>S
1
>10
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
. . . S a S a S a a k + + + = Cl C2.10 NZS 3603
49 . 0
14 . 24
5000
1
14 . 24 0116 . 0 14 . 24 175 . 0 21 . 0
8
3 2
8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
−
k
k
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*
5 . 213 49 . 0 65 . 435 M kNm ØM
n
> = × = ∴
Consider tension strength
nt t
N Ø N .
*
≤ Eq. 3.20 NZS 3603
A f k k N
t nt
. . .
4 1
= Eq. 3.21 NZS 3603
For solid sections with member depths greater than 150 mm, apply k
11
size factor for tension. For
further information refer AS1720.1 (Clause 2.4.6) or Technical Note 82.
Therefore A f k k k Ø ØN
t nt
. . . . .
11 4 1
=
where:
0 . 1 33 9 . 0
4
= = = k MPa f Ø
t
Technical Note 82
mm A 81000 90 900 = × =
0 . 1
1
= k
74 . 0
900
150
150
167 . 0
11
167 . 0
11
= 
¹

\

= ∴

¹

\

=
k
d
k
Cl. 2.4.6 AS1720.1
81000 33 74 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0 × × × × × =
nt
ØN
kN ØN
nt
2 . 1780 = ∴
Combined actions
0 . 1 84 . 0
5 . 213
8 . 171
2 . 1780
9 . 69
≤ = 
¹

\

+ 
¹

\

q. 3.25 NZS 3603
Calculate Shear Capacity
n
ØV V ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
S s n
A f k k k V . . . .
5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
where:
MPa f k k
k Ø
s
3 . 5 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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2
54000
3
90 900 2
3 / . . 2
mm A
d b A
S
S
=
× ×
= ∴
=
Cl 3.2.3.1 NZS 3603
*
6 . 257
54000 3 . 5 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
V kN V
V
S
S
> = ∴
× × × × = ∴
φ
φ
Use 900x90 hySPAN as rafter with flybraces to locations as detailed.
3.5.3 Flybrace design
Critical Design Moment at flybrace location M* = 171.1 kNm, where k
1
=0.8
Calculate force on lateral restraint
( ) 1
05 . 0
. . .
35 34 33
*
+
=
r
A
A
n d
M
k k k F Eq. B9, NZS 3603
where:
0 . 1
33
= k (Dead and live loads)
4 . 0
34
= k
1 5 ,
2
1 1
min 5 ,
2
1
min
35
= 
¹

\
 +
= 
¹

\
 +
=
m
k
kNm M
A
1 . 171 − =
mm d 900 =
1 =
r
n
( )
kN F
F
A
A
9 . 1
1 1 900
10 1 . 171 05 . 0
1 4 . 0 0 . 1
6
= ∴
+
× ×
× × × =
Note: F
A
is the horizontal force and is shared between two components, one in tension and one in
compression.
Check capacity of flybrace – propose 90x45 hyCHORD
kN N N
t c
90 . 1
* *
= =
Calculate force in brace
kN
Cos
N N
t c
7 . 2
) 45 (
90 . 1
* *
= = =
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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Typically a 45 mm thick section is recommended to allow for a 75mm long screw through both the flybrace and into
the flange of the hyJOIST. Using hyCHORD for the lateral restraint is a good choice given its high strength and
lower cost.
Consider column action
Since L
ay
=765 mm and L
ax
=765 mm (defined by brace length)
ncx c
ØN N ≤
*
and
ncy c
ØN N ≤
*
Eq. 3.17 NZS 3603
Minor axis buckling is critical by inspection
A f k k N
c ncy
. . .
8 1
= Eq. 3.19 NZS 3603
A f k k Ø ØN
c ncy
. . . .
8 1
= ∴
where:
2
4050 45 90 45 9 . 0 mm A MPa f Ø
c
= × = = =
4050 45 9 . 0
8 1
× × × × = k k ØN
ncx
kN k k ØN
ncx
. . . 03 . 164
8 1
= ∴
Calculate k
8
for buckling about the minor axis
b
L
or
b
L k
S
ay
.
10
3
= whichever is less Eq. 3.15 NZS 3603
98 . 16
45
764
3
3
= ∴
=
S
S
Since 25>S
1
>10
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
. . . S a S a S a a k + + + = Cl C2.10 NZS 3603
82 . 0
98 . 16
5000
1
98 . 16 0116 . 0 98 . 16 175 . 0 21 . 0
8
3 2
8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
−
k
k
Since k
1
= 1.0
*
50 . 134
c ncx
N kN ØN > = ∴
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Consider tension strength
nt t
N Ø N .
*
≤ Eq. 3.20 NZS 3603
A f k k N
t nt
. . .
4 1
= Eq. 3.21 NZS 3603
A f k k Ø ØN
t nt
. . . .
4 1
= ∴
where:
0 . 1 33 9 . 0
4
= = = k MPa f Ø
t
Technical Note 82
mm A 4050 45 90 = × =
0 . 1
1
= k
4050 33 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0 × × × × =
nt
ØN
kN ØN
nt
3 . 120 = ∴
Consider connection between purlins and rafters and flybrace
Screws are required to provide tension connection to rafter/purlin
Calculate minimum number of 14g type 17 Hex Head screws
Joint Group J4 Table 3, Technical note 82
n
ØQ S ≤
*
Eq. 4.5, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Q . . = Eq. 4.6, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Ø ØQ . . . =
where:
kN Q k Ø
k
303 . 3 0 . 1 * 8 . 0
1
= = = NZS 3603
Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry, screws are in single shear and are screwed into the
edge or face of the timber.
*Ø=0.8 is applied as Type 17 screws are as reliable as nails in service.
Consider Q
k
reduction due to the penetration into the receiving member (Purlin/blocking)
Penetration = 7545 = 30 mm
Since d
a
= 6.3 mm Table 4.5, NZS 3603
Therefore portion of diameter in penetration = 4.76
Calculate reduction from capacity relating to 7 d
a
Cl. 4.3.2(e), NZS 3603
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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Reduction factor = 68 . 0
7
76 . 4
=
N Q
k
2247 303 . 3 68 . 0 = × = ∴
So:
kN ØQ
ØQ
n
n
0 . 4
247 . 2 2 0 . 1 8 . 0
= ∴
× × × =
Consider screws in tension
n
ØQ N ≤
*
Eq. 4.8, NZS 3603
k n
Q p k n Q . . . = Eq. 4.9, NZS 3603
k n
Q p k n Ø ØQ . . . . =
where:
mm p mm N Q k Ø
k
35 / 5 . 79 0 . 1 * 8 . 0
1
= = = = NZS 3603
Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry, screws are in single shear and are screwed into the
edge or face of the timber.
*Ø=0.8 is applied as Type 17 screws are as reliable as nails in service.
kN ØQ
ØQ
n
n
45 . 4
5 . 79 35 0 . 1 2 8 . 0
= ∴
× × × × =
Say 2/75x14g type 17 Hex Head screws, screwed through predrilled holes in flybrace into rafter and
purlin.
Proposed flybrace connection
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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3.6 Column Design
3.6.1 Combined bending and compression
Design Criteria
0 . 1
* *
≤


¹

\

+


¹

\

ncx
c
nx
x
ØN
N
ØM
M
Eq. 3.23 NZS 3603
0 . 1
*
2
*
≤


¹

\

+


¹

\

ncy
c
nx
x
ØN
N
ØM
M
Eq. 3.24 NZS 3603
Critical Design Actions
Critical load case  1.2G+1.5Q
M* = 240.0 kNm N
c
* = 84.1 kN V* = 71.5 kN
Consider Bending Moment Capacity
From previous:
kNm k k ØM
n 8 1
. . 65 . 435 =
Since k
1
=0.8
kNm k ØM
n 8
. 52 . 348 =
Calculate k
8
For 900x90 hySPAN:
5 . 0
9
1
10 418 . 176
×
=
E
M
S
Calculate Euler moment, M
E
Girts provide tension edge restraint to the outside of the outside of the frame. By inspection from the
rafter analysis one flybrace is proposed at the middle girt, 3490 mm from the ground.
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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Consider bending moment diagram
( ) [ ]
5 . 0
5
.GJ EI
L
c
M
y
ay
E


¹

\

= Eq. C3 NZS 3603
where:
Region 1
59 . 0
0 . 303
3 . 179
=
−
−
= β β = ratio of bending moments between buckling restraints
92 . 3
5
= c Eq. C3 NZS 3603
mm L
ay
2530 =
Region 2
0
3 . 179
0
=
−
= β β = ratio of bending moments between buckling restraints
5 . 5
5
= c Eq. C3 NZS 3603
mm L
ay
3470 =
2 9
4 9
10 25 . 135
10 71 . 721
Nmm GJ
Nmm EI
y
× =
× =
Therefore Region 1 is critical:
[ ]
kNm M
M
E
E
08 . 484
10 25 . 135 10 71 . 721
2530
92 . 3 5 . 0
9 9
= ∴
× × × 
¹

\

=
From previous:
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008
09 . 19
10 08 . 484
10 418 . 176
1
5 . 0
6
9
1
= ∴
×
×
=
S
S
Since 25>S
1
>10
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
. . . S a S a S a a k + + + = Cl C2.10 NZS 3603
71 . 0
09 . 19
5000
1
09 . 19 0116 . 0 09 . 19 175 . 0 21 . 0
8
3 2
8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
−
k
k
kNm ØM
n
5 . 247 71 . 0 52 . 348 = × = ∴
Consider column action
Major axis buckling XX
From previous:
kN k k ØN
ncx
. . . 5 . 3280
8 1
= ∴
Calculate k
8
for buckling about the major axis
L=L
ax
=6000 mm (column height from rafter to footing)
d
L
or
d
L k
S
ax
.
10
2
= whichever is less Eq. 3.14 NZS 3603
k
10
= 1.0 (conservative) Fig. 3.5 NZS 3603
67 . 6
900
6000 0 . 1
2
2
= ∴
×
=
S
S
Since 10<S
2
k
8
=1.0
and
k
1
= 0.8
*
4 . 2624
c ncx
N kN ØN > = ∴
Minor axis buckling YY
From previous:
kN k k ØN
ncx
. . . 5 . 3280
8 1
= ∴
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Calculate k
8
for buckling about the minor axis YY
L
ay
=1660 mm (girt spacing)
b
L
or
b
L k
S
ay
.
10
3
= whichever is less Eq. 3.15 NZS 3603
44 . 18
90
1660
3
3
= ∴
=
S
S
Since 25>S
3
>10
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
. . . S a S a S a a k + + + = Cl C2.10 NZS 3603
75 . 0
44 . 18
5000
1
44 . 18 0116 . 0 44 . 18 175 . 0 21 . 0
8
3 2
8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
−
k
k
Since k
1
= 0.8
*
3 . 1968
c ncx
N kN ØN > = ∴
Combined actions
0 . 1 0 . 1
4 . 2624
1 . 84
5 . 247
0 . 240
≤ = 
¹

\

+ 
¹

\

Eq. 3.23 NZS 3603
0 . 1 98 . 0
3 . 1968
1 . 84
5 . 247
0 . 240
2
≤ =

¹

\

+

¹

\

Eq. 3.24 NZS 3603
3.6.2 Combined bending and tension
Design Criteria
0 . 1
*
*
≤


¹

\

+


¹

\

n nt
t
ØM
M
ØN
N
Eq. 3.25 NZS 3603
Critical Design Actions
Critical load case  0.9G+W
u
Lateral wind
M* = 271.0 kNm N
t
* = 101.0 kN V* = 55.4 kN
Consider Bending Moment Capacity
From previous, since k
1
=1.0, wind gust
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kNm k ØM
n 8
. 65 . 435 =
Calculate k
8
Calculate Euler moment, M
E
Consider compression edge restrained by grits at 1660 c/c.
Bending Moment Diagram
( ) [ ]
5 . 0
5
.GJ EI
L
c
M
y
ay
E


¹

\

= NZS3603 Eq. C3
where:
66 . 0
0 . 271
7 . 177
= = β β = ratio of bending moments between buckling restraints (grits)
78 . 3
5
= c NZS3603 Eq. C3
2 9
4 9
10 25 . 135
10 71 . 721
Nmm GJ
Nmm EI
y
× =
× =
Therefore:
[ ]
kNm M
M
E
E
43 . 711
10 25 . 135 10 71 . 721
1660
78 . 3 5 . 0
9 9
= ∴
× × × 
¹

\

=
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From previous:
75 . 15
10 43 . 711
10 418 . 176
1
5 . 0
6
9
1
= ∴
×
×
=
S
S
Since 25>S
1
>10
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
. . . S a S a S a a k + + + = NZS 3603 Cl C2.10
87 . 0
75 . 15
5000
1
75 . 15 0116 . 0 75 . 15 175 . 0 21 . 0
8
3 2
8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
−
k
k
*
0 . 379 87 . 0 65 . 435 M kNm ØM
n
> = × = ∴
Consider tension strength
Since 0 . 1
1
= k , 74 . 0
11
= k
81000 33 74 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0 × × × × × =
nt
ØN
kN ØN
nt
2 . 1780 = ∴
Combined actions
0 . 1 77 . 0
0 . 379
0 . 271
2 . 1780
0 . 101
≤ = 
¹

\

+ 
¹

\

Use 900x90 hySPAN as column with flybraces to locations as detailed.
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3.7 Gusset Design
The knee and ridge connections of an LVL portal frame can be completed by using a plywood gusset.
Plywood gussets allow an ease of fabrication and can be readily fixed using machine driven nails.
Plywood or minimum 4 xband gussets are recommended for use in heavily nailed rigid connections
because the xband plies help reduce the tendency of the long band plies to split. This allows the nail
spacing to be governed by the grain direction of the rafter or column which ever the gusset is being
fastened to.
Plywood is available in Stress Grade F11 from Carter Holt Harvey in thicknesses up to and including 25
mm. For thicknesses over 25 mm required for large span portal frames CHH have developed 4 xband
hySPAN sheets (2400x1200) in a 42mm thickness allowing 28 mm (8 plies) of parallel plies.
Design actions can be factored by the duration of load factor k
1
for comparison in the determination of
the critical design action.
Gusset Design Actions
Knee Ridge
M* N* V* M* N* V*
Load Case K
1
kNm kN kN kNm kN kN
1.35G 0.6 123.0 31.6 19.2 69.7 19.0 2.5
1.2G+1.5Q 0.8 324.0 83.1 50.5 183.6 50.1 6.6
0.9G+Wu – Lat 1.0 362.0 102.2 54.3 156.9 71.1 5.0
1.2G+Wu –Lat 1.0 382.0 111.7 65.2 171.2 75.5 14.5
0.9G+Wu – Long 1.0 239.1 64.6 55.1 117.0 65.9 25.3
1.2G+Wu –Long 1.0 295.4 60.3 69.7 161.0 56.6 7.5
k
1
factored Gusset Design Actions
Knee Ridge
M*/k
1
N*/k
1
V*/k
1
M*/k
1
N*/k
1
V*/k
1
Load Case K
1
kNm kN kN kNm kN kN
1.35G 0.6 205.0 52.6 32.0 116.2 31.7 4.2
1.2G+1.5Q 0.8 405.0 103.9 63.1 229.5 62.6 8.3
0.9G+Wu – Lat 1.0 362.0 102.2 54.3 156.9 71.1 5.0
1.2G+Wu –Lat 1.0 382.0 111.7 65.2 171.2 75.5 14.5
0.9G+Wu – Long 1.0 239.1 64.6 55.1 117.0 65.9 25.3
1.2G+Wu –Long 1.0 295.4 60.3 69.7 161.0 56.6 7.5
3.7.1 Knee gusset design
The capacity of a plywood gusset is based on the critical depth at which the gusset bends, which is a
horizontal line across the centroid of the rafter and column intersection as shown below.
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Geometrically, assuming the rafter depth
and column depth are equal, the critical
section for the knee connection may be
calculated by:
θ tan
2
1 1 
¹

\

− +
−
+ =
L
D
D L
D Depth
cs
Design Criteria
0 . 1
*
2
* *
≤


¹

\

+


¹

\

+


¹

\

ni
i
ni
i
nc
c
ØV
V
ØM
M
ØN
N
Eq. 6.17 NZS 3603
0 . 1
*
2
* *
≤


¹

\

+


¹

\

+


¹

\

ni
i
ni
i
nt
t
ØV
V
ØM
M
ØN
N
Eq. 6.18 NZS 3603
It is typical that the design shear and tension action effects have little influence on the size of a gusset and can in
many cases be omitted from calculation such is their effect on sizing. Compression loads are generally past
through in bearing and not required for consideration in gusset design.
Critical Design Actions
Load case  1.2G+1.5Q – (Combined bending, compression and shear)
M* = 324.0 kNm N
c
* = 83.1 kN V* = 50.5 kN k
1
=0.8
Load case  0.9G+Wu (Lateral wind)  (Combined bending, tension and shear)
M* = 362.0 kNm N
t
* = 102.2 kN V* = 54.3 kN k
1
=1.0
Consider bending moment capacity
Many authors have proposed methods of calculating the capacity of plywood gussets. Batchelor [1984] proposes
a bilinear stress distribution along the critical section while Hutchings [1987] methodology assumes a
triangulated stress distribution across the critical section and recommends the application of a size factor.
Hutchings [1987] methodology is applied in this example. This methodology is suitable for application to both
opening and closing moments of portal frames, and has been used on many portal frame structures. Milner and
Crosier [2000] propose a similar calculation based on a triangulated stress distribution but propose an alternate
critical section and omit the use of the size factor.
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ni i
ØM M ≤
*
Eq. 6.9 NZS 3603
6
.
. . . . .
2
15 14 8 1
d t
f k k k k M
e
pb ni
= Eq. 6.10 NZS 3603
Now include size factor  for further information on size factor, k
11
refer AS1720.1 (Clause 2.4.6) or Technical Note
82.
Therefore
6
.
. . . . . . .
2
15 14 11 8 1
d t
f k k k k k Ø ØM
e
pb ni
=
Since the gussets are in pairs:
=
6
.
. . . . . . . . 2
2
15 14 11 8 1
d t
f k k k k k Ø ØM
e
pb ni
Propose 42 mm 4 xband LVL, where:
9 . 0 = Ø
?
1
= k
0 . 1
8
= k (localised, gusset edges are restrained by gusset stiffeners)
0 . 1
14
= k (moisture content < 18%)
0 . 1
15
= k (only parallel plies are being considered)
167 . 0
11
300

¹

\

=
d
k Cl. 2.4.6 AS1720.1
MPa f
b
48 =
( ) ( ) mm t
e
28 5 . 3 4 42 = × − =
×
× × × × × × × =
6
28
48 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0 . 2
2
11 1
d
k k ØM
ni
kNm d k k ØM
n
2
11 1
. . 2 . 403 × =
For 900x90 hySPAN portal frame with 7.5˚ pitch
( )
80 . 0
2 . 1177
300
2 . 1177
5 . 7 tan
1200 2
900
1 1
900 1200
900
11
167 . 0
11
= ∴

¹

\

=
= ∴

¹

\

×
− +
−
+ =
k
k
mm d
d
Calculate bending moment capacity
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kNm k ØM
k ØM
ni
ni
. 0 . 447
2 . 1177 8 . 0 2 . 403
1
2
1
× = ∴
× × × =
Calculate Shear Capacity
ni p
ØV V ≤
*
Eq. 6.15 NZS 3603
d t f k k k k k V
ps ni
. . . . . . . .
3
2
18 15 14 8 1
= Eq. 6.16 NZS 3603
where:
MPa f Ø
ps
3 . 5 9 . 0 = = Technical Note 82
?
1
= k
0 . 1
14
= k (moisture content < 15 %)
0 . 1
15
= k (face grain = 0˚)
× × × × × × × × × = d k V
ni
42 3 . 5 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1
3
2
9 . 0 2
1
kN d k V
ni
. . 12 . 267
1
× = ∴
Since mm d 2 . 1177 =
kN k V
ni
. 45 . 314
1
× = ∴
Consider tension capacity
nt t
N Ø N .
*
≤ Eq. 6.11 NZS 3603
d t f k k k N
t pt nt
. . . . .
15 14 1
= Eq. 6.12 NZS 3603
d t f k k k Ø ØN
e pt nt
. . . . . .
15 14 1
= ∴
where:
MPa f Ø
pt
33 9 . 0 = = Technical Note 82
?
1
= k
0 . 1
14
= k (moisture content < 15 %)
0 . 1
15
= k (face grain = 0˚)
mm t
e
28 = (parallel plies only)
[ ] d k ØN
nt
× × × × × × = 28 33 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0 2
1
kN d k ØN
nt
. . . 2 . 1663
1
= ∴
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Since mm d 900 = (use minimum section)  conservative
kN k ØN
nt
. 9 . 1496
1
× = ∴
Consider compression capacity
nc c
N Ø N .
*
≤ Eq. 6.13 NZS 3603
d t f k k k k N
e pc nc
. . . . . .
15 14 8 1
= Eq. 6.14 NZS 3603
d t f k k k k Ø ØN
e pc nc
. . . . . . .
15 14 8 1
= ∴
where:
MPa f Ø
pc
45 9 . 0 = = Technical Note 82
?
1
= k
0 . 1
14
= k (moisture content < 15 %)
0 . 1
8
= k (localised, gusset edges are restrained by gusset stiffeners)
0 . 1
15
= k (face grain = 0˚)
mm t
e
28 = (parallel plies only)
[ ] d k ØN
nc
× × × × × × × = 28 45 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0 2
1
kN d k ØN
nc
. . 0 . 2268
1
× = ∴
Since mm d 900 = (use minimum section)  conservative
kN k ØN
nc
. 2 . 2041
1
× = ∴
Consider Combined Actions
Combined bending, compression and shear from Eq. 6.17, NZS 3603:1993
Factor capacities by appropriate duration of load, k
1
= 0.8
0 . 1 07 . 1
5 . 314 8 . 0
5 . 50
0 . 447 8 . 0
0 . 324
2 . 2041 8 . 0
1 . 83
2
≥ =

¹

\

×
+

¹

\

×
+

¹

\

×
It is typical to consider the maximum implied forces on the structure, rather than the applied forces at the specific
design location. However if the design criteria is not met then consideration of the implied design actions at the
design location may be required. Therefore consider moment and shear forces at critical stress line for analysis.
Design Actions at critical stress line, Load case 1.2G+1.5Q
M* = 303.0 kNm N
c
* = 83.1 kN V* = 50.5 kN k
1
=0.8
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0 . 1 97 . 0
5 . 314 8 . 0
5 . 50
0 . 447 8 . 0
0 . 303
2 . 2041 8 . 0
1 . 83
2
≤ =

¹

\

×
+

¹

\

×
+

¹

\

×
Combined bending, compression and shear from Eq. 6.18, NZS 3603:1993
Factor capacities by appropriate duration of load, k
1
= 1.0
0 . 1 90 . 0
5 . 314 0 . 1
3 . 54
0 . 447 0 . 1
00 . 362
9 . 1496 0 . 1
2 . 102
2
≤ =

¹

\

×
+

¹

\

×
+

¹

\

×
3.7.2 Ridge Gusset Design
The design of the ridge gusset is similar to the knee gusset where the design capacity is based on the
moment resistance offered by the ridge gusset section. Typically a mitre type joint is considered.
Hutchings [1989] proposes a 0.9 factor be applied to the critical section as defined below.
Savings in design and fabrication can be made by keeping the distance ‘L’ constant across the ridge and the knee
gussets. Whilst the ridge gusset may be ‘thinner’ often for consistency of purlin lengths and minimum gusset
order quantities it may be preferable to maintain similar gusset thicknesses.
.
gusset cs
gusset
D Depth
L
Cos
D
D
. 9 . 0
tan .
=
+ = θ
θ
Design Criteria
0 . 1
*
2
* *
≤


¹

\

+


¹

\

+


¹

\

ni
i
ni
i
nc
c
ØV
V
ØM
M
ØN
N
Eq. 6.17 NZS 3603
0 . 1
*
2
* *
≤


¹

\

+


¹

\

+


¹

\

ni
i
ni
i
nt
t
ØV
V
ØM
M
ØN
N
Eq. 6.18 NZS 3603
Critical Design Actions
Critical load case  1.2G+1.5Q
M* = 183.6 kNm N
c
* = 50.1 kN V* = 6.6 kN
Critical load case  0.9G+Wu – Lateral wind
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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M* = 156.9 kNm N
t
* = 71.1 kN V* = 5.0 kN
Consider Bending Moment Capacity
From previous, propose 42mm 4 xband LVL, where:
kNm d k k ØM
n
2
11 1
. . 2 . 403 × =
For 900x90 hySPAN portal frame with 7.5˚ pitch
82 . 0
2 . 959
300
2 . 959 9 . 0
7 . 1065
) 5 . 7 tan( 1200
) 5 . 7 (
900
11
167 . 0
11
= ∴

¹

\

=
= × =
= ∴
× + =
k
k
mm D d
mm D
Cos
D
gusset
gusset
gusset
Calculate bending moment capacity
*
1
2
1
. 5 . 305
2 . 959 82 . 0 2 . 403
M kNm k ØM
k ØM
ni
ni
> × = ∴
× × × =
Calculate shear force capacity
From previous:
kN k V
kN d k V
ni
ni
. 2 . 256
. . 12 . 267
1
1
× = ∴
× =
Calculate Tension Capacity
From previous:
kN d k ØN
nt
. . . 2 . 1663
1
= ∴
Since mm d 900 = (use minimum section)  conservative
kN k ØN
nt
. 9 . 1496
1
× = ∴
Calculate Compression Capacity
From previous:
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kN d k ØN
nc
. . 0 . 2268
1
× = ∴
Since mm d 900 = (use minimum section)  conservative
kN k ØN
nc
. 2 . 2041
1
× = ∴
Combined bending, compression and shear from Eq. 6.17, NZS 3603:1993
Factor capacities by appropriate duration of load, k
1
= 0.8
0 . 1 63 . 0
2 . 256 8 . 0
6 . 6
5 . 305 8 . 0
6 . 183
2 . 2041 8 . 0
1 . 50
2
≤ =

¹

\

×
+

¹

\

×
+

¹

\

×
Combined bending, compression and shear from Eq. 6.18, NZS 3603:1993
Factor capacities by appropriate duration of load, k
1
= 1.0
0 . 1 57 . 0
2 . 256 0 . 1
0 . 5
5 . 305 0 . 1
9 . 156
2 . 2041 0 . 1
1 . 71
2
≤ =

¹

\

×
+

¹

\

×
+

¹

\

×
Use 42 mm 4 xBand hySPAN as both knee and ridge gusset pairs
3.7.3 Nail ring design
The design of the nail ring is important because more than half of the nailing needs to be performed on
site. It is also important to consider end and edge distances together with allowable nail spacings
(both along and across the grain) for the chosen fasteners. Selection of the nail diameter is also critical
as it will affect the available spacing and hence number of nails within the group as well as the
required penetration into the column/rafter. A staggered nail pattern provides an increased moment
capacity by maximising the lever arm action about the nail group centroid.
The design of nail groups associated with rigid moment connections are often subjected to combined
actions including bending, axial and shear forces. Whilst the bending and axial forces contributions
are minor they need to be taken into account. It is normally most efficient to calculate the proportion of
force remaining in the nails after the contribution to the design moment affect is taken out.
The complexity of calculations for the nail ring mean hand calculations can be time consuming and
conservative. For this reason computer packages are often employed to develop design solutions. The
following design data have been taken from design capacity tables relating to the corresponding roof
pitch and member size.
The design methodology, including k factors, from AS1720.1 has been applied to create nail ring
capacities for a number of section sizes and gusset widths. These tables can be found in Engineering
Bulletin No.2, Rigid Moment Connections using CHH veneer based products. AS1720.1 was used due to
its close relationship between the lateral capacities of nails in testing with CHH’s range of LVL and the
published values for joint group JD4. It should be noted that many of the ‘k’ factors used in calculation
of connection capacities differ between the standards and it is recommended that for connections
these not be mixed and matched.
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3.7.3.1 Knee nail ring design
Critical Design Actions
The critical design actions need only be considered in the nail ring design as the effects of stress reversal do not
affect the nature of the nail design.
Knee, Critical load case  1.2G+1.5Q
M* = 324.0 kNm N
c
* = 83.1 kN V* = 50.5 kN k
1
=0.77
#
#
As per Table 2.7, AS1720.1
The methodology proposed for the calculation of nail group capacity for combined bending, axial and
shear force involves the following steps:
1. Calculate moment capacity of nail rings in accordance with AS1720.1. AS1720.1 provides a
capacity calculation for transfer of in plane moments through nailed moment ring such that:


¹

\

=
∑
=
=
2
3
1 max
max 17 16 14 13 1
. . . . . . . .
n i
i
i
k j
r
r
Q r k k k k k M φ φ AS1720.1 Eq. 4.2(4)
where:
n = number of fasteners
Q
k
= characteristic strength of fastener
r
i
= distance to the i
th
fastener from the centroid of the fastener group
r
max
= the maximum value of r
i
Ø = capacity factor (0.8  nails used with primary elements in structures other than houses)
k
1
= duration of load factor (Clause 2.4.11, AS1720.1)
k
13
= 1.0 (nails in side grain)
k
14
= 1.0 (nails in single shear)
k
16
= 1.1 (nails driven through plywood gussets)
k
17
= multiple nail factor for resisting in plane moments (AS1720.1 Table 4.3(B))
Q
k
= 810 N (Ø3.15 nail, JD4 strength group, AS1720.1 Table 4.1 (B))
Since nail rings will be applied through gusset pairs the total moment resistance offered by nail
rings connecting gusset pairs is:


¹

\

=
∑
=
=
2
3
1 max
max 17 16 14 13 1
. . . . . . . . . 2
n i
i
i
k
r
r
Q r k k k k k M φ φ
2. Calculate remaining portion of nail capacity after bending actions have been considered.
3.
a.
k n
Q k k k k k Q . . . . . .
17 16 14 13 1
φ φ =
b. n Q
M
M
N
n shear axial
× ×


¹

\

− = φ
φ
φ
*
/
1
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4. Calculate vectorial sum of the combined axial and shear forces for comparison with remaining
capacity. These forces are assumed to be evenly distributed over the nail group.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

¹

\

+ + =
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
* *
/
, max v N v N N
t c shear axial
Engineering Bulletin 2 – Rigid Moment Connection Details can be used for selection of the moment ring
capacity for the nail ring to suit the 7.5˚ roof pitch and 1200 mm wide gusset as drawn above.
From Table 50, Engineering Bulletin 2 for nine (9) nail rings
kNm M
M
7 . 349
14 . 454 77 . 0
= ∴
× =
φ
φ
and kN Q
n
855 . 0 = φ
Calculate remaining nail group capacity after resistance to moment has been calculated.
( )
kN N
N
n Q
M
M
N
shear axial
shear axial
n shear axial
0 . 86
2 684 855 . 0
7 . 349
0 . 324
1
1
/
/
*
/
= ∴
× × × 
¹

\

− =
× ×


¹

\

− =
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
Calculate vectorial sum of axial and shear force, divided by k
1
for direct comparison
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
kN N
N
N
v N v N N
shear axial
shear axial
shear axial
t c shear axial
3 . 126
7 . 115 , 3 . 126 max
0 . 1
3 . 54
0 . 1
2 . 102
,
77 . 0
5 . 50
77 . 0
1 . 83
max
, max
*
/
*
/
2 2 2 2
*
/
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
* *
/
= ∴
=


¹

\


¹

\

+

¹

\


¹

\

+

¹

\

=

¹

\

+ + =
Since N N
shear axial
φ >
*
/
either add an additional nail ring or adjust nail size. Try using a Ø3.33 nail.
Using Table 3 from Engineering Bulletin 2 the capacity of the nail rings can be factored proportionally to
the Characteristic Capacity of the nail laterally loaded in single shear.
Ø3.33/Ø3.15 factor = 11 . 1
810
898
=
Therefore:
*
15 . 388
11 . 1 14 . 454 77 . 0
M kNm M
M
≥ = ∴
× × =
φ
φ
and
kN Q
Q
n
n
949 . 0
11 . 1 855 . 0
= ∴
× =
φ
φ
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Calculate remaining nail group capacity after resistance to moment has been calculated.
( )
*
/
/
*
/
6 . 214
2 684 949 . 0
15 . 388
0 . 324
1
1
N kN N
N
n Q
M
M
N
shear axial
shear axial
n shear axial
> = ∴
× × × 
¹

\

− =
× ×


¹

\

− =
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
Use nine nail rings of Ø3.33 x75 FH nails to pattern as marked.
Proposed Nail Ring
3.7.3.2 Ridge nail ring design
Critical Design Actions
Critical load case  1.2G+1.5Q
M* = 183.6 kNm N
c
* = 50.1 kN V* = 6.6 kN
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Engineering Bulletin 2 – Rigid Moment Connection Details can be used for selection of the moment ring
capacity for the nail ring to suit the 7.5˚ roof pitch and 1200 mm wide gusset as drawn above.
From Table 50, Engineering Bulletin 2 apply four (4) nail rings. Since we are using Ø3.33 nails in the
knee connection, apply same nail size in the ridge, therefore apply 1.11 factor from previous to apply
nail ring capacities from Table ##.
*
3 . 227
11 . 1 96 . 265 77 . 0
M kNm M
M
≥ = ∴
× × =
φ
φ
and kN Q
n
949 . 0 = φ From previous
Calculate remaining nail group capacity after resistance to moment has been calculated.
( )
kN N
N
n Q
M
M
N
shear axial
shear axial
n shear axial
52 . 125
2 344 949 . 0
3 . 227
6 . 183
1
1
/
/
*
/
= ∴
× × × 
¹

\

− =
× ×


¹

\

− =
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
Calculate vectorial sum of axial and shear force, divided by k
1
for direct comparison
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
N kN N
N
N
v N v N N
shear axial
shear axial
shear axial
t c shear axial
φ < = ∴
=


¹

\


¹

\

+

¹

\


¹

\

+

¹

\

=

¹

\

+ + =
6 . 65
1 . 71 , 6 . 65 max
0 . 1
0 . 5
0 . 1
1 . 71
,
77 . 0
6 . 6
77 . 0
1 . 50
max
, max
*
/
*
/
2 2 2 2
*
/
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
* *
/
Use four nail rings of Ø3.33 x75 FH nails to pattern as marked.
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3.8 Column to footing connection design
Connection of portal frame columns to footings can be achieved by base brackets that are suitably sized and fixed
directly to the LVL columns. A similar design philosophy is applied to the design and specification of hold down
anchors and base plates as would normally be applied to steel where the buckling of the plate under tension
needs to be considered.
The connection of the base brackets to the column could be achieved using nails, screws or bolts. Nails are
typically not recommended of base plates in larger structures because of the number of nails required combined
with the fact they would need to be hand driven through holes in plates. Bolts can be used and are good to aid in
the transfer of bracing loads across the column. Screws are ideal for most base bracket connections due to their
ease of application. It is important that screw patterns are staggered for both sides of the column so that splitting
of the LVL does not occur.
Again reactions are factored to take into consideration duration of load factors.
Consider Design Reactions
PF1
R
x
R
y
(R
x
2
+R
y
2
)
0.5
Angle
Load Case k
1
kN kN kN
1.35G 0.6 19.19 35.82 40.6 61.8
1.2G+1.5Q 0.8 50.53 86.87 100.5 59.8
0.9G+Wu (Lateral) 1.0 58.60 99.28 115.3 59.4
1.2G+Wu (Lateral) 1.0 53.96 115.53 127.5 65.0
0.9G+Wu (Long) 1.0 24.61 78.67 82.4 72.6
1.2G+Wu (Long) 1.0 52.50 102.30 115.0 62.8
k1 adjusted values
PF1
R
x
R
y
(R
x
2
+R
y
2
)
0.5
Angle
Load Case k
1
kN kN kN
1.35G 0.6 31.98 59.70 67.7 61.8
1.2G+1.5Q 0.8 63.16 108.59 125.6 59.8
0.9G+Wu (Lateral) 1.0 58.60 99.28 115.3 59.4
1.2G+Wu (Lateral) 1.0 53.96 115.53 127.5 65.0
0.9G+Wu (Long) 1.0 24.61 78.67 82.4 72.6
1.2G+Wu (Long) 1.0 52.50 102.30 115.0 62.8
It is typical in Timber structures to provide a moisture barrier at the base of the columns to eliminate the column
from getting wet and staying wet during the construction period. This can be typically achieved by using H3.2
treated Plywood and melthoid at both the LVL column end and ground as detailed in the structural drawings.
Downwards loads may be considered to be taken out in bearing so for the design of connections only uplift loads
need be considered.
Calculate minimum number of 14g type 17 Hex Head screws
Joint Group J4 Table 3, Technical note 82
n
ØQ S ≤
*
Eq. 4.5, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Q . . = Eq. 4.6, NZS 3603
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k n
Q k n Ø ØQ . . . =
where:
25 . 1 303 . 3 0 . 1 * 8 . 0
1
= = = = k kN Q k Ø
k
NZS 3603
Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry, screws are in single shear and are screwed through
close fitting steel plates into the edge or face of the timber.
*Ø=0.8 is applied as Type 17 screws are as reliable as nails in service.
Since critical design reaction is 115.3 kN, calculate minimum number of 14g screws.
9 . 34
303 . 3 25 . 1 0 . 1 8 . 0 3 . 115
= ∴
× × × × =
n
n
Say 48/14gx50 type 17 Hex Head screws, screwed through base plate sides into column.
Proposed Connection
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4.0 Girt Design, side wall
Girt Span (10,000(90+65))/2 = 4923 mm
Girt Spacing 1660 mm
Propose 190x45 hyCHORD for use as side wall girt
4.1 Wind loading
The capacity of solid timber girts is also dependant on the nature of lateral tortional buckling restraint and the
critical edge to which the loading and restraint is provided. It is therefore important to consider both positive and
negative wind pressures.
θ = 0˚, Lateral wind
q
u
=0.84 kPa Case 1 c
p,e
=
+
0.7, c
p,i
=

0.56, k
L
= 1.25
Case 2 c
p,e
=

0.3, c
p,i
=
+
0.61
θ = 90˚, Longitudinal wind
q
u
=0.76 kPa Case 1 c
p,e
=

0.65, c
p,i
=
+
0.54, k
L
= 1.5
Calculate design loading
m kN w
w
m kN w
w
c c k k spacing q w
pi pe l a u
*
i
/ 84 . 1
) 54 . 0 65 . 0 5 . 1 ( 66 . 1 76 . 0
/ 93 . 1
) 56 . 0 7 . 0 25 . 1 ( 66 . 1 84 . 0
) . . .( .
*
2
*
2
*
1
*
1
− = ∴
− × × × =
+ = ∴
− × × × =
− =
+ −
− +
Serviceability
Refer Technical Note 82 for Section and Material Properties.
=
= × 
¹

\

=
+ +
x
w
s
EI
l w
. k δ
m kN w
. 384
. . 5
/ 30 . 1 93 . 1
45
37
4
2
2
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140 3 . 35
10 283 384
4923 30 . 1 5
0 1
9
4
Span or mm δ
. . δ
w
w
= ∴
× ×
× ×
=
+
Strength
Check capacity for positive wind pressures
kNm M
l w
M
79 . 5
8
9 . 4 93 . 1
8
.
*
2 2
*
= ∴
×
= =
+
Consider shear and support reaction for wind load
kN V N
l w
V
73 . 4
2
9 . 4 93 . 1
2
.
* *
*
= = ∴
×
= =
+
Calculate Bending Moment Capacity
n
ØM M ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
Z f k k k k M
b n
. . . . .
8 5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
where:
MPa f k k
k Ø
b
48 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
kNm k ØM
k ØM
n
n
8
3
8
. 7 . 11
10 271 48 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
= ∴
× × × × × × × =
Continuous restraint to compression edge via pierce fixed sheeting, therefore k
8
=1.0
*
7 . 11 M kNm ØM > =
Calculate Shear Capacity
n
ØV V ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
S s n
A f k k k V . . . .
5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
where:
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MPa f k k
k Ø
s
3 . 5 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
2
5700
3
45 190 2
3 / . . 2
mm A
d b A
S
S
=
× ×
= ∴
=
Cl 3.2.3.1 NZS 3603
*
2 . 27
5700 3 . 5 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
V kN V
V
S
S
> = ∴
× × × × = ∴
Consider negative wind pressures.
kNm M
l w
M
5 . 5
8
9 . 4 84 . 1
8
.
*
2 2
*
− = ∴
×
= =
−
Calculate bending moment capacity
From previous:
kNm k ØM
n 8
. 7 . 11 =
Calculate k
8
Continuous lateral restraint is provided to the tension edge via pierce fixed sheeting.
Calculate S
1
b
d
S . 3
1
= Eq. 3.6 NZS 3603
67 . 12
45
190
3
!
= × = S
Since 25>S
1
>10
97 . 0
67 . 12
5000
1
67 . 12 0116 . 0 67 . 12 175 . 0 21 . 0
. . .
8
3 2
8
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
+ + + =
−
k
k
S a S a S a a k
*
3 . 11
97 . 0 7 . 11
M kNm ØM
ØM
> =
× = ∴
4.2 Connection design
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008
Connection of hyCHORD girts is easiest performed using proprietary brackets and screws or nails. The proposed
bracket is manufactured by Mitek. It is important to ensure that the depth of proprietary brackets is at least 60%
of the depth for beams up to 50 mm thick. Propose JH47x190 to suit 190x45 hyCHORD. It is typical to apply a
practical minimum number of nails for bracket and beam stability, for members around 190 mm deep we
recommend a minimum of 10/Ø3.15x35 FH nails ie. 5/Ø3.15 nails per tab.
Check Capacity
Joint Group J5 Table 3, Technical note 82
n
ØQ S ≤
*
Eq. 4.1, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Q . . = Eq. 4.2, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Ø ØQ . . . =
where:
10
631 . 0 0 . 1 8 . 0
1
=
= = =
n
kN Q k Ø
k
NZS 3603
k=1.25 since nails are through steel side plates < 3.0 mm thickness.
Other ‘k’ modifaction factors are not relevant as timber is dry, nails are in single shear and are nailed into the
edge or face of the timber.
Also confirm Characteristic Strength Capacity of Bracket.
*
0 . 18 N kN ØQ > = Mitek Literature
The 190x45 hyCHORD girt to span 4.9 m at maximum 1660 mm spacing is adequate to support the
design load.
Proposed Girt Layout
* 3 . 6
631 . 0 25 . 1 0 . 1 10 8 . 0
N kN Q
ØQ
n
n
> = ∴
× × × × =
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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5.0 Mullion design, side wall
The mullion is best calculated as a vertical member supporting a series of point loads that share a common spacing, which
is typical of mullions. Standard beam formulae have been adapted to best provide accurate but easy to calculate
equations. Refer Appendix 1 for beam equations, where n is the number of girts.
Consider side wall mullion
Mullion Span 6.4 m
Girt Spacing 1660 mm
Propose 300x63 hySPAN for use as side wall mullion.
5.1 Wind loading
Girts provide lateral restraint to the compression edge for positive pressures and to the tension edge for negative
wind pressures. Girt reactions have been recalculated excluding the local pressure factors as the mullion does not
directly support the cladding.
θ = 0˚, Lateral wind
Girt loading (positive pressure) P
*
= +8.61 kN
θ = 90˚, Longitudinal wind
Girt loading (negative pressure) P
*
= 7.35 kN
Serviceability
Apply maximum wind pressure for serviceability

¹

\

+ − =
=
= ×

¹

\

=
+ +
2
3
2
2
4
1
2
1
3 .
. 192
.
.
4
82 . 5 61 . 8
45
37
n
.n
EI
L P
k δ
n
kN P
w
s
Appendix 1
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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211 3 . 30
4
4
1
2
1
3 4
10 142 13200 192
6400 5820
0 . 1
2 6
3
Span or mm δ
x
x δ
w
w
= ∴

¹

\

+ − × ×
× ×
×
=
Strength
Calculate bending moment and shear
Positive wind pressures
kNm M
l P
n M
55 . 27
8
4 . 6 61 . 8
4
8
.
.
*
*
= ∴
×
× = =
+
Negative wind pressures
kNm M
l P
n M
5 . 23
8
4 . 6 35 . 7
4
8
.
.
*
*
−
−
= ∴
×
× = =
Consider shear and support reaction for wind load
kN V N
P
n V
2 . 17
2
61 . 8
4
2
). 1 (
* *
*
+
+
= = ∴
× = − =
Calculate Bending Moment Capacity
Positive Pressure.
Calculate k
8
Compression edge restrained by girts at 1660 mm spacing.
5 . 0
5 . 0
2
.
1
1 35 . 1
−
=
b
d
b
L
S
ay
Eq. 3.5 NZS 3603
95 . 14 S
1
63
300
63
1660
35 . 1
1
5 . 0
5 . 0
2
1
= ∴
−
= S
Since 25>S
1
>10
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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90 . 0
95 . 14
5000
1
95 . 14 0116 . 0 95 . 14 175 . 0 21 . 0
. . .
8
3 2
8
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
+ + + =
−
k
k
S a S a S a a k
n
ØM M ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
Z f k k k k M
b n
. . . . .
8 5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
where:
MPa f k k
k Ø
b
48 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
kNm k ØM
k ØM
n
n
8
3
8
. 82 . 40
10 945 48 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
= ∴
× × × × × × × =
Since k
8
=0.90
*
74 . 36 M kNm ØM > =
Negative Pressure.
Calculate k
8
Tension edge restrained by girts at 1660 mm spacing.
Consider Stability equation for Discrete Restraint to Tension Edge from AS 1720.1.
5 . 0
35 . 1
1


¹

\


¹

\

=
d
L
b
d
S
ay
Eq. 3.2(5) AS 1720.12008
34 . 19 S
300
1660
63
300
1
5 . 0 35 . 1
1
= ∴

¹

\


¹

\

= S
Since 25>S
1
>10
70 . 0
34 . 19
5000
1
34 . 19 0116 . 0 34 . 19 175 . 0 21 . 0
. . .
8
3 2
8
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
+ + + =
−
k
k
S a S a S a a k
n
ØM M ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
Z f k k k k M
b n
. . . . .
8 5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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where:
MPa f k k
k Ø
b
48 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
kNm k ØM
k ØM
n
n
8
3
8
. 82 . 40
10 945 48 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
= ∴
× × × × × × × =
Since k
8
=0.70
*
6 . 28 M kNm ØM > =
Calculate Shear Capacity
n
ØV V ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
S s n
A f k k k V . . . .
5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
where:
MPa f k k
k Ø
s
3 . 5 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
2
12600
3
63 300 2
3 / . . 2
mm A
d b A
S
S
=
× ×
= ∴
=
Cl 3.2.3.1 NZS 3603
*
1 . 60
12600 3 . 5 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
V kN V
V
S
S
> = ∴
× × × × = ∴
5.2 Connection design
Two different connections are required for the mullion. Connection to the ground is proposed using
Mitek CF2x brackets whilst the connection to the eaves beam can be performed using two Mitek N21
Diagonal Cleats. The design capacities expressed in the Mitek literature are based on fully nailing out
the holes. We can calculate a reduced number of fasteners for ease of installation whilst maintaining
the structural integrity. It is recommended that the reduced number of fasteners are evenly distributed
across the tab/bracket area.
Propose use of proprietary Ø3.15x35 FH nails for connection to mullion.
Joint Group J5 Table 3, Technical Note 82
n
ØQ S ≤
*
Eq. 4.1, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Q . . = Eq. 4.2, NZS 3603
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k n
Q k n Ø ØQ . . . =
where:
?
631 . 0 0 . 1 8 . 0
1
=
= = =
n
kN Q k Ø
k
NZS 3603
k=1.25 since nails are through steel side plates < 3.0 mm thickness.
Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry, nails are in single shear and are nailed into the
edge or face of the timber.
25 . 27
631 . 0
22 . 17
631 . 0
631 . 0 25 . 1 0 . 1 8 . 0
= = ∴
× =
× × × × =
n
kN n ØQ
n ØQ
n
n
Say 15/Ø3.15x35 FH nails per tab, per bracket. Stagger nails.
Also check Characteristic Strength Capacity of Bracket.
One pair of Mitek N21 Diagonal Cleats.
*
0 . 40 N kN ØQ > = Mitek Literature
One pair of CF2x brackets with 2/M12 Chemical anchors.
Load in shear only.
*
0 . 48 N kN ØQ > = Mitek Literature
Proposed Mullion Connection
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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6.0 Eaves beam design
Eaves Beam Span 10,000(90+(2x41)) = 9828 mm
Mullion location Midspan (critical)
Propose 400x63 hySPAN for use as eaves beam
6.1 Wind loading
Positive pressure
P
*
=
+
17.22 kN, w*=
+
0.97kN/m
Negative pressure
P
*
=

14.7 kN, w*=

0.69 kN/m
Serviceability
Positive wind pressure critical for serviceability
140 0 . 70
10 4435 48
9828 11640
10 4435 384
9828 66 . 0 5
0 1
/ 66 . 0 97 . 0
45
37
64 . 11 22 . 17
45
37
9
3
9
4
2
*
2
*
Span or mm δ
. . δ
m kN w
kN P
w
w
s
s
= ∴
× ×
×
+
× ×
× ×
=
= ×

¹

\

=
= ×

¹

\

=
+ +
+ +
+ +
Strength
Check capacity for positive wind pressures
kNm M
L P l w
M
8 . 53
4
8 . 9 22 . 17
8
8 . 9 97 . 0
4
.
8
.
*
2 2
*
= ∴
×
+
×
= + =
+
Consider shear and support reaction for wind load
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kN V N
P l w
V
4 . 13
2
22 . 17
2
8 . 9 97 . 0
2 2
.
* *
*
= = ∴
+
×
= + =
+
Calculate Bending Moment Capacity
n
ØM M ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
Z f k k k k M
b n
. . . . .
8 5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
For solid sections with member depths greater than 300 mm, apply k
11
size factor. For further
information refer AS1720.1 (Clause 2.4.6) or Technical Note 82.
Therefore Z f k k k k k Ø ØM
b n
. . . . . . .
11 8 5 4 1
=
where:
MPa f k k
k Ø
b
48 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
95 . 0
400
300
300
167 . 0
11
167 . 0
11
= 
¹

\

= ∴

¹

\

=
k
d
k
Cl. 2.4.6 AS1720.1
kNm k ØM
k ØM
n
n
8
3
8
. 9 . 68
10 1680 48 95 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
= ∴
× × × × × × × × =
Continuous restraint to compression edge via pierce fixed sheeting, therefore k
8
=1.0
*
94 . 68 M kNm ØM > =
Calculate Shear Capacity
n
ØV V ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
S s n
A f k k k V . . . .
5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
where:
MPa f k k
k Ø
s
3 . 5 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
2
16800
3
63 400 2
3 / . . 2
mm A
d b A
S
S
=
× ×
= ∴
=
Cl 3.2.3.1 NZS 3603
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*
1 . 80
16800 3 . 5 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
V kN V
V
S
S
> = ∴
× × × × = ∴
Consider negative wind pressures.
kNm M
L P l w
M
3 . 44
4
8 . 9 7 . 14
8
8 . 9 69 . 0
4
.
8
.
*
2 2
*
−
− −
= ∴
×
+
×
= + =
Calculate bending moment capacity
From previous:
kNm k ØM
n 8
. 94 . 68 =
Calculate k
8
Continuous lateral restraint is provided to the tension edge via pierce fixed sheeting.
Calculate S
1
b
d
S . 3
1
= Eq. 3.6 NZS 3603
04 . 19
63
400
3
!
= × = S
Since 25>S
1
>10
72 . 0
04 . 19
5000
1
04 . 19 0116 . 0 04 . 19 175 . 0 21 . 0
. . .
8
3 2
8
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
+ + + =
−
k
k
S a S a S a a k
*
6 . 49
72 . 0 94 . 68
M kNm ØM
ØM
> =
× = ∴
6.2 Connection design
Connection of the eaves beam to the column needs to provide both torsional restraint as well as
adequate fastening for the horizontal wind loads. It is proposed to use a combination of a pair of Mitek
MS1430 split joist hanger together with a Mitek N21 Diagonal Cleat.
Calculate load taken by split joist hangers using 6/ 14g type 17 Hex Head screws per member
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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Joint Group J4 Table 3, Technical note 82
n
ØQ S ≤
*
Eq. 4.5, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Q . . = Eq. 4.6, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Ø ØQ . . . =
where:
kN Q k Ø
k
303 . 3 0 . 1 * 8 . 0
1
= = = NZS 3603
k=1.25 since nails are through steel side plates < 3.0 mm thickness.
Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry and screws are in single shear.
*Ø=0.8 is applied as Type 17 screws are as reliable as nails in service.
kN ØQ
ØQ
n
n
2 . 18
303 . 3 25 . 1 0 . 1 6 8 . 0
= ∴
× × × × =
Consider use of Diagonal Cleat to provide stability and additional support
Joint Group J5 Table 3, Technical note 82
n
ØQ S ≤
*
Eq. 4.1, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Q . . = Eq. 4.2, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Ø ØQ . . . =
where:
10
631 . 0 0 . 1 8 . 0
1
=
= = =
n
kN Q k Ø
k
NZS 3603
k=1.25 since nails are through steel side plates < 3.0 mm thickness.
Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry, nails are in single shear and are nailed into the
edge or face of the timber.
kN Q
ØQ
n
n
3 . 6
631 . 0 25 . 1 0 . 1 10 8 . 0
= ∴
× × × × =
Consider design Reaction, N* = 13.8 kN
*
5 . 24
3 . 6 2 . 18
N kN Q
ØQ
T
T
> = ∴
+ =
Proposed Connection
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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Also confirm Characteristic Strength Capacity of Bracket.
N21 Diagonal Cleat, one only
kN ØQ 0 . 20 = Mitek Literature
Pair of MS1430 Split Joist Hangers
kN ØQ 6 . 29 = Mitek Literature
Total capacity of brackets
*
6 . 49 6 . 29 0 . 20 N kN ØQ > = + =
7.0 Girt Design, end wall
Girt Span 6000 mm
Girt Spacing 1660 mm
Propose 240x45 hySPAN for use as end wall girt
7.1 Wind loading
The capacity of solid timber girts is also dependant on the nature of lateral tortional buckling restraint and the
critical edge to which the loading and restraint is provided. It is therefore important to consider both positive and
negative wind pressures.
θ = 0˚, Lateral wind
q
u
=0.84 kPa Case 1 c
p,e
=

0.65, c
p,i
=
+
0.61, k
L
= 1.5, over 6.0 m
Case 2 c
p,e
=

0.65, c
p,i
=
+
0.61, k
L
= 2.0, over 3.0 m
θ = 90˚, Longitudinal wind
q
u
=0.76 kPa Case 1 c
p,e
=
+
0.7, c
p,i
=

0.65, k
L
= 1.25, over 3.0 m
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Calculate design loading
Case 2 is critical by inspection
m kN w
w
m kN w
w
c c k k spacing q w
pi pe l a u
*
i
/ 76 . 1
) 61 . 0 65 . 0 0 . 1 ( 66 . 1 84 . 0
/ 66 . 2
) 61 . 0 65 . 0 0 . 2 ( 66 . 1 84 . 0
) . . .( .
*
2
*
2
*
1
*
1
− = ∴
− × × × =
− = ∴
− × × × =
− =
+ −
+ −
Calculate w
eff
Calculate Reactions
kN R
R
63 . 6
5 . 1 76 . 1 5 . 1 66 . 2
*
*
−
− −
= ∴
× + × =
Calculate Moment
kNm M
M
Wu
Wu
96 . 10
25 . 2 5 . 1 76 . 1
2
5 . 1 66 . 2
0 . 3 63 . 6
*
2
*
−
−
−
−
= ∴
× × −
×
− × =
Calculate w
eff
m kN w
w
eff
eff
/ 44 . 2
0 . 6
8 96 . 10
*
2
*
−
−
= ∴
×
=
Calculate critical reaction and shear
Calculate Reactions
kN R
R
31 . 7
5 . 4 0 . 3 76 . 1
2
0 . 3
66 . 2
0 . 6
1
*
2
*
−
− −
= ∴
× × + × =
Serviceability
Refer Technical Note 82 for Section and Material Properties.
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
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150 0 . 40
10 684 384
6000 62 . 1 5
0 1
. 384
. . 5
/ 62 . 1 44 . 2
45
37
9
4
4
2
2
Span or mm δ
. . δ
EI
l w
. k δ
m kN w
w
w
x
w
s
= ∴
× ×
× ×
=
=
= × 
¹

\

=
−
− −
Strength
Calculate Bending Moment Capacity
n
ØM M ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
Z f k k k k M
b n
. . . . .
8 5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
where:
MPa f k k
k Ø
b
48 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
kNm k ØM
k ØM
n
n
8
3
8
. 7 . 18
10 432 48 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
= ∴
× × × × × × × =
Calculate k
8
Since negative pressures produce a higher moment than positive pressure for this case and continuous restraint
is offered, the tension edge restraint will produce a less stable option, hence we only need to consider capacity for
negative pressure in this case.
Continuous lateral restraint is provided to the tension edge via pierce fixed sheeting.
Calculate S
1
b
d
S . 3
1
= Eq. 3.6 NZS 3603
0 . 16
45
240
3
1
= × = S
Since 25>S
1
>10
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86 . 0
0 . 16
5000
1
0 . 16 0116 . 0 0 . 16 175 . 0 21 . 0
. . .
8
3 2
8
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
+ + + =
−
k
k
S a S a S a a k
*
1 . 16
86 . 0 67 . 18
M kNm ØM
ØM
> =
× = ∴
Calculate Shear Capacity
n
ØV V ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
S s n
A f k k k V . . . .
5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
where:
MPa f k k
k Ø
s
3 . 5 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
2
7200
3
45 240 2
3 / . . 2
mm A
d b A
S
S
=
× ×
= ∴
=
Cl 3.2.3.1 NZS 3603
*
34 . 34
7200 3 . 5 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
V kN V
V
S
S
> = ∴
× × × × = ∴
7.2 Connection design
Propose JH 47x190 to suit 240x45 hySPAN so that the same bracket can be used for both side and end walls (Depth
of bracket is 79.2 % of girt depth so suitable).
Consider 12/Ø3.15x35 FH nails.
Joint Group J5 Table 3, Technical note 82
n
ØQ S ≤
*
Eq. 4.1, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Q . . = Eq. 4.2, NZS 3603
k n
Q k n Ø ØQ . . . =
where:
12
631 . 0 0 . 1 8 . 0
1
=
= = =
n
kN Q k Ø
k
NZS 3603
k=1.25 since nails are through steel side plates < 3.0 mm thickness.
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Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry, nails are in single shear and are nailed into the
edge or face of the timber.
Also confirm Characteristic Strength Capacity of Bracket.
*
0 . 27 N kN ØQ > = Mitek Literature
The 240x45 hySPAN girt to span 6.3 m at maximum 1660 mm spacing is adequate to support the
design load.
* 6 . 7
631 . 0 25 . 1 0 . 1 12 8 . 0
N kN Q
ØQ
n
n
> = ∴
× × × × =
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8.0 Mullion design, end wall
Wind posts may be designed for buildings where smaller frames are used in the end walls. Wind posts would be required
to resist axial loads from the frames as well as horizontal wind loads. A reduced frame was not used in this example as its
analysis is similar to other portal frame components where special attention is paid to the bending moment diagram and
restraint offered by purlins. Additional end wall bracing may also be required to limit the sway achieved by the reduced
section frame.
End wall mullions are typically symmetrical about the ridge line to allow for repetition of detail and order lengths.
Depending on spans and quantities individual calculations of mullion sizes may have cost benefits. In this case given
there are only four mullions per end wall we will design the mullion that has the maximum span.
End wall mullions can be detailed to fix to the inside or outside of the end wall frame. Connection to the outside of the
frame is less complicated because the purlins do not create clashes with proposed mullion locations.
Consider end wall mullion
Mullion Span 8.2 m
Girt Spacing 1660 mm
Propose 400x63 hySPAN for use as end wall mullion.
8.1 Wind loading
Girts provide lateral restraint to the compression edge for positive pressures and to the tension edge for negative
wind pressures. Girt loads have been recalculated excluding local pressure factors.
θ = 0˚, Lateral wind
Girt loading (negative pressure) P
*
= 10.56 kN
θ = 90˚, Longitudinal wind
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Girt loading (positive pressure) P
*
= +10.20 kN
Serviceability
Apply maximum wind pressure for serviceability
147 9 . 55
5
1
1
2
1
3
5
1
5
10 336 13200 192
8200 7140
0 . 1
1
1
2
1
3 .
1
. 192
.
.
5
14 . 7 56 . 10
45
37
2 6
3
2
3
2
2
Span or mm δ
x
x δ
n n
n .
EI
L P
k δ
n
kN P
w
w
w
s
= ∴

¹

\

− − ×
− ×
× ×
×
=

¹

\

− −
− =
=
= ×

¹

\

=
− +
Appendix 1
Strength
Calculate bending moment and shear
Positive wind pressures
( ) ( )
kNm M
n
l P
n M
2 . 50
5 8
2 . 8 20 . 10
1 5
. 8
.
. 1
*
2 2 *
+
+
= ∴
×
×
× − = − =
Negative wind pressures
( ) ( )
kNm M
n
l P
n M
0 . 52
5 8
2 . 8 56 . 10
1 5
. 8
.
. 1
*
2 2 *
−
−
= ∴
×
×
× − = − =
Consider shear and support reaction for wind load
kN V N
P
n V
4 . 26
2
56 . 10
) 1 6 (
2
). 1 (
* *
*
= = ∴
× − = − =
−
Calculate Bending Moment Capacity
Positive Pressure.
Calculate k
8
Compression edge restrained by girts at 1660 mm spacing.
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5 . 0
5 . 0
2
.
1
1 35 . 1
−
=
b
d
b
L
S
ay
Eq. 3.5 NZS 3603
35 . 17 S
1
63
400
63
1660
35 . 1
1
5 . 0
5 . 0
2
1
= ∴
−
= S
Since 25>S
1
>10
80 . 0
35 . 17
5000
1
35 . 17 0116 . 0 35 . 17 175 . 0 21 . 0
. . .
8
3 2
8
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
+ + + =
−
k
k
S a S a S a a k
n
ØM M ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
Z f k k k k M
b n
. . . . .
8 5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
where:
MPa f k k
k Ø
b
48 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
kNm k ØM
k ØM
n
n
8
3
8
. 6 . 72
10 1680 48 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
= ∴
× × × × × × × =
Since k
8
=0.80
*
1 . 58 M kNm ØM > =
Negative Pressure.
Calculate k
8
Tension edge restrained by girts at 1660 mm spacing.
Consider Stability equation for Discrete Restraint to Tension Edge from AS 1720.1.
5 . 0
35 . 1
1


¹

\


¹

\

=
d
L
b
d
S
ay
Eq. 3.2(5) AS 1720.1
69 . 24 S
400
1660
63
400
1
5 . 0 35 . 1
1
= ∴

¹

\


¹

\

= S
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Since 25>S
1
>10
47 . 0
69 . 24
5000
1
69 . 24 0116 . 0 69 . 24 175 . 0 21 . 0
. . .
8
3 2
8
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
+ + + =
−
k
k
S a S a S a a k
From previous:
kNm k ØM
k ØM
n
n
8
3
8
. 58 . 72
10 1680 48 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
= ∴
× × × × × × × =
Since k
8
=0.47
*
11 . 34 M kNm ØM < = Not sufficient
The effect of beam slenderness have reduced the capacity of this section such that it is not suitable to support the
required load. In this type of situation it is an opportunity to select a thicker, lower strength and cost section such
as 400x90 hy90 to replace the 400x63 hySPAN. Whilst hy90 has a lower Characteristic Bending Strength the
additional thickness means that a 63mm hySPAN and 90mm hy90 compare favourably with each other as a direct
strength and stiffness comparison (refer Appendix 2). The fact that the hy90 section in question has a lower depth
to breadth ratio means it is more stable, and hence may be suitable for the end wall mullion.
Try 400x90 hy90 as end wall mullion:
26 . 15 S
400
1660
90
400
1
5 . 0 35 . 1
1
= ∴

¹

\


¹

\

= S
Since 25>S
1
>10
89 . 0
26 . 15
5000
1
26 . 15 0116 . 0 26 . 15 175 . 0 21 . 0
. . .
8
3 2
8
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
+ + + =
−
k
k
S a S a S a a k
For hy90:
MPa f k k
k Ø
b
35 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
So:
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kNm k ØM
k ØM
n
n
8
2
8
. 60 . 75
6
90 400
35 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
= ∴
×
× × × × × × =
Since k
8
=0.89
*
3 . 67 M kNm ØM > =
Calculate Shear Capacity
n
ØV V ≤
*
Eq. 3.3 NZS 3603
S s n
A f k k k V . . . .
5 4 1
= Eq. 3.4 NZS 3603
where:
MPa f k k
k Ø
s
3 . 5 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
Consider reduced section at notch for shear capacity, notch to match 240 deep girt.
2
14400
3
90 240 2
3 / . . 2
mm A
d b A
S
S
=
× ×
= ∴
=
Cl 3.2.3.1 NZS 3603
*
7 . 68
14400 3 . 5 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0
V kN V
V
S
S
> = ∴
× × × × = ∴
Consider notching of mullion top.
The mullion notch to accommodate the rafter needs to be checked. The notch will only fracture due to an opening
moment which would be caused by a positive wind pressure. Since the rafter acts as a support for the mullion the
moment at the notch is zero, however the shear force needs to be considered as per equation 3.7, NZS 3603.
M* = 0 kNm, V* = N* = 26.4 kN
sn s
n
A f k k k k Ø
d
M
V . . . . . . 5 . 1 2 . 1
7 5 4 1
*
*
≤ + Eq. 3.7, NZS 3603
where:
MPa f k k
k Ø
s
3 . 5 0 . 1
0 . 1 9 . 0
5 4
1
= = =
= =
Technical Note 82
It is best practice to always make the notch slope as long as possible to limit the stress concentration at the notch
location.
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Since:
( ) mm a 160 240 400 = − =
d a
mm b
n
. 1 . 0
640 160 4
≥
= × =
25 . 0
7
2 . 2
d
k = Table 3.1 NZS 3603
49 . 0
400
2 . 2
25 . 0
7
= = ∴k
2
14400
3
90 240 2
3 / . . 2
mm A
d b A
S
n sn
=
× ×
= ∴
=
Cl 3.2.6 NZS 3603
kN kN 5 . 50 4 . 26 ≤
8.2 Connection design
Connection to the ground is proposed using Mitek CF2x brackets, similar to the side wall mullion. The
connection to the rafter requires tension capable fixings. One system using proprietary brackets
involves the use of three Mitek concealed purlin cleats (CP80) together with one suitable length
cyclone tie.
Consider system capacity
CT1200 Cyclone Tie, wrapped around mullion with 5 nails per end.
*
0 . 13 kN ØQ = Mitek Literatue
3/ Concealed purlin cleats (CP80), fixed with 8/Ø3.15x30 FH nails and 4/14gx35 type 17 screws per
bracket
kN ØQ 0 . 24 0 . 16 5 . 1 = × = Mitek Literatue
*
0 . 37 0 . 24 0 . 13 N kN ØQ > = + = ∴ Mitek Literatue
Proposed Connection
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9.0 Longitudinal Bracing
Portal Frame action takes care of the lateral loads however Longitudinal Bracing is required to transfer the
longitudinal forces to the ground. For spans up to 20m strap bracing is a cheap and easy way to achieve the
required longitudinal bracing requirements. For spans above 20m the installation time required for strap bracing
can outweigh any advantages of the low costs of materials. Traditional threaded rod may be used for bracing or
timber braces can be developed.
Timber (LVL) braces can be used for loading in tension and compression and can be suitably fixed to purlins and
girts to reduce buckling lengths. Both Mitek and Pryda have proprietary brackets suitable for connection to timber
frames.
Matching bracing points with mullion/wind post loads is theoretically the best option but is nearly always
impractical for larger structures. Essentially the braced bays will act as a truss transferring the loads through the
purlins between braced bays. This can be easily modelled using structural analysis packages.
θ = 90˚, Longitudinal wind
q
u
=0.76 kPa c
p,e (Windward)
=
+
0.7, c
p,e (Leeward)
=

0.3
Calculate design loading
Calculate end wall force
( )
kN P
P
c c A q P
side m Area
Area
b
h h
Area
wall end
wall end
L e p W e p u wall end
ridge eave
3 . 44
) 3 . 0 7 . 0 ( 3 . 58 76 . 0
. .
/ 3 . 58
2
30
.
2
764 . 8 789 . 6
.
2
1
2
.
2
.
2
1
*
_
*
_
) ( , ) ( ,
*
_
2
= ∴
− × × =
− =
=

¹

\
 +
=


¹

\
 +
=
− +
Consider friction due to sheeting profile
0 . 2
0 . 30
0 . 60
7 . 7
79 . 7
0 . 60
= =
= =
b
d
h
d
Cl 5.5 AS/NZS 1170.2:2002
Since both building ratios exceed 4 the friction force acting on the building needs to be resisted.
Calculate Friction Force
Calculate Load Area for friction
) 4 )( 2 ( h d h b Area − + = AS/NZS 1170.2 Eqn. 5.5(a)
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side m Area
Area
/ 6 . 656
)
2
8 . 7 4 60 )( 8 . 7 2 0 . 30 (
2
= ∴
× − × +
=
For large buildings the area may be broken up into its roof and wall contribution to take advantage of the lower
loads to be resisted however for this example the loads do not reach levels where any significant advantage may
be gained.
04 . 0 =
f
c  Ribs across the wind direction AS/NZS 1170.2 Table 5.9
kN P
P
c A q P
friction
friction
f friction u friction
0 . 20
04 . 0 6 . 656 76 . 0
. .
*
*
*
= ∴
× × =
=
Total load to be resisted by bracing per side
kN P
P
P P P
Total
friction
Total
wall end Total
3 . 64
0 . 20 3 . 44
*
*
* * *
_
= ∴
+ =
+ =
For long buildings it is good practice to have a bracing bay each end of the building rather than relying on the
building to transfer all bracing loads from one end to the other, for this example we propose two braced bays.
Therefore the horizontal load to be transferred in each braced bay is 32.15 kN.
Consider Roof Bracing Layout (Wall Bracing similar except tension only)
Calculate force in roof brace
kN
Cos
R
brace
3 . 40
1 . 37
15 . 32
= =
Calculate force in wall brace
kN
Cos
R
brace
2 . 38
6 . 32
15 . 32
= =
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Design for critical load, 40.3 kN
Propose 2/90x45 hyCHORD braces, separated with 7mm plywood strips to form a spaced column.
Calculate Buckling capacity
A f k k N
c ncx
. . .
8 1
= NZS3603 Eq. 3.18
A f k k Ø ØN
c ncx
. . . .
8 1
= ∴
where:
mm A MPa f Ø
c
6300 35 90 2 45 9 . 0 = × × = = = Technical Note 82
6300 45 . 9 . 0
8 1
× × × × = k k ØN
ncx
kN k k ØN
ncx
. . 2 . 255
8 1
× = ∴
Minor axis critical for buckling by inspection
Minor axis buckling YY
Calculate k
8
for buckling about the minor axis YY
mm
Sin
L
Sin
spacing Purlin
L
ay
ay
2652
1 . 37
1600
_
= = ∴
=
α
This component is considered to be a spaced column. Clause E4 of AS1720.1 details stability equations for spaced
columns. This procedure can be used to determine the slenderness coefficient for this member.
I
A
L g g S . . . 3 . 0
28 13 5
= Eq. E4(5) AS1720.1
where:
g
13
=1.0 Table 3.2 AS1720.1
g
28
=1.0 Table E5 AS1720.1
A=2x90x35=6300 mm
2
( )
4 3
3 3
10 421 . 3
12
90
7 77
mm I
I
yy
yy
× = ∴
× − =
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15 . 34
10 421 . 3
6300
2652 0 . 1 0 . 1 3 . 0
5
3
5
= ∴
×
× × × × = ∴
S
S
Since S
5
>25
25 . 0
15 . 34 5 . 235
.
8
937 . 1
8
5 8
6
= ∴
× =
=
−
k
k
S a k
a
Eq. 3.18 NZS3603
Since k
1
= 1.0
*
37 . 64
c ncx
N kN ØN > = ∴
Consider connection, propose proprietary Mitek B145 bracket system
Consider 2/M16 Bolts
For three member system
mm b
e
70 35 2 = × = Table 4.9 NZS3603
kl skl
Q Q . 2 = Table 4.9 NZS3603
Since load is parallel to the grain
) . . 5 . 0 , . . min(
2
11 a cj e a cj kl
d f b d f k Q × = Cl 4.4.2(a)(i) NZS3603
Apply joint group J3 for bolts parallel to the grain Technical Note 82
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kN Q
Q
Q
kl
kl
kl
14 . 23
) 31 . 25 , 14 . 23 min(
) 0 . 16 2 . 45 70 5 . 0 , 0 . 16 2 . 45 0 . 2 min(
2
= ∴
= ∴
× × × × × = ∴
Calculate Bolt system capacity
n
ØQ N ≤
*
Eq. 4.16 NZS3603
sk n
Q k k k n Q . . . .
13 12 1
= Eq. 4.17 NZS3603
k n
Q k k k n Ø ØQ . . . . .
13 12 1
=
where:
0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1
28 . 46 14 . 23 2 2 7 . 0
13 12 1
= = =
= × = = =
k k k
kN Q n Ø
sk
Therefore:
*
8 . 64
28 . 46 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 2 7 . 0
N kN ØQ
ØQ
n
n
> = ∴
× × × × × =
Consider bracket bolts in tension
n
ØQ N ≤
*
Eq. 4.18 NZS3603
w pj n
A f Q . = Eq. 4.19 NZS3603
w pj n
A f n Ø ØQ . . . =
where:
2
2
7 . 3206
18 65 65
5 . 14 2 7 . 0
mm A
A
MPa f n Ø
w
w
pj
= ∴
× − × =
= = =
π NZS 3603
Therefore:
*
1 . 65
7 . 3206 5 . 14 2 7 . 0
N kN ØQ
ØQ
n
n
> = ∴
× × × =
Check colt capacity for fin plate connection to cleat.
Propose M16 G8.8 bolt, including threads ØV = 59.3 kN > N*
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Consider Wall Bracing Connection
9.1 Purlins subject to axial loads
Purlins in end bays may be subjected to tension and compression forces from braced bays. These
forces need to be considered in the design capacity. The load to be transferred through the purlin
system in both tension and compression is relative to the force in the brace. This force can be
calculated as a designer would for a steel building.
Critical Design Actions
Critical load case  0.9G+Wu (from section 2)
M* = 28.8 kNm N
c
* = N
t
* = 9.64 kN ØM = 29.4 kNm
Consider column action of purlins subject to axial force due to bracing loads.
Major axis buckling XX
A f k k N
c ncx
. . .
8 1
= Eq. 3.18 NZS3603
A f k k Ø ØN
c ncx
. . . .
8 1
= ∴
Take only the flange area into account. Remember to include for the penetration of the web into the flange.
Technical Note 82 includes guidance on the calculation of hyJOIST section properties.
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where:
MPa f Ø
c
45 9 . 0 = =
( )

¹

\
 −
− =
2
.
. . 2
w r
f
h h t
h B A
( )
2
6210
2
288 318 9
36 90 . 2 mm A =

¹

\
 − ×
− × =
N EA
6
10 97 . 81 6210 13200 × = × =
6210 45 . 9 . 0
8 1
× × × × = k k ØN
ncx
kN k k ØN
ncx
. . . 50 . 251
8 1
= ∴
Calculate k
8
for buckling about the major axis
L=L
ax
=9910 mm (Purlin length)
( )
5 . 0
3
823 . 0
=
E
P
EA
S Eq. D2 NZS3603
( )
5 . 0
6
3
5 . 0
6
3
10 46 . 67
10 97 . 81 823 . 0
×
= ∴
×
=
E
E
P
S
P
S
Calculate Euler buckling load.
( )
N P
P
L
EI
P
E
E
E
y
E
235150
9910
10 2338
2
9 2
2
2
= ∴
× ×
=
=
π
π
Calculate S
3
93 . 16
235150
10 46 . 67
5 . 0
6
3
=
×
= ∴S
Since 25>S
1
>10a
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82 . 0
93 . 16
5000
1
93 . 16 0116 . 0 93 . 16 175 . 0 21 . 0
. . .
8
3 2
8
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
+ + + =
−
k
k
S a S a S a a k
Since k
1
= 1.0
*
8 . 205
c ncx
N kN ØN > = ∴
Minor axis buckling YY
From previous:
kN k k ØN
ncx
. . . 5 . 251
8 1
= ∴
Calculate k
8
for buckling about the minor axis YY
L
ay
=3303 mm (lateral restraint spacing)
Calculate Euler buckling load. Design assumes that top edge of purlin is continuously restrained by
roof sheeting and bottom flange is effectively restrained by lateral restraint.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) EA
EI
EA
EI
y y y
GJ y
d
L
EI
P
y
e o o
o
ay
y
E
+ + +
+
+
=
×
. 2
4
2
2
2
π
Eq. D3 NZS3603
( )
( ) ( )
N P
P
E
E
127582
10 97 . 81
10 7 . 57
10 97 . 81
10 2338
0 2 180 180
10 1848 180
4
360
2478
10 7 . 57
6
9
6
9
6 2
2
2
9
= ∴
×
×
+
×
×
+ × +
× +
+
× ×
=
π
Calculate S
3
99 . 22
127582
10 46 . 67
5 . 0
6
3
=
×
= ∴S
Since 25>S
1
>10
53 . 0
99 . 22
5000
1
99 . 22 0116 . 0 99 . 22 175 . 0 21 . 0
. . .
8
3 2
8
3
4
2
3 2 1 8
= ∴
× + × + × + =
+ + + =
−
k
k
S a S a S a a k
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
For: Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Page: 89 / 92
At: Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand Designed : C.R
Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008
Since k
1
= 1.0
*
3 . 133
c ncy
N kN ØN > = ∴
Combined actions
0 . 1 02 . 1
8 . 205
6 . 9
4 . 29
8 . 28
≤ =

¹

\

+

¹

\

Eq. 3.23 NZS3603
0 . 1 03 . 1
3 . 133
6 . 9
4 . 29
8 . 28
2
≤ =

¹

\

+

¹

\

Eq. 3.24 NZS3603
Note that the combined actions are 3 % over, however both axial and bending moment capacities are based on the
flange area of the hyJOIST, although listed at 36 mm the hyJOIST flanges have a minimum thickness of 38 mm,
therefore increasing the capacity by 3 %.
Consider tension strength
nt t
N Ø N .
*
≤ Eq. 3.20 NZS 3603
A f k k N
t nt
. . .
4 1
= Eq. 3.21 NZS 3603
A f k k Ø ØN
t nt
. . . .
4 1
= ∴
Since the section depth of the individual components is less then 150, size effect factor k11 can be ignored.
where:
0 . 1 33 9 . 0
4
= = = k MPa f Ø
t
Technical Note 82
0 . 1
1
= k
6210 33 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0 × × × × =
nt
ØN
kN ØN
nt
44 . 184 = ∴
Combined actions
0 . 1 03 . 1
4 . 184
6 . 9
4 . 29
8 . 28
≤ = 
¹

\

+ 
¹

\

Eq. 3.25 NZS 3603
Note that the combined actions are 3 % over, however both axial and bending moment capacities are based on the
flange area of the hyJOIST, although listed at 36 mm the hyJOIST flanges have a minimum thickness of 38 mm,
therefore increasing the capacity by 3 %.
The HJ360 90 hyJOIST are suitable for the imposed combined actions from longitudinal winds wind
loads and bracing.
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
For: Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Page: 90 / 92
At: Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand Designed : C.R
Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008
10.0 References
1. CHH Woodproducts New Zealand, Technical Note 820704, Limit States Design Information for
Specific Engineering Design for New Zealand Construction.
2. CHH Woodproducts New Zealand, Engineering Bulletin No. 2 –Rigid Moment Connections
using CHH veneer based products.
3. Batchelor, M.L. (1984), Improved Plywood Gussets for Timber Portal Frames, Proceedings of
the Pacific Timber Engineering Conference, Auckland 1984, Paper No. 185B.
4. Hutchings B.F (1989), Moment Joist Design, Design, Construct and Detailing in Timber
Conference, 1517 May, 1992, Timber Development Association (NSW) Ltd.
5. Hutchings B.F and Bier H (2000), Timber Engineering Design Made More Accessible,
www.chhwoodproducts.co.nz/engineerszone
6. Milner H.R (1987), The Design and Construction of Timber Portal Frames, Chisolm Institute of
Technology
7. Milner H.P and Crozier D.A (2000), Structural Design of Timber Portal Frame Buildings,
Engineers Australia Pty Ltd.
8. National Association of Forest Industries, Timber Datafile SS1, Timber Portal Frames, National
Association of Forest Industries
9. Standards Australia, AS 1720.11997 Timber Structures, Part 1: Design methods
10. Standards New Zealand, NZS 3603:1993 Timber structures standard
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
For: Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Page: 91 / 92
At: Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand Designed : C.R
Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008
Appendix 1  Mullion deflection, bending and shear equations
The following design action equations have been provided from commonly available equations for a series of
evenly spaced point loads as idealised for a mullion in service.
Due to the nature of loading of mullions ‘n’ in the equations is the number of girts supported by the mullion. It
is assumed that the loads applied by girts at each location are equal.
Where n is odd:

¹

\

− −
− = ∂
2
3
1
1
2
1
3 .
1
. 192
.
n n
n
EI
L P
( )
n
L P n
M
. 8
. . 1
2
max
−
=
2
.
*
P n
R =
Where n is even:

¹

\

+ − = ∂
2
3
4
1
2
1
3 . .
. 192
.
n
n
EI
L P
8
.
.
max
L P
n M =
2
.
*
P n
R =
Note: The reaction equation differs slightly from the conventional reaction equation for a series of point loads
supported by a simply supported beam. This is to take into account the fact that a girt is located at the base
of the mullion.
Project: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Date: Sept. ‘08
For: Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Page: 92 / 92
At: Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand Designed : C.R
Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008
Appendix 2 – 90mm thick hy90 compared with 63mm thick hySPAN
The following serviceability and strength (bending moment) comparisons between a 63 mm hySPAN section
and a 90mm thick hy90 have been provided to illustrate the relative similarities between the sections. The
Characteristic Properties have been taken from “Limit States Design Information” Technical Note 820704.
Serviceability Strength
hySPAN hy
hySPAN
hy
EI EI
D
D
EI
D
D
EI
D B
E EI
> ∴
= =
= =
=
90
3
3
3
3
90
3
. 69300
12
. 63
. 13200
. 71250
12
. 90
. 9500
12
.
.
hySPAN hy
hySPAN
hy
b
ØM ØM
D
D
k Ø ØM
D
D
k Ø ØM
D B
f k Ø ØM
> ∴
= =
= =
=
−
−
−
90
2
2
8 1
2
2
8 1 90
2
8 1
. 504
6
. 63
. 48 . .
. 525
6
. 90
. 35 . .
6
.
. .
As can be seen above, in both serviceability and strength limit states, an equivalent depth 90mm thick hy90
exhibits structural properties exceeding those of a 63mm hySPAN. Please note that these comparisons do not
take into account the effects of lateral stability.
Project: For: At:
30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand
Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 2 / 92 Designed : C.R
Table of Contents 1.0 2.0 Introduction Purlin design 2.1 Dead Load 2.2 Live load 2.3 Wind load 2.4 Proposed Purlin Layout 2.5 Connection Design 2.6 Lateral restraint design 2.7 Purlins supporting axial loading Portal frame design 3.1 Proposed Portal Frame 3.2 Serviceability 3.3 Strength 3.4 Design Actions 3.5 Rafter Design 3.5.1 Combined bending and compression 3.5.2 Combined bending and tension 3.5.3 Flybrace design 3.6 Column Design 3.6.1 Combined bending and compression 3.6.2 Combined bending and tension 3.6.3 Flybrace design 3.7 Gusset Design 3.7.1 Knee Gusset Design 3.7.2 Ridge Gusset Design 3.7.3 Nail Ring Design 3.7.3.1 Knee Nail Ring Design 3.7.3.2 Ridge Nail Ring Design 3.8 Column to Footing Design Girt Design, Side Wall 4.1 Wind Loading 4.2 Connection Design Mullion Design, Side Wall Wind Loading 5.1 5.2 Connection Design Eaves Beam Design 6.1 Wind Loading 6.2 Connection Design Girt Design, End Wall
September 2008
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
Carter Holt Harvey Limited
Project: For: At:
30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand
Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 3 / 92 Designed : C.R
8.0
7.1 Wind Loading 7.2 Connection Design Mullion Design, End Wall 8.1 Wind Loading 8.2 Connection Design Longitudinal Bracing Design Bibliography
9.0 10.0
Appendix 1  Mullion deflection, bending and shear equations Appendix 2  90mm thick hy90 compared with 63mm thick hySPAN
Published by:
CHH Woodproducts New Zealand September 2008 : Free call Free fax 0800 808 131 0800 808 132
Enquires
Web
:
www.chhwoodproducts.co.nz/engineerszone
September 2008
Carter Holt Harvey Limited
Limit States Design Information for Specific Engineering Design for New Zealand Construction. ‘08 Page: 4 / 92 Designed : C. New Zealand Date: Sept. Other Referenced Design Documents: • Technical Note 820704 . consisting of 6 x 10.0 m in one end and one side wall Pierce fixed sheeting of weight 6. v500 = 45 m/s. Part 1: Permanent. v20 = 37 m/s 3 as per AS/NZS 1170.0 m 60. • Mitek Specifiers’ and Users’ Manual.0 m 6. Part 2: Wind actions • NZS 3603:1993 Timber structures standard • AS 1720. The design example has been prepared assuming the building is proposed for Auckland. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .0 m.0 m bays 6. imposed and other actions • AS/NZS 1170.11997 Timber structures. Auckland.1:2002 Structural design actions.0 Introduction This design example has been provided as an aid to engineers in the development of design solutions for LVL and Ibeam portal frame systems.2:2002 Structural design actions.0 x 6.0 kg/m2 A6. Part 0: General principles • AS/NZS 1170. is within an Industrial Estate. Part 1:Design Methods Note: Snow and Earthquake loading have been ignored due to location. The development of loading and the design of footings are not covered as part of this example as their nature is not specific to timber.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.R 1.2:2002 This example has been based on relevant current design standards as detailed below: • AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 Structural design actions. and is subject to the following site information: Building Span Building length Building Clear Height Dominant openings Cladding Region Terrain Category Directional Multipliers 30.
2 Live load Live load of 0.2.GAw ∴ δG = 20.0 Purlin Design Purlin Span Purlin Spacing 10.6 = 0.0 m whilst hySPAN or MSG pine pulins remain cost effective for spans less than 6. LVL products are considered dry at the time of supply and can be assumed to have a moisture content less than 18%.25 kPa applied in accordance AS/NZS 1170.00090 = 9910 mm 1600 mm (max.) Propose HJ360 90 hyJOIST for use as purlin Typically a hyJOIST purlin roof system becomes cost effective at spans above 6.5.17 kN/m g w* = g Serviceability Deflection of timber ibeams requires the consideration of shear deflection as well as bending deflection.0 × 1. For long term deflection of industrial purlins span/300 or 30.39 × 10 384.0 kg/m2 7.R 2.0 mm are deemed acceptable. New Zealand Date: Sept.81 + self_weight 1000 ∴ w* = 0.1:2002 Table 3. Refer Technical Note 82 for Section and Material Properties. w* = 0. 2.EI x 8. The k2 factor is applied to elastic deflections. Table 2.17 × 9910 4 w.l 4 5 × 0. 2. NZS 3603:1993 demonstrates the relationship between duration of load and creep. Timber components subjected to long term loads such as dead load require the consideration of creep effects.0 kg/m2 plus a miscellaneous load of 1. δT = k2(δbending + δshear ) 5.0 m.0mm or Span 495 Serviceability limits for timber purlins are the same as those applied to other building products.17 × 99102 δ = k2 + = 2.0.l 2 0.25 × 1.w.6 × 9. Additional guidance on the calculation of shear deflection can be found in many Timber Design texts and is briefly discussed in Technical Note 82. Auckland.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. ‘08 Page: 5 / 92 Designed : C.40kN / m g Serviceability Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .1 Dead load Assume roof sheeting mass of 6. + 9 6 384 × 2338 × 10 8 × 2.
f t .5 × 0.9 2 = 8 8 = 9.2G +1.5Q = * ∴ M 1. Auckland.2G +1. combined dead and live load design actions will always be more critical for design than permanent loads where low roof masses (less than 20 kg/m2) are applied.2 × 0.5Q = 0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.9 k1 = 0. A f . * w1.80 × 9.5mm or Span 421 Strength Based on respective k1 and load combination factors.80kN / m * M 1.73 ØM bx = Ø.D1 × 10 −6 kNm where: Refer Technical Note 82 Ø = 0. Further guidance on the bending moment capacities of Ibeams may be found in Technical note 82.40 × 99104 0.2G +1. Purlin design assumes the use of pierce fixed roof sheeting providing continuous lateral restraint to the top flange of the purlin.2G +1.5Q w. New Zealand Date: Sept.39 × 10 ∴ δG = 23. The restraint offered to the compression flange is instrumental in the capacity of the Ibeam.5Q = 1.80 AF = 90 × 36 − 2 f t = 33MPa (318 − 288) × 12 2 ∴ AF = 3060mm D1 = 360 − 36 = 324mm ØM bx = 0.9 × 0.17 + 1.k1 .8kNm Check Bending Capacity The bending capacity of an Ibeam is based on the critical flange stresses due to bending. ‘08 Page: 6 / 92 Designed : C. Since compression edge is fully restrained k8=1.40 × 99102 δQ = 1.8 × 33 × 3060 × 324 × 10−6 kNm ∴ ØM bx = 23.0. So for bending about XX axis Since k8>0. For composite timber Ibeams the bending moment capacity can be based on a lever arm action about the centroid of the flanges with one flange in tension and the other in compression for a single span application.l 2 0. + 9 6 384 × 2338 × 10 8 × 2.6kNm > M * Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .0.R 5 × 0.40 * ∴ w1.
02 × 2.000 ∴ R* = − 11. New Zealand Date: Sept.0kN From table 14.R Check Shear Capacity * v1.63 × 3.0 2 * ∴ M Wu = − 30.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.80 × 9.84 × 4.5 ×− 0.0 × 1.955 − − 2.9 2 − + 30.9 2 = 4.2b.0 2 − M = 11.67 8 = −28.8 × 12.9 − + 0.3 Wind loading θ = 0˚.kl . ‘08 Page: 7 / 92 Designed : C.spacing .84 × 1.6 = 0.7 kNm * Wu − * M 0.61) * ∴ w1 = −2.2d.02kN / m Calculate weff Calculate Reactions R* = − 2.6 ∴ ØV = 10.9G +Wu = 0.12. h) = 6. Lateral wind critical (by inspection) a = min(0.17 × 9.9G +Wu − 0.9 − + 0. 0.84kN Calculate Moment 2.2G +1.61) * ∴ w2 = −2.6 × (1.0 ×− 0.63kN / m * w2 = 0.84 × 1.c pe − c pi ) * w1 = 0.5Q = * ∴ v1.9 × * ∴ M 0. Auckland.955+ − 2.0m wi* = qu .2G +1.6 × (1.0 × 1.5Q 0.1kN > v * 2.0 × 4. Technical note 82 ØV = k1 .(ka .8kNm September 2008 Carter Holt Harvey Limited .63 × 3.02 × 1.
35kN / m Serviceability To obtain the serviceability wind load the ultimate uniform loads can be factored by the square of the ratio serviceability wind speed to ultimate wind speed.y where: 0. C1. use Appendix C of NZS3603:1993 for stability calculations. NZS 3603 EI x = 2338 × 109 Nmm 4 ME = ? Carter Holt Harvey Limited y = 360 / 2 = 180mm Technical Note 82 September 2008 . ‘08 Page: 8 / 92 Designed : C.50kN / m * weff = − For uplift * w0. New Zealand Date: Sept.9 2 * ∴ weff = − 2.R Calculate weff 30.9G +Wu = 0.9G +Wu = − 2. 9 8 × 2.39 × ×10 6 384 × 2338 × 10 ∴ δ w = 99.69 × 9910 2 + δ w = 1.50 * ∴ w0.17 − 2.5 Eq.0.69kN / m 45 5× − 1.69 × 9910 4 − 1.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.1.1. v ws = s v u × ws 2 2 37 ws = × − 2. Auckland.EI x S1 = M E . Check Capacity Calculate S1 1. On the basis of applied local pressure factors and the instantaneous nature of the wind gust span/100 is deemed acceptable.67 × 8 9 . Strength Since the tension flange is fully restrained under uplift actions and the hyJOIST purlin is a composite section.9 × 0.0mm or Span 100 The acceptance of serviceability is at the engineer’s discretion.50= − 1.
NZS 3603 where: yo = 360 / 2 = 180mm yh = −360 / 2 = −180mm D = 360mm 2 EI y = 57. New Zealand Date: Sept. × 2338 × 109 ⇒ S1 = 6 43.k1 .73 1 × 18. f t .5 Calculate k8 Since 25>S>10 k8 = a1 + a2 .1+ − 0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.S 3 k8 = 0.0 AF = 3060mm D1 = 324mm Carter Holt Harvey Limited f t = 33MPa 2 September 2008 .7 kNm ( 9 ) ( ) 1. Calculate Euler Buckling Moment 2 (EI y ) D + yo2 π + GJ 4 Lay ME = (2.76 Since k8>0.7 × 10 Nmm 9 GJ = 1848 × 106 Nmm 2 (Restraint at quarter points) 2 Lay = 9910 / 4 = 2478mm 3602 π 6 57.D1 × 10 −6 kNm where: Refer Technical Note 82 Ø = 0.0116 × 18.7 × 10 × 180 ∴ S1 = 18.12 + ∴ k8 = 0.R Eqn.7 × 10 + 180 2 + 1848 × 10 4 2478 ME = 2 × 180+ − 180 ∴ M E = 43. Auckland. A suitably designed lateral restraint system provides intermediate buckling restraint to the purlins. C7.21 + 0.1.9 k1 = 1. A f . C7 may be employed due to the continuous restraint offered to the tension flange by the pierce fixed sheeting.175 × 18. ‘08 Page: 9 / 92 Designed : C. yo + yh ) 2 Eq.1 0.S + a3 .S 2 + a4 .13 5000 ØM bx = Ø.
6 × (1.9.48 × 6. ie.9 × 1.9 G +Wu 1 6 .k1 .0 ×− 0. Auckland.09kN / m * w2 = 0.9 9 .0 ×− 0.84 × 1.9 = 4.09 × 3.0 × 1.kl . ØM bx = Ø.c pe − c pi ) + 0.5 ×− 0. f c .9G +Wu = −11.84 × 1.17 * ∴ w1 = −3.0kN 2 September 2008 Carter Holt Harvey Limited .9G +Wu = 1 3 .9 2 − 1.0 × 1.6 × (1.9 × 0.9 2 * ∴ R0.88kN / m R * 0.61) + 0.9 2 * ∴ R0.2kN Calculate dead & live load combined actions R* = 0 .0 × 6.0 × 2 ×− 0.wg i * w1 = 0.D1 × 10 −6 kNm Calculate shear and support reaction for wind load.9 × 0.61) + 0. New Zealand Date: Sept. Considering local pressure factors Case 1 w* = qu .0 × 8.9 × 0.9 − + 0.88 × 9 .84 × 1.4 − 1. ‘08 Page: 10 / 92 Designed : C.88 × + −2.17 * ∴ w1 = −2.R ØM bx = 0.(ka .0 × 33 × 3060 × 324 × 10−6 kNm ∴ ØM bx = 29.61) + 0.9 2 = + −3.48kN / m * w2 = 0.k 8 .73 the moment capacity becomes a function of the compression flange buckling rather than the tension flange being critical.4kNm > M * Note: Where k8 < 0.9 − + 0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.17 * ∴ w2 = −1. The moment capacity equation is altered to represent this where the characteristic tension stress is replaced by the product of the stability factor k8 and the characteristic compression stress.84 × 1.0 × 1.wg i * w1 = 0.9 × 0.6 × (1.61) + 0.spacing .6 × (1. A f .c pe − c pi ) + 0.17 * ∴ w2 = −1.9 − + 0.9.spacing .9 − + 0.8 × 9 .(ka .kl .9G +Wu = −12.81kN Case 2 w* = qu .88kN / m * R0.
brackets and labour involved can make this an expensive alternative. Technical note 82 Therefore the HJ360 63 hyJOIST is suitable for use as a purlin based on the implied loading at a spacing not exceeding 1600 mm 2.0 0 .5 Connection design Connection of hyJOIST purlins to LVL rafters needs to ensure that the structural integrity of both the hyJOIST purlin and the hySPAN rafter are maintained.0 × 12.2 4. Packing out the web and using proprietary joist hangers can also provide a suitable connection however the cost of the packing.0 = max . One method of assessing the critical design load is to remove the duration of load factor. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . Connection to the hyJOIST by nailing through the plywood web provides the most cost effective method of connection for purlins typically subject to high wind loads (please note this type of connection is not recommended for ibeams subject to high permanent and/or live loads).8 * Rmax ∴ = −12. Auckland. New Zealand Date: Sept.4 Proposed Purlin Layout 2. k1 1 . from the capacity equation and divide the load action effect by k1.6kN > v* Table 14.6 ∴ ØV = 12. Nailing through plywood allows for nailing close to the end/edge of the plywood.R Timber capacity is dependant on the duration of the load in question.2kN k1 Check shear capacity Since k1 was taken into account in the calculation of design action.12. apply k1=1. this must be taken into account in the determination of the critical load case. * RMax − 12.k1.0 ØV = k1.6 = 1. ‘08 Page: 11 / 92 Designed : C.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.
R Purlin connection blocks. Note: The selection of a suitable purlin connection block needs to take into account the end and edge distances of the fasteners as well as the spacing along and across the grain.87 FH nails Joint Group J5 Table 3. New Zealand Date: Sept.Q k ØQn = Ø. Technical note 82 Eq.87 FH nails. NZS 3603 NZS 3603 S * ≤ ØQk Qn = n. k=1.Qk ØQn = Ø.3 for 50 nails and 1.n.1. Technical Note 82 ØVps=12. A purlin connection block is proposed for connection using Ø2.1 × 0. The use of 4 xbanded connection block reduces the tendency of the long band to split.526kN k=1.k1 12.0 = 0. nails are in single shear and are nailed into the edge or face of the timber.6.0 Qk = 0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.k .4 Say 20/50xØ2. have been used in a number of design situations for connection of C or I beam purlins where the connection block is either screwed or nailed to the rafter and the web of the composite purlin is connected directly to the connection block.4 since nails are through plywood with flat head nails.k .8 k1 = 1.6 × 1. Auckland.6. or seating blocks as they are sometimes called. nailed through plywood web into purlin connection block Calculate minimum number of 14g type 17 Hex Head screws Type 17 screws are preferred for timber connection as they are a self drilling screws through the timber. Eq.2(g) NZS 3603 NZS 3603 Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry. The orientation of the connection block is important where the plywood web is fixed to the face of the connection block.8 × n × 1. Joint Group J4 Table 3. Eq.0 for 4 nails) Cl. 4.87 diameter nails through the plywood web and 14g type 17 screws through the connection block to the rafter. allowing for the spacing of fasteners into the face to be similar along the grain to across the grain.2. 4.5. From Table 14. ØVps of the purlin.n. 4.Qk Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .k .2.Qk where: Ø = 0. Calculate minimum number of Ø2. ‘08 Page: 12 / 92 Designed : C.0 × 1.1 since we are proposing 20 nails per connection (linear interpolation between 1. Technical note 82 Eq. 4.526 ∴ n = 19.4 × 1. 4. Target the connection for design shear capacity.k .2. NZS 3603 NZS 3603 S * ≤ ØQn Qn = n.
From Table 14. New Zealand Date: Sept. screwed through the purlin connection block into the rafter.k1 12.8 is applied as Type 17 screws are as reliable as nails in service.R where: Ø = 0.6 Lateral restraint design The lateral restraint system needs to prevent the top and bottom flange of the hyJOIST purlin from moving independently of each other. Many systems are appropriate but may require the fabrication of special components.8 * k1 = 1.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. One of the most effective systems is to use hyJOIST pieces together with a hyCHORD bottom flange restraint and continuous mild steel galvanised strap over the top. Proposed Purlin Connection 2. Auckland.0 × 3.303 ∴ n = 4.6 × 1. ‘08 Page: 13 / 92 Designed : C.0 = 0.6.8 × n × 1.76 Say 5/100x14g type 17 Hex Head screws.303kN NZS 3603 Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry. *Ø=0. technical note 82 ØVps=12. screws are in single shear and are screwed into the edge or face of the timber. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .0 Qk = 3. as shown below.
k1. 3. A ∴ ØN ncy = Ø. Consider column action Since Lay=1600 mm and Lax=1600 mm (defined by purlin spacing) * N c ≤ ØN ncx and N c* ≤ ØN ncy Minor axis buckling is critical by inspection Eq.9 × k1 × k 8 × 45 × 4050 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .0 × 0. NZS 3603 Ø = 0.k34 .79 × 106 360(3 + 1) Typically a 45 mm thick section is recommended to allow for a 75mm long screw through both the lateral restraint and into the flange of the hyJOIST.5 = 5 2 2 M A = 28.k8 .79kNm d = 360mm nr = 3 FA = 1. New Zealand Date: Sept. NZS 3603 N ncy = k1. A where: Eq.9 f c = 45MPa A = 90 × 45 = 4050mm 2 ØN ncx = 0. B9.0kN 0.4 (Wind loading) m +1 22 + 1 k35 = min . NZS 3603 k33 = 1. f c . Auckland.05M A d (nr + 1) Eq.5 = min .0kN Check capacity of lateral restraint – propose 90x45 hyCHORD * N c = N t* = 2. ‘08 Page: 14 / 92 Designed : C. 3. where: * 0.17.k35 .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.05 × 28.4 × 5 × ∴ FA = 2.k8 . f c .0 k34 = 0.19. Using hyCHORD for the lateral restraint is a good choice given its high strength and lower cost.R Calculate force on lateral restraint FA = k33 .
3.S a6 k8 = 235.0 × 33 × 4050 ∴ ØN nt = 120.0 Technical Note 82 A = 90 × 45 = 4050mm 2 k1 = 1.k4 .k 8 . ‘08 Page: 15 / 92 Designed : C.L b or Lay b whichever is less Eq.k1.0 ∴ ØN ncx = 38.21 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 Ø = 0 . 3.0 × 1.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.9 × 1.k4 . f t .0 ØN nt = 0.9 f t = 33MPa k4 = 1.5 × 35.3kN > N c* Consider tension strength N t* ≤ Ø.R ∴ ØN ncx = 164.3kN Consider connection between purlins and lateral restraint Use screws for increased withdrawal capacity for practical purposes Calculate minimum number of 14g type 17 Hex Head screws Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . New Zealand Date: Sept.0. A where: Eq.k1 .15.6 S3 = Since 25>S3>10 k8 = a5 . Auckland. NZS 3603 1600 45 ∴ S3 = 35.23 Since k1 = 1. 3.20 Eq.937 ∴ k8 = 0.kN Calculate k8 for buckling about the minor axis S3 = k10 .6 −1.N nt N nt = k1. f t . A ∴ ØN nt = Ø.
68 × 3.68 7 ∴ Qk = 0.76 Calculate reduction from capacity relating to 7 da Reduction factor = Cl.0.2(e). ‘08 Page: 16 / 92 Designed : C. Technical note 82 Eq.11 Say 2/75x14g type 17 Hex Head screws.7 Purlins subject to axial loads Purlins in end bays may be subjected to tension and compression forces from braced bays. New Zealand J4 Date: Sept.8 * k1 = 1. screws are in single shear and are screwed into the edge or face of the timber.0 Qk = 3. Auckland.303 = 2247 N So: 2.0 × 1. NZS 3603 NZS 3603 Joint Group S * ≤ ØQn Qn = n. 4.247 ∴ n = 1.n. *Ø=0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.0 × 2.k . Eq.5. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .3.8 is applied as Type 17 screws are as reliable as nails in service. Consider Qk reduction due to the penetration into the receiving member (Purlin/blocking) Penetration = 7545 = 30 mm Since da = 6. 4.8 × n × 1. 2. These forces need to be considered in the design capacity. Longitudinal bracing.3 mm Therefore portion of diameter in penetration = 4. screwed through the purlin connection block into the rafter.Qk ØQn = Ø.k . 4.303kN NZS 3603 Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry.Qk where: Ø = 0.6.0 = 0.5. Refer to section 9. NZS 3603 4. NZS 3603 Table 4.R Table 3.76 = 0.
7 mm or 13.R 3. live and earthquake loads may be calculated by applying a duration of load factor of 1.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.2 Serviceability Serviceability design limits for timber and steel buildings are very similar where the consideration of cladding and absolute clearances need to be taken into account in the relative stiffness of the frame.0 1.6 mm or span/216 span/390 span/268 span/450 28.6 mm or height/668 134.5 mm or 64.0 1. 3.5 mm or span/385 9.0 1. ‘08 Page: 17 / 92 Designed : C.4 mm or 15.1 Proposed Portal Frame Refer Technical Note 82 for Material Properties. 3.5 mm or 108. For long term loads the effects of creep need to be taken into account.0 Deflection Vertical Horizontal 96. NZS 3603 Table 2 defines k2 as 2.5 mm or 8.1 mm or height/225 height/408 height/475 height/792 September 2008 . The additional stiffness provided by the knee and ridge gussets is generally ignored in analysis. For solid timber a five percent allowance for shear deflection is included in the average modulus of elasticity which removes any need for the separate consideration of shear deflection.2 mm or span/302 16. New Zealand Date: Sept.0 1. hence using the elastic deflection directly from analysis packages. Serviceability – 900x90 hySPAN portal frame Load Case Dead load* Live load Wind loading Lateral wind1 Lateral wind2 Longitudinal wind1 Longitudinal wind2 Carter Holt Harvey Limited k2 2. Short term duration of loading for wind. Elastic structural analysis of a timber portal frame differs little from that applied to steel members except for the different section and material properties. One of the most efficient methods of providing rigid connections is via use of nailed plywood gussets.7 mm or 74.0 1.0 Portal Frame Design The following portal frame has been analysed using elastic structural analysis with Microstran.0 for loading of twelve months or more where the moisture content is less than 18%. Auckland. To achieve portal frame action rigid connections need to be made at both the ridge and eave.2 mm or height/396 75.
hence affecting the determination of critical load case.0 293.0 271.1 101.0 113.4 67. other actions have been dismissed by inspection. New Zealand Date: Sept.3 79. As with steel portal frames the bending moment diagram should also be taken into account together with the lateral and torsional restraint offered by purlins.0 kN 240.0 307.5 55. 3.Lat Carter Holt Harvey Limited Column N* kN 84.0 276. The point of contraflexure is within close proximity for each case meaning that the critical load case can be determined by inspection.0 .0 Rafter N* kN 60.4 62. Location A – Rafter design actions at knee Location B – Column design actions Location C – Knee gusset design actions Location D – Gusset to rafter at knee connection actions Location E – Gusset to column connection actions Location F – Ridge gusset design actions Location G – Ridge gusset to rafter design actions A further check along the rafter is require where the critical design actions may not to be at the gusseted location and should be taken as the maximum along the rafter.3 M* kN 268.3 Strength The selection of design moments is important in the design of timber portal frames. Hutchings and Bier [2000] provide guidance on the design moment locations as shown below.0 V* kN 71.6 95.8 1.9G+Wu .2G+Wu .2G+1.5 87.0 1.0 September 2008 k1 0.5Q 0.R * It is typical to precamber the portal by its unfactored deflection (ie.Lat 1. Critical Design Actions M* Load Case 1.2 V* kN 50. ‘08 Page: 18 / 92 Designed : C. columns gussets and nail rings. The nature of the interaction of gussets provide specific locations for the selection of critical design actions for the design of rafters.4 Design Actions The consideration of critical design actions also needs to take in account the effect of duration of load factors for capacity. The following design actions have been tabled as being of interest. Approx 50 mm in the case) 3. girts and flybraces. Auckland.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.
5 Rafter Design A check of the capacity of main frame members of a timber portal frame involves a check of combined bending and buckling action.0 V*/k1 kN 89.0 N*/k1 kN 105.9G+Wu .k5 .8 1.4 62.6 95.0 kNm N c* = 60.k1.3 79. ‘08 Page: 19 / 92 Designed : C.1).0 293. 3.k 4 .1 Combined bending and compression Design Criteria * M x N c* ØM + ØN ≤ 1.5 kN Consider Bending Moment Capacity M * ≤ ØM n M n = k1. Therefore where: ØM n = Ø.k4 .5 67.0 1.0 Rafter N*/k1 kN 75.1 (Clause 2.k8 .0 nx ncy Eq.2G+1.0 271.1 87.4 kN V* = 50. AS 1720. 3.k8 .1 101.1. f b .0 113.Lat k1 0. 3.0 kN 300.0 276. 3.k5 .0 f b = 48MPa Technical Note 82 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .2G+Wu .R k1 factored Design Actions Column M*/k1 Load Case 1.9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 .5.0 nx ncx 2 * * M x Nc + ØM ØN ≤ 1.6) or Technical Note 82.k11. apply size factor (k11. For further information refer AS1720.24 NZS 3603 Critical Design Actions Critical load case .4 55.4 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 For solid sections with member depths greater than 300 mm. both in plane and out of plane. Auckland.0 3.0 307.5Q M* = 268.Lat 1.2 V*/k1 kN 63.Z Eq. f b .4.5Q 0.2G+1. 3. and a check of combined bending and tension.Z Ø = 0 .3 M*/k1 kN 335.23 NZS 3603 Eq.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.3 Eq. New Zealand Date: Sept.
Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.418 × 109 S1 = ME Calculate Euler moment. 2.3).1 = 0. such theories are beyond the scope of this example.83 d 2 . New Zealand Date: Sept.15 × 106 mm3 ØM n = 0.5 Eq.b 900 2 × 90 = 6 6 ∴ Z = 12. Typically these can be useful in the calculation of slenderness of simple beams and secondary framing however composite sections and members within structural frames require analysis using Appendix C of NZS3603:1993 for slenderness calculations.8 ØM n = 348.0 × 1.2.6 AS1720.0 × k 8 × 0. Auckland. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .k 8 kNm Calculate k8 The timber structures standard does not talk about ‘critical flange’ like the steel structures standard however similar principles apply to the restraint of LVL beams.167 300 ∴ k11 = 900 Z= 0.17 × 1012 Nmm 4 12 900 = 450mm 2 0.k1 .65. ‘08 Page: 20 / 92 Designed : C.52.y 0.83 × 48 × 12.5 Therefore: 176. ME Consider compression edge unrestrained from edge of column to point of contraflexure.EI x S1 = M E.2) and tension edge continuously restrained (Cl 3.4.5 of NZS 3603:1993 for endsupported beams with discrete restraint to the compression edge (Cl 3.2.5.k 8 kNm Since k1=0.1.15 × 10 6 ∴ ØM n = 435.2.5. Guidance is provided for solid sections in Clauses 3.9 × k1 × 1. C1 NZS 3603 Since for 900x90 hySPAN EI x = 13200 × y= 900 3 × 90 = 72. Consider slenderness equation 1.167 Cl.R 300 k11 = d 0. Some authors including Milner [1997] have developed theories based on the contribution of lateral restraint offered to the tension edge by purlins and girts.
63 × = 135. New Zealand Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 21 / 92 Designed : C.25 × 10 4900 ∴ M E = 350.5 From previous: Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .71 × 10 9 Nmm 4 12 Since for rectangular sections: B D × B3 J = 1 − 0.68kNm [ ] 0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.5 9 9 ME = 721.5 EI y = 13200 × 90 3 × 900 = 721. C2 NZS 3603 5 . Auckland.5 Eq.63 × × D 3 90 900 × 90 3 GJ = 660 × 1 − 0.25 × 10 9 Nmm 2 × 900 3 Therefore: Eq. C3 NZS3603 where: β= 0 =0 268 β = ratio of bending moments between buckling restraints Table C1 NZS3603 c5 = 5.71 × 10 × 135.R Consider Moment Diagram c M E = 5 (EI )y .GJ L ay [ ] 0.
56 = 195. C3 NZS 3603 where: β= 171.432 + ∴ k8 = 0.S + a3 .1 = 0.433 5000 Calculate Euler moment.S 3 k8 = 0.52 × 0.0 β = ratio of bending moments between buckling restraints Table C1 NZS 3603 c5 = 3. Auckland.82 Therefore: Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .5 ∴ S1 = 22.418 × 109 S1 = 6 350.GJ L ay [ ] 0.43+ − 0. Propose 3rd purlin from eave.R 176.2kNm ØMn<M* so consider flybrace.56 ∴ ØM n = 348.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. ‘08 Page: 22 / 92 Designed : C.S 2 + a4 .43 Since 25>S1>10 k8 = a1 + a2 .64 268.68 × 10 0.5 Eq. The flybrace needs to be located relative to purlin spacing along the rafter but also needs to offer the appropriate level of stability to the rafter. New Zealand Date: Sept.175 × 22. Consider moment diagram 1 × 22.0116 × 22. ME c M E = 5 (EI )y .21 + 0.
21 + 0.86 = 299.5 From previous: 176.S 2 + a 4 . Auckland.78kNm [ ] 0.21 + 0.01+ − 0. ‘08 Page: 23 / 92 Designed : C.5 9 9 ME = 721.25 × 10 1741 ∴ M E = 685.5 5 .S 3 k 8 = 0.04 3 5000 M* = 171.71 × 10 × 135.5 ∴ S1 = 18.04 Since 25>S1>10 k 8 = a1 + a 2 .10 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .012 + ∴ k 8 = 0.04 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0.82 9 9 ME = 721.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.51 × 10 0.86 ∴ ØM n = 348.S 2 + a 4 .0116 × 16.01 Since 25>S1>10 k 8 = a1 + a 2 .77 1 × 18.71 × 10 × 135.175 × 18.S + a 3 .51kNm [ ] From previous: 176.78 × 10 0.013 5000 NZS 3603 Cl C2.S + a 3 .S 3 k 8 = 0.52 × 0.R 0.418 × 109 S1 = 6 543.7 kNm > M * Check remaining unrestrained section Cl C2.1 kNm Therefore: Lay = 3160 mm c5 = 5.175 × 16.10 NZS 3603 1 × 16.04+ − 0. New Zealand Date: Sept.25 × 10 3160 ∴ M E = 543.5 3.0116 × 18.418 × 109 S1 = 6 685.5 ∴ S1 = 16.
Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.07 3 5000 September 2008 .07 + − 0.3kNm > M * Consider column action Major axis buckling XX Carter Holt Harvey Limited Cl C2.33 × 10 0.418 × 109 S1 = 6 605.07 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0.S + a 3 .21 + 0.5 From previous: 176.81 = 282.77 = 268.R ∴ ØM n = 348.175 × 17. Calculate Euler Moment 3 .10 NZS 3603 1 × 17.1 9 9 ME = 721. Bending Moment Diagram Since purlins provide restraint to compression edge.07 Since 25>S1>10 k 8 = a1 + a 2 . Auckland. ‘08 Page: 24 / 92 Designed : C.0116 × 17.S 2 + a 4 .71 × 10 × 135. New Zealand Date: Sept.5 ∴ S1 = 17.1 (moment ratio between purlins = 0 (conservative)).25 × 10 1600 ∴ M E = 605.52 × 0.52 × 0.81 ∴ ØM n = 348.S 3 k 8 = 0.4kNm > M * Consider region along rafter between point of contraflexure and apex along the rafter.33kNm [ ] 0. Lay = 1600 mm where c5 = 3.
3.0 1.80 3 5000 Minor axis buckling YY From previous: ∴ ØN ncx = 3280.kN Calculate k8 for buckling about the major axis L=Lax=14221 mm (rafter length from ridge to column) S2 = k10 .k8 × 45 × 81000 ∴ ØN ncx = 3280.18 NZS 3603 N ncx = k1.0 × 14221 900 ∴ S 2 = 15.1kN > N c NZS 3603 Cl C2.k8 .80 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0.L d or Lax whichever is less d (Conservative) NZS 3603 Eq. A where: Ø = 0.0116 × 15.R Eq.k8 .9 f c = 45MPa A = 900 × 90 = 81000mm 2 ØN ncx = 0.5. A ∴ ØN ncx = Ø. f c . f c .14 k10 = 1.21 + 0.S 2 + a 4 .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.S 3 k 8 = 0. Auckland. New Zealand Date: Sept.175 × 15.k8 .87 Since k1 = 0.kN Calculate k8 for buckling about the minor axis YY Lay=1600 mm (purlin spacing) Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .k8 .k1.8 * ∴ ØN ncx = 2278.k1. 3.9 × k1 × .k1. ‘08 Page: 25 / 92 Designed : C.5.80+ − 0.10 1 × 15.S + a 3 .80 S2 = Since 25>S2>10 k 8 = a1 + a 2 .
k8 kNm 1 Carter Holt Harvey Limited Since k =1. 3.10 NZS 3603 1 × 17.175 × 17. 3.0.5.25 NZS 3603 ØM n = 435.15 NZS 3603 S3 = k10 .0.0116 × 17.0 299. New Zealand Date: Sept. 3.S 3 k 8 = 0.78 3 5000 ∴ ØN ncx = 2047.0 60.8 kNm (along rafter) N t* = 69.7 2278.0 kNm (at eave) M* = 171.24 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 N t* M * ØN + ØM ≤ 1.S 2 + a 4 .9G+Wu Lateral wind M* = 293.92 ≤ 1.S + a 3 .0 nt n Critical Design Actions Critical load case .78+ − 0. wind gust September 2008 .7 2047. 3.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.78 Since k1 = 0.21 + 0. Auckland.0 299.03kN > N c* Combined actions 268.0 60.9 kN V* = 87.78 S3 = Since 25>S3>10 k 8 = a1 + a 2 .65.0 3.78 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0.23 Eq.4 + = 0. ‘08 Page: 26 / 92 Designed : C.8 Cl C2.R Eq.1 268.6 kN Consider Bending Moment Capacity From previous: Eq.L b or Lay b whichever is less 1600 90 ∴ S3 = 17.4 + = 0.k1.83 ≤ 1.2 Combined bending and tension Design Criteria 2 Eq.
9 EI y = 721.25 × 109 Nmm 2 Therefore: 3. C3 NZS 3603 c5 = 3. New Zealand Date: Sept. Bending Moment Diagram c M E = 5 (EI )y .71 × 109 Nmm 4 GJ = 135.k8kNm Calculate k8 Calculate Euler moment. ME Consider compression edge restrained by purlins at 1600 c/c until point of contraflexure.54kNm [ ] 0.5 Eq.65. Auckland.R ØM n = 435.71 × 10 × 135.60 293.2 β = ratio of bending moments between buckling restraints (purlins) Eq. C3 NZS 3603 where: β= 176.90 9 9 ME = 721.2 = 0. ‘08 Page: 27 / 92 Designed : C.25 × 10 1600 ∴ M E = 761.5 From previous: Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.GJ L ay [ ] 0.
418 × 10 9 S1 = 6 761.S + a 3 . Auckland.1kNm > M * 1 × 15.R 176.0116 × 15.54 × 10 ∴ S1 = 15.5 k 8 = a1 + a 2 . New Zealand Date: Sept.175 × 15.22 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0.S 2 + a 4 .22+ − 0.10 Check remaining sections between points of contraflexure (ie. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .22 Since 25>S1>10 0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.65 × 0. ‘08 Page: 28 / 92 Designed : C.90 = 392. Negative moment along the rafter) Propose flybracing as detailed below Consider region along rafter between point of contraflexure and apex along the rafter.90 ∴ ØM n = 435.21 + 0.S 3 k 8 = 0.22 3 5000 NZS 3603 Cl C2.
Auckland. Lay = 2x(1050+229) = 2558 mm Since: M E = function c5 L ay Therefore Region 2 is critical buckling region 3 .0116 × 24.71 × 10 × 135.10 NZS 3603 1 × 24.49 Carter Holt Harvey Limited Cl C2.S 2 + a 4 . Consideration of bending moment diagram and restraint locations display.14 3 5000 September 2008 .1 9 9 ⇒ ME = 721.14 Since 25>S1>10 0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.1.21 + 0.418 × 109 S1 = 6 302.5 k 8 = a1 + a 2 .66kNm [ ] 0.5 From previous: 176.R Bending Moment Diagram Calculate Euler Moment Three buckling zones exist for wind uplift.25 × 10 3200 ∴ M E = 302.S + a 3 . Lay = 5183 mm c5 ~ 3.S 3 k 8 = 0. each restrained at strategic purlin locations by flybraces.1. Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 c5 = 5.14+ − 0.175 × 24.5. ‘08 Page: 29 / 92 Designed : C.66 × 10 ∴ S1 = 24.14 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0. Lay = 2x1600 = 3200 mm c5 = 3. New Zealand Date: Sept.
4. 3. New Zealand Date: Sept.k4 .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.0 k1 = 1. Therefore where: ØN nt = Ø.84 ≤ 1.6) or Technical Note 82.9 f t = 33MPa k4 = 1. apply k11 size factor for tension.74 ØN nt = 0. f t .k5 .65 × 0.9 × 1.25 NZS 3603 V * ≤ ØVn Vn = k1.1 (Clause 2. f s .k1. 3. 3. 2.20 Eq.k4 .6 AS1720.N nt N nt = k1.49 = 213.2 213. 3.k4 .3 Eq.R ∴ ØM n = 435.167 Technical Note 82 150 ∴ k11 = 900 0.167 Cl.0 150 k11 = d 0. ‘08 Page: 30 / 92 Designed : C.21 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 For solid sections with member depths greater than 150 mm.0 f s = 5.0 1780.3MPa Technical Note 82 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .5 Calculate Shear Capacity q.74 × 33 × 81000 ∴ ØN nt = 1780. A Eq.2kN Combined actions 69.4 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 Ø = 0 .1 = 0. AS where: Eq.0 A = 900 × 90 = 81000mm k1 = 1.4.9 171.0 × 1.8 + = 0.0 × 0.5kNm > M * Consider tension strength N t* ≤ Ø. 3. Auckland.9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 . A Ø = 0.k11. For further information refer AS1720. f t .
Check capacity of flybrace – propose 90x45 hyCHORD N c* = N t* = 1.90 = 2.9kN (Dead and live loads) Note: FA is the horizontal force and is shared between two components.4 m +1 1+1 .0 × 1.k34 .0 × 5.4 × 1 × 900(1 + 1) ∴ FA = 1.0 × 0 .5.3 × 54000 ∴ φVS = 257.8 Calculate force on lateral restraint FA = k33 . New Zealand Date: Sept.0 k34 = 0.2.b. B9. ‘08 Page: 31 / 92 Designed : C.1 NZS 3603 ∴ φVS = 0.9 × 1. one in tension and one in compression.6kN > V * Use 900x90 hySPAN as rafter with flybraces to locations as detailed.d / 3 ∴ AS = 2 × 900 × 90 = 54000mm 2 3 Cl 3. where: * 0.1kNm d = 900mm nr = 1 0.R AS = 2. where k1=0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.05 × 171.1 kNm.1 × 10 6 F A = 1 .3.k35 . Auckland.90kN Calculate force in brace N c* = N t* = 1. 3.5 = 1 k 35 = min 2 2 M A = −171.05M A d (nr + 1) Eq.3 Flybrace design Critical Design Moment at flybrace location M* = 171.5 = min .7 kN Cos (45) Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . NZS 3603 k33 = 1.
f c .k8 .k1.S + a 3 .0116 × 16. f c . A ∴ ØN ncy = Ø.98 S3 = Since 25>S1>10 k 8 = a1 + a 2 . New Zealand Date: Sept.17 NZS 3603 N ncy = k1.k 8 .50kN > N c* Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.kN Calculate k8 for buckling about the minor axis S3 = k10 .0 Cl C2. A where: Eq. 3.k1 . Auckland.82 Since k1 = 1.19 NZS 3603 Ø = 0.98+ − 0. 3.R Typically a 45 mm thick section is recommended to allow for a 75mm long screw through both the flybrace and into the flange of the hyJOIST. Using hyCHORD for the lateral restraint is a good choice given its high strength and lower cost.175 × 16.9 f c = 45MPa A = 90 × 45 = 4050mm 2 ØN ncx = 0. ‘08 Page: 32 / 92 Designed : C.9 × k1 × k 8 × 45 × 4050 ∴ ØN ncx = 164. Consider column action Since Lay=765 mm and Lax=765 mm (defined by brace length) N c* ≤ ØN ncx and N c* ≤ ØN ncy Minor axis buckling is critical by inspection Eq.21 + 0.L b or Lay b whichever is less Eq.98 3 5000 ∴ ØN ncx = 134.S 2 + a 4 .10 NZS 3603 1 × 16.k8 .15 NZS 3603 764 45 ∴ S 3 = 16.03.98 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0. 3.S 3 k 8 = 0.
21 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 Ø = 0.3 mm Therefore portion of diameter in penetration = 4.k4 . Auckland.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.k . Consider Qk reduction due to the penetration into the receiving member (Purlin/blocking) Penetration = 7545 = 30 mm Since da = 6. Eq. A ∴ ØN nt = Ø.9 f t = 33MPa k4 = 1.8 * k1 = 1.3.Qk where: Ø = 0. 3.5.5. screws are in single shear and are screwed into the edge or face of the timber. 3.2(e).k4 . Technical note 82 Eq. f t .6.8 is applied as Type 17 screws are as reliable as nails in service. 4. *Ø=0. f t . ‘08 Page: 33 / 92 Designed : C.N nt N nt = k1. NZS 3603 September 2008 . 4.303kN NZS 3603 Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry.0 A = 90 × 45 = 4050mm k1 = 1.3kN Consider connection between purlins and rafters and flybrace Screws are required to provide tension connection to rafter/purlin Technical Note 82 Calculate minimum number of 14g type 17 Hex Head screws Joint Group J4 Table 3.R Consider tension strength N t* ≤ Ø.20 Eq.76 Calculate reduction from capacity relating to 7 da Carter Holt Harvey Limited Table 4.Qk ØQn = Ø.0 Qk = 3.0 × 33 × 4050 ∴ ØN nt = 120. NZS 3603 Cl. 4.k1. A where: Eq.n.k .0 × 1. NZS 3603 NZS 3603 S * ≤ ØQn Qn = n.9 × 1. New Zealand Date: Sept.0 ØN nt = 0.
45kN Say 2/75x14g type 17 Hex Head screws.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.n.5 ∴ ØQn = 4.0 × 35 × 79. 4. p. screwed through predrilled holes in flybrace into rafter and purlin.Qk ØQn = Ø.k .0 Qk = 79.8. Proposed flybrace connection Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .68 × 3. screws are in single shear and are screwed into the edge or face of the timber.303 = 2247 N So: ØQn = 0.247 ∴ ØQn = 4. Auckland. ‘08 Page: 34 / 92 Designed : C.Qk where: Eq.5 N / mm p = 35mm NZS 3603 Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry.8 × 2 × 1.8 is applied as Type 17 screws are as reliable as nails in service.8 × 1.76 = 0. 4. Eq. New Zealand Date: Sept. *Ø=0.0kN Consider screws in tension N * ≤ ØQn Qn = n.k .9. ØQn = 0.0 × 2 × 2. NZS 3603 NZS 3603 Ø = 0.68 7 ∴ Qk = 0.8 * k1 = 1. p.R Reduction factor = 4.
6 Column Design 3.k1. ME Girts provide tension edge restraint to the outside of the outside of the frame.k8kNm Calculate k8 For 900x90 hySPAN: 176.418 × 109 S1 = ME 0.24 NZS 3603 Critical Design Actions Critical load case .2G+1. New Zealand Date: Sept.5 Calculate Euler moment.5Q M* = 240.R 3.6.8 ØM n = 348.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.1.1 Combined bending and compression Design Criteria * M x N c* ØM + ØN ≤ 1.0 nx ncx 2 * * M x Nc + ØM ØN ≤ 1.23 NZS 3603 Eq.52. 3. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .1 kN V* = 71. By inspection from the rafter analysis one flybrace is proposed at the middle girt. 3.65. 3490 mm from the ground. ‘08 Page: 35 / 92 Designed : C.0 nx ncy Eq.k8 kNm Since k1=0.0 kNm N c* = 84.5 kN Consider Bending Moment Capacity From previous: ØM n = 435. Auckland.
5 Lay = 3470mm EI y = 721. ‘08 Page: 36 / 92 Designed : C.25 × 10 2530 ∴ M E = 484.R Consider bending moment diagram c M E = 5 (EI )y . C3 NZS 3603 where: Region 1 β= − 179.08kNm [ ] 0. C3 NZS 3603 c5 = 3.92 9 9 ME = 721. New Zealand Date: Sept.59 − 303.71 × 109 Nmm 4 GJ = 135.25 × 109 Nmm 2 Therefore Region 1 is critical: 3.3 = 0.5 Eq.GJ L ay [ ] 0.0 β = ratio of bending moments between buckling restraints Eq. Auckland.71 × 10 × 135.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.3 β = ratio of bending moments between buckling restraints Eq.92 Lay = 2530mm Region 2 β= 0 =0 − 179. C3 NZS 3603 c5 = 5.5 From previous: Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .
kN Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . New Zealand Date: Sept.k1.k8 .0116 × 19.L d or Lax whichever is less d (conservative) Eq.14 Fig.kN Calculate k8 for buckling about the major axis L=Lax=6000 mm (column height from rafter to footing) S2 = k10 .09 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0.71 = 247.175 × 19.S 2 + a 4 .10 NZS 3603 1 × 19.52 × 0. ‘08 Page: 37 / 92 Designed : C.4kN > N c Minor axis buckling YY From previous: ∴ ØN ncx = 3280.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.0 × 6000 900 ∴ S 2 = 6. 3.S + a 3 .S 3 k 8 = 0.5 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 k10 = 1.5.67 S2 = Since 10<S2 k8 =1.5.21 + 0.k1.08 × 10 ∴ S1 = 19.5 k 8 = a1 + a 2 .09 Since 25>S1>10 0. 3.71 ∴ ØM n = 348.0 and k1 = 0.8 * ∴ ØN ncx = 2624. Auckland.k8 .09+ − 0.R 176.5kNm Consider column action Major axis buckling XX From previous: Cl C2.418 × 10 9 S1 = 6 484.0 1.09 3 5000 ∴ ØN ncx = 3280.
Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.44 3 5000 ∴ ØN ncx = 1968.44+ − 0.24 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 N t* M * ØN + ØM ≤ 1.1 + = 1 .S + a 3 .S 2 + a 4 .10 NZS 3603 1 × 18.0.0 nt n Critical Design Actions Critical load case .75 Since k1 = 0.1 + = 0.21 + 0.R Calculate k8 for buckling about the minor axis YY Lay=1660 mm (girt spacing) S3 = k10 .44 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0. since k1=1.0 247.4 240.2 Combined bending and tension Design Criteria 2 Eq.0 ≤ 1 .3 3.25 NZS 3603 Consider Bending Moment Capacity From previous.4 kN Eq.0 kN V* = 55.44 S3 = Since 25>S3>10 k 8 = a1 + a 2 . 3.0.175 × 18.98 ≤ 1. 3.23 Eq.S 3 k 8 = 0.8 Cl C2. wind gust Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .0116 × 18.15 NZS 3603 1660 90 ∴ S3 = 18.0 247.3kN > N c* Combined actions 240.L b or Lay b whichever is less Eq. New Zealand Date: Sept.0 84.5 2624.0 kNm N t* = 101. 3. ‘08 Page: 38 / 92 Designed : C.5 1968.0 84.6.9G+Wu Lateral wind M* = 271. Auckland. 3.
0 β = ratio of bending moments between buckling restraints (grits) NZS3603 Eq.7 = 0.5 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . Auckland.5 NZS3603 Eq. Bending Moment Diagram c M E = 5 (EI )y .78 EI y = 721.65.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.R ØM n = 435. C3 where: β= 177. C3 c5 = 3. ME Consider compression edge restrained by grits at 1660 c/c.78 9 9 ME = 721.71 × 109 Nmm 4 GJ = 135.GJ L ay [ ] 0. New Zealand Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 39 / 92 Designed : C.43kNm [ ] 0.66 271.k8kNm Calculate k8 Calculate Euler moment.25 × 109 Nmm 2 Therefore: 3.71 × 10 × 135.25 × 10 1660 ∴ M E = 711.
0 Use 900x90 hySPAN as column with flybraces to locations as detailed.77 ≤ 1.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. New Zealand Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 40 / 92 Designed : C.0 .65 × 0.175 × 15.75 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0.9 × 1.0 × 1.S 3 k 8 = 0.0 1780. k11 = 0.0116 × 15.75 Since 25>S1>10 0.S 2 + a 4 .5 k 8 = a1 + a 2 .87 = 379.75+ − 0.21 + 0.10 ∴ ØM n = 435.0 + = 0.2kN Combined actions 101.74 × 33 × 81000 ∴ ØN nt = 1780. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .S + a 3 .75 3 5000 NZS 3603 Cl C2.0 × 0.R From previous: 176.87 1 × 15.0kNm > M * Consider tension strength Since k1 = 1.0 271.74 ØN nt = 0. Auckland.418 × 109 S1 = 6 711.2 379.43 × 10 ∴ S1 = 15.
0 405.9G+Wu – Lat 1.0 63.0 1.0 161.5 Load Case 1.1 295.5 156.35G 1.5Q 0.2 55.1 75.0 1.2G+1.2 117.6 156.6 0. Design actions can be factored by the duration of load factor k1 for comparison in the determination of the critical design action. Plywood or minimum 4 xband gussets are recommended for use in heavily nailed rigid connections because the xband plies help reduce the tendency of the long band plies to split.3 65.7 183.4 N*/k1 kN 52.7 M* kNm 69.3 7.6 V*/k1 kN 4.1 69.0 Ridge N* kN 19.5 65.9 102.3 7.6 103.2 229.0 14.5 25.1 Knee gusset design The capacity of a plywood gusset is based on the critical depth at which the gusset bends.6 83.2G+Wu –Long K1 0.5 54. ‘08 Page: 41 / 92 Designed : C.9G+Wu – Long 1.R 3.0 382.0 362. New Zealand Date: Sept.1 102.0 Ridge N*/k1 kN 31.5 3.0 1.0 161. For thicknesses over 25 mm required for large span portal frames CHH have developed 4 xband hySPAN sheets (2400x1200) in a 42mm thickness allowing 28 mm (8 plies) of parallel plies.1 69.0 1.35G 1.2 117.9 56.0 50.2G+Wu –Long K1 0.6 5.9G+Wu – Long 1.7 64.0 362.5 25.9 56.3 5. This allows the nail spacing to be governed by the grain direction of the rafter or column which ever the gusset is being fastened to.5 65.2 50.1 75.0 382.2G+Wu –Lat 0.2 111. Plywood gussets allow an ease of fabrication and can be readily fixed using machine driven nails.4 Knee N* kN 31.0 1.7 62.1 54.5 6.0 k1 factored Gusset Design Actions Knee M*/k1 Load Case 1.1 295.6 60.0 1.9 171.0 239.1 71. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .9G+Wu – Lat 1.2 55.8 1.7 Gusset Design The knee and ridge connections of an LVL portal frame can be completed by using a plywood gusset. which is a horizontal line across the centroid of the rafter and column intersection as shown below.6 V* kN 2.7.3 V*/k1 kN 32.7 64.0 kNm 205.8 1.0 14.6 60.2 8.2G+1.0 324.3 65. Plywood is available in Stress Grade F11 from Carter Holt Harvey in thicknesses up to and including 25 mm.2G+Wu –Lat 0.2 111.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.6 0.9 171.6 71. Auckland.0 239. Gusset Design Actions M* kNm 123.3 V* kN 19.7 M*/k1 kNm 116.5Q 0.
This methodology is suitable for application to both opening and closing moments of portal frames.0 kNm Nt* = 102. Hutchings [1987] methodology is applied in this example.0 Consider bending moment capacity Many authors have proposed methods of calculating the capacity of plywood gussets.1.0 nc ni ni 2 Eq.5 kN k1=0.5Q – (Combined bending. Critical Design Actions Load case .0 Eq. the critical section for the knee connection may be calculated by: Depthcs = D + L−D D 1 + 1 − tan θ 2L Design Criteria N c* M i* Vi* ØN + ØM + ØV ≤ 1. ‘08 Page: 42 / 92 Designed : C. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . Batchelor [1984] proposes a bilinear stress distribution along the critical section while Hutchings [1987] methodology assumes a triangulated stress distribution across the critical section and recommends the application of a size factor.8 Load case . and has been used on many portal frame structures. Auckland.17 NZS 3603 N t* ØN nt M i* + ØM ni Vi* + ØV ni 2 ≤ 1.2 kN V* = 54. tension and shear) M* = 362. New Zealand Date: Sept.(Combined bending.1 kN V* = 50.0.3 kN k1=1.0 kNm Nc* = 83.9G+Wu (Lateral wind) . Milner and Crosier [2000] propose a similar calculation based on a triangulated stress distribution but propose an alternate critical section and omit the use of the size factor. compression and shear) M* = 324.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.2G+1. Compression loads are generally past through in bearing and not required for consideration in gusset design. 6.18 NZS 3603 It is typical that the design shear and tension action effects have little influence on the size of a gusset and can in many cases be omitted from calculation such is their effect on sizing. assuming the rafter depth and column depth are equal. 6.R Geometrically.
New Zealand Date: Sept.0 × 1.10 Now include size factor .k15 .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. e 6 Propose 42 mm 4 xband LVL. gusset edges are restrained by gusset stiffeners) (moisture content < 18%) (only parallel plies are being considered) 0.k15 .167 k14 = 1.0 × k11 × 48 × 6 ØM n = 403. t e . te .k11.1 t e = (42 − (4 × 3.d 6 2 Eq.5)) = 28mm 28 × d 2 ØM ni = 2.0. Auckland. where: Ø = 0 .for further information on size factor.0 × 1.k15 .0 300 k11 = d f b = 48MPa Cl.0 k15 = 1.80 0. f pb .6) or Technical Note 82.k11 .R Eq. 6. f pb .k14 .k1.k11.9 × k1 × 1.5) 2 × 1200 ∴ d = 1177.Ø.k14 .5˚ pitch 1200 − 900 900 1 + 1 − tan (7.4.9 k1 = ? k8 = 1.167 Calculate bending moment capacity Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . Therefore ØM ni = Ø. f pb .4. k11 refer AS1720.d 2 6 Since the gussets are in pairs: t .k1.9 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 M i* ≤ ØM ni M ni = k1 .2 ∴ k11 = 0.d 2 ØM ni = 2.1 (Clause 2.k14 .d 2 kNm For 900x90 hySPAN portal frame with 7.k 8 .2 × k1 . ‘08 Page: 43 / 92 Designed : C.k8 . 6. 2.0 (localised.k8 .6 AS1720.2mm d = 900 + 300 k11 = 1177.
2 2 ∴ ØM ni = 447. 6. 6.0 (face grain = 0˚) t e = 28mm (parallel plies only) ØN nt = 2[0.45 × k1 .2mm ∴Vni = 314.d . Auckland.0 × 1. ‘08 Page: 44 / 92 Designed : C.d .d ∴ ØN nt = Ø.9 f pt = 33MPa Technical Note 82 k1 = ? k14 = 1. 6.2.3MPa Technical Note 82 k1 = ? k14 = 1.d where: Eq. f pt .k14 .0 (moisture content < 15 %) k15 = 1.0 (moisture content < 15 %) k15 = 1.16 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 Ø = 0 .k15 .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.N nt N nt = k1 . 6.t t .0 (face grain = 0˚) 2 Vni = 2 0.kN Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .0 × k1 .0 × 1.k18 .0 × 1.k14 . f ps . f pt .kNm Calculate Shear Capacity V p* ≤ ØVni 2 Vni = .k15 .t.12 × k1 .15 Eq. New Zealand Date: Sept.k8 .8 × 1177.0 × 1.d 3 where: Eq.k1.9 f ps = 5.3 × 42 × d 3 ∴Vni = 267.t e .R ØM ni = 403.9 × × k1 × 1.k1 .k1 .2 × k1 × 0.0 × 5.11 Eq.9 × k1 × 1.kN Consider tension capacity N t* ≤ Ø.k15 .12 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 Ø = 0 .k14 .0 × 33 × 28 × d ] ∴ ØN nt = 1663.kN Since d = 1177.
0 × 1.conservative ∴ ØN nc = 2041.d where: Ø = 0 .8 September 2008 .d .d ∴ ØN nc = Ø.8 × 2041. f pc .5 kN k1=0. 6.kN Since d = 900mm (use minimum section) .0 (moisture content < 15 %) k 8 = 1.14 NZS 3603 N nc = k1 .R Since d = 900mm (use minimum section) . Therefore consider moment and shear forces at critical stress line for analysis.0 × 45 × 28 × d ] ∴ ØN nc = 2268.5Q M* = 303.0 (face grain = 0˚) t e = 28mm (parallel plies only) ØN nc = 2[0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.t e .kN Consider compression capacity * N c ≤ Ø.5 It is typical to consider the maximum implied forces on the structure.kN Consider Combined Actions Combined bending.8 × 314. 6.9 f pc = 45MPa Technical Note 82 k1 = ? k14 = 1.0 kNm Carter Holt Harvey Limited Nc* = 83.k15 .k 8 . New Zealand Date: Sept. rather than the applied forces at the specific design location.0 × k1 .0 0.0 0.1 324.8 83. gusset edges are restrained by gusset stiffeners) k15 = 1.9 × k1 × 1.2 0.conservative ∴ ØN nt = 1496. compression and shear from Eq.9 × k1 . 2 Design Actions at critical stress line.8 × 447.k1 . NZS 3603:1993 Factor capacities by appropriate duration of load.13 NZS 3603 Eq.k 8 . k1 = 0. f pc .2 × k1 . 6.0 × 1. However if the design criteria is not met then consideration of the implied design actions at the design location may be required. ‘08 Page: 45 / 92 Designed : C.N nc Eq.17. Load case 1.07 ≥ 1.5 + + = 1.t e .k15 .2G+1.k14 .0 (localised.0 50. Auckland.k14 .1 kN V* = 50.
Project: For: At:
30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand
Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 46 / 92 Designed : C.R
83.1 303.0 50.5 + + = 0.97 ≤ 1.0 0.8 × 2041.2 0.8 × 447.0 0.8 × 314.5
Combined bending, compression and shear from Eq. 6.18, NZS 3603:1993 Factor capacities by appropriate duration of load, k1 = 1.0
2
102.2 362.00 54.3 + + = 0.90 ≤ 1.0 1.0 × 1496.9 1.0 × 447.0 1.0 × 314.5
2
3.7.2 Ridge Gusset Design The design of the ridge gusset is similar to the knee gusset where the design capacity is based on the moment resistance offered by the ridge gusset section. Typically a mitre type joint is considered. Hutchings [1989] proposes a 0.9 factor be applied to the critical section as defined below.
Savings in design and fabrication can be made by keeping the distance ‘L’ constant across the ridge and the knee gussets. Whilst the ridge gusset may be ‘thinner’ often for consistency of purlin lengths and minimum gusset order quantities it may be preferable to maintain similar gusset thicknesses.
D + L. tan θ Cosθ Depthcs = 0.9.Dgusset Dgusset =
. Design Criteria
N c* M i* Vi* ØN + ØM + ØV ≤ 1.0 nc ni ni
2
Eq. 6.17
NZS 3603
N t* ØN nt
M i* + ØM ni
Vi* + ØV ≤ 1.0 ni
2
Eq. 6.18
NZS 3603
Critical Design Actions Critical load case  1.2G+1.5Q M* = 183.6 kNm Nc* = 50.1 kN V* = 6.6 kN
Critical load case  0.9G+Wu – Lateral wind
Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008
Project: For: At:
30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand
Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 47 / 92 Designed : C.R
M* = 156.9 kNm
Nt* = 71.1 kN
V* = 5.0 kN
Consider Bending Moment Capacity From previous, propose 42mm 4 xband LVL, where:
ØM n = 403.2 × k1 .k11 .d 2 kNm
For 900x90 hySPAN portal frame with 7.5˚ pitch
D gusset = ∴ D gusset
900 + 1200 × tan(7.5) Cos (7.5) = 1065.7 mm
0.167
d = 0.9 × D gusset = 959.2mm 300 k11 = 959.2 ∴ k11 = 0.82
Calculate bending moment capacity
ØM ni = 403.2 × k1 × 0.82 × 959.2 2 ∴ ØM ni = 305.5 × k1 .kNm > M *
Calculate shear force capacity From previous:
Vni = 267.12 × k1 .d .kN ∴Vni = 256.2 × k1 .kN
Calculate Tension Capacity From previous:
∴ ØN nt = 1663.2.k1 .d .kN
Since d = 900mm (use minimum section)  conservative
∴ ØN nt = 1496.9 × k1 .kN
Calculate Compression Capacity From previous:
Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008
Project: For: At:
30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand
Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 48 / 92 Designed : C.R
∴ ØN nc = 2268.0 × k1 .d .kN
Since d = 900mm (use minimum section)  conservative
∴ ØN nc = 2041.2 × k1 .kN
Combined bending, compression and shear from Eq. 6.17, NZS 3603:1993 Factor capacities by appropriate duration of load, k1 = 0.8
50.1 6 .6 183.6 + + = 0.63 ≤ 1.0 0.8 × 2041.2 0.8 × 305.5 0.8 × 256.2
Combined bending, compression and shear from Eq. 6.18, NZS 3603:1993 Factor capacities by appropriate duration of load, k1 = 1.0
2
71.1 5 .0 156.9 + + = 0.57 ≤ 1.0 1.0 × 2041.2 1.0 × 305.5 1.0 × 256.2
Use 42 mm 4 xBand hySPAN as both knee and ridge gusset pairs
2
3.7.3 Nail ring design
The design of the nail ring is important because more than half of the nailing needs to be performed on site. It is also important to consider end and edge distances together with allowable nail spacings (both along and across the grain) for the chosen fasteners. Selection of the nail diameter is also critical as it will affect the available spacing and hence number of nails within the group as well as the required penetration into the column/rafter. A staggered nail pattern provides an increased moment capacity by maximising the lever arm action about the nail group centroid. The design of nail groups associated with rigid moment connections are often subjected to combined actions including bending, axial and shear forces. Whilst the bending and axial forces contributions are minor they need to be taken into account. It is normally most efficient to calculate the proportion of force remaining in the nails after the contribution to the design moment affect is taken out. The complexity of calculations for the nail ring mean hand calculations can be time consuming and conservative. For this reason computer packages are often employed to develop design solutions. The following design data have been taken from design capacity tables relating to the corresponding roof pitch and member size. The design methodology, including k factors, from AS1720.1 has been applied to create nail ring capacities for a number of section sizes and gusset widths. These tables can be found in Engineering Bulletin No.2, Rigid Moment Connections using CHH veneer based products. AS1720.1 was used due to its close relationship between the lateral capacities of nails in testing with CHH’s range of LVL and the published values for joint group JD4. It should be noted that many of the ‘k’ factors used in calculation of connection capacities differ between the standards and it is recommended that for connections these not be mixed and matched.
Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008
k13 . 4.3(B)) Qk = 810 N (Ø3.r .Q .2(4) n = number of fasteners Qk= characteristic strength of fastener ri= distance to the ith fastener from the centroid of the fastener group rmax= the maximum value of ri Ø = capacity factor (0.5 kN k1=0.Qk b.R 3. AS1720.2G+1.1 (nails driven through plywood gussets) k17 = multiple nail factor for resisting in plane moments (AS1720. Critical load case .k17 .3.k .1.5Q M* = 324. ‘08 Page: 49 / 92 Designed : C.k14 . φN axial / shear M* = 1 − φM × φQn × n September 2008 Carter Holt Harvey Limited . Calculate moment capacity of nail rings in accordance with AS1720.nails used with primary elements in structures other than houses) k1 = duration of load factor (Clause 2. a.k .1 Knee nail ring design Critical Design Actions The critical design actions need only be considered in the nail ring design as the effects of stress reversal do not affect the nature of the nail design. 1 13 14 16 17 max k ∑ i =1 rmax 3 2 2. φQn = φ . axial and shear force involves the following steps: 1. AS1720. Calculate remaining portion of nail capacity after bending actions have been considered.7.k13 . 3.k .Qk .1 Table 4.1) k13 = 1.k16 . JD4 strength group. New Zealand Date: Sept.1 kN # As per Table 2.1 Eq.∑ i i =1 rmax where: 3 2 AS1720.1 Table 4.rmax .11.0 kNm N c* = 83.k .0 (nails in single shear) k16 = 1. AS1720.0 (nails in side grain) k14 = 1.15 nail.k1 .k1 . Auckland.4.77# The methodology proposed for the calculation of nail group capacity for combined bending.1 V* = 50.7.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. AS1720.8 . ri φM = 2.k14 .k .1.k16 .1 provides a capacity calculation for transfer of in plane moments through nailed moment ring such that: i =n r φM j = φ . Knee.k17 .1 (B)) Since nail rings will be applied through gusset pairs the total moment resistance offered by nail rings connecting gusset pairs is: i=n φ .
3. (N ) + (v ) * 2 c * 2 * 2 t * 2 83.14 × 1.15 factor = Therefore: 898 = 1.949kN September 2008 and Carter Holt Harvey Limited .7 ∴ φN axial / shear = 86.1 2 50. ‘08 Page: 50 / 92 Designed : C.77 × 454. divided by k1 for direct comparison * N axial / shear = max φN axial / shear = 1 − φM × φQn × n M* (N ) + (v ) . + 0.15kNm ≥ M * φQn = 0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.115.11 ∴ φM = 388.3 2 * N axial / shear = max + .0 φN axial / shear = 1 − × 0. Using Table 3 from Engineering Bulletin 2 the capacity of the nail rings can be factored proportionally to the Characteristic Capacity of the nail laterally loaded in single shear. Ø3. Auckland.2 2 54. Calculate vectorial sum of the combined axial and shear forces for comparison with remaining capacity. 324. These forces are assumed to be evenly distributed over the nail group.0kN Calculate vectorial sum of axial and shear force.33 nail.7 ) * ∴ N axial / shear = 126. New Zealand Date: Sept.7 kNm φQn = 0. Try using a Ø3.0 1 .R 4.77 × 454.0 * N axial / shear = max (126.14 ∴ φM = 349.33/Ø3.855 × (684 × 2 ) 349.3kN * Since N axial / shear > φN either add an additional nail ring or adjust nail size.5˚ roof pitch and 1200 mm wide gusset as drawn above.855 × 1.77 1 .5 2 102. * N axial / shear = max (N ) + (v ) . (N ) + (v ) * 2 c * 2 * 2 t * 2 Engineering Bulletin 2 – Rigid Moment Connection Details can be used for selection of the moment ring capacity for the nail ring to suit the 7. From Table 50.11 810 φM = 0.855kN Calculate remaining nail group capacity after resistance to moment has been calculated.11 ∴ φQn = 0.77 0. Engineering Bulletin 2 for nine (9) nail rings and φM = 0.
0 = 1 − × 0. Proposed Nail Ring 3.949 × (684 × 2 ) 388.15 ∴ φN axial / shear = 214.6kN > N * Use nine nail rings of Ø3.33 x75 FH nails to pattern as marked.3. ‘08 Page: 51 / 92 Designed : C.R Calculate remaining nail group capacity after resistance to moment has been calculated.7.6 kNm Carter Holt Harvey Limited Nc* = 50.1 kN V* = 6.2G+1.6 kN September 2008 .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.5Q M* = 183.2 Ridge nail ring design Critical Design Actions Critical load case . Auckland. φN axial / shear φN axial / shear M* = 1 − φM × φQn × n 324.1. New Zealand Date: Sept.
6.949 × (344 × 2 ) 227. divided by k1 for direct comparison * N axial / shear = max φN axial / shear = 1 − φM × φQn × n M* (N ) + (v ) .0 * N axial / shear = max (65.33 x75 FH nails to pattern as marked. Since we are using Ø3.3 ∴ φN axial / shear = 125.949kN From previous Calculate remaining nail group capacity after resistance to moment has been calculated. φM = 0. Auckland. 183.11 factor from previous to apply nail ring capacities from Table ##. From Table 50. therefore apply 1.6kN < φN Use four nail rings of Ø3. New Zealand Date: Sept.96 × 1.6 φN axial / shear = 1 − × 0. + 0.11 and ∴ φM = 227. (N ) + (v ) * 2 c * 2 * 2 t * 2 50.1 2 5.77 × 265. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .0 1 .77 0. ‘08 Page: 52 / 92 Designed : C.5˚ roof pitch and 1200 mm wide gusset as drawn above.33 nails in the knee connection.71.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.0 2 * N axial / shear = max + . Engineering Bulletin 2 apply four (4) nail rings.1 2 6.52kN Calculate vectorial sum of axial and shear force.R Engineering Bulletin 2 – Rigid Moment Connection Details can be used for selection of the moment ring capacity for the nail ring to suit the 7.3kNm ≥ M * φQn = 0. apply same nail size in the ridge.6 2 71.77 1 .1) * ∴ N axial / shear = 65.
67 102.35G 1.2G+Wu (Lateral) 0. Auckland.9G+Wu (Long) 1.Qk Carter Holt Harvey Limited . Again reactions are factored to take into consideration duration of load factors. screws or bolts.6 115.82 86.k .4 65.8 Angle It is typical in Timber structures to provide a moisture barrier at the base of the columns to eliminate the column from getting wet and staying wet during the construction period.0 Rx kN 31.50 Ry kN 35.5 kN 40.2G+Wu (Long) k1 adjusted values PF1 Load Case 1.0 1. Consider Design Reactions PF1 Rx Load Case 1.2 treated Plywood and melthoid at both the LVL column end and ground as detailed in the structural drawings. 4.8 59.6 62.4 115.2G+Wu (Long) k1 0. NZS 3603 NZS 3603 September 2008 S * ≤ ØQn Qn = n.0 1.0 72.87 99.7 125.8 k1 0. Calculate minimum number of 14g type 17 Hex Head screws Joint Group J4 Table 3.5. Eq.53 58.50 Ry kN 59.5 115.0 72.0 61.5 82.6 62. The connection of the base brackets to the column could be achieved using nails.2G+1.19 50. ‘08 Page: 53 / 92 Designed : C.9G+Wu (Lateral) 1.28 115. It is important that screw patterns are staggered for both sides of the column so that splitting of the LVL does not occur.59 99.8 59.53 78.30 (Rx2+Ry2)0.6.28 115.8 1.30 (Rx2+Ry2)0. Nails are typically not recommended of base plates in larger structures because of the number of nails required combined with the fact they would need to be hand driven through holes in plates.96 24.5 82.9G+Wu (Lateral) 1.0 1.0 1.R 3.2G+Wu (Lateral) 0.0 Angle 61.8 Column to footing connection design Connection of portal frame columns to footings can be achieved by base brackets that are suitably sized and fixed directly to the LVL columns.6 0.5 kN 67. Technical note 82 Eq.3 127.4 115. This can be typically achieved by using H3. 4.60 53.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.35G 1.70 108.61 52. Bolts can be used and are good to aid in the transfer of bracing loads across the column.9G+Wu (Long) 1.6 100.2G+1. A similar design philosophy is applied to the design and specification of hold down anchors and base plates as would normally be applied to steel where the buckling of the plate under tension needs to be considered.96 24.4 65.3 127.6 0.8 1.61 52. Screws are ideal for most base bracket connections due to their ease of application.8 59.5Q 0.16 58.53 78.98 63.0 kN 19. New Zealand Date: Sept.5Q 0.67 102. Downwards loads may be considered to be taken out in bearing so for the design of connections only uplift loads need be considered.0 1.0 1.60 53.8 59.
screwed through base plate sides into column. calculate minimum number of 14g screws. Auckland.0 Qk = 3. New Zealand Date: Sept.303 ∴ n = 34.0 × n × 1.303kN k = 1.3 kN.9 Say 48/14gx50 type 17 Hex Head screws.8 * k1 = 1. Since critical design reaction is 115.25 × 3. Proposed Connection Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . *Ø=0.8 × 1. screws are in single shear and are screwed through close fitting steel plates into the edge or face of the timber.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.8 is applied as Type 17 screws are as reliable as nails in service.Qk where: Ø = 0.n. ‘08 Page: 54 / 92 Designed : C.3 = 0.R ØQn = Ø. 115.k .25 NZS 3603 Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry.
spacing . Lateral wind qu=0. 37 ws = × + 1.1 Wind loading The capacity of solid timber girts is also dependant on the nature of lateral tortional buckling restraint and the critical edge to which the loading and restraint is provided. kL= 1. side wall Girt Span Girt Spacing (10. ‘08 Page: 55 / 92 Designed : C.c pe − c pi ) i * w1 = 0.66 × (1.5 Calculate design loading w* = qu .56) * ∴ w1 = +1.54.56.i= 0.93kN / m * w2 = 0.5 ×− 0. 384.84 kPa Case 1 Case 2 cp.i= +0.kl .30kN / m 45 5.66 × (1.84kN / m Serviceability Refer Technical Note 82 for Section and Material Properties.7 − − 0.000(90+65))/2 = 4923 mm 1660 mm Propose 190x45 hyCHORD for use as side wall girt 4. It is therefore important to consider both positive and negative wind pressures.e= +0.54) * ∴ w2 = −1.i= +0.w.e= 0.65. θ = 0˚.EI x 2 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . Longitudinal wind qu=0. kL= 1. New Zealand Date: Sept.7.76 ×1.76 kPa Case 1 cp.R 4. cp.3. cp.61 θ = 90˚.(k a .e= 0.25 ×+ 0. cp.l 4 δ w = k 2 .84 × 1. Auckland.0 Girt Design.65 − + 0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.25 cp.93= + 1.
93 × 4. therefore k8=1.9 × 1.k4 .R 5× + 1.4 NZS 3603 Ø = 0 .0.k5 .0 ØM = 11. f s . New Zealand Date: Sept.l +1. 3.0 f b = 48MPa Technical Note 82 ØM n = 0.k8kNm Continuous restraint to compression edge via pierce fixed sheeting.30 × 4923 4 δ w = 1.Z where: Eq.k5 .73kN V* = Calculate Bending Moment Capacity M * ≤ ØM n M n = k1.4 NZS 3603 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .3 NZS 3603 Eq.93 × 4. Auckland.9 = 2 2 * * ∴ N = V = 4. AS where: Eq. 3.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. 3.3mm or Span 140 Strength Check capacity for positive wind pressures w.3 NZS 3603 Eq.0 × k8 × 48 × 271 × 103 ∴ ØM n = 11.k8 .92 = 8 8 * ∴ M = 5.0 × 1.k 4 .l 2 +1.0 × 1. ‘08 Page: 56 / 92 Designed : C. 9 384 × 283 × 10 ∴ δ w = 35.7 kNm > M * Calculate Shear Capacity V * ≤ ØVn Vn = k1.0 k1 = 1.79kNm M* = Consider shear and support reaction for wind load w.7. 3. f b .9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 .
Auckland.97 ØM = 11.1 NZS 3603 ∴VS = 0. New Zealand Date: Sept.d / 3 ∴ AS = k1 = 1.673 5000 4.3 × 5700 ∴VS = 27.175 × 12.0 AS = 2.0116 × 12.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.3kNm > M * 1 × 12.9 × 1.2 Connection design Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .0 × 1.2kN > V * Consider negative wind pressures.7.3.7 × 0.5kNm * Calculate bending moment capacity From previous: ØM n = 11.0 × 5.R Technical Note 82 Ø = 0 . 3. ‘08 Page: 57 / 92 Designed : C.k8 kNm Calculate k8 Continuous lateral restraint is provided to the tension edge via pierce fixed sheeting.3MPa 2 × 190 × 45 = 5700mm 2 3 Cl 3.21 + 0.84 × 4.67 45 Eq. − w. Calculate S1 S1 = 3.9 2 M = = 8 8 * ∴ M = −5.0 f s = 5.l 2 1.67 2 + ∴ k8 = 0.S 2 + a4 . d b 190 S! = 3 × = 12.97 ∴ ØM = 11.2.S + a3 .67 + − 0.6 NZS 3603 Since 25>S1>10 k8 = a1 + a2 .9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 .S 3 k8 = 0.b.
0 × 1.3kN > N * Also confirm Characteristic Strength Capacity of Bracket.25 since nails are through steel side plates < 3. Check Capacity Joint Group J5 Table 3. ‘08 Page: 58 / 92 Designed : C. The proposed bracket is manufactured by Mitek.15 nails per tab. Proposed Girt Layout Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .R Connection of hyCHORD girts is easiest performed using proprietary brackets and screws or nails. It is important to ensure that the depth of proprietary brackets is at least 60% of the depth for beams up to 50 mm thick. ØQn = 0.2. Eq. NZS 3603 NZS 3603 S * ≤ ØQn Qn = n. 4.0 mm thickness.1.9 m at maximum 1660 mm spacing is adequate to support the design load.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.631kN n = 10 k=1. for members around 190 mm deep we recommend a minimum of 10/Ø3.15x35 FH nails ie.8 k1 = 1. Auckland.25 × 0. 4.k . ØQ = 18.Qk where: Ø = 0.631 ∴ Qn = 6. Propose JH47x190 to suit 190x45 hyCHORD. Technical note 82 Eq.0kN > N * Mitek Literature The 190x45 hyCHORD girt to span 4.8 × 10 × 1.0 Qk = 0. NZS 3603 Other ‘k’ modifaction factors are not relevant as timber is dry.Qk ØQn = Ø.k . It is typical to apply a practical minimum number of nails for bracket and beam stability. 5/Ø3.n. New Zealand Date: Sept. nails are in single shear and are nailed into the edge or face of the timber.
Lateral wind Girt loading (positive pressure) P*= +8. 5. New Zealand Date: Sept.n. which is typical of mullions. θ = 0˚. Refer Appendix 1 for beam equations.1 Wind loading Girts provide lateral restraint to the compression edge for positive pressures and to the tension edge for negative wind pressures.35 kN Serviceability Apply maximum wind pressure for serviceability 37 Ps = × + 8. side wall The mullion is best calculated as a vertical member supporting a series of point loads that share a common spacing.61= + 5. where n is the number of girts. Auckland.L3 4 δw = k 2 . Girt reactions have been recalculated excluding the local pressure factors as the mullion does not directly support the cladding.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.4 m 1660 mm Propose 300x63 hySPAN for use as side wall mullion. Longitudinal wind Girt loading (negative pressure) P*= 7.0 Mullion design. ‘08 Page: 59 / 92 Designed : C.82kN 45 n=4 1 P.3 − 1 + 2 192.R 5. Consider side wall mullion Mullion Span Girt Spacing 6.61 kN θ = 90˚.EI 2 n 2 Appendix 1 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . Standard beam formulae have been adapted to best provide accurate but easy to calculate equations. .
l = 4× 8 8 * − ∴ M = 23.l 8.R 1 5820 × 6400 3 4 δ w = 1 .4 P.4 M = n.5 S1 = 1.5 2 L ay .61 × 6.0 x × 4 × 3 − 1 + 2 6 192 × 13200 × 142 x10 2 4 ∴ δ w = 30. Calculate k8 Compression edge restrained by girts at 1660 mm spacing. d S1 = 1.5 0.5 NZS 3603 1660 300 2 0.2kN V * = (n − 1). 3.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.61 = 4× 2 2 * * + ∴ N = V = 17.55kNm * Negative wind pressures − 7.35 − 1 63 63 ∴ S1 = 14.35 × 6. ‘08 Page: 60 / 92 Designed : C.5 Eq. = 4× 8 8 * ∴ M = 27.3mm or Span 211 Strength Calculate bending moment and shear Positive wind pressures + P. Consider shear and support reaction for wind load + P 8. 0. Auckland.35 − 1 b b 0. New Zealand Date: Sept. Calculate Bending Moment Capacity Positive Pressure.95 Since 25>S1>10 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .5kNm M * = n.
S 2 + a4 .1.21 + 0.S + a3.S 3 k8 = 0.34 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0.175 × 14. 3.34+ − 0.95+ − 0.953 5000 Ø = 0 .Z Carter Holt Harvey Limited 1 × 19.5 Eq.S + a3 .35 Lay d 0.0116 × 14.952 + ∴ k8 = 0. 3.0 × 1. 3.3 Eq. f b .k8 .Z where: Eq.S 3 k 8 = 0.34 3 5000 Eq.5 AS 1720.0 k 1 = 1 .4 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 1 × 14.90 ØM = 36. ‘08 Page: 61 / 92 Designed : C. New Zealand Date: Sept.k5 .k 4 . 3.3 Eq. 3.70 M * ≤ ØM n M n = k1.9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 .21 + 0.k5 .12008 300 1660 S1 = 63 300 ∴ S1 = 19. f b .4 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 September 2008 .k8kNm Since k8=0.90 M * ≤ ØM n M n = k1. Calculate k8 Tension edge restrained by girts at 1660 mm spacing.0 × k8 × 48 × 945 × 103 ∴ ØM n = 40.0116 × 19. d S1 = b 1.175 × 19.S 2 + a 4 .0 f b = 48MPa Technical Note 82 ØM n = 0. Auckland.k 4 .9 × 1.0 × 1.35 k 8 = a1 + a 2 .k8 .34 Since 25>S1>10 1. Consider Stability equation for Discrete Restraint to Tension Edge from AS 1720.2(5) 0.74kNm > M * Negative Pressure.82.R k8 = a1 + a2 .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.
Auckland.2 Connection design Two different connections are required for the mullion.0 AS = 2.4 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 Ø = 0 . AS where: Eq. Connection to the ground is proposed using Mitek CF2x brackets whilst the connection to the eaves beam can be performed using two Mitek N21 Diagonal Cleats.0 f b = 48MPa Technical Note 82 ØM n = 0. Technical Note 82 Eq.0 × 1. f s .82.70 ØM = 28.9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 .0 × 5.2.k4 . 4.1.1 NZS 3603 ∴VS = 0. Propose use of proprietary Ø3. 3.3 × 12600 ∴VS = 60.3.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.6kNm > M * Calculate Shear Capacity V * ≤ ØVn Vn = k1. NZS 3603 NZS 3603 September 2008 S * ≤ ØQn Qn = n. It is recommended that the reduced number of fasteners are evenly distributed across the tab/bracket area.9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 .0 × 1.b. 3.3 Eq.Qk Carter Holt Harvey Limited .k .k8kNm Since k8=0.0 × 1.3MPa Technical Note 82 2 × 300 × 63 = 12600mm 2 3 Cl 3.9 × 1. Joint Group J5 Table 3.15x35 FH nails for connection to mullion.1kN > V * 5.0 f s = 5. ‘08 Page: 62 / 92 Designed : C.2.0 × k8 × 48 × 945 × 103 ∴ ØM n = 40. Eq.0 k 1 = 1 .k5 .d / 3 ∴ AS = k1 = 1. New Zealand Date: Sept.R where: Ø = 0 . We can calculate a reduced number of fasteners for ease of installation whilst maintaining the structural integrity. 4. The design capacities expressed in the Mitek literature are based on fully nailing out the holes.9 × 1.
One pair of Mitek N21 Diagonal Cleats.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. ‘08 Page: 63 / 92 Designed : C. Load in shear only. ØQ = 40.0 Qk = 0.k . ØQn = 0.25 × 0.25 since nails are through steel side plates < 3.631 ØQn = n × 0. per bracket. NZS 3603 Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry.Qk where: Ø = 0.R ØQn = Ø. Auckland.22 = 27.25 0.8 k1 = 1. New Zealand Date: Sept. Stagger nails.631kN ∴n = 17. Also check Characteristic Strength Capacity of Bracket. ØQ = 48.0kN > N * Proposed Mullion Connection Mitek Literature Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .631 Say 15/Ø3.631kN n=? k=1.0 mm thickness.15x35 FH nails per tab.8 × n × 1.0kN > N * Mitek Literature One pair of CF2x brackets with 2/M12 Chemical anchors. nails are in single shear and are nailed into the edge or face of the timber.n.0 × 1.
R Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . New Zealand Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 64 / 92 Designed : C. Auckland.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.
Auckland. New Zealand Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 65 / 92 Designed : C. w*=+0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.64kN 45 37 w = ×+ 0.66 × 98284 +11640 × 98283 δw = 1.0 Eaves beam design Eaves Beam Span Mullion location 10.L + 0.8 + = + 8 4 8 4 * ∴ M = 53.97 × 9.69 kN/m Serviceability Positive wind pressure critical for serviceability 2 37 Ps* = ×+ 17.000(90+(2x41)) = 9828 mm Midspan (critical) Propose 400x63 hySPAN for use as eaves beam 6.97kN/m Negative pressure P*= 14. w*=0.8 2 17.l 2 P. + 9 48 × 4435 ×109 384 × 4435 × 10 ∴ δw = 70.0mm or Span 140 Strength Check capacity for positive wind pressures w.22 kN.R 6.1 Wind loading Positive pressure P*= +17.7 kN.22 × 9.8kNm M* = Consider shear and support reaction for wind load Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .22= + 11.0.97 = + 0.66kN / m 45 * s 2 5×+ 0.
b.0 ØM = 68.0 f b = 48MPa Technical Note 82 300 ∴ k11 = 400 0.4 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 For solid sections with member depths greater than 300 mm.6 AS1720.3 Eq. f s .k 4 .k5 .1 (Clause 2.d / 3 ∴ AS = k1 = 1.94kNm > M * Calculate Shear Capacity V * ≤ ØVn Vn = k1.22 + = + 2 2 2 2 * * ∴ N = V = 13.95 × 48 × 1680 × 10 3 ∴ ØM n = 68.95 ØM n = 0.4.3MPa Technical Note 82 2 × 400 × 63 = 16800mm 2 3 Cl 3.k5 .k4 . apply k11 size factor.97 × 9. 2.9. therefore k8=1. AS where: Eq.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.0 × 1.k11.k8 .3 Eq.4 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 Ø = 0 .k8 . For further information refer AS1720. f b .k1.9 × 1.1 NZS 3603 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .0 × 1.8 17.Z Eq.4kN V* = Calculate Bending Moment Capacity M * ≤ ØM n M n = k1.3.167 k 1 = 1 . 3. ‘08 Page: 66 / 92 Designed : C.0 f s = 5.9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 . 3.Z Ø = 0 . 3.1 = 0.0 300 k11 = d 0.6) or Technical Note 82.k5 .9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 . New Zealand Date: Sept.0 × k 8 × 0.167 Cl.0 AS = 2.4.k4 . Therefore where: ØM n = Ø.R w.2.k 8 kNm Continuous restraint to compression edge via pierce fixed sheeting. Auckland. 3.l P + 0. f b .
04 63 Eq. w.2 Connection design Connection of the eaves beam to the column needs to provide both torsional restraint as well as adequate fastening for the horizontal wind loads. 3.S + a3 . Calculate S1 S1 = 3.21 + 0.94.l 2 P.043 5000 6.0116 × 19.175 × 19. Auckland.k8kNm Calculate k8 Continuous lateral restraint is provided to the tension edge via pierce fixed sheeting. d b 400 = 19.6 NZS 3603 S! = 3 × Since 25>S1>10 k8 = a1 + a2 .7 × 9.3kNm M* = Calculate bending moment capacity From previous: ØM n = 68.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.9 × 1.L − 0.3 × 16800 ∴VS = 80.S 3 k8 = 0.72 ØM = 49.R ∴VS = 0.6kNm > M * 1 × 19.69 × 9.042 + ∴ k8 = 0.0 × 5.0 × 1.8 2 − 14.1kN > V * Consider negative wind pressures. New Zealand Date: Sept.94 × 0.04+ − 0.S 2 + a4 . Calculate load taken by split joist hangers using 6/ 14g type 17 Hex Head screws per member Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .72 ∴ ØM = 68. ‘08 Page: 67 / 92 Designed : C.8 + = + 8 4 8 4 * − ∴ M = 44. It is proposed to use a combination of a pair of Mitek MS1430 split joist hanger together with a Mitek N21 Diagonal Cleat.
631kN n = 10 k=1.6.Qk ØQn = Ø. NZS 3603 NZS 3603 S * ≤ ØQn Qn = n. ‘08 Page: 68 / 92 Designed : C.5kN > N * Proposed Connection Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .8 kN ØQT = 18.5.8 × 10 × 1.k .0 Qk = 3.2 + 6.25 since nails are through steel side plates < 3.1.3kN Consider design Reaction. NZS 3603 NZS 3603 S * ≤ ØQn Qn = n.8 k1 = 1.0 × 1.0 Qk = 0.2.k .k . Eq. Technical note 82 Eq. Auckland.303kN k=1. 4.25 × 0. NZS 3603 ØQn = 0.8 * k1 = 1.Qk where: Ø = 0. ØQn = 0. Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry and screws are in single shear.k . N* = 13. 4.Qk ØQn = Ø.3 ∴ QT = 24. New Zealand Date: Sept.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.Qk where: Ø = 0.2kN Consider use of Diagonal Cleat to provide stability and additional support Joint Group J5 Table 3.8 is applied as Type 17 screws are as reliable as nails in service.n. Eq.303 ∴ ØQn = 18.25 since nails are through steel side plates < 3.0 mm thickness.n.0 × 1. 4. NZS 3603 Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry. nails are in single shear and are nailed into the edge or face of the timber. 4.25 × 3.R Joint Group J4 Table 3. *Ø=0.8 × 6 × 1.631 ∴ Qn = 6.0 mm thickness. Technical note 82 Eq.
61.65.25. θ = 0˚.5. Longitudinal wind qu=0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.i= 0.0 m cp.e= 0.84 kPa Case 1 Case 2 cp. New Zealand Date: Sept.0 + 29. It is therefore important to consider both positive and negative wind pressures.0 Girt Design. Auckland. one only ØQ = 20.e= +0. cp.6kN Total capacity of brackets Mitek Literature ØQ = 20. kL= 1.7.1 Wind loading The capacity of solid timber girts is also dependant on the nature of lateral tortional buckling restraint and the critical edge to which the loading and restraint is provided.76 kPa Case 1 cp.R Also confirm Characteristic Strength Capacity of Bracket. cp.0 m θ = 90˚. kL= 2.i= +0. kL= 1. over 3.6kN > N * 7. over 3. ‘08 Page: 69 / 92 Designed : C.6 = 49. Lateral wind qu=0.0kN Pair of MS1430 Split Joist Hangers Mitek Literature ØQ = 29. end wall Girt Span Girt Spacing 6000 mm 1660 mm Propose 240x45 hySPAN for use as end wall girt 7. over 6.65.65. N21 Diagonal Cleat.0 m Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .e= 0.i= +0.61. cp.0.
Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.96 × 8 6 .spacing .5 × 2.65 − + 0.63kN Calculate Moment − * M Wu = − 6.96kNm 2.76 × 1.63 × 3.5 2 − − 1. Auckland.0 × 4.kl .5 ∴ R* = − 6.84 × 1.84 × 1.0 2 − 2.44kN / m w * eff − = Calculate critical reaction and shear Calculate Reactions R* = 1 − 3 .0×− 0.76kN / m Calculate weff Calculate Reactions R* = − 2.0 2 ∴ R* = − 7. ‘08 Page: 70 / 92 Designed : C.5+ − 1.76 × 3.76 × 1.(ka .66 × (1.61) * ∴ w2 = −1.61) * ∴ w1 = −2. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .0 − * ∴ M Wu = − 10.65 − + 0.31kN Serviceability Refer Technical Note 82 for Section and Material Properties.66 × 1.66 × + 1.5 6 .0×− 0.0 2 * ∴ weff = − 2.66kN / m * w2 = 0.66 × (2.R Calculate design loading Case 2 is critical by inspection wi* = qu . New Zealand Date: Sept.66 × 1.25 2 Calculate weff 10.c pe − c pi ) * w1 = 0.
Project: For: At:
30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand
Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 71 / 92 Designed : C.R
37 ws = ×− 2.44= − 1.62kN / m 45 5.w.l 4 δw = k2. 384.EI x 5×− 1.62 × 6000 4 δw = 1.0. 9 384 × 684 × 10 ∴ δw = 40.0mm or
Strength
Calculate Bending Moment Capacity
2
Span 150
M * ≤ ØM n M n = k1.k 4 .k5 .k8 . f b .Z
where:
Eq. 3.3 Eq. 3.4
NZS 3603 NZS 3603
Ø = 0 .9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 .0
k 1 = 1 .0 f b = 48MPa
Technical Note 82
ØM n = 0.9 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 × k 8 × 48 × 432 × 10 3 ∴ ØM n = 18.7.k 8 kNm
Calculate k8
Since negative pressures produce a higher moment than positive pressure for this case and continuous restraint is offered, the tension edge restraint will produce a less stable option, hence we only need to consider capacity for negative pressure in this case.
Continuous lateral restraint is provided to the tension edge via pierce fixed sheeting. Calculate S1
S1 = 3.
d b 240 = 16.0 45
Eq. 3.6
NZS 3603
S1 = 3 ×
Since 25>S1>10
Carter Holt Harvey Limited
September 2008
Project: For: At:
30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand
Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 72 / 92 Designed : C.R
k8 = a1 + a2 .S + a3 .S 2 + a4 .S 3 k8 = 0.21 + 0.175 × 16.0+ − 0.0116 × 16.02 + ∴ k8 = 0.86 ∴ ØM = 18.67 × 0.86 ØM = 16.1kNm > M *
Calculate Shear Capacity
1 × 16.03 5000
V * ≤ ØVn Vn = k1.k4 .k5 . f s . AS
where:
Eq. 3.3 Eq. 3.4
NZS 3603 NZS 3603
Ø = 0 .9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 .0 AS = 2.b.d / 3 ∴ AS =
k1 = 1.0 f s = 5.3MPa
Technical Note 82
2 × 240 × 45 = 7200mm 2 3
Cl 3.2.3.1
NZS 3603
∴ VS = 0.9 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 5.3 × 7200 ∴ VS = 34.34kN > V *
7.2 Connection design
Propose JH 47x190 to suit 240x45 hySPAN so that the same bracket can be used for both side and end walls (Depth of bracket is 79.2 % of girt depth so suitable).
Consider 12/Ø3.15x35 FH nails. Joint Group J5 Table 3, Technical note 82 Eq. 4.1, Eq. 4.2, NZS 3603 NZS 3603
S * ≤ ØQn Qn = n.k .Qk ØQn = Ø.n.k .Qk
where:
Ø = 0.8 k1 = 1.0 Qk = 0.631kN n = 12
k=1.25 since nails are through steel side plates < 3.0 mm thickness.
Carter Holt Harvey Limited
NZS 3603
September 2008
Project: For: At:
30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park, Auckland, New Zealand
Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 73 / 92 Designed : C.R
Other ‘k’ modification factors are not relevant as timber is dry, nails are in single shear and are nailed into the edge or face of the timber.
ØQn = 0.8 × 12 × 1.0 × 1.25 × 0.631 ∴ Qn = 7.6kN > N *
Also confirm Characteristic Strength Capacity of Bracket.
ØQ = 27.0kN > N *
Mitek Literature
The 240x45 hySPAN girt to span 6.3 m at maximum 1660 mm spacing is adequate to support the design load.
Carter Holt Harvey Limited
September 2008
R 8.0 Mullion design. θ = 0˚. A reduced frame was not used in this example as its analysis is similar to other portal frame components where special attention is paid to the bending moment diagram and restraint offered by purlins. Auckland. Connection to the outside of the frame is less complicated because the purlins do not create clashes with proposed mullion locations.1 Wind loading Girts provide lateral restraint to the compression edge for positive pressures and to the tension edge for negative wind pressures. New Zealand Date: Sept.2 m 1660 mm Propose 400x63 hySPAN for use as end wall mullion. end wall Wind posts may be designed for buildings where smaller frames are used in the end walls. ‘08 Page: 74 / 92 Designed : C. Additional end wall bracing may also be required to limit the sway achieved by the reduced section frame. 8. Lateral wind Girt loading (negative pressure) P*= 10. Longitudinal wind Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . Depending on spans and quantities individual calculations of mullion sizes may have cost benefits. End wall mullions are typically symmetrical about the ridge line to allow for repetition of detail and order lengths. In this case given there are only four mullions per end wall we will design the mullion that has the maximum span. End wall mullions can be detailed to fix to the inside or outside of the end wall frame. Girt loads have been recalculated excluding local pressure factors. Wind posts would be required to resist axial loads from the frames as well as horizontal wind loads.56 kN θ = 90˚.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. Consider end wall mullion Mullion Span Girt Spacing 8.
20 kN Date: Sept.0kNm M * = (n 2 − 1).l 10.n 8×5 * − ∴ M = 52.2 = (5 2 − 1)× 8.l 10.L3 192. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .n 8×5 * + ∴ M = 50.n − .9mm or Span 147 Strength Calculate bending moment and shear Positive wind pressures + P.4kN V * = (n − 1).56 × 8. ‘08 Page: 75 / 92 Designed : C. New Zealand P*= +10. Calculate Bending Moment Capacity Positive Pressure.R Girt loading (positive pressure) Serviceability Apply maximum wind pressure for serviceability 37 Ps = × + 10. Consider shear and support reaction for wind load − P 10. = (5 − 1)× 8.2 2 M = (n − 1).56 = (6 − 1) × 2 2 * * ∴ N = V = 26.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.20 × 8.3 − 1 − 2 n 2 n 2 Appendix 1 7140 × 8200 3 1 1 1 δ w = 1 .0 x × 5 − × 3 − 1 − 2 6 192 × 13200 × 336 x10 5 2 5 ∴ δ w = 55. P.14kN 45 n=5 δw = k 2 .2kNm * 2 Negative wind pressures − P. Calculate k8 Compression edge restrained by girts at 1660 mm spacing.EI 1 1 1 . Auckland.56= − 7.
35+ − 0. d S1 = 1.5 NZS 3603 1660 400 2 0.80 ØM = 58.5 2 L ay .S + a3 . 3. d S1 = b 1.352 + ∴ k8 = 0.R Eq. 3.35 − 1 b b 0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.0 × 1.9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 . 3. Auckland.k8 .1kNm > M * Negative Pressure.0116 × 17. 3.1 400 1660 S1 = 63 400 ∴ S1 = 24.5 0.2(5) 0.S 3 k8 = 0.S 2 + a4 .0 × 1.k5 .35 Since 25>S1>10 k8 = a1 + a2 .9 × 1.k 4 .21 + 0.Z where: Eq.6.3 Eq.5 Eq. Consider Stability equation for Discrete Restraint to Tension Edge from AS 1720. Calculate k8 Tension edge restrained by girts at 1660 mm spacing.5 Date: Sept.k 8 kNm Since k8=0. ‘08 Page: 76 / 92 Designed : C.5 S1 = 1.0 × k 8 × 48 × 1680 × 10 3 ∴ ØM n = 72.35 Lay d 0.4 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 1 × 17.80 M * ≤ ØM n M n = k1.353 5000 Ø = 0 . New Zealand 0.35 − 1 63 63 ∴ S1 = 17.35 September 2008 .1.0 f b = 48MPa Technical Note 82 ØM n = 0.175 × 17.5 AS 1720.69 Carter Holt Harvey Limited 1. f b .0 k 1 = 1 .
S 2 + a4 .262 + ∴ k8 = 0.11kNm < M * Not sufficient The effect of beam slenderness have reduced the capacity of this section such that it is not suitable to support the required load.S 3 k8 = 0.9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 .69+ − 0.263 5000 Ø = 0 .21 + 0.26+ − 0. Whilst hy90 has a lower Characteristic Bending Strength the additional thickness means that a 63mm hySPAN and 90mm hy90 compare favourably with each other as a direct strength and stiffness comparison (refer Appendix 2).69 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0. Auckland.0 × 1.89 For hy90: 1 × 15. lower strength and cost section such as 400x90 hy90 to replace the 400x63 hySPAN.21 + 0. and hence may be suitable for the end wall mullion.S + a 3 .0 f b = 35MPa Technical Note 82 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .5 k8 = a1 + a2 .9 × 1.35 0.26 Since 25>S1>10 1.0 So: k1 = 1.S 2 + a 4 . In this type of situation it is an opportunity to select a thicker.0 × 1.69 3 5000 ØM n = 0. Try 400x90 hy90 as end wall mullion: 400 1660 S1 = 90 400 ∴ S1 = 15.R Since 25>S1>10 k 8 = a1 + a 2 .S 3 k 8 = 0.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. ‘08 Page: 77 / 92 Designed : C.0116 × 15.58.0 × k8 × 48 × 1680 × 103 ∴ ØM n = 72.47 ØM = 34.175 × 24.0116 × 24.k8kNm Since k8=0.S + a3 . New Zealand Date: Sept. The fact that the hy90 section in question has a lower depth to breadth ratio means it is more stable.47 From previous: 1 × 24.175 × 15.
3.1 NZS 3603 ∴VS = 0.4 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 Ø = 0 .2.0 f s = 5.60. notch to match 240 deep girt.89 400 2 × 90 6 ØM = 67. f s .3kNm > M * Calculate Shear Capacity V * ≤ ØVn Vn = k1. Asn dn Eq.3 × 14400 ∴VS = 68. Since the rafter acts as a support for the mullion the moment at the notch is zero.0 f s = 5.0 × 1. AS where: Eq.3MPa Technical Note 82 Consider reduced section at notch for shear capacity.3 Eq.3. The mullion notch to accommodate the rafter needs to be checked.2 where: M* ≤ 1.k5 .k4 . The notch will only fracture due to an opening moment which would be caused by a positive wind pressure.0 × k8 × 35 × ∴ ØM n = 75.0 × 1.b. 3. 3.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 . M* = 0 kNm.0 k1 = 1.3MPa Technical Note 82 It is best practice to always make the notch slope as long as possible to limit the stress concentration at the notch location. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .k5 . NZS 3603.k4 .4 kN V * + 1 .7kN > V * Consider notching of mullion top.5Ø. ‘08 Page: 78 / 92 Designed : C.k1.0 k1 = 1.d / 3 ∴ AS = 2 × 240 × 90 = 14400mm 2 3 Cl 3. V* = N* = 26.7. Auckland. NZS 3603 Ø = 0 .k8 kNm Since k8=0. New Zealand Date: Sept.R ØM n = 0.9 × 1.0 × 1.k7 .7.9 × 1. AS = 2.0 × 5. however the shear force needs to be considered as per equation 3.9 k 4 = k 5 = 1 . f s .
New Zealand Date: Sept.2 k7 = 0.15x30 FH nails and 4/14gx35 type 17 screws per bracket ØQ = 1. similar to the side wall mullion.6 NZS 3603 8.R Since: a = (400 − 240) = 160mm bn = 4 × 160 = 640mm a ≥ 0.25 d 2 .0 = 37.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.1. fixed with 8/Ø3.25 Asn = 2.d n / 3 2 × 240 × 90 = 14400mm 2 3 26.2 ∴ k7 = = 0. ØQ = 13.0 + 24.2.0kN > N Proposed Connection * Mitek Literatue Mitek Literatue Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .49 4000.0 = 24.1 NZS 3603 Cl 3. Consider system capacity CT1200 Cyclone Tie. ‘08 Page: 79 / 92 Designed : C. Auckland.4kN ≤ 50.0kN * Mitek Literatue 3/ Concealed purlin cleats (CP80). wrapped around mullion with 5 nails per end.5kN ∴ AS = Table 3.d 2 . The connection to the rafter requires tension capable fixings.5 × 16.b.2 Connection design Connection to the ground is proposed using Mitek CF2x brackets. One system using proprietary brackets involves the use of three Mitek concealed purlin cleats (CP80) together with one suitable length cyclone tie.0kN ∴ ØQ = 13.
Auckland. New Zealand Date: Sept.R Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . ‘08 Page: 80 / 92 Designed : C.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.
Auckland.2:2002 Since both building ratios exceed 4 the friction force acting on the building needs to be resisted. cp.7 h 7.7 − − 0.5 AS/NZS 1170.3m 2 / side * Pend _ wall = q u . A. θ = 90˚.R 9.3) * ∴ Pend _ wall = 44. For spans up to 20m strap bracing is a cheap and easy way to achieve the required longitudinal bracing requirements.0 Cl 5.e (Leeward)= 0.e (W ) − c p . For spans above 20m the installation time required for strap bracing can outweigh any advantages of the low costs of materials.764 30 Area = .(c p .0 Longitudinal Bracing Portal Frame action takes care of the lateral loads however Longitudinal Bracing is required to transfer the longitudinal forces to the ground.0 b 30. Longitudinal wind qu=0. .79 d 60.76 × 58. 2 2 2 1 6. 2 2 2 Area = 58.e ( L ) ) * Pend _ wall = 0. This can be easily modelled using structural analysis packages.0 = = 2 .2 Eqn. Timber (LVL) braces can be used for loading in tension and compression and can be suitably fixed to purlins and girts to reduce buckling lengths. ‘08 Page: 81 / 92 Designed : C.3 Calculate design loading Calculate end wall force 1 heave + hridge b .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. Area = .7. Traditional threaded rod may be used for bracing or timber braces can be developed.0 = = 7 . New Zealand Date: Sept. 5. Calculate Friction Force Calculate Load Area for friction Area = (b + 2h)(d − 4h) Carter Holt Harvey Limited AS/NZS 1170.3 ×( + 0.76 kPa cp.789 + 8.e (Windward) = +0. Matching bracing points with mullion/wind post loads is theoretically the best option but is nearly always impractical for larger structures.3kN Consider friction due to sheeting profile d 60. Both Mitek and Pryda have proprietary brackets suitable for connection to timber frames. Essentially the braced bays will act as a truss transferring the loads through the purlins between braced bays.5(a) September 2008 .
15 = 40.04 .1 Calculate force in wall brace Rbrace = 32.8 ) 2 ∴ Area = 656.6m 2 / side Area = For large buildings the area may be broken up into its roof and wall contribution to take advantage of the lower loads to be resisted however for this example the loads do not reach levels where any significant advantage may be gained. Auckland.6 × 0.R (30.6 September 2008 Carter Holt Harvey Limited .15 kN.0 * ∴ PTotal = 64.15 = 38.8)(60 − 4 × 7.2kN Cos32.3kN Cos37.04 * ∴ Pfriction = 20.3 + 20.Ribs across the wind direction AS/NZS 1170.2 Table 5. for this example we propose two braced bays. Therefore the horizontal load to be transferred in each braced bay is 32.76 × 656.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.3kN For long buildings it is good practice to have a bracing bay each end of the building rather than relying on the building to transfer all bracing loads from one end to the other.9 P * friction = qu . c f = 0. A friction . Consider Roof Bracing Layout (Wall Bracing similar except tension only) Calculate force in roof brace Rbrace = 32.0 + 2 × 7.0kN Total load to be resisted by bracing per side * * * PTotal = Pend _ wall + Pfriction * PTotal = 44. New Zealand Date: Sept. ‘08 Page: 82 / 92 Designed : C.c f * Pfriction = 0.
E4(5) AS1720.k8 .1 details stability equations for spaced columns.k8 .k8 . separated with 7mm plywood strips to form a spaced column.0 A I Eq.g 28 .k1. Calculate Buckling capacity N ncx = k1.k8 × 45 × 6300 ∴ ØN ncx = 255. 3.R Design for critical load.3g13 .9 × k1 × . where: g13=1. ‘08 Page: 83 / 92 Designed : C. Auckland. This procedure can be used to determine the slenderness coefficient for this member.1 This component is considered to be a spaced column.9 f c = 45MPa A = 2 × 90 × 35 = 6300mm Technical Note 82 ØN ncx = 0.2 Table E5 AS1720. f c . S 5 = 0.421 × 10 3 mm 4 ) Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .3 kN Propose 2/90x45 hyCHORD braces.0 g28=1. f c .1 A=2x90x35=6300 mm2 I yy = 77 3 − 7 3 × ∴ I yy ( 90 12 = 3.2 × k1 . A where: NZS3603 Eq. Clause E4 of AS1720. 40. New Zealand Date: Sept. A ∴ ØN ncx = Ø.kN Minor axis critical for buckling by inspection Minor axis buckling YY Calculate k8 for buckling about the minor axis YY Lay = ∴ Lay Purlin _ spacing Sinα 1600 = = 2652mm Sin37.1 Table 3.L.18 Ø = 0 .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.1 AS1720.
37 kN > N c* Consider connection. 3.18 NZS3603 ∴ ØN ncx = 64.Qkl Since load is parallel to the grain 2 Qkl = min(k11 .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.9 Table 4.9 NZS3603 NZS3603 Cl 4.421 × 10 3 k 8 = a5 .4.25 Since k1 = 1. f cj .R ∴ S 5 = 0.S a6 k 8 = 235. propose proprietary Mitek B145 bracket system Consider 2/M16 Bolts For three member system be = 2 × 35 = 70mm Qskl = 2.3 × 1.0 Eq.5 × 34.15 −1.0 × 2652 × ∴ S 5 = 34. Auckland.937 ∴ k 8 = 0.d a ) Table 4.0.0 × 1.d a . ‘08 Page: 84 / 92 Designed : C.15 Since S5>25 6300 3.5 × be .2(a)(i) NZS3603 Apply joint group J3 for bolts parallel to the grain Technical Note 82 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . New Zealand Date: Sept. f cj .
0 × 45.28 ∴ ØQn = 64.0 × 46.7 n = 2 Qsk = 2 × 23.18 Eq.31) ∴ Qkl = 23.0 × 1.5 × 70 × 45.3 kN > N* Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .k1 .0 k13 = 1.7 × 2 × 1. Aw where: Eq.28kN k1 = 1.n. including threads ØV = 59.16 Eq. 4.0.Qk where: Eq.R ∴ Qkl = min(2.0 Therefore: ØQn = 0.2 × 16.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.7 ∴ ØQn = 65.0 2 .k12 . New Zealand Date: Sept.19 NZS3603 NZS3603 Ø = 0 . Aw ØQn = Ø.k13 . ‘08 Page: 85 / 92 Designed : C.14 = 46.7 × 2 × 14.n. 4.25.8kN > N * Consider bracket bolts in tension N * ≤ ØQn Qn = f pj .7 n = 2 f pj = 14.17 NZS3603 NZS3603 Ø = 0. Auckland. Propose M16 G8.Qsk ØQn = Ø. 4.14kN Calculate Bolt system capacity N * ≤ ØQn Qn = n.14.7 mm 2 Therefore: ØQn = 0.2 × 16.0 k12 = 1.0 × 1.k1 .0) ∴ Qkl = min(23. 4.1kN > N * Check colt capacity for fin plate connection to cleat.5MPa NZS 3603 Aw = 65 × 65 − π × 18 2 ∴ Aw = 3206.k13 .8 bolt.5 × 3206. f pj .k12 .
Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. New Zealand Date: Sept.0.1 Purlins subject to axial loads Purlins in end bays may be subjected to tension and compression forces from braced bays. These forces need to be considered in the design capacity.4 kNm Consider column action of purlins subject to axial force due to bracing loads.k8 . Technical Note 82 includes guidance on the calculation of hyJOIST section properties. Major axis buckling XX N ncx = k1.9G+Wu (from section 2) M* = 28. ‘08 Page: 86 / 92 Designed : C. f c . A ∴ ØN ncx = Ø. Remember to include for the penetration of the web into the flange. This force can be calculated as a designer would for a steel building. Auckland.64 kN ØM = 29. f c . Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . The load to be transferred through the purlin system in both tension and compression is relative to the force in the brace. A Eq.k1.18 NZS3603 Take only the flange area into account.8 kNm N c* = N t* = 9.R Consider Wall Bracing Connection 9.k8 . 3. Critical Design Actions Critical load case .
D2 NZS3603 0.97 × 10 N ØN ncx = 0.97 × 106 S3 = PE 67.k8 × 45 × 6210 ∴ ØN ncx = 251.46 × 106 ∴ S3 = PE 0.5 = 16.823(EA) S3 = PE 0.9 f c = 45MPa t.5 Eq.9 × k1 × .46 × 106 ∴ S3 = 235150 Since 25>S1>10a 0.5 Calculate Euler buckling load.(hr − hw ) A = 2. B.h f − 2 9 × (318 − 288) 2 A = 2.k8 .Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. PE = PE = π 2 (EI )y L2 E π 2 × 2338 × 109 9910 2 ∴ PE = 235150 N Calculate S3 67.50.93 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .R where: Ø = 0 . New Zealand Date: Sept. 90 × 36 − = 6210mm 2 6 EA = 13200 × 6210 = 81.k1. Auckland.5 ( ) 0. ‘08 Page: 87 / 92 Designed : C.823 81.kN Calculate k8 for buckling about the major axis L=Lax=9910 mm (Purlin length) 0.
82 Since k1 = 1.21 + 0.53 Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 1 × 22. y e ) + (EA) (EA) 2 π 360 2 6 57. D3 NZS3603 ( ) ( ) Calculate S3 67.5.175 × 22.932 + ∴ k8 = 0.S + a3. Design assumes that top edge of purlin is continuously restrained by roof sheeting and bottom flange is effectively restrained by lateral restraint. 2 (EI )y π d + yo2 + GJ Lay 4 PE = (EI )× + (EI )y y o ( y o + 2.k 8 . ‘08 Page: 88 / 92 Designed : C.97 × 106 ∴ PE = 127582 N 2 2 Eq.97 × 106 81.S 3 k8 = 0.S 3 k 8 = 0.21 + 0.0116 × 22.46 × 106 ∴ S3 = 127582 Since 25>S1>10 0. Auckland.933 5000 ∴ ØN ncx = 205.0116 × 16.175 × 16.kN Calculate k8 for buckling about the minor axis YY Lay=3303 mm (lateral restraint spacing) Calculate Euler buckling load.7 × 109 180(180 + 2 × 0 ) + + 81.99 3 5000 .R k8 = a1 + a2 .k1 .7 × 109 × 4 + 180 + 1848 × 10 2478 PE = 9 2338 × 10 57. New Zealand Date: Sept.0 1 × 16.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.5 = 22.99 k 8 = a1 + a 2 .S 2 + a4 .93+ − 0.S 2 + a 4 .99+ − 0.8kN > N c* Minor axis buckling YY From previous: ∴ ØN ncx = 251.S + a3 .99 2 + ∴ k 8 = 0.
0 Technical Note 82 k1 = 1.03 ≤ 1.k4 .20 Eq.0 29. therefore increasing the capacity by 3 %.6 + = 1.N nt N nt = k1. f t .4 184.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.4 133. however both axial and bending moment capacities are based on the flange area of the hyJOIST.44kN Combined actions 28. 3. although listed at 36 mm the hyJOIST flanges have a minimum thickness of 38 mm.8 9. 3.24 NZS3603 NZS3603 Note that the combined actions are 3 % over. 3.k1.0 ØN nt = 0.0 × 1.3 2 Eq.0 29. where: Ø = 0 . Auckland. New Zealand Date: Sept.4 Eq. therefore increasing the capacity by 3 %. ‘08 Page: 89 / 92 Designed : C.0 × 33 × 6210 ∴ ØN nt = 184.8 9. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .3kN > N c* Combined actions 28.6 + = 1.23 Eq.8 9.8 28. although listed at 36 mm the hyJOIST flanges have a minimum thickness of 38 mm.0 29.k4 .4 205.03 ≤ 1. A ∴ ØN nt = Ø. however both axial and bending moment capacities are based on the flange area of the hyJOIST. A Eq.25 NZS 3603 Note that the combined actions are 3 % over.02 ≤ 1. The HJ360 90 hyJOIST are suitable for the imposed combined actions from longitudinal winds wind loads and bracing. Consider tension strength N t* ≤ Ø.R Since k1 = 1.9 × 1. 3.9 f t = 33MPa k4 = 1. f t . size effect factor k11 can be ignored.21 NZS 3603 NZS 3603 Since the section depth of the individual components is less then 150.6 + = 1. 3.0 ∴ ØN ncy = 133.
L. Improved Plywood Gussets for Timber Portal Frames.F (1989). Technical Note 820704. M. Part 1: Design methods 10. 1992. Timber Portal Frames.11997 Timber Structures. 2 –Rigid Moment Connections using CHH veneer based products. 4. 8. Standards New Zealand. Engineering Bulletin No. Structural Design of Timber Portal Frame Buildings.R (1987). Batchelor. Design. The Design and Construction of Timber Portal Frames. Hutchings B. Timber Datafile SS1.F and Bier H (2000). National Association of Forest Industries. Auckland. Limit States Design Information for Specific Engineering Design for New Zealand Construction. National Association of Forest Industries 9.A (2000). Milner H. 185B. (1984). CHH Woodproducts New Zealand. ‘08 Page: 90 / 92 Designed : C.nz/engineerszone 6.P and Crozier D. 2.co. Auckland 1984. CHH Woodproducts New Zealand. Timber Engineering Design Made More Accessible. Moment Joist Design. Construct and Detailing in Timber Conference. Milner H. AS 1720. Hutchings B. Standards Australia. 5. NZS 3603:1993 Timber structures standard Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 .0 References 1. Paper No. Chisolm Institute of Technology 7. Proceedings of the Pacific Timber Engineering Conference.chhwoodproducts. Engineers Australia Pty Ltd.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. New Zealand Date: Sept. 3.R 10. www. Timber Development Association (NSW) Ltd. 1517 May.
Where n is odd: ∂= 1 1 1 n − n .P R* = 2 P.R Appendix 1 . Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . It is assumed that the loads applied by girts at each location are equal.P.P R* = 2 Note: The reaction equation differs slightly from the conventional reaction equation for a series of point loads supported by a simply supported beam. This is to take into account the fact that a girt is located at the base of the mullion.n n. ‘08 Page: 91 / 92 Designed : C.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park. 8 n.EI 2 n P.L3 192.L3 4 . Auckland.3 − 1 + 2 192. Due to the nature of loading of mullions ‘n’ in the equations is the number of girts supported by the mullion.3 − 2 1 − n 2 2 n − 1 .Mullion deflection.EI ( ) Where n is even: ∂= 1 P.n.L M max = n. New Zealand Date: Sept.L M max = 8. bending and shear equations The following design action equations have been provided from commonly available equations for a series of evenly spaced point loads as idealised for a mullion in service.
Serviceability Strength 3 EI = E.48. = 69300.D 2 6 90. an equivalent depth 90mm thick hy90 exhibits structural properties exceeding those of a 63mm hySPAN.D 3 12 63.k1−8 .D 2 ØM hy 90 = Ø. = 525. EI hySPAN ∴ EI hy 90 90. Auckland.D 12 EI hy 90 = 9500.R Appendix 2 – 90mm thick hy90 compared with 63mm thick hySPAN The following serviceability and strength (bending moment) comparisons between a 63 mm hySPAN section and a 90mm thick hy90 have been provided to illustrate the relative similarities between the sections.D 3 = 71250. New Zealand Date: Sept.k1−8 .D 3 = 13200.D 2 6 ∴ ØM hy 90 > ØM hySPAN ØM = Ø.D 2 ØM hySPAN = Ø. B.D 3 12 > EI hySPAN B. in both serviceability and strength limit states.35. Please note that these comparisons do not take into account the effects of lateral stability. Carter Holt Harvey Limited September 2008 . The Characteristic Properties have been taken from “Limit States Design Information” Technical Note 820704.k1−8 . f b As can be seen above.Project: For: At: 30 metre Span LVL Portal Frame Design Carter Holt Harvey Woodproducts NZ Industrial Park.D 2 6 63. = 504. ‘08 Page: 92 / 92 Designed : C.
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