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SCHOOL OF CONTROL SYSTEMS AND ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

Department of Electrical Services

Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Services

Program Code: (DT010)

2010/2011

Name of Module: Industrial Automation

Name of Lecturer: Joe Teehan

Student Name: Mark McCauley

Class Group: 3E

Assignment number: 2

Assignment title: Industrial Automation

Date issued: 19/11/10

Date due for return: 15/12/10

Date returned:

Department
Stamp
DECLARATION

I hereby certify that the material, which is submitted in this assignment/project, is entirely my
own work and has not been submitted for any academic assessment other than as part
fulfillment of the assessment procedures for the program Bachelor of Engineering in
Electrical Services(DT010).

Signature of student………………………………………...

Date…………………………………………………………

Table of Contents
........................................................................................................................................1
DECLARATION...........................................................................................................2
Introduction....................................................................................................................4
Objective........................................................................................................................4
Apparatus.......................................................................................................................4
Procedure........................................................................................................................5
RTD (Resistance Temperature Device).........................................................................5
OPC (Object Process Control).......................................................................................6
Scada (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition).......................................................7
Temperature Control......................................................................................................7
Analogue to Digital Converter.......................................................................................8
Digital to Analogue Converter.......................................................................................8
Ladder Diagram..............................................................................................................8
Reference......................................................................................................................11
Appendix......................................................................................................................12
......................................................................................................................................14
......................................................................................................................................14
......................................................................................................................................15
Introduction
The assignment presented to the class was to develop a list of instructions on a program that
would control a rice cooker. The task given to the class to enable the student to see what
work load is required for a simple temperature control and how this basic assignment could
be used in the working world. The worlds industries are turning to automated controls for all
sorts of processes so the importance of the assignment is greatly highlighted.

Objective
The objective of the assignment was for the student to write up list of instructions on a
computer program and have it control the temperature of the rice cooker. The assignment will
also demonstrate the student’s knowledge of the following;
• A platinum RTD
• Calibration
• Analog to digital Converters
• Digital to analog Converters
• Mathematical equations relevant to the process
• On/off control and On/off control with dead band
• OPC server
• SCADA

Apparatus
• 1 Multimeter
• Leads
• 1 x 100 Ω resistor
• 1 x 39 Ω resistor
• PC with GX developer
• PLC, Mitsubushi FX2N
• HMI
• Platinum RTD
Procedure
Before using the RTD (resistance temperature device) it must be calibrated. A step by step
guide would be the best way of explaining this procedure.

First step is to check the voltage is correct. Turn the multimeter switch to 200 Vdc, Check
that the plc is sending out 24 volts, this should be displayed on the screen of the multimeter.
When voltage checks is complete remove leads from multimeter and connect to the RTD
terminals making sure the leads are connected to the correct points.

The next step is to change the settings on the multimeter to DC milliamp range (mA) and
connect the leads from multimeter to the RTD terminals marked 4-20 mA, check the reading
and if it reads over 20 mA the RTD is not on which means its an open circuit. By flicking the
switch a lower milliamp reading should appear which means the RTD is on. If it reads 0 mA
something is wrong

In order to calibrate the circuit must be in open circuit mode. Connect the 100Ω
Into the test circuit on top of the box, the reading should be close 4mA. If below or above
4mA we use the Z terminal and a screwdriver on the transmitter to correct it to 4mA. After
correct figure is achieved connect the 139Ω into the test circuit to see what the multimeter is
reading. If below or above 20 mA repeat the step above and screw the S terminal this time
until the multimeter reads 20 mA. Repeat the test a few times on each resistor. This setting
means there is a 16mA difference between the highest and lowest.

RTD (Resistance Temperature Device)


An RTD is a temperature sensitive resistor, the resistance increases with temperature because
the material resistance increases with temperature change. The Platinum RTD is being used
in the assignment as it has the best accuracy and stability. Platinum is the primary choice for
most industrial, commercial laboratory and other critical RTD temp measurements. It has an
output of 4-20mA. The 4 mA is used because at 0 mA it is difficult to detect an error. It uses
current to measure the temp, this is a better way of measurement compared to voltage as
current has no loss in transmission. The cables connect the device to the transmitter through a
twisted pair of cables to prevent interference from outside magnetic fields. 4mA will
represent 0° Celsius and the max temp of 100° shall be represented by 20mA.

Figure 1, RTD Device

OPC (Object Process Control)


OPC software enables computer programs to connect with industrial processes. It acts as a go
between of the PLC, hardware and the client’s software. Man y hardware devices can be
connected under one program which is cost effective, the opc in the assignment enables scada
software to communicate with the PLC.
Scada (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition)
The term scada usually refers to a centralized which monitors and controls entire sites. Most
control actions are performed automatically by RTU’s (Remote Terminal Units). The
advantages of a scada system are that a technician can monitor from a remote location and
also change the settings of a program from a remote location. Scada systems are used a lot in
Oil and gas industries. A scada system is made of a HMI (human machine interface) which
presents process data to a human operator.

Temperature Control
The first 6 lines of the program are the lines that basically control the whole temperature
process. The required temperature for the rice cooker is 33°C. The program is set up to allow
the temperature to rise and fall close to the mark. This deadband, its tolerance is about + -
2°C. Heating has no instant on or off, when it’s switched on it takes time before the heat
dissipates and when the same when switched off. The first 2 lines have a zone compare which
controls this.
Analogue to Digital Converter
An analogue to digital converter is a device that converts an input analogue voltage or current
to a digital number proportional to the magnitude. The reading at 4mA is zero counts an, and
20 mA is one thousand counts, so if a room temperature is 20°C it should be at 200 counts.
The A/D can read preset values or average values. For identification and type of device, write
to position K0 to see if it is on A/D device. In device K0 go to address K30 and take the value
in it put it into data register D4. The value taken from K30 and put in D4 is one word (K1)
TOP pulses it once and does not run again. Compare data in D4 with the value 2010 and if its
correct the A/D is recognized to be the location K0. Next step is to set up channel 1 to read
the analogue signal of 4-20mA. The program goes to K0 of the A/D and sets up so that
channel 1 reads 4-20mA. To get an accurate value of the reading measured samples must be
taken. Twenty samples must be taken, this being recognized in K20. K5 gives the average of
the values and then puts into D10. This completes the A/D.

Digital to Analogue Converter


A digital to Analogue Converter is a device that takes a signal in decimal form and converts
to an analogue signal. A pulse is set to k1 and will activate bfm (buffer memory location) K0
and preset the channels so that Ch1 is set to voltage, channels 2, 3 are set for 4-20mA. The
output data from the D/A is sent from the plc through channel 1 line with the following
statement T0 K1 K1 D100 K2 and stored in D100.

Ladder Diagram
Below is the ladder diagram used for the Rice cooker
Reference
DIT class notes 2010, (Tom Woolmington & Joe Teehan)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCADA

http://www.scadasystems.net/

http://www.opcfoundation.org/Default.aspx/01_about/01_whatis.asp
Appendix
Sensor Transmitter A/D conversion
C° Ω mA Ω mA Count
0 100 4 100 4 0
5 101.925 4.8 101.925 4.8 50
10 103.85 5.6 103.85 5.6 100
15 105.775 6.4 105.775 6.4 150
20 107.7 7.2 107.7 7.2 200
25 109.625 8 109.625 8 250
30 111.55 8.8 111.55 8.8 300
35 113.475 9.6 113.475 9.6 350
10.
40 115.4 4 115.4 10.4 400
11.
45 117.325 2 117.325 11.2 450
50 119.25 12 119.25 12 500
12.
55 121.175 8 121.175 12.8 550
13.
60 123.1 6 123.1 13.6 600
14.
65 125.025 4 125.025 14.4 650
15.
70 126.95 2 126.95 15.2 700
75 128.875 16 128.875 16 750
16.
80 130.8 8 130.8 16.8 800
17.
85 132.725 6 132.725 17.6 850
18.
90 134.65 4 134.65 18.4 900
19.
95 136.575 2 136.575 19.2 950
10
0 138.5 20 138.5 20 1000