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I wanted so to put my arms round my girl of all the girls in the world and tell her . . . I love her as wives do love their husbands, as friends who have taken each other for life--and believe in her as I believe in my God. . . . If I didn’t love you do you supposed I’d care about anything or have ridiculous notions and panics and behave like an old fool who ought to know better. I’m going to hang on to your skirts. . . . You can’t get away from my love. Mary Hallock to Helena, September 23, 1873 Do you know sir, that until you came along I believe that she loved me almost as girls love their lovers. I know I loved her so. Don’t you wonder that I can stand the sight of you. Mary Hallock to Richard, December 13, 1873
1874 Foote’s Cabin at Leadville Mary Hallock Foote. 1847-1938 .
Romantic Friends. ca 1900 .
also does. . only passion is sexual. the nature of the relations which existed.Your words respecting my beloved friend touch me deeply. . To me it seems to have been a closer union than that of most marriages. between her and myself. And why should there not be. . Her only surviving niece . Love is spiritual. Mary Grew to Isabel Howland April 27. you comprehend and appreciate. 1892 . . Evidently . which exists. We know there have been other such between two men and also between two women. . as few persons do . .
M. Carey Thomas 1857-1935 Dean and then president of Bryn Mawr College 1885-1922 Mary Elizabeth Garrett 1854-1915 .
P. 1890 Whitman with Warren Fritzinger Dr. D. Rice.C. John Johnston. England Taken on Camden wharf . Bolton. Washington . 1870s Whitman and Harry Stafford Edward Carpenter Collection.ca 1869 Whitman and Peter Doyle M.
Charles Tomlinson Griffes 1989-1920 .
Fairies and Normal Men .
.Postcard ca 1918 Distributed by the Navy YMCA Postcard ca 1910 The red tie is a sign of the fairy.
OK normal men decoys trade husbands / friends ?? Not OK queers / queens fairies / cocksuckers pogues two-way artists .
the beggar. The social figures it shows populating a section of lower Manhattan include the prostitute (upper left).From Pictures of Life and Character in New York a book published in 1878 to familiarize visiting Latin American businessmen with New York’s neighborhoods. the cop on the beat. and the fairy (upper right). the shoeshine boy. .
The Fairy detail from Pictures of Life and Character in New York (1878) .
Paul Cadmus The Fleet’s In (1934) .
Female Inverts Butch/Femme .
1908 .The Moonshine Club.
Gladys Bentley, ca 1930 Bentley was a much-discussed local celebrity, known for her risque lyrics and for having married her white girlfriend in a civil wedding ceremony.
Havelock Ellis 1895, Sexual Inversion The brusque, energetic movements, the attitude of the arms, the direct speech, the inflexions of the voice, the masculine straightforwardness and sense of honor. . . will all suggest the underlying psychic abnormality to a keen observer. In the habits not only is there frequently a pronounced taste for smoking cigarettes, often found in quite feminine women, but also a decided taste and tolerance for cigars. There is also a dislike and sometimes incapacity for needlework and other domestic occupations, while there is often some capacity for athletics.
Butch femme couple ca 1910
California. 1897 .Babe Bean from The Evening Mail. Stockton.
What Do These People Have in Common? .
How Were They Classiﬁed ca 1900? Normal Men and Women Queers / Inverts .
passing women. wolves. feminine men sex with others of same sex is consequence of gender nonconformity butches. husbands. Two main classes: Normal Men and Women gender conforming: feminine women. not “sexual orientation. masculine men does not preclude marriage: most will have been married does not preclude sex with others of same sex romantic friends. decoys.Dominant Sexual Regime ca 1900. femmes includes discreet middle-class men and women with exclusive same-sex interests Inverts/Fairies/Queers/Passing Women gender nonconforming: masculine women. fairies. queers .” is the major criterion of distinguishing normal from deviant. mannish women. and well into the 20th Century Gender conformity or nonconformity.
Heterosexuals and Homosexuals circa 1950 .
William lee Howard. proclaiming her sole right to decide questions of war or religion. the viragint who would sit in the public highways and lift up her pseudo-virile voice. and degenerate. perhaps politically active fighting for the right to vote. pervert. or the value of celibacy and the curse of women’s impurity. into the same class with the invert.“The Heterosexual Counterrevolution” The female possessed of masculine ideas of independence. and that disgusting anti-social being. “Effeminate Men and Masculine Women” New York Medical Journal 1900 Note: Already in 1900 there was an effort to move the independent woman. are simply different degrees of the same class—degenerates. . the female sexual pervert.
.Remember the Episcopal clergy from Newport ? There too there was an effort to move genderconforming single men (clergy) with close attachments to other men (sailors) from the “normal” category to that of the deviate.
Carey Thomas Mary Elizabeth Garrett .Charles Tomlinson Griffes M.
Alfred Kinsey 1894-1956 Time August 23. 1953 Photo by George Platt Lynes .
December 1949 .David Cauldwell “Psychopathia Transexualis” Sexology.
.Christine Jorgensen New York Daily News December 1. 1952 Arriving in back in the United States after sex change in Denmark.
Normal Men and Women Queers / Inverts Decoys Husbands Femme Butch Queer / Invert Romantic Friends Where Were These Folks in 1952? Passing Invert .
Heterosexual Homosexual Transsexual .
.A QUEER NOTION The belief that human beings can be classified as heterosexuals and homosexuals—and in difficult cases. bisexuals—on the basis of the sex of the partners they desire is a very recent development in a very small part of the world.
the “husbands. then middle class. then everywhere correlate: exclusive homosexuality. must be discovered: psychiatry Gender nonconformity continued. But it is no longer the principal criterion of classification. of course: in queer communities and in the popular imagination as a source of fears and slurs.What was Different about Mid Century? Exclusive heterosexuality becomes essential for normality. less same-sex behavior The decoys. The most committed cross-gender identifications find a place in the new category of the transsexual.” many romantic friends become homosexuals-unless they become heterosexuals gender-conformity is no longer guarantee of normality Carey Thomas is no longer possible. first in college educated. It becomes possible to imagine a same-sexual orientation exclusive of gender deviance at the same time it becomes possible to imagine cross-gender identification independent of same-sex attractions. Deviance becomes invisible. .
An advertisement for the famed Greenwich Village Ball 1926 .
had its own football team. pictured here. . a lesbian bar on 3rd Street in Greenwich Village in the 1930s and 40s.The Howdy Club.
Don Dickerman's Pirate's Den on Christopher Street This bar advertised "clanking chains. and patch-eyed buccaneer waiters. clashing cutlasses." . ship's lanterns.
Gladys Bentley. known for her risque lyrics and for having married her white girlfriend in a civil wedding ceremony. . ca 1930 Bentley was a much-discussed local celebrity.
1926 In the summer of 1926.Fire: Devoted to Younger Negro Artists. the leading lights of the Harlem Renaissance edited and published the first (and only) issue of a literary magazine." an erotic narrative poem that was probably the first published work about homosexuality by an AfricanAmerican author. . Lilies and Jade. Fire!! The magazine included Bruce Nugent's "Smoke.
circa 1940s .Butch-Femme Bar Culture.
World War II 1943 Women’s Army Corps South Post Office Gang .
” so named because of the distinctive blue paper on which they were printed. .1945. 1943 From 1941.Blue Discharge. nearly ten thousand enlisted men and women received “blue discharges.
Oppression and Resistance .
The Lavender Scare Joseph McCarthy / Roy Cohn President Dwight D. Eisenhower .
Alan Dunn Cartoon from The New Yorker. June 17. 1950 .
Chuck Rowland. and Paul Bernard. Harry Hay. Bob Hull. . Rudy Gernreich.Mattachine Society Christmas Party 1951 or 1952 Left to right: Dale Jennings. Stan Witt.
One Magazine 1953-69 .
1955 Del Martin 1921-2008 and Phyllis Lyon 1924- .Daughters of Bilitis. founded in San Francisco.
The Ladder Journal of the Daughters of Bilitis .
in … conduct. . to enable her to understand herself and make her adjustment to society in all its social. I as much good publicity as possible for the sake of all those to whom I am a representation of themselves. among other things.The Politics of Invisibility Mattachine Society Membership Pledge Members pledge themselves.” This education was to be accomplished in a number of ways. I couldn’t have one single masculine trait. and speech. among them “by advocating a mode of behavior and dress acceptable to society. and economic implications.” Christine Jorgensen Unlike other women I had to become super-female.” Daughters of Bilitis Statement of Purpose The Statement of Purpose committed the organization to educate “the variant [woman]…. “to try to observe the generally accepted social rules of dignity and propriety at all times . civic. attire.
1965 Homophile organizations march in front of the White House to protest federal government’s treatment of homosexuals. .
Harry Benjamin Reed Erickson 1917-1992 Publications of the Erickson Educational Foundation The Transsexual Phenomenon 1966 .
You can’t reliably identify either the homosexual or the transsexual by looking as you could the fairy or the butch lesbian Psychiatry becomes major factor in identifying homosexuals This is the period in which homosexuality becomes seen as a threat the homosexual as child molester the homosexual as security threat to the nation the fact that the homosexual can’t be easily recognized is important It is also the period of greatest oppression But there are actually two faces to the invisibility of homosexuality / transsexuality 1. This means deviance becomes invisible. the homo.or transsexual can disclose their deviance: coming out Christine Jorgensen. the government tries to expose the homosexual 2. must be discovered.What was Different about Mid Century? It becomes possible to imagine a same-sexual orientation exclusive of gender deviance at the same time it becomes possible to imagine cross-gender identification independent of same-sex attractions. the organizers of Mattachine and Daughters of Bilitis .
.San Francisco August 1966 Compton’s Cafeteria Riots Los Angeles Winter 1967 Protesting police harassment outside the Black Cat bar New York June 1969 The Stonewall Inn after three nights of rioting.
1970 Gay Liberation Front Flier Sylvia Rivera Stonewall Veteran and Trans Activist Gay Pride Parade 1991 1971 Hollywood Boulevard Men in Gender-fuck Drag .
early 1970s .Lesbian and gay couples.
A New Public Face Note the lesbian and gay male couples. oppressive notions of femininity than that they want to present themselves as masculine. The are homo (“the same”) to a degree never before seen. Each comprises two people of the same sex who look more or less the same. They are not fairies and decoys. As for the gender conformity: don’t be deceived by the short-haired women and the long-haired men. The gender non-conformers are gradually pushed to the sidelines. anti-authoritarian young white men in the 1960s and 70s. They are not butch-femme. both in the popular imagination and in the emerging lesbian/gay civil rights movement. The women were affected not only by the gay liberation movement but also by the women’s movement: their short hair is much more likely a sign that they have thrown off traditional. The men’s long hair is simply the standard for politically active. . This becomes the public face of the lesbian/gay movement for several decades: gender conforming men and women loving others of the same sex and “coming out”--declaring their minority identity even though they might otherwise not have attracted notice. They are not young and old.
Crawford Barton Two Men Kissing. San Francisco. 1970s .
1970 Woman Identified Woman Manifesto 1976 DYKE Magazine .
founder of PFLAG. June 1972 1976 Early Poster for the National Gay Task Force .1972 Original placard carried by Jeanne Manford. in the NY Gay Pride Parade.
AIDS Activism .
1997 Ellen DeGeneres. Ad for American Express .Time April 14.
This is a trememdous political achievement. and it worked. Gender conforming samesex does not lead to loss of status. samesex without crossgender was unmarked: samesex-loving men and women who conformed to gender norms were normal men and women.From Carey Thomas to Ellen DeGeneres. Insisting on their gender conformity we have become nearly normal again—though hardly invisible. By mid century they are assimilated into the class of deviants. It represents the self-fashioning by a group of people faced with certain historical pressures and certain historical opportunities in a way that enabled them to enjoy middle class privilege. . At the beginning. Please note: this is a tremendous political achievement. And it came at a price. It does not represent the revelation of some truth about homosexuality. We did what the homophile leaders wanted.
Nebraska where Brandon Teena’s murderers were being tried .Riki Wilkins 1995 Vigil at the Courthouse. Fall City.
to gain access to medical technologies they needed. the history of which is inextricable from that of same-sex sexualities. and camp have returned from exile. The result--at least from the perspective of an optimist--is that cross-gender behaviors and identifications. femme. Transgender activists fought on many fronts--to organize a movement of their own. but also in the greater willingness to acknowledge the importance of cross-gender in lesbian and gay histories and lives. Queer activists challenged the “homonormativity” of middle class lesbian and gay assimilationists and their dominance of national organizations. drag. and also to force established lesbian and gay organizations to accept trans issues as their own. to counter violence against trans people.The Year 2000 The emergence of queer and especially transgender activism in the 1990s bring gender non-conformity back into the picture to an extent not seen for 50 years. Butch. not only in the form of transgender activism and organizations. have regained their rightful place. .
New York.Around the Year 2000: Queer Solidarity? Gay Pride Parade. 1995 .