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12.1 – The Particle Nature of Light

Blackbody Radiation
• Gases emit certain characteristic frequencies of light
• Light shines through gases  absorb same frequencies of light that they emit
• Black objects absorb ALL frequencies of light, emits all frequencies when heated
• Blackbody  an object that absorbs and emits all radiation of all possible
• As temperature of incandescent body increases, frequency emitted with the highest
intensity becomes higher
• Blackbody must have vibrating or oscillating charges on surface that is emitting
electromagnetic energy
• Ultraviolet Catastrophe  the significant discrepancy at ultraviolet and higher
frequencies between the predictions based on classical physics and observations of
blackbody radiation

The Birth of Quantum Theory

• Empirical Equation  an equation based on observed data and not on any theory
• Boltzmann’s method  use discrete units  individual molecules of gas
• Oscillator could exist with an energy of zero or any integral multiple of hf
• Quantized  a property of a system that occurs only in multiples of a minimum
• Quantum  a discrete amount of energy, given by the product of Planck’s
constant (h) and the frequency of the radiation (f)
• Value of h was approx. 6.55x10-34 J▪S

The Photoelectric Effect

• Quantization of energy discovered by Heinrich Hertz
• Hertz showed that the sparks were generating electromagnetic waves by placing, on
the far side of the room, a small coil of wire with a tiny gap
• Electromagnetic waves travelled with the speed of light  reflected and refracted
• Sparks enhanced when the metal electrodes were exposed to ultraviolet light
• Physicists suggested that the ultraviolet light had ejected electrons from Hertz’s
metal electrodes  creating “conducting path”
• Photoelectric Effect  the emission of electrons from matter by radiation of
certain frequencies

Early Photoelectric Effect Experiments

• Photoelectrons would leave the emitter with kinetic energy
• Kinetic energy was great enough to overcome the potential difference
• Increase in the potential difference, current gradually decreased until it stopped
• Stopping Potential  in the photoelectric effect, the potential difference required
to stop the emission of photoelectrons from the surface of a metal
• Data indicated ultraviolet light with constant intensity ejected electrons with a
variety of energies  always a maximum kinetic energy
• Greater intensity of any given frequency of light increased only the flowing current,
had no effect on the electrons’ stopping potential  no effect on maximum kinetic
• When the intensity of the light striking the emitter increases, the number of
electrons ejected increases
• The maximum kinetic energy of the electrons ejected from the metal emitter is
determined only by the frequency of the light and is not affected by its intensity

Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect

• Einstein proposed when photon strikes a metal surface, all of its energy is absorbed
by one electron
• Increasing the intensity of light of a given frequency increases only the number of
photons and has no effect on the energy of a single photon
• Some energy must use to overcome the attractive forces that hold the electron onto
the surface of the metal
• A larger amount of energy is needed to eject them from the surface
• Work Function (W)  in the photoelectric effect, the minimum amount of energy
necessary to remove an electron from the metal surface
• hf = W + Ek(max)

Millikan and the Photoelectric Effect

• charge on an electron  1.60x10-19C
• Threshold Frequency (fo)  the lowest frequency of light (smallest photon
energy) that can eject a photoelectron from a particular metal
• Electron Volt  the energy gained by one electron as it falls through a potential
difference of one volt: 1eV = 1.60x10-19 J

12.2 – Light Particles and Matter Waves

The Compton Effect

• Energy required to free an electron from the metal be negligible when compared to
the energy of the interaction
• Compton Effect  a phenomenon involving the scattering of an X-ray photon
with a free electron, in which, through conservation of energy and momentum,
some of the photon’s energy is transferred to the electron
• Scattered photon = lower energy, lower frequency, longer wavelength than original
Matter Waves
• De Broglie Wavelength  the wavelength associated with a particle; the quotient
of Planck’s constant and the momentum of the particle
• De Broglie’s hypothesis  particles have wavelike properties
• If electrons have wave properties, the same crystals that diffract X rays should
diffract electrons and create a pattern
• X rays scattered from regularly spaced atoms in a crystal will remain in phase only
at certain scattering angles

The Wave-Particle Duality

• Particle nature of light and the wave nature of subatomic particles
• Send microwaves to and from these satellites
• Radiant energy that propagates through space as waves with matter as particles or
discrete packets of energy
• Wave-Particle Duality  both matter and radiation have wave-like properties and
particle-like properties

12.3 – The Bohr Atom and Beyond

Atomic Theory before Bohr

• Dalton model of atom was replaced by J.J Thomson  atom was divisible
• Cathode rays in gas discharge tubes were negatively charged particles with a mass
nearly 2000 times smaller than a hydrogen atom
• Electrons appeared to have come off the metal atoms in one of the electrodes in gas
discharge tubes
• Nuclear Model  a model for the atom in which all of the positive charge and
most of the mass are concentrated in the centre of the atom, while negatively
charged electrons circulate well beyond this “nucleus”

The Bohr Model of the Atom

• Emission spectra does not have an immediate obvious pattern
• Balmer Series  spectral lines of hydrogen that lie in the visible wavelength range
• Rydberg Constant  the constant of proportionality that relates the wavelength of a
spectral line in the hydrogen atom and the difference of energy level numbers that
product it: R = 1.09837315x107m-1

Bohr Postulates
• Electrons exist in circular orbits. Central force that holds them in orbit is the
electrostatic force between the positive nucleus and the negative charge on the
• Electrons can exist only in a series of allowed orbits. They have different amounts
of total energy (kinetic + potential). Can be described as “energy levels”. Certain
energy levels are allowed meaning that the energy of electrons in atoms is quantized
• Contrary to classical theory, while an electron remains in one orbit, it does not
radiate energy
• Electrons can “jump” between orbits, or energy levels, by absorbing or emitting an
amount of energy that is equal to the difference in the energy levels
• Bohr Radius  the distance from the nucleus of the lowest allowed energy level in
the hydrogen atom: r = 0.529117nm

Deriving Allowed Energy Levels

• Principal Quantum Number  describes the orbital or energy level of an electron
in an atom
• Difference in energy levels would be the energies of the photons emitted from an
• Photons from transitions that end at the same energy level have energies that are
relatively close together

The Quantum Mechanical Atom

• Zeeman Effect  the splitting of the spectral lines of an atom when it is placed in
a magnetic field
• Schrodinger Wave Equation  the basic quantum mechanical equation used to
determine the properties of a particle
• Wave functions  a mathematical expression that is a solution of the Schrodinger
wave equation; describes the behaviour of a particle

Quantum Numbers
• Each quantum number represents one property of the electron that is quantized
• Orbitals  specifies the shape of an electron’s orbital or energy level; has integer
values of one less than the principal quantum number
• Orbital quantum number is sometimes called the “angular momentum quantum
• For any energy level (shell) for which n>0, there is more than one value of the
orbital quantum number
• Magnetic Quantum number  determines the orientation of the electron orbitals
when the atom is placed in an external magnetic field
• Spin Quantum Number  specifies the orientation, up or down, of the electron’s
• The electron spin can assume any orientation in the absence of an external magnetic
field, but can take only two orientations when placed in a magnetic field
• Pauli Exclusion Principle  states that no two electrons in the same atom can
occupy the same state; alternatively, no two electrons in the same atom can have the
same four quantum numbers
• Ground State  the lowest possible state that an electron can occupy in an atom
• Electrons “fill” the energy levels from the lowest upward until there are so many
electrons in orbitals as there are protons in the nuclus