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Permanent Utilization Utilization
Report Enrollment Population Notes
Capacity (by enrollment) (by population)

• Portables not
Facility included
Master 251 386 154% 203 81% • Transfers
(2010-2011) included for
Plan enrollment but
not population
• Portables
MGT 374 included
418 89% Not Calculated
Study (2008-2009) • Transfers
included
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Amount References
Accessed property value in Barton Hills $929,414,629 http://tinyurl.com/4rp9tgm
AISD tax revenue from Barton Hills $11,403,917
http://tinyurl.com/498dodt
Estimated Reduction in Property Value 10%
http://tinyurl.com/4gfgp3l
Reduction in AISD tax revenue from
$1,140,391
Barton Hills
Reduction in City of Austin tax revenue $424,835
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March 25, 2011
!
Chris Cobb, AIA
Chris Cobb : Office of Architecture PLLC
610 Brazos St. #202
Austin, Texas 78701

RE: The AISD FCI methodology & the Facilities condition assessment for Barton Hills Elem.
Dear Kelly Tagle, BHEPTA Executive Board, et al.:
At the request of several parents, I spent some time digging into 2 documents that have been prepared
for Austin Independent School District by independent consultants and AISD facility’s staff to aid the district
with the development of a 10-Year Facilities Master Plan. The first document is not dated and titled, “White
Paper: Facility Condition Index (FCI) at Austin ISD” and represents a summary of the methodology used to
arrive at the FCI of the various campuses and facilities owned and operated by the district. The second
document (also not dated) is titled, “Facilities Conditions and Educational Adequacy Assessment, Barton Hills
Elementary School Assessment”. It illustrates the specific alleged deficiencies of the facilities at Barton Hills
Elementary School and the associated costs to repair those deficiencies. This information is required in order
to arrive at an accurate and useful FCI. I would like to share with you some general thoughts regarding those
documents that you might find useful as we strive for a better understanding of the district’s approach and
position, and as we try to refine and educate the district on not just the quality of the education at Barton Hills
Elementary, but also the overall quality of the facility and campus that, in my opinion, has not been accurately
reflected in the FCI report for our campus.
I just wanted to briefly remind you of my background as I think it is important to consider the perspective
from which I look at this information. As many in the community know, I was fortunate enough to attend
Barton Hills Elementary School myself in the 1970s and was a part of the desegregation effort, and therefore
also had the benefit of attending Ortega Elementary School in East Austin. I feel a deep connection to these
schools and consider it a unique honor to have my own 2 sons attending the Barton Hills as second-
generation students. Like it was for me, I believe Barton Hills Elementary will be a strong educational
foundation for them and can’t imagine it not being a choice for our children.
On a professional note, I am looking at this information through the eyes of a licensed architect with 18
years of professional experience. Eight of those years were spend with a highly reputable architecture firm in
Austin that specializes in school design. More specifically, I was the project architect for elementary school
design at this firm. My work there included full-service design for small elementary schools from 20,000 SF
with $2.5 million budgets to larger campuses of up to 105,000 SF with $14 million budgets. The design work
included extensive services for Austin ISD, Dripping Springs ISD, Llano ISD, Lake Travis ISD, Eanes ISD,
and Leander ISD on a variety of projects, both large and small. Since starting my own practice in 2006, my
work has taken a different direction, but the design work I performed on schools has definitely shaped my
perspective on architecture as a whole, and has provided me with valuable insight on the FCI reports that
were prepared for AISD.
In brief, I will summarize and point your attention to a few key thoughts:
• FCIs are not intended for use in comparing the conditions across multiple facilities. They are
designed to give a measurement of the physical condition of a facility, or a group of facilities (as
a whole), so that facilities managers can determine an adequate reinvestment rate to prevent
the accumulation of deferred maintenance for that facility.
• The approach of AISD facilities staff is to use the FCI to determine when the replacement of a
facility might be warranted. According to the documents prepared for AISD, financial modeling
indicates that only once FCIs reach 65% and above, does it begin to make fiscal sense to look
at the replacement of a facility. Barton Hills Elementary was given an FCI 33%. While this is
inaccurate and should be lower, this would indicate that replacing the campus would cost 3
times as much as renovating it.
• The FCIs are inaccurate for multiple reasons: 1) land acquisition was not included in the
replacement costs (while some developers donate land, this is not always the case and could

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impact the numbers dramatically), 2) “soft costs” that have been factored into the repair costs
have been highly inflated (i.e. they are using soft cost as high as 83% in some cases), while for
replacement value they appear to be in line with industry standards, 3) large portions of bond
work that have been completed have still been listed as current deficiencies, 4) accurate
construction cost estimation can be elusive - the assessments relied heavily on only one source
for construction cost data where looking at multiple sources would have been more prudent, 5)
ADA/TAS accessibility requirements can be achieved using a variety of strategies – some more
cost effective than others – yet it is unclear what solutions they are considering - it is my
understanding the public is being prevented from accessing this information by not storing the
information on AISD property – this is especially egregious given that tax payer money was
used to prepare assessments and lacks the transparency intended under state law, 6)
deficiency overlaps between ADA/TAS accessibility & building condition assessments do not
appear to be adequately reduced, and, finally, 7) inaccurate deficiencies have been included in
the report.
• The FCI does not account for design assets that can be hard to achieve in today’s construction
market in a cost effective way. One example of this would be the durability of the materials
used at our school such as masonry construction throughout.
• Known limitations on the assessment of facilities were acknowledged but not addressed in the
methodology. For example: the information is out of date as soon as it is collected, quality
control and consistency on assessments is highly difficult for a large portfolio of facilities,
detailed life cycle costs are not considered, etc.
• The FCI does not address and cannot address important qualitative aspects such as historical
significance, enrollment trends, academic achievement, and community sentiment. There is
apparently nothing built into the process that would address and compensate for these
limitations.
Please feel free to use this information as needed and don’t hesitate to contact me with questions or
comments. I have included a more detailed look of the methodology below that you may also find of interest.
Thank you for all your effort in helping maintain the quality of our public elementary schools that they have
worked so hard to achieve.

03/25/11
Christopher T. Cobb AIA, Principal Architect
Chris Cobb : Office of Architecture PLLC
Texas Registration No. 17817

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Comments and thoughts on “White Paper: Facility Condition Index (FCI) at Austin ISD”:

General:

• “In the last five years, every major urban district we have worked with has faced considerable
loss of enrollment district-wide which eventually necessitates reducing overall footprint and
closing schools.” - This statement seems to contradict the districtʼs own research about
the growing enrollment in AISD. As such, the relevance of this statement to our context
should be researched and questioned.
• “Nearly 90 percent of our countryʼs 21st century schools were designed and constructed in the
20th century, most in the mid 20th century, under an industrial age factory model with a long
row of classrooms down a double-loaded corridor.” – I might not understand the metaphor,
but schools have never been modeled on factory design. Long double-loaded corridors
are still the primary strategy in school design to this day because of the efficiencies that
can be achieved in the organization of space. Existing schools with double-loaded
corridors represent the preferred approach to the arrangement of classrooms within a
school and should not be frowned upon.
• “Unfortunately, deferred maintenance does not go away with reduced funding, and the unmet
need continues to build until the cost to repair eventually exceeds the cost to replace the
facility.” – It is true that deferred maintenance should be minimized, but it is extremely
rare for the cost of repairs to ever exceed the cost of replacement due to the increasing
costs of new construction. As a note, not one of the elementary school campuses
studied within AISD comes close to the $24.5 million price tag estimated for a
replacement facility of 82,500 SF.
• “Commonly, communities have a widespread perception that school districts shape, hide, or
manipulate building condition data to obtain a desired result. This perception may even result in
a law suit, which creates the necessity to engage in projects that are driven by legal
requirements.” – This fact illustrates the importance of developing a strong methodology
based on accurate and detailed data regarding the condition of facilities and also
reinforces why it is beneficial to develop a process where the community could be
involved early in the process.
• “Capacities change from year to year, buildings deteriorate on a daily basis, and enrollment
fluctuates. School planners are always working with a moving target.” – It is unclear whether
the process has developed a way to handle this complication or if it was simply
accepted that it would lead to an inaccurate or quickly outdated results.
• “Financial modeling has shown that over a 30- year period, schools that fall in the 65 percent or
greater range are more cost-effective to replace than to repair. This is due to efficiency gains
with more modern facilities and the value of the building at the end of the analysis period. Of
course, FCI is not the only factor used to identify buildings that need renovation, replacement or
even closure. Historical significance, enrollment trends, community sentiment, and the
availability of capital are additional factors that are analyzed when making school facility
decision.” – This is a really important point. Often, in the ongoing discussions regarding
the facilities, the FCI has been oversimplified as a comparison between separate
facilities within AISD and that “the lower the FCI the better the facility, buildings with
higher FCIs should be replaced”. However, it is actually a comparison of the condition
of a school with a hypothetical newly constructed facility of the same size based on
todayʼs standards. So, for example, a building with an FCI of 20% means that it would be
5 times more expensive to replace that facility in todayʼs construction dollars; for a

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building with an FCI of 25% it means that it would be 4 times more expensive to replace
that facility in todayʼs dollars; and, for a building with an FCI of 33% it means it would be
3 times more expensive to replace the facility in todayʼs dollars; and so on. Based on
the above quoted financial modeling, it has been determined that a positive financial
gain is only realized once the FCI reaches greater than 65%, so it is otherwise more cost
effective to renovate facilities with much lower FCIs. All but one facility within AISD has
an FCI lower than 65%, and in most cases, the facilities are significantly lower than 65%.
Further, as stated, even when the FCI reaches above that, there are other factors to
consider in the process. It appears that these additional factors were completely
disregarded.

Regarding the calculation of the numerators and denominators:

• The overall “soft costs” (monies that must be spent but are outside the actual cost of
construction materials and labor - i.e. professional fees, materials testing, permits, program
management, etc.), seem highly inconsistent between new construction and repair work. Note
that it is reasonable to expect higher soft costs for repairs, but almost doubling them is not
consistent with my experience. I would expect total soft costs to range on the low end of 20%
for new construction and upwards to 30% (maybe 35%) for renovation and repairs. The soft
costs used for repairs in the FCI range from 78%-83%, which is surprisingly high and
unexplained. I believe the numbers that were used should be verified and studied in much
more detail in order to gain a more accurate picture of the actual costs involved.
• In particular, there seems to be an overwhelming exaggeration of the soft costs for A/E services
involved for the cost of repairs (15%), but for new construction they are right in line with
expectations (8%).
• The highest soft cost listed for the repair work is titled “other”. There is no accurate way to
understand the vague classification used and since it is the largest “soft cost” at 17%, it seems
reasonable to expect it to be a defined and well-understood cost. To give you an idea of the
level of detail that is achievable, in the breakdowns or estimates of “soft costs” that I use, I
classify soft costs into 1 of 27 separate categories.
• There are no soft cost considerations for land acquisition that would be required for the
construction of new schools. This may suggest a lower total cost for new construction than is
accurate. A pro forma for commercial development would be negligent to omit such a high cost
item from the soft costs and would lead to a highly inaccurate picture of total costs. Some
could argue that developers often donate land, but this cannot always be assumed and usually
there are monies allocated by the district for land acquisition.
• There is a footnote that states the soft costs were increased “to correct deficiencies in a
potential capital improvement program”, but there is very little background or information given
on the detail surrounding this issue on how it relates to each individual campus deficiency.
• One important notion that should be addressed in the report is that buildings constructed prior
1970 tend to be constructed of higher quality materials and workmanship, and structurally
superior to buildings today. While this tends to be reversed for the building systems that can
become outdated quickly (such as HVAC, plumbing, and electrical) it should be recognized that
from a durability perspective, physical materials used in those periods have much longer life
cycles than can be readily achieved in todayʼs construction market. It should be factored into
the assessment of each campus in order to provide a more accurate assessment of each
facility.

chris cobb office of architecture

(512) 482 3399 www.cc-oa.com 610 Brazos St. #202 Austin Texas 78701

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• Another important consideration is that construction pricing is notoriously difficult to predict


without detailed construction documents. Until those can be prepared, cost estimating should
be considered very speculative in nature. Cost estimations should be conservative and realistic
using detailed written descriptions of materials, methods, and building systems. In addition, it is
often useful to define pricing in varying quality ranges such as high, medium, and low. In order
to establish further credibility, it is prudent not to use a single resource for the cost data (such
as RS Means), but to use additional supplemental information such as the use of an
independent cost estimating consultants and the consultation of multiple contractors familiar
with the local market conditions.

Response to “Facilities Conditions and Educational Adequacy Assessment, Barton Hills Elementary School
Assessment”:

General: Because the soft costs have been overstated by such a large degree, it is my opinion
that the overall cost for repairs should be reduced by a factor of between .38 and .45. This
would allow for soft costs in the range of 30%-35% and this would result in a reduction of the
total costs of deficiencies between $1,854,325 and $2,195,912 (placing the FCI between 12.7%
and 15%). An even more conservative approach would be to use a reduction factor of between
.51 and .58. This would allow for soft costs in the range of 40%-45% and this would result in a
reduction of the total costs of deficiencies between $2,488,700 and $2,830,286 (placing the FCI
between 17% and 19%).

Site Level Deficiencies:


1. This should be verified with relevant governing authorities, but I believe that the existing
fence around the property where the playground equipment is located represents adequate
buffer from the adjacent roads. In addition, I believe the distance of the playground from
the actual roads is so great, that the requirement for a buffer is not even mandated. I
believe the costs for those 2 items could be eliminated as deficiencies.
2. Since the damaged concrete is in the middle of the driveway and not in a pedestrian path,
the chances are more likely that students would be hit by a car, than by tripping on the
deteriorated concrete. It may indeed need to be replaced, but it strikes me as odd to
identify it as a trip hazard.
3. “School site lacks appropriate lighting” – this should be verified for accuracy, as site lighting
improvements were included in the recent bond improvements for the school.
4. ADA site deficiencies are extremely difficult to quantify. Often times there are multiple
solutions that could result in substantial cost savings. For example, accessibility to one
public bus stop at Barton Hills would suggest adding a very substantial ramp to the site,
however, if an alternate bus stop is used, no ramp would be required at all, just the addition
of some concrete walks instead. Multiple schematic designs should be explored where
accessibility is concerned.
Building: A-Building A
1. All roofing deficiencies should be eliminated, as the roofing was included in the recent bond
improvements for the school.
2. All miscellaneous interior and exterior deficiencies should be verified for accuracy, as many
of the recent bond improvements for the school included extensive interior & exterior work.
3. All miscellaneous mechanical, electrical, and plumbing deficiencies should be verified for
accuracy, as many of the recent bond improvements for the school included extensive work
to these systems.

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4. All fire and life safety and surveillance equipment deficiencies should be verified for
accuracy, as many of the recent bond improvements for the school included extensive work
to these systems.
5. Kitchen equipment deficiencies should be eliminated, as those were included in the recent
bond improvements for the school.
6. ADA public and program deficiencies should be reduced. In my discussions with the
architect who performed the accessibility reviews, the estimates used do not reflect the
80% reductions that were intended to account for the overlap between the ADA study and
building condition assessments. Further, the adult restrooms that serve the break room
have been updated to meet accessibility codes – the associated costs have apparently not
been removed as deficiencies.
Building: B-Building B
1. All miscellaneous interior and exterior deficiencies should be verified for accuracy, as many
of the recent bond improvements for the school included extensive interior & exterior work.
2. All miscellaneous mechanical, electrical, and plumbing deficiencies should be verified for
accuracy, as many of the recent bond improvements for the school included extensive work
to these systems.
Building: P199 – P199
1. The requirement for a lift may not be accurate and this deficiency could possibly be
removed or reduced. Since 6 of the 7 portables are fully accessible, it could likely be
argued that adequate access has been provided. Further, if needed, adjustments could be
made to the programmed use of the inaccessible portable to avoid the possibility of a
student not getting the required access. It may also be possible to install a ramp for access
to this portable, which would be much more cost effective than a lift.

chris cobb office of architecture

(512) 482 3399 www.cc-oa.com 610 Brazos St. #202 Austin Texas 78701

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