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Battle/Event Background Summary Results

(Cause) (Effects)
Lexington *Gage, the new
governor of MA,
* “The shot heard
round the world”:
*Many of the colonists
saw their hopes of
and learned the *No one knows who reaching an agreement
with Britain fade (even
Concord minutemen were
storing arms in
fired the first shot
*4,000 Americans
though most still did
not favor
Concord. fired at the British independence, but
*Sent troops to seize from behind trees willing to fight for their
the arms and and fences. rights).
capture colonial *Almost 300 British *2nd Continental
leaders. soldiers had either Congress meets in May
been killed or 1775.
wounded. *Colonists send the
Olive Branch Petition
which stated colonists
were loyal to the king
and asked for the
fighting to stop.
--King George ignored
it and declared the
colonies in open
rebellion. Parliament
sent 20,000 more
soldiers to end the
*Same time issued the
Declaration of the
Causes and
Necessities of Taking
Up Arms stating the
colonists were “ready
to die freemen rather
than to live as slaves.”

Bunker/Bree *20,000 more troops

were sent in
*British General
William Howe
*Americans had
proved they could
d Hill response to the attacked Breed’s fight and stand up to
Olive Branch and Hill. professional British
there were 6,500 *American soldiers.
troops in Boston. commander, Israel *Fighting did not
*1,600 Americans Putnam, knew the solve Britain’s
occupied Breed’s Hill colonists didn’t have problems. Boston
where they could fire enough ammunition still was surrounded
on British ships in waited until they by American forces
Boston Harbor. could “see the and in July 1775,
whites of their Washington arrives
eyes.” and takes charge of
*Britain won, but at the army.
a terrible cost.
--More than 1,000
British soldiers were
killed or wounded.
--American losses
were about 400
killed or wounded.
Long Island *June 1776—large *Aug 1776 *Following month,
British fleet arrived *British drove Washington had to
off of NY. Washington ‘s troops abandon NYC
*Sir William Howe, out of Brooklyn *British pursued
the British *Washington had Americans north to
commander, fewer than 20,000 White plains, then
gathered his forces poorly trained troops west and south
on Staten Island at and no navy. across NJ
the southern edge of *British—34,000 and
NY harbor. 10,000 sailors +

Trenton & *British General *Washington led *Captured almost

Howe had chased 2,400 men across 1,000 Hessians.
Princeton troops out of NY to the DE river in small *Gave Americans
NJ boats. hope.
*Poorly supplied—
some no shoes—
marched over 9
miles in snow.
*Attacked Trenton
by complete
*American victory
capturing Hessians.
--surprised by
keeping campfires
lit and Americans
Saratoga *September 1777 *Americans *major turning point
Americans rushed surrounded the in the war.
to block British British in the village *Ended British threat
getting to south. of Saratoga. to New England.
*American General *British suffered *Destroyed British
Horatio Gates— heavy causalities hope of an easy
6,000 men ready to and British General victory.
fight. Burgoyne *Lifted patriot spirits
surrendered on Oct. *Brought French in
17, 1777 on the side of the
Americans Feb 1778
formed an alliance.
--Also, Spain and
the Netherlands
Valley Forge Had to camp for 11,000 soldiers *American joined
the cruel harsh not sufficiently together to send
winter of 1777- fed, clothed or help—food,
1778 hastily built housed. medicine, clothes
camp in Valley *Lacked shoes, etc…
Forge, PA socks and pants. *Used winter to
*Most of the time gather strength.
¼ soldiers were *von Steuben’s
sick. drills sharpened
*Ate thin soup and soldiers skills.
dry bread patties.
Yorktown Cornwallis made *Washington *Last major battle
huge mistake trapped British of the war.
when he moved General *King wanted to
troops to Yorktown Cornwallis. keep fighting, but
peninsula where *October 1781 Parliament voted
they became British for peace.
trapped. surrendered. *Treaty of Paris
signed in 1783.
Interesting facts…
1. Many enslaved African Americans fought for the British hoping to win their freedom.
2. Native Americans did too. They worried that they would lose their lands if the
colonists won.
3. 100,000 Loyalists left the United States and many settled in Canada because
Canada was in the British Empire.
4. Mid 1776 heavy fighting shifts from NE to middle states.