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Coastal Live Oak

Quercus agrifolia p 159-160

Coastal Live Oak ranges from north central California to Baja California in the south. It is an evergreen long-
lived species and can reach a mature height of 10 to 25 meters. The leaves are dark and spiny (spinose). It is
the dominant overstory species in the oak woodland habitat, but it can be found in other communities as well. It
grows in well-drained soils, and it is adapted to wet winters and dry summers moderated by fog and cool
temperatures. As most oaks, Coastal Live Oaks have an obligate relationship with mycorrhizal fungi which
provide important moisture and nutrients It produces leaf litter which is important for the understory plant and
animal species. The leaf litter produces humidity and shelter for many species of reptiles and acorns are food to
rodents and birds. For example, the California Oak Moth (Phryganidia californica) caterpillar subsists entirely on
living and fallen leaves of the Coast Live Oak. Native Americans used the acorns to make flour.
Size: at 20 Years, Maximum (feet) 25, Height, Mature (feet) 70.0

Creeping Snowberry
Symphoricarpos Albus, Honeysuckle Family p 186-187, berry like fruit is food for various birds, fruit hangs from
fall to winter, combine with other Woodland species hummingbird sage, coffee-berry and fuchsia-flowered
gooseberry

Snowberry is a low trailing shrub spreads rhizomes and will form open thicket 6 to 24 inches high, with ranges
from central California to Alaska. It is a small deciduous shrub. It has small pink flowers and edible white berries.
Snowberries grow in full sun to partial shade conditions and it may need summer water in particularly high
temperatures. It grows in a variety of soils including disturbed and rocky soils, but it grows the best in well-
drained soils. Since it grows well in disturbed sites it is often used for erosion control and ecological restoration.
It reproduces vegetatively by rhizosome and birds disperse the seeds after eating the fruit. Hummingbirds visit
the small flowers during the summer, and other birds like thrashers eat the edible berries. Native Americans
used the plant for medicine, soap, sometimes food and the wood for arrow shafts.
Chaparral
http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/symphoricarpos-albus-laevigatus
Elderberry
Sambucus mexicana p 178-179

Elderberry is a deciduous shrub or small tree that grows in woodland, open land and chaparral. It has small
white flower that grow in bunches in late spring. These become dark purple berries in late summer, which are
edible. It grows best in moist well-drained soils; it sometimes grows in riparian habitats or near wetlands. It is
moderately drought tolerant. Elderberry flowers are visited by hummingbirds, butterflies, bees and other insects,
and the berries are eaten by jays, thrashers, other birds and even small mammals. The berries are edible and
can be used to make jam and pies. Native Americans had medicinal uses for the leaves as well as consuming
the berries.

Toyon
Heteromeles arbutifolia ROSE Family p 114-116

Toyon occurs throughout California and southward to Baja California. It grows 8 to 15 feet in height and width
and is long lived. It can be found in chaparral, woodland and forest communities. Toyon grows best in full sun,
but it also tolerates shade. It is drought tolerant after it has been established (3-4 years). Toyon reproduces
vegetatively and by seed (sexually). The berries are edible when lightly cooked for it contains small amounts of
cyagenic glycosides which volatize off during the cooking process. Butterflies and other insects visit the flowers.
The berries are eaten and dispersed by many species of birds. California Native trifes used extensively for food,
medicine and implements
Lemonade Berry
Rhus integrifolia p 166-167 Sumac Family

Lemonade Berry growing 4-20 feet tall, and often wider, is a native of southern California and extends from
Santa Barbara Country to San Diego County and the Channel Islands. It is a member of the chaparral
community and can grow up to 8 meters in height. Lemonade berry is an evergreen species and the leaves are
toothy and waxy. It flowers from February to May and has small fragrant flowers. The mature fruit is small
(10mm in diameter), reddish and sticky, and covered by hairs. The plant grows best in well-drained soils and is
resistant to drought and windy conditions as well as coastal environments. It also grows well in sandy soils,
mildly acidic soils and low nutrient conditions. It must have sun to grow. Insect pollination from a close by tree is
required. The fruits are eaten by many species of birds including the roadrunner. Some report making
lemonade-flavored drinks with the fruit, which gives the species its name.

Fuschia-Flowered Gooseberry
Ribes speciosum p 170-171 place with woodland species away from foot path, combine with evergreen to offset
dummer dormancy, train against wall or fence

Fuschia Flowering Gooseberry grows 3-7 feet, is a native of California to Baja California and grows in
chaparral communities in the coastal mountains, ranging from sea level to 500 meters. It has waxy dark green
leaves and it is summer deciduous if it is under drought stress; it flowers from January to May. It grows best in
well-drained soils and does not need much watering, but it also tolerates clay. It likes part sun to full sun, and it
must be direct sun. It produces non-edible fruits that are often used for decorative purposes. It has thorns in the
stems, but the red and long-lasting flowers are often visited by hummingbirds, which sometimes nest in it using
the thorns and density of the plant as protection against predators. Blooms before Christmas.
California Wild Rose
Rosa californica p 172-173

The California wild rose is a deciduous shrub that develops 3-6 foot thickets of stems that can be found
Chaparral, Riparian, and Oak Woodland communities. It grows in shade to part shade, but at higher elevations
(up to 6000'+) or near the coast sun is preferred. It tolerates drought, but it likes moisture growing well near
water sources and tolerates seasonal flooding. The foliage and the flower have a fragrance. The fruit also has a
fragrance. The fruit/hips is edible, used for tea and jellies, and contain high vitamin content. The roots were also
used for tea as a cold remedy. The hips also provide food for wildlife during the winter when the foliage is not
available. Grow with Coffee Barry , Oregon Grape

Hummingbird Sage
Salvia spathacea p 176-177 groundcover, spreads with rhizomes, in shady understory of Oaktrees (harvest
rhizomes to start new colony in fall or winter, deadhead flowers, plant with coffee berry, manzanitas, iris and
bunch grasses)

The hummingbird sage is a perennial herbaceous plant with stalks 1-3 feet tall, that can be found in Chaparral,
Coastal Strand and Oak Woodland communities. It grows in part shade to full sun in moist soils, although the
species tolerates different types of soils. The leaves are large 8-20cm and covered by hairs that make it soft to
the touch. The species reproduce by rhizomes and spreads to form colonies. These are highly aromatic when
crushed or touched. The flowers are magenta and are produced in clusters that grow upright 15-30cm long. As
the name indicates, this plant is highly attractive to hummingbirds.
Coffeeberry
Rhamnus californica Buckthorne Family pg 164-166 Mound San Bruno, Eve Case, Leather Leaf

Coffeeberry is an evergreen shrub that grows fast to 6-10’, 5-6 wide, control with selective pruning. It is found
in Chaparral, Coastal Sage Scrub, Coastal Strand, Mixed-evergreen Forest, Redwood Forest and Oak
Woodland communities. It ranges from Oregon to Baja and into Arizona. It grows fast and likes sun to part
shade. It has low water requirements. Coffeeberry have very small white greenish flowers, but it has reddish tint
on the dark green leaves. It does not require much maintenance. The berries turn red, then black over the
summer. The flowers attract pollinators like insects and butterflies, and the berries attract birds. Native
Americans used it as a laxative, but it must be taken in very small doses.
Light:sun to shade Soil:adaptable, well drained preferred
http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?where-genre=Plant&where-taxon=Rhamnus+californica

California Grape
Vitis californica p 192-193

Deciduous vine to 30'. If this grape has no support it will make a nice groundcover and can cover a large
greenhouse in 4-5 years.
California grape is a native deciduous species that is found in Chaparral, Coastal Sage Scrub, Mixed-evergreen
Forest, Oak Woodland and Riparian communities. It grows naturally along streams and in seeps throughout
central and southern California. It likes to grow in full sun and tolerates sand and clay soils. It likes regular
moisture and tolerates seasonal flooding. The flowers attract bees. The fruits are edible small grapes that grow
in clusters. The grapes provide food for wildlife attracting birds.
White Sage
Salvia apiana p 174

White sage is an evergreen perennial growing two to three feet tall, 3-6 across. Flowers add anther 2 feet to
height. The flowers emerge in summer and are white with a little lavender. Grows in Chaparral, Coastal Sage
Scrub and Yellow Pine Forest communities. It grows in dry slopes and will need no extra water. It likes full sun
and well-drained soils. The leaves are white and fragrant. The flowers emerge in the summer and are also white
and have a fragrance; they attract pollinators like bumblebees and other wildlife like hummingbirds. Native
Americans used it for smudge sticks or incense, to make tea for treat secretions in the sinuses and stomach
pain, and they used the seeds for flour.

California Sunflower
Encelia californica p 97

Perennial shrub, 3-4 ft. high, good large scale ground cover with 2 inch daisy
The California sunflower is a perennial shrub found in Chaparral, Coastal Sage Scrub and Coastal Strand
communities. It ranges from southern California to Baja and tolerates seaside conditions as well as alkaline soils
and clay. The yellow flowers attract pollinators, which makes a great species for butterfly gardens.
Pink-flowering Currant
Ribes sanguineum p 170

Pink-flowering currant is a deciduous shrub found in Chaparral, Pine Forest, Mixed-evergreen Forest, Riparian
and Oak Woodland communities. It shows long clusters of pink flowers from January to March. It likes shade to
part shade, needs moderate water, and is very drought tolerant in coastal habitats. It often grows next to a
stream, and it tolerates clay and sandy soils. The berries are dark purple and edible.

Coyote Brush
Baccharis pilularis p 64-65

Light: SunCoyote brush is an evergreen shrub that is found in Coastal Sage Scrubs and Coastal Strand
communities and ranges from Oregon to Baja California. It grows best in full sun, and branches grow spreading
and ascending. Coyote brush is an important species because it helps the establishment of other coastal
species. It likes well-drained soils and is drought tolerant. The flowers attract pollinators such as predatory
wasps, native skippers (small butterflies) and native flies.
Giant Rye
Leymus condensatus p 130

Giant rye is a perennial bunch grass that grows in Chaparral, Coastal Sage Scrub and Oak Woodland
communities. It has a distinctive blue/gray foliage and grows upright. It grows best in full to part sun. It is
adaptable to different types of soils such as saline and alkaline conditions. Giant rye is drought tolerant. It
spreads by rhizomes It is used by wildlife for browsing and grazing animals. Native americans used it to make
rope, mats and paper.

Sagebrush
Artemisia californica p 59-60

Sagebrush is an evergreen shrub that grows in Coastal Sage Scrub and Chaparral communities. It branches
from the base and grows three to four feet high. It likes full sun. Sagebrush is very drought tolerant and will not
need any water after it is established. It grows in a range of soil types, but these must be well-drained soils. It
attracts wildlife such as California quail. It was used as a tea by different Native American tribes to fight colds,
and for women menstrual cramps and to ease labor.
Monkeyflower
Mimulus aurantiacus p 135

Monkeyflower is a perennial flowering shrub that can be found from Oregon and through California. It has
tubular flowers that are usually orange. It grows in a variety of soil types, but it does not like being watered often
during the summer. It grows best in full sun. Monkey flower is an important nectar source for hummingbirds and
bees, and it is a food source for larvae for Checker spot butterflies. The flower and roots were particularly used
for its antiseptic qualities.

Juncus
Juncus sp. P 124

Juncus are a type of rush, a grass-like plants that have a slender and long leaf blade that is tubular and hollow.
It is most commonly found in wet areas such as wetlands and riparian habitats. The flowers grow in clusters of
brown and paper-like flowers that sprout out of green stems. It reproduces by both rhizomes and seeds. It is an
important plant in these communities because it provides nesting material, food, and shelter for many insects,
birds, and mammals. Humans in weavings such as mats used it. Size: 1-2 feet tall, grows with western
columbine, island alum root, low growing ceonothus, scarlet and seep monkeyflowers

Deer Grass
Muhlenbergia rigens, Grass Family (poacae) p 137-138 Size: 4 ft. tall; 4 ft. across

QuickTimeª and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

Chaparral http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/muhlenbergia-rigens
http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/muhlenbergia-rigens California Buckwheat
Eriogonum fasciculatum p 102

California busckwheat is a evergreen shrub that grows in Chaparral, Creosote Bush Scrub, Coastal Sage Scrub
and Joshua Tree Woodland communities. It is very drought tolerant and also grows in disturbed areas such as
highly populated areas. It tolerates sandy and clay soils. The flowers are white to light pink. These stay in the
plant after they dry up and turn brown. The leaves grow in clusters around nodes. The flowers, leaves and
seeds are all used by wildlife such as butterflies and small birds. It also attracts pollinators such as honeybees.
Native Americans used parts of the plant to treat many ailments such as headaches, diarrhea and wounds.

Woolly Blue Curls


Trichostema lanatum p 189-190

Woolly blue curls are evergreen shrubs that grow in Chaparral communities. It grows best in full sun and well-
drained soils. It will not need water after it is established. The flowers grow in clusters of violet flowers. It is often
used as an ornamental plant because of its attractive flowers. Woolly blue curls attract pollinators such as
hummingbirds and bumblebees. Native Americans used it for medicinal purposes and it makes a flavorful tea.
Ashyleaf Buckwheat
Eriogonum cinereum p 100-101

Ashyleaf Buckwheat is a perennial shrub that grows in Coastal Sage Scrub and Coastal Strand communities. Its
other common name is Coastal buckwheat and it tolerates seaside conditions as well as alkaline and clay soils.
It likes to grow in full sun to partial sun. The flowers are whitish pink clusters and hairy. It attracts pollinators
such as butterflies and small birds.

Blue-eyed Grass
Sisyrinchium bellum 182-183

Blue-eyed grass is a perennial wildflower that grows in Chaparral, Coastal Prairie and Central Oak Woodland
communities. It grows best in full sun and may need some watering. Although it can become drought tolerant
after it is established. It tolerates sandy and clay soils as well as seasonal flooding. It grows well in disturbed
areas such as in areas with high traffic of people. Blue-eyed grass grows about one foot tall in open grass areas,
but it can also be found woodlands. The leaves are green and elongated, and the flowers are purple. It grows
easily from seeds and may self-sow after it is established.
California Poppy
Eschscholzia californica p 202

California poppy
is a native wildflower that grows in Coastal Sage Scrub, Coastal Strand and Coastal Prairie. It is an annual in
the colder parts of its range and perennial in more mild climates. It tolerates seaside conditions and sandy soils.
It grows best in full sun and sandy, well drained, poor soils. Its foliage is blue-green and stress deciduous. The
flower is yellow-orange with four petals that close at night and in cold conditions. It grows very well in disturbed
areas. Native Americans used poppies medicinally as a sedative; the pollen was used cosmetically, and the
seeds were used for cooking.

Coral Bells
Heuchera sp. P 116-120

Coral-bells is a groups of perennial plants that likes to grow in full sun to part shade. The leaves are green to
deep purple and medium to large. It flowers from late spring into the summer and has small flowers that hang
from the stem and vary in color from species to species. It is drought tolerant, but grows best in moist well-
drained soils.
Manzanita BF
Arctostaphylos sp. P 50-57

Manzanita is a group/genus of shrubs or small trees that are mostly evergreen and grow in Chaparral
communities. They are characterized for smooth bark that is orange or red. Species range from ground hugging
coastal and mountain species to small trees up to 20 feet (6m) tall. It is very drought tolerant. It likes full sun and
well drained soils. It flowers in winter and early spring, and the flowers are white to pale pink growing in small
clusters. The berries of most of the species are edible as well as the bark that can be into a tea.
Arctostaphylos glandulosa adamsii, is a sprawling evergreen manzanita shrub that will form a knee high
groundcover. VERY gray with smooth red stems. Seems to be very drought tolerant, deer tolerant and tolerant
of neglect and people. This little shrub grows only a couple of feet high in our garden, without water and in full
sun. In the wild associated plants include Keckiella ternatus, Keckiella antirrhinoides microphylla,
Arctostaphylos otayensis (Otay Manzanita), Prunus fremontii, Quercus agrifolia, and believe it or not Acacia
greggii. Native in the center and eastern parts of San Diego County. Soil varies from reddish clay to
decomposed granite. http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/arctostaphylos-glandulosa-adamsii
http://www.laspilitas.com/groups/manzanita_arctostaphylos/southern/southern_california_Manzanitas.html

Bladderpod
Isomeris arborrea p 122-123

Bladderpod is an evergreen shrub that grows in Creosote Bush Scrub, Coastal Sage Scrub and Joshua Tree
Woodland communities. It likes to grow in coastal bluffs and tolerates seaside conditions, salt and alkaline soils.
It is very drought tolerant and easily suffers from overwatering. The flowers are yellow and the fruit resembles a
paper lantern. The fruit and seeds are edible and can be cooked as capers.
Morro Ceanothus
Ceanothus maritimus p 84

Ceanothus or Maritime Ceanothus is a evergreen shrub and sometimes ground cover that grows in Chaparral
and Coastal Strand communities. It likes to grow close to the coast, but it grows well in shade or part shade with
regular water. It grows best in heavy soils tolerating clay. It has blue flowers growing in clusters. The leaves are
small and dark green. It is an important food source for wildlife as an important source of calcium. It is
considered a rare plant.

Yarrow
Achillea millefolium p 43-44

Yarrow is a perennial that has been widely naturalized in grassy lands of the United States. It likes to grow in full
sun, but tolerates part shade. Yarrow likes rich soils that are well drained. It is drought tolerant and resistant to
insects, but it may have trouble with mildew or rust. The flowers appear in clusters of flat-topped small flowers
that can be white or pink. It spread quickly with a system of shallow roots as well as seed reproduction, and it
can be invasive. Yarrow has several medicinal uses such as stops bleeding, antiseptic (inhibits bacterial
growth), vulnerary (helps tissue heal), and anti-inflammatory among others. There are other uses for internal
consumption as stimulating digestion among many others.
Margarita BOP or Royal Penstomen
Penstemon spectabilis p 144-146

Pestomen is a large genus of perennial plants endemic to North America. These are drought tolerant and do not
like to be watered after establishment. Pestomen grows well with sages and buckwheat in dry arid conditions.
The flowers are tubular or funnel-shaped and can be yellow (rare), blue, violet, purple, pink, magenta, and red.
Bees, wasps, moths, butterflies, flies, and hummingbirds pollinate the flowers. Penstemon spectabilis is a 3'
perennial with lavender flowers in April-June. Native in dry creek beds, hill sides and coastal bluffs of southern
California. A very showy border plant, (at the back, too big for the front).
Communities for:Chaparral and Coastal Sage Scrub
http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/penstemon-spectabilis

Yerba Buena
Satureja douglasii p 179

Yerba Buena is a ground covering perennial herb that grows in Chaparral, Coastal Sage Scrub and Redwood
Forests communities. It is abundant close to the coast. The foliage is evergreen, has a fragrance and is edible. It
grows in shade as an understory plant. It spreads without being aggressive. Yerba Buena tolerates sand and
clay soils. In dry years (less than 15 inches), it may need watering. The leaves can be used for tea.
Pink-flowering Sumac
Rhus lentii p 168

Pink-flowering sumac is a large evergreen shrub that grows in seaside deserts, coastal bluffs and canyons. It is
very drought tolerant and grows in full sun to part sun. It likes well draining soils. The foliage is silver green and
dense. The flowers are very small and pink.

Desert Willow
Chilopsis linearis p 87-88

Desert willow is a deciduous tree or small shrub that grows Creosote Bush Scrub, Joshua Tree Woodland and
Riparian communities. Its foliage is willow-like and green. It grows in full sun and moderate water. It tolerates
alkaline, sand and clay soils and seasonal flooding. The flowers are tubular, mostly pink and have a fragrance. It
attracts birds like hummingbirds that feed on them most of the summer.
Desert Lavender
Hyptis emoryi p 120

Desert lavender is a perennial shrub that can be found in the southern regions of the Mojave and Colorado
Deserts in Creosote Bush Scrub. The leaves are oval-shaped and gray-green. The flowers are violet-blue. It is
sensitive and deciduous in cold temperatures. It needs full sun, little water after establishment and well draining
soils. The leaves and flower have a fragrance that attracts honeybees and other pollinators.

CHANNEL ISLANDS

Catalina Perfume
Ribes viburnifolium

Catalina perfume or Evergreen currant is a evergreen perennial shrub that grows in Chaparral and Coastal Sage
Scrub communities. The foliage is dark green and has a fragrance. The flowers are simple and red. It is drought
tolerant in clay soils, but will tolerate some water in well draining soils. It likes to grow in shade to part shade, and
it will not grow well in full sun. The fruits are edible and attract birds.
Island Snapdragon
Galvezia speciosa 111-112

Island snapdragon is a perennial shrub that grows in Coastal Sage Scrub communities. The flowers are tubular
and deep red. The leaves are evergreen and hairy. It grows in sun to part shade. It tolerates seaside conditions
and clay soils. It attracts birds like hummingbirds that feed on the flowers, and it is a food sources for the larvae of
the Checker spot butterfly.

Santa Cruz Island Ironwood


Lyonothamnus floribundus

SCI ironwood is an evergreen tree that grows in Chaparral and Coastal Sage Scrub communities. It can grow
large up to 50 feet. It requires rainfall of above 15 inches and good drainage. It tolerates sand and clay soil types.
The flowers are white with yellow centers. It will not tolerates sea spray, but it can tolerate low temperatures down
to 20 degrees F.
Hollyleaf Cherry
Prunus ilicifolia p 155-156

Catalina cherry is an evergreen shrub or small tree that grows in Chaparral, Coastal Sage Scrub and Oak
Woodland communities. It grows up to 3-8 feet in chapperal, 14 feet high and up to 30 feet tall as a tree in riparian
corriders. It has clusters of white flowers in the spring and large red cherries in the fall. It like full sun. It likes to
grow in moist cool areas. Catalina cherry has low water needs, but it needs good drainage. The red fruit are edible
and sweet although it has little flesh; nevertheless, it attracts birds. It is food sources for other wildlife such as
mammals and the caterpillar of Pale swallowtail (Papilio eurymedon).

Hollyleaf Cherry, Prunus ilicifolia is too slow to be a hedge by itself, mix with faster species and let it grow in.

Matilija Poppy
Romneya coulteri
Poppy Family (Pa paveracea)

Matilija Poppy is a perennial/shrub to eight feet tall and if in a light soil forever
wide (it spreads by rhizomes). The large papier-mache flowers are white with a
yellow center. Romneya likes sun and good drainage. In heavy soils it can be
difficult to establish. You will lose none in sand near the coast, but 2 of 3 in
interior adobe will die. Associated plants range from Mulfat, Baccharis, willows,
and Cottonwoods through Ceanothus crassifolia, Quercus berberdifolia(dumosa),
Rhus laurina, Rhus ovata, Keckellia antirrnoides, Diplacus puniceus, Artemisia
californica, Lotus scoparius, Eriophyllum confertiflorum, Eriodyticon crassifolium,
Salvia mellifera, and Chamise. Water well when planted, then once per week or
so though first summer. They should kick by the next spring, when they do, stop
watering. Matilija poppies commonly go deciduous in summer or fall and come
back in spring.
Communities:Chaparral and Coastal Sage Scrub.
Pitcher Sage Mint Family
Lepechinia fragrans or Rocky Point Lepechinia calycina, Size: 3 feet tall to 4-5 feet wide (cut back to 4-6 inch
stubs in late fall, mix with pappy, blue eyed grass, El Dorado Ca sunflower and mules ear

Attracts bumble bees, blooms in late spring early summer, sheds large leaves which are replaced by smaller
leaves, which last through autumn

Ceanothus spp., Mountain Lilac, is a beautiful evergreen shrub. Many butterfly lava use it.
http://www.laspilitas.com/groups/ceanothus/california_ceanothus.html

http://www.laspilitas.com/groups/ceanothus/southern_california_lilacs/southern_california_lilacs.html

Herb garden

http://www.laspilitas.com/classes/herbs.htm

Narrow Leaf Milkweed Asclepias fascicularis


Narrow-leaved Milkweed has narrow leaves and a wider native range and a whole lot more garden
tolerance than most of the other native species. Asclepias fascicularis is a perennial with three foot tall
stem and large (but narrow) five inch leaves, and a five inch or so flower cluster. In our area, this plant
is covered with monarch caterpillars during the summer. The Orioles use the dead stems for nests the
next spring. (The matter looks like fiberglass.) Milkweeds need sun (less flowers in the shade) and can
be quite drought tolerant, plant, mulch heavily,or better yet, plant next to boulder, water well first
month and ignore. Asclepias fascicularis can tolerate some pretty awful coastal clays that are sour bogs
in winter and salty toast in summer. Native from Southeast Washington and adjacent Idaho through
California,Oregon into Baja California and west into Nevada. Although Milkweeds can be poisonous
to cattle, it is more of a management issue, not a poisonous one. If they have nothing to eat but
milkweed it's a problem, and occasionally you'll get a druggy that prefers milkweed to anything else.
Different alkaloid than cocaine, similar effect. The alkaloids associated with this plant give the
butterflies that feed on it protection. Alkaloids from the wrong milkweed(South American, Mexican,
etc.) can expose the butterflies to predation. If the monarch or other butterfly has not evolved with the
milkweed they have no tolerance for the particular alkaloid of the species. The California flyway runs
from Baja to Canada, it does not include Mexico proper nor Central America. If you live in Chicago
you can plant Mexican species (Asclepias mexicana) or Asclepias tuberosa, don't plant our species. I
would guess the symptoms to be similar to the problem of intolerance to legumes that some people
have. Larval food plant for the Monarch butterfly.
Chia Salvia columbariae Chaparral

Black Sage Salvia mellifera


Black Sage is a three foot evergreen shrub with white to light blue flowers from March to July.
This sage is native to sunny dry slopes in the coast ranges from San Jose to Baja. It likes sun, tolerates
some shade. Salvia mellifera is native on gravel-sand to adobe clay in full sun to part-shade. Its
limitation seems to be rainfall. It needs about 15" of rainfall. It gets between 12-40" in its range, with
the lower number being compensated for with fog drip. Important butterfly and hummingbird plant.
Quail love the seed. Some companion plants for Salvia mellifera are Quercus agrifolia, Trichostema
lanatum, Keckiella cordifolia, and Eriogonum fasciculatum.
http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/asclepias-fascicularis
Click here for more about California Sages
Group plants based on their horticultural needs
Well drained soil and full sun fremontias, ceanothus and manzanitas
Consider providing adequate space for plantings to reach mature size particularly ground covers and hedges
Consider filling in with short-lived plants or annual wildflowers

Chapperal plant community include mountain mahagony, toyon, summer holly, sugar bush, ceanothus and
manzanitas. Drought tolerant plants form tall dense vegetation thrive in steep, hot dry areas with shallow, well
drained rocky soil.

Coastal Scrub sages, sagebrush and buckwheats. Produce lush green leaves in winter and tiny gray leaves in
summer, found in flatter cooler coastal ares plants are brittle, relatively low and easy to walk among. The Coastal
Sage Scrub plant community has wildlife and mini-wildlife activity for most of the year. The climate is so mild that
there is something flowering every month of the year. The dormant period for the plants is summer through fall
when there is no rainfall and the temperatures are higher. Generally, these are not absolute, but Gooseberries
(Ribes spp.) flower from from late fall through spring; Monkeyflowers (Mimulus spp.) flower spring through
summer; Coreopsis (Coreopsis spp.), Encelia (Encelia californica), California Aster (Lessingia filaginifolia) and
(Aster chilensis) flower from summer through fall.

Grassland, prairies and meadows plants include deer grass, checkerbloom, blue-eyed grass, white mariposa lily,
needle grasses, sedges, lupines and poppies include bunch grasses and sedges, sprinkled with annual and
perennial wildflowers and bulbs. However, meadow-like settings will need to have a well-thought-out strategy for
controlling weeds.

Southern Oak Woodland, plant Southern Oak Woodland plants, with some
Chaparral plants if you're in the interior, coast life oak, valley oak, CA buckeye,
coffee berry, fuschia flowered gooseery, hummingbird sage, creeping snowberry,
western meadow rue and currants Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia), Engelmann Oak (Quercus
engelmannii), California Walnut (Juglans californica), Lemonade Berry (Rhus integrifolia), Sugar bush (Rhus ovata),
Squaw bush (Rhus trilobota).

Baccharis salicifolia
Mulefat
ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE) - Sunflower Family

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Mulefat is a perennial shrub that blooms from April to October. The shrubs can reach twelve feet in height with leaves that
resemble the willow. Salicifolia means "willow leaved." The leaves are six inches in length and arranged alternately on the
woody stem, which can often be sticky. The white flowers are arranged in clusters at the end of the branch and bloom
almost year round. It is important for butterflies. Baccharis is dioecious, which means that it has "male" and "female" individuals. The
Cahuillas tribe had many uses for the plant such as eyewash, baldness preventative, and building
materials.