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財管微積分小考解答

陳振偉

政治大學應用數學系

2011.03.29

財管微積分小考解答

Differentiation Rules

Differentiation Rules

財管微積分小考解答

Differentiation Rules

Differentiation Rules I

d

dx (c) = 0

d 0

dx (cf (x)) = cf (x)

d 0 0

dx (f (x) ± g(x)) = f (x) ± g (x)

d 0 0

dx (f (x)g(x)) = f (x)g(x) + f (x)g (x) (Product Rule)

f 0 (x)g(x)−f (x)g 0 (x)

d f (x)

dx g(x) = (g(x))2

, g 6= 0 (Quotient Rule)

d 0 0

dx f (g(x)) = f (g(x))g (x) (Chain Rule)

d n n−1 (Power Rule)

dx (x ) = nx

財管微積分小考解答

Differentiation Rules

Differentiation Rules II

d x x

dx (e ) = e

d x x

dx (a ) = a ln a

d f (x) ) = ef (x) f 0 (x)

dx (e

d f (x) ) = af (x) f 0 (x) ln a

dx (a

d 1

dx ln x = x

d 1

dx (loga x) = x ln a

d f 0 (x)

dx (ln f (x)) = f (x)

d f 0 (x)

dx (loga f (x)) = f (x) ln a

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Solutions

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(a)

f (x) = eln π

Solution

∵ eln π is a constant.

∴ f 0 (x) = 0

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(a)

f (x) = eln π

Solution

∵ eln π is a constant.

∴ f 0 (x) = 0

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(a)

f (x) = eln π

Solution

∵ eln π is a constant.

∴ f 0 (x) = 0

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(b)

f (x) = ln (x4 ) − 4ex/2 − x

Solution

f (x) = ln (x4 ) − 4ex/2 − x = 4 ln x − 4ex/2 − x

⇒ f 0 (x) = 4

x − 2ex/2 − 1

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(b)

f (x) = ln (x4 ) − 4ex/2 − x

Solution

f (x) = ln (x4 ) − 4ex/2 − x = 4 ln x − 4ex/2 − x

⇒ f 0 (x) = 4

x − 2ex/2 − 1

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(b)

f (x) = ln (x4 ) − 4ex/2 − x

Solution

f (x) = ln (x4 ) − 4ex/2 − x = 4 ln x − 4ex/2 − x

⇒ f 0 (x) = 4

x − 2ex/2 − 1

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(c)

ex +e−x

f (x) = ex −e−x

Solution

(ex −e−x )(ex −e−x )−(ex +e−x )(ex +e−x )

f 0 (x) = (ex −e−x )2

= (ex −e−x )2

−4

= (ex −e−x )2

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(c)

ex +e−x

f (x) = ex −e−x

Solution

(ex −e−x )(ex −e−x )−(ex +e−x )(ex +e−x )

f 0 (x) = (ex −e−x )2

= (ex −e−x )2

−4

= (ex −e−x )2

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(c)

ex +e−x

f (x) = ex −e−x

Solution

(ex −e−x )(ex −e−x )−(ex +e−x )(ex +e−x )

f 0 (x) = (ex −e−x )2

= (ex −e−x )2

−4

= (ex −e−x )2

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(c)

ex +e−x

f (x) = ex −e−x

Solution

(ex −e−x )(ex −e−x )−(ex +e−x )(ex +e−x )

f 0 (x) = (ex −e−x )2

= (ex −e−x )2

−4

= (ex −e−x )2

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(d)

2

f (x) = 53x

Solution

2

f 0 (x) = 53x · ln 5 · 6x

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(d)

2

f (x) = 53x

Solution

2

f 0 (x) = 53x · ln 5 · 6x

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(e)

f (x) = log3 (x4 − 2x)

Solution

f 0 (x) = 1

x4 −2x

· log3 e · (4x3 − 2)

(4x3 −2) log3 e

= x4 −2x

4x3 −2

or = (x4 −2x) ln 3

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(e)

f (x) = log3 (x4 − 2x)

Solution

f 0 (x) = 1

x4 −2x

· log3 e · (4x3 − 2)

(4x3 −2) log3 e

= x4 −2x

4x3 −2

or = (x4 −2x) ln 3

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(e)

f (x) = log3 (x4 − 2x)

Solution

f 0 (x) = 1

x4 −2x

· log3 e · (4x3 − 2)

(4x3 −2) log3 e

= x4 −2x

4x3 −2

or = (x4 −2x) ln 3

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 1.(e)

f (x) = log3 (x4 − 2x)

Solution

f 0 (x) = 1

x4 −2x

· log3 e · (4x3 − 2)

(4x3 −2) log3 e

= x4 −2x

4x3 −2

or = (x4 −2x) ln 3

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 2.

2

For f (t) = e−t , t = 10

(a) Find the relative rate of change.

(b) Evaluate the relative rate of change at the given value of t

Solution

2

(a) ∵ ln f (t) = ln e−t = −t2

d

∴ dt ln f (t) = −2t

(b) At t = 10, −2 · 10 = −20

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 2.

2

For f (t) = e−t , t = 10

(a) Find the relative rate of change.

(b) Evaluate the relative rate of change at the given value of t

Solution

2

(a) ∵ ln f (t) = ln e−t = −t2

d

∴ dt ln f (t) = −2t

(b) At t = 10, −2 · 10 = −20

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 2.

2

For f (t) = e−t , t = 10

(a) Find the relative rate of change.

(b) Evaluate the relative rate of change at the given value of t

Solution

2

(a) ∵ ln f (t) = ln e−t = −t2

d

∴ dt ln f (t) = −2t

(b) At t = 10, −2 · 10 = −20

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

2

For f (t) = e−t , t = 10

(a) Find the relative rate of change.

(b) Evaluate the relative rate of change at the given value of t

2

(a) ∵ ln f (t) = ln e−t = −t2

d

∴ dt ln f (t) = −2t

(b) At t = 10, −2 · 10 = −20

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 3.

√

For the demand function D(p) = 175 − 3p, p = 50:

(a) Find the elasticity of demand E(p).

(b) Determine whether the demand is elastic, inelastic, or

unit-elastic at the given price p.

Solution

−p·D0 (p)

(a) ∵ E(p) = D(p)

−p· 21 (175−3p)−1/2 (−3) 3p

∴ E(p) = √

175−3p

= 2(175−3p)

3·50

(b) E(50) = 2(175−3·50) = 3

∵ E(50) = 3> 1

∴ the demand is elastic.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 3.

√

For the demand function D(p) = 175 − 3p, p = 50:

(a) Find the elasticity of demand E(p).

(b) Determine whether the demand is elastic, inelastic, or

unit-elastic at the given price p.

Solution

−p·D0 (p)

(a) ∵ E(p) = D(p)

−p· 21 (175−3p)−1/2 (−3) 3p

∴ E(p) = √

175−3p

= 2(175−3p)

3·50

(b) E(50) = 2(175−3·50) = 3

∵ E(50) = 3> 1

∴ the demand is elastic.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 3.

√

For the demand function D(p) = 175 − 3p, p = 50:

(a) Find the elasticity of demand E(p).

(b) Determine whether the demand is elastic, inelastic, or

unit-elastic at the given price p.

Solution

−p·D0 (p)

(a) ∵ E(p) = D(p)

−p· 21 (175−3p)−1/2 (−3) 3p

∴ E(p) = √

175−3p

= 2(175−3p)

3·50

(b) E(50) = 2(175−3·50) = 3

∵ E(50) = 3> 1

∴ the demand is elastic.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

√

For the demand function D(p) = 175 − 3p, p = 50:

(a) Find the elasticity of demand E(p).

(b) Determine whether the demand is elastic, inelastic, or

unit-elastic at the given price p.

−p·D0 (p)

(a) ∵ E(p) = D(p)

−p· 21 (175−3p)−1/2 (−3) 3p

∴ E(p) = √

175−3p

= 2(175−3p)

3·50

(b) E(50) = 2(175−3·50) = 3

∵ E(50) = 3> 1

∴ the demand is elastic.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

√

For the demand function D(p) = 175 − 3p, p = 50:

(a) Find the elasticity of demand E(p).

(b) Determine whether the demand is elastic, inelastic, or

unit-elastic at the given price p.

−p·D0 (p)

(a) ∵ E(p) = D(p)

−p· 21 (175−3p)−1/2 (−3) 3p

∴ E(p) = √

175−3p

= 2(175−3p)

3·50

(b) E(50) = 2(175−3·50) = 3

∵ E(50) = 3> 1

∴ the demand is elastic.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

√

For the demand function D(p) = 175 − 3p, p = 50:

(a) Find the elasticity of demand E(p).

(b) Determine whether the demand is elastic, inelastic, or

unit-elastic at the given price p.

−p·D0 (p)

(a) ∵ E(p) = D(p)

−p· 21 (175−3p)−1/2 (−3) 3p

∴ E(p) = √

175−3p

= 2(175−3p)

3·50

(b) E(50) = 2(175−3·50) = 3

∵ E(50) = 3> 1

∴ the demand is elastic.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 4.

A sum of $1000 at 5% interest compounded continuously will

grow to V (t) = 1000e0.05t dollars in t years. Find the rate of

growth after:

(a) 0 years (the time of the original deposit).

(b) 10 years.

Solution

(a) V (t) = 1000e0.05t ⇒ V 0 (t) = 50e0.05t

V 0 (0) = 50e0.05·0 = 50

The rate of growth after 0 years is $50 per year.

(b) V 0 (10) = 50e0.05·10 = 50e0.5

The rate of growth after 10 years is $50e0.5 per year.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 4.

A sum of $1000 at 5% interest compounded continuously will

grow to V (t) = 1000e0.05t dollars in t years. Find the rate of

growth after:

(a) 0 years (the time of the original deposit).

(b) 10 years.

Solution

(a) V (t) = 1000e0.05t ⇒ V 0 (t) = 50e0.05t

V 0 (0) = 50e0.05·0 = 50

The rate of growth after 0 years is $50 per year.

(b) V 0 (10) = 50e0.05·10 = 50e0.5

The rate of growth after 10 years is $50e0.5 per year.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 4.

A sum of $1000 at 5% interest compounded continuously will

grow to V (t) = 1000e0.05t dollars in t years. Find the rate of

growth after:

(a) 0 years (the time of the original deposit).

(b) 10 years.

Solution

(a) V (t) = 1000e0.05t ⇒ V 0 (t) = 50e0.05t

V 0 (0) = 50e0.05·0 = 50

The rate of growth after 0 years is $50 per year.

(b) V 0 (10) = 50e0.05·10 = 50e0.5

The rate of growth after 10 years is $50e0.5 per year.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

A sum of $1000 at 5% interest compounded continuously will

grow to V (t) = 1000e0.05t dollars in t years. Find the rate of

growth after:

(a) 0 years (the time of the original deposit).

(b) 10 years.

(a) V (t) = 1000e0.05t ⇒ V 0 (t) = 50e0.05t

V 0 (0) = 50e0.05·0 = 50

The rate of growth after 0 years is $50 per year.

(b) V 0 (10) = 50e0.05·10 = 50e0.5

The rate of growth after 10 years is $50e0.5 per year.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 5.

Since the development of the iPod, the stock price of Apple has

been growing rapidly and has been approximately 3.2e0.5x ,

wherex is the number of years since 2000 (for 2 ≤ x ≤ 7). Find

the relative growth rate of Apple’s stock price at any time

during that period.

Solution

Let f (x) = 3.2e0.5x , then ln f (x) = ln 3.2e0.5x = ln 3.2 + 0.5x

d

⇒ dx ln f (x) = 0.5

The stock was appreciating by 50% per year.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 5.

Since the development of the iPod, the stock price of Apple has

been growing rapidly and has been approximately 3.2e0.5x ,

wherex is the number of years since 2000 (for 2 ≤ x ≤ 7). Find

the relative growth rate of Apple’s stock price at any time

during that period.

Solution

Let f (x) = 3.2e0.5x , then ln f (x) = ln 3.2e0.5x = ln 3.2 + 0.5x

d

⇒ dx ln f (x) = 0.5

The stock was appreciating by 50% per year.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 5.

Since the development of the iPod, the stock price of Apple has

been growing rapidly and has been approximately 3.2e0.5x ,

wherex is the number of years since 2000 (for 2 ≤ x ≤ 7). Find

the relative growth rate of Apple’s stock price at any time

during that period.

Solution

Let f (x) = 3.2e0.5x , then ln f (x) = ln 3.2e0.5x = ln 3.2 + 0.5x

d

⇒ dx ln f (x) = 0.5

The stock was appreciating by 50% per year.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Since the development of the iPod, the stock price of Apple has

been growing rapidly and has been approximately 3.2e0.5x ,

wherex is the number of years since 2000 (for 2 ≤ x ≤ 7). Find

the relative growth rate of Apple’s stock price at any time

during that period.

Let f (x) = 3.2e0.5x , then ln f (x) = ln 3.2e0.5x = ln 3.2 + 0.5x

d

⇒ dx ln f (x) = 0.5

The stock was appreciating by 50% per year.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Since the development of the iPod, the stock price of Apple has

been growing rapidly and has been approximately 3.2e0.5x ,

wherex is the number of years since 2000 (for 2 ≤ x ≤ 7). Find

the relative growth rate of Apple’s stock price at any time

during that period.

Let f (x) = 3.2e0.5x , then ln f (x) = ln 3.2e0.5x = ln 3.2 + 0.5x

d

⇒ dx ln f (x) = 0.5

The stock was appreciating by 50% per year.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 6.

A European oil-producing country estimates that the demand

for its oil (in millions of barrels per day) is D(p) = 3.5e−0.06p ,

where p is the price of a barrel of oil. To raise its revenues,

should it raise or lower its price from its current level of $120

per barrel?

Solution

−p·D0 (p)

∵ E(p) = D(p)

−p·3.5e−0.06p (−0.06)

∴ E(p) = 3.5e−0.06p

= 0.06p

⇒ E(120) = 0.06 · 120 = 7.2

∵ E(120) = 7.2> 1

∴ demand is elastic

∴ it should lower prices.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 6.

A European oil-producing country estimates that the demand

for its oil (in millions of barrels per day) is D(p) = 3.5e−0.06p ,

where p is the price of a barrel of oil. To raise its revenues,

should it raise or lower its price from its current level of $120

per barrel?

Solution

−p·D0 (p)

∵ E(p) = D(p)

−p·3.5e−0.06p (−0.06)

∴ E(p) = 3.5e−0.06p

= 0.06p

⇒ E(120) = 0.06 · 120 = 7.2

∵ E(120) = 7.2> 1

∴ demand is elastic

∴ it should lower prices.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

Problem 6.

A European oil-producing country estimates that the demand

for its oil (in millions of barrels per day) is D(p) = 3.5e−0.06p ,

where p is the price of a barrel of oil. To raise its revenues,

should it raise or lower its price from its current level of $120

per barrel?

Solution

−p·D0 (p)

∵ E(p) = D(p)

−p·3.5e−0.06p (−0.06)

∴ E(p) = 3.5e−0.06p

= 0.06p

⇒ E(120) = 0.06 · 120 = 7.2

∵ E(120) = 7.2> 1

∴ demand is elastic

∴ it should lower prices.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

A European oil-producing country estimates that the demand

for its oil (in millions of barrels per day) is D(p) = 3.5e−0.06p ,

where p is the price of a barrel of oil. To raise its revenues,

should it raise or lower its price from its current level of $120

per barrel?

−p·D0 (p)

∵ E(p) = D(p)

−p·3.5e−0.06p (−0.06)

∴ E(p) = 3.5e−0.06p

= 0.06p

⇒ E(120) = 0.06 · 120 = 7.2

∵ E(120) = 7.2> 1

∴ demand is elastic

∴ it should lower prices.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

A European oil-producing country estimates that the demand

for its oil (in millions of barrels per day) is D(p) = 3.5e−0.06p ,

where p is the price of a barrel of oil. To raise its revenues,

should it raise or lower its price from its current level of $120

per barrel?

−p·D0 (p)

∵ E(p) = D(p)

−p·3.5e−0.06p (−0.06)

∴ E(p) = 3.5e−0.06p

= 0.06p

⇒ E(120) = 0.06 · 120 = 7.2

∵ E(120) = 7.2> 1

∴ demand is elastic

∴ it should lower prices.

財管微積分小考解答

Solutions

A European oil-producing country estimates that the demand

for its oil (in millions of barrels per day) is D(p) = 3.5e−0.06p ,

where p is the price of a barrel of oil. To raise its revenues,

should it raise or lower its price from its current level of $120

per barrel?

Solution

−p·D0 (p)

∵ E(p) = D(p)

−p·3.5e−0.06p (−0.06)

∴ E(p) = 3.5e−0.06p

= 0.06p

⇒ E(120) = 0.06 · 120 = 7.2

∵ E(120) = 7.2> 1

∴ demand is elastic

∴ it should lower prices.

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