PROJECT REPORT ON PRODUCTION OF PORTLAND CEMENT BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING.
Submitted by P. SUSHMA SRINIVASA REDDY.D K. UDAY KUMAR Y7Ch837 Y7Ch843 Y7Ch821
Under the esteemed guidance of Sri K. RAMESH CHANDRA Department of chemical engineering, R.V.R&JC College of engineering.
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING R.V.R. & J.C.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Chowdavaram, Guntur-522019 Andhra Pradesh :: India 2009 2010
India is the 2nd largest cement producer in world after china .Right from laying concrete bricks of economy to waving fly over¶s cement industry has shown and shows a great future. The overall outlook for the industry shows significant growth on the back of robust demand from housing construction, Phase-II of NHDP (National Highway Development Project) and other infrastructure development projects. Domestic demand for cement has been increasing at a fast pace in India. Cement consumption in India is forecasted to grow by over 22% by 2009-10 from 2007-08.Among the states, Maharashtra has the highest share in consumption at 12.18%,followed by Uttar Pradesh, In production terms, Andhra Pradesh is leading with 14.72% of total production followed by Rajasthan. Cement production grew at the rate of 9.1 per cent during 2006-07 over the previous fiscal's total production of 147.8 mt(million tons). Due to rising demand of cement the sales volume of cement companies are also increasing & companies reporting higher production, higher sales and higher profits. The net profit growth rate of cement firms was 85%. Cement industry has contributed around 8% to the economic development of India. Outsiders (foreign players) eyeing India as a major market to invest in the form of either merger or FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). Cement industry has a long way to go as Indian economy is poised to grow because of being on verge of development. Despite the growth of Indian cement industry India lags behind the per capita production. Supply for cement is expected to remain tight which, in turn, will push up prices of cement by more than 50%. The most important factor for better prices is consolidation of the industry. It has just begun and we will see more consolidation in the coming years. Other budget measures such as cut in import duty from 12.5 per cent to nil etc. are all intended to cut costs and boost availability of cement. Sadly the adverse effects of global slowdown have not speared this industry too. Demand is sluggish, the government is keeping an eagle eye on prizes, domestic coal and pet coke, prizes have increased sharply and utilizations rates are down. The numbers coming out are a reflection of grim times. ACC the country¶s largest cement company that¶s controlled by Swiss giant HOLCIM, registered 2% fall in august sales. The biggest fall since Feb. 2007. Production fell by 5%. To stand against the problematic situation, government as well as cement industry has taken some steps. Companies are focusing on cost of transportation. One of the strategy is to decrease dependence on road & opt for sea logistics as that can cut transportation cost by 30- 50 %. Some plants are adopting
futuristic plan such as setting up captive power plant, moving closer to the customers by creating clicker, crushing, and capacity in key markets, to be more customer centric to generate better revenue.India should push for stricter regulations of market place as to control the prices of big companies and prevent them from forming cartels and exchanging information. To fight with the high inflation, government wants to import more cement from Pakistan .However cement prizes are not very much high as other items but still they are increasing.And the reason of high prize is surging cost of raw material and transportation cost. Apart from this government also discussed with cement industry not to have increase in prizes and keep consumer interest in mind.
Now the question arise in front of the government is whether the demand by the government is possible to increase through expenditure on infrastructure or not according to the current state of economy when so many crises are going on or how the government allocation of US$ 3.23 billion for the National Highway Development, Project will keep the demand for cement alive?And to what extent the prizes of cement should be increase so that consumer can¶t affect.
Portland Cement is a gray, finely ground combination of minerals which, when mixed with water, sand, gravel, and other materials form concrete. Cement provides the chemical bond that holds the other materials together. Concrete, when newly mixed, is plastic and malleable, which allows it to be cast into shapes to build homes, sidewalks, superhighways, dams, skyscrapers and many other objects. Concrete is inert, nontoxic, naturally waterproof, and fire resistant. It is the world¶s most commonly used construction material. The words cement and concrete in every day usage are frequently interchanged, even though cement is only one of the multiple materials used in the making of concrete . Cement manufacturing and concrete production are bound together in any analysis of energy use and emissions. The raw materials used to produce cement are primarily limestone, clay, shale, and silica sand These materials are quarried, crushed, and, for economy, are usually transported to a nearby cement plant. The cement plant proportions the raw materials to the correct chemical composition and grinds the material to a fine consistency. Small quantities of iron ore, alumina, and other minerals may be
added to adjust the raw material mixture. The finely ground raw material, ³raw meal,´ is fed into large rotary kilns, cylindrical furnaces 10 to 25 feet in diameter and 200 to 1,000 feet in length. The rotary cement kiln is the world's largest moving manufacturing machine and one of the hottest. It is typically set on a slight incline and rotates from 1 to 4 revolutions per minute. A large kiln may ³pyroprocess´ more than 300 tonnes of raw meal an hour. The raw meal is heated in the kiln to extremely high temperatures, about 1,500°C (2,700°F). The high temperature pyroprocessing causes the raw meal to react and form complex mineral compounds. These compounds exit the kiln as a hard nodular material called ³clinker.´ Many newer cement plants use the hot exiting kiln gases to preheat the raw meal. Clinker is cooled and ground with approximately 5% gypsum (which controls concrete setting time) and other minor additives to produce cement. Concrete is produced by blending cement with fine aggregate (sand), coarse aggregate (gravel or crushed stone), and frequently with small amounts of chemicals, called ³admixtures.´ Admixtures are used to accelerate or retard setting time, control early plasticity properties, increase strength, improve resistance to acid and sulfates, control shrinkage, and improve freeze/thaw cracking. When water is added to the concrete mix at the job site, it forms a slurry that coats the surfaces of the aggregate and fills the voids to form rock-solid concrete. The process of hardening or setting is the result of the water hydration chemical reaction of the cement. The properties of concrete are determined by the exact chemical composition of cement used, the additives, and the overall proportions of cement, aggregate, and water. Concrete contains about 12 weight percent cement. Because of the relatively small cement content, concrete is not energy intensive when compared to other construction materials.
History of Portland cement Cement has been made since Roman times, but over time the recipes used to make cement have been refined. The earliest cements were made from lime and pozzolana (a volcanic ash Containing significant quantities of SiO2 and Al2O3) mixed with ground brick and water. This cement was not improved upon until 1758, when Smeaton noticed that using a limestone That was 20 - 25 % clay and heating the mixture resulted in a cement that could harden under water . He called this new cement 'hydraulic lime'. When the mixture was heated, a small quantity of it was sintered1. Normally this was discarded as waste, but in the 1800s Asp din and Johnson discovered that when the entire batch was sintered and then ground, a superior Cement was formed. This substance became designated Portland cement (after the region in which they were working) and is the most common cement in use today. Portland cement was first produced commercially in New Zealand in 1886 by James Wilson and Co., and has been produced here ever since. Portland cement is currently defined as a mixture of argillaceous (i.e. clay-like) and calcaneous (i.e. containing CaCO3 or other insoluble calcium salts) materials mixed with gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) sintered and then pulverised into a fine powder. The precise definition of Portland cement varies between different countries, and in New Zealand are controlled by New Zealand's Standard Specification (NZS) 3122. Portland cement differsfrom its precursors primarily in the fact that it is sintered.
Physical properties: The ASTM standards have specified certain physical requirements for each type of cement. These properties include: 1) Fineness 2) Setting time 3) Soundness 4) Compressive strength 5) Heat of hydration 6) Loss of ignition. Chemical Properties: Portland cements can be characterized by their chemical composition although they rarely are for pavement applications. However, it is a portland cement's chemical properties that determine its physical properties and how it cures. Therefore, a basic understanding of portland cement chemistry can help one understand how and why it behaves as it does. This section briefly describes the basic chemical composition of a typical portland cement and how it hydrates.
APPLICATIONS: A summary of the uses of cement in World is given in Figure. Cement is produced here in three main grades: ordinary Portland cement (80% of Milburn's and 95% of Golden Bay's domestic sales), rapid hardening cement and moderate-heat cement. Rapid-hardening cement is used in precast concrete, pipes and tiles. It is finer ground so that it hydrates more quickly and has more gypsum than other cements. Moderate-heat cement is used for the construction of hydro-electric dams, as the heat produced by ordinary cement creates uneven expansion and hence cracking when such a large volume of concrete is used. In addition, a few special cements are manufactured in New Zealand for larger projects or export: these include sulphate resisting, fly ash blend, blast furnace slag and Price Mer cement.
CURRENT SCENARIO : The Indian cement industry is the second largest producer of quality cement, which meets global standards. The cement industry comprises 130 large cement plants and more than 300 mini cement plants. The industry's capacity at the end of the year reached 188.97 million tons which was 166.73 million tons at the end of the year 2006-07. Cement production during April to March 2007-08 was 168.31 million tons as compared to 155.66 million tons during the same period for the year 2006-07.Despatches were 167.67 million tons during April to March 200708 whereas 155.26 during the same period. During April-March 2008-09, cement export was 3.65 million tons as compared to 5.89 during the same period.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PROCESSES FOR PRODUCTION OF PORTLAND CEMENT: The dry process
The quarried clay and limestone are crushed separately until nothing bigger than a tennis ball remains. Samples of both rocks are then sent off to the laboratory for mineral analysis. If necessary, minerals are then added to either the clay or the limestone to ensure that the correct amounts of aluminium, iron etc. are present. The clay and limestone are then fed together into a mill where the rock is ground until more than 85% of the material is less than 90 m in diameter.
The wet process
The clay is mixed to a paste in a wash mill - a tank in which the clay is pulverised in the presence of water. Crushed lime is then added and the whole mixture further ground. Any material which is too coarse is extracted and reground. The slurry is then tested to ensure that it contains the correct balance of minerals, and any extra ingredients blended in as necessary.
SELECTION OF PROCESS :
Dry process cement production line means utilizing the outside kiln pre-calcining technology as new type process to produce cement. The production takes suspension pre-heater and outside kiln precalcining technology as the core, taking advantage of new type raw material and fuel homogenization and energy-saving grinding technology and equipment, utilizing the computer distributed control system in the whole line, so as to realize the automation, high efficiency, best quality, low energy consumption, and environmental protection in the process of cement production. New type dry process cement production technology began to develop since 1950s. Till now, the production equipment ratio of new type dry process cement and clinker, featured with suspension pre heater and pre calcining technology, has taken up 95% in Japan, Germany and such developed countries. The first set suspension pre-heater and pre calcining kiln were put into production in 1976. The advantages of the technology are as follows: 1. Transferring heat rapidly; 2. High heat efficiency; 3. Having larger production per unit volume compared with wet process cement; 4. Low heat consumption.
DETAILED PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Cement production process: technology advanced; automatically control; low cost, enviroment friendly; fast return. DRY TYPE CEMENT PRODUCTION LINE There are 11 steps of the cement production process, relying on the 11 step, we can know the basic cement equipment. The whole set cement plant cost maybe high ,but when we install this cement line plant, the profit will be come true at one time. 1.Mining system limestone mining advanced technology, fine equipment, the equipment have the big type drilling rig, mucking equipment and transport cars, the blasting used quarry bench, middle-deep hole, nonelectrical short-delay extrusion, safe blasting, big block ratio small, the blasting can reach to no waste production and make full use of the limestone resource.
2. Raw material crushing system Single-stage hammer crusher break up the limestone, the max size 1500mm of limestone break up less than 70mm one time, technology process is simple, stable ,advanced, having the package dust collector, environment cleaning, meet the environmental protection requirement. 3. Raw material homogenization and storage system A. Limestone homogenization store Using the long or rounded pre-homogenization silo, homogenization result well , the program control automatically stacker and reclaimer operation. After homogenization limestone chemical composition is stable. B. Clay and sand rock homogenization store Using the long pre-homogenization silo , homogenization result well ,stacker and reclaimer according to the clay characteristic automatically control operation. After homogenization clay and sand rock chemical composition is stable.
4. Raw material mixing system Rely on the local raw material resource , select limestone , sand rock , clay , iron raw material .etc, to mix and produce .Upper raw material though the homogenization to mixing system , relying on the cement special mixing formula, using the advanced electrical belt weight to accurately measurement produce
5. Raw material grinding and waster gas processing system Using the advanced vertical roll mill technology , outfitting advanced electrical dust collector and package dust collector ,after the grinding raw material quality well , fine controllable , low energy , output friendly to environment . 6. Raw material homogenization and into kiln system Adopted the continuous raw material homogenization storage technology , take the after grinded raw materials homogenization again , used the advanced X-ray analyzer , making the raw material quality monitoring , adjusting the kinds of raw material mixing on time , meet for the quality requirements. 7. Clinker calcining and waste heat power generation system Adopted advanced pre-separate dry type rotary kiln cement production technology , equipping Yi gong machinery independent research and development automatic control program ,control production stable , product quality well , low coal waste , low energy and other main economic indicators reached international advanced level. reduced NOX ,dust , noise and inverter technology application and other sides have the Yi gong special advantages .Used the kiln tail and head 's waste gas waste heat resource , taking the significant result ,under the daily output 5000t clinker production line , 1t clinker power generation reach to more than 40kw , achieved the international advanced level . To the coal quality better region ,used vertical roll grind technology , coal power low energy , product quality meet for production need , used coal power special antistatic package dust collector , the density of coal power output less than country standard , according to the coal power flammable and
explosive characteristic , designed the automatically check , alarm , fire-proof system , the whole system safe and stable. To the coal quality low , volatile lower defective or anthracite coal , selected specially ball mill, used the ball mill easily control quality advantage , more mixed defective coal or anthracite coal , used the resource , and also reduced cement production cost. 8. Clinker input bin and bulk cement transport according to the market difference need , can provide car , train and ship three type clinker saling , also meet for the factory self grinding cement need. 9. Cement mixing and grinding system According to the cement kind difference need , mixed adequate gypsum and mixed material , through high precision scale mixing material to input cement mill ,in order to produce high quality cement adopted the advanced quality monitor to tracking , monitoring and adjustment. The cement grinding equipment can rely on the difference need to select roll presser system , taking the high efficiency select dust system and vertical roll mill system , cement mill used the high efficiency package type dust collecting technology .meted for the environmental protection high standard output requirement . Cement production process adopted Yi gong independent development soft, control automatically , produced control data well , product quality high ,low energy , low cost , having the strong market competition advantage. 10.Cementstoringandtransporting system ,Though grinding cement are stored round roll bin, after series of strict chemical and physical test, right cement can be as the finished product sale. Sling type according to customer need, select car bulk packing, train bulk packing, ship bulk packing and car bag packing, train bag packing ,and so on.
1. The rise in the price of cement is because of the gap of demand & supply in the market. The demand for cement is much higher than its actual supply. But with the production maximization, which can be encountered in next few year, this gap may narrowed down, that may ensure the market to be in equilibrium. 2. Decreasing per capita consumption doesn¶t affect the total consumption for the cement. It means the infrastruct) - the raw materials of cement manufacture.ure; contacted housing is using the bulk of the production. 3. In spite of High price of the product, the hick of demand because of the increasing rate of infrastructural development.
4. Domestic price of cement is rising as well as the imported cement price is lowering. So altogether the supply of the cement, which is affordable, will increase. This may in decrease the gap between supply and demand.
5. Major Demand was from the housing sector, which may shift to infrastructure as lots of infrastructural development processes has already being taken up & due to the increased price, housing segment started showing a slowdown