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Level 3 Student Guidebook
WARNING The trafficking and sexual exploitation of young people is an extremely difficult issue dealing with mature subject matters. This curriculum is designed for grade levels 10 – 12 and must be delivered by an educator who has completed all the instructor requirements.
EASTERN Curriculum P.O. Box 498 Old Saybrook, CT 06475 USA 860-339-5387 EASTERNCurriculum.com
EASTERN Educator And Student Trafficking Education Resource Network Educational Curriculum Protecting American Students from Commercial Sexual Exploitation Level 3 Student Guidebook
INDEX Section One: Overview Section Two: Suggested Activities Section Three: Resources for Extended Study Section Four: Dynamics of the Pimp and Victim Section Five: Resources for Law Enforcement Section Six: Standards of Holistic Care for Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation Section Seven: Residential Facilities for Underage Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation, A Guide for Students Who Want to Help Section Eight: Article – “Authorities fear surge in human trafficking . . .”
EASTERN LEVEL 3 Section 1 Commercial Sexual Exploitation in America Overview Level 3 of the EASTERN Curriculum is an individual study program that is meant to be customized to your specific interests. We understand you that may want to go further into addressing the topic of Commercial Sexual Exploitation. This information provides you with areas of deeper study, along with ideas and plans for community activities and awareness campaigns. To combat trafficking, all sectors of society must become aware of the issue and take action. The most significant group is comprised of ‘First Responders,’ such as the police, medical professionals, educators, juvenile justice and social workers, and certain employers. As a young member of your community, you have a particularly important role to play. While there is nothing new about the crimes of Human Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation in America, the human rights aspect of the fight against them is just getting started. Right now, you can have a exceptional opportunity to bring significant influence to the issue and the lives of the victims. Having completed Levels 1 and 2 of the EASTERN Curriculum it is very likely that you know more about the topic and the dynamics of how the crime takes place in the United States than most of the First Responders in your area. You are to be commended for your accomplishment in coming this far, but your achievement also comes with great responsibility. So now you have a decision to make. Are you going to simply move on from here and file what you’ve learned away somewhere in your brain? Or are you going to take what you’ve learned and do the hard work it takes to make a real difference . . . and perhaps even change the world a little? The truth is that there is so much you can do that it’s hard to list all your options. That’s why we have compiled the very best and most effective ideas and activities for you. With this information, you will be able to go even deeper into your study of Commercial Sexual Exploitation in America. But more than that, you will be able to actively work to bring a greater awareness of the crime to those who are in positions to be able to stop it and save victims. Even better, you may be able to prevent further crimes against potential victims from taking place. In short, you could be a life-saver. Overall Objectives for EASTERN Curriculum Level 3 Protect American students from the dangers of Commercial Sexual Exploitation in America Increase students’ interest in and understanding of Commercial Sexual Exploitation as it affects life in the United States and their local community. Increase students’ ability to analyze and form opinions on the relevance and reality of Commercial Sexual Exploitation. Encourage, motivate and empower students to be agents of change and improvement. Students will better understand the Commercial Sexual Exploitation industry and the many different ways in which sexual servitude takes place. To provide students the opportunity to share their opinions – and fears - about Commercial Sexual Exploitation and in turn to gain further understanding of the problem. To provide students the opportunity to share their opinions about the challenges, laws and protocols to prevent Commercial Sexual Exploitation.
Are You Ready? In order to begin Level 3 of the EASTERN Curriculum, You should be able to successfully answer these questions without researching the answers: Define Human Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation in your own words. What are the goals of Human Traffickers? How many people are trafficked in the United States? What are some of the ways victims trafficking are recruited? Where does Commercial Sexual Exploitation take place? ? Name the key players in a Commercial Sexual Exploitation scenario. How are victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation introduced to the trafficker? How much money does the human trafficking industry make each year? As You Begin It is important that you begin Level 3 with an open mind and a genuine interest in the issue of Commercial Sexual Exploitation in America; helping its victims; and preventing more victims from being taken in. Here are some questions to consider as you prepare to begin your work: How can you spread awareness using effective and rational strategies? How can you build partnerships with others in order to: o Increase your community's knowledge on the dangers of CSE o Assist curretn victims o Prevent more victims from falling into 'the life' How can you get access to law enforcement agencies and government officials? How can you leverage your skills and relationships to make a difference and help put an end to Commercial Sexual Exploitation in your city or community? Requirements In order to participate in Level 3 of the EASTERN Curriculum, you must meet the following requirements: Complete Levels 1 and 2 of the EASTERN Curriculum Read the book, The Berlin Turnpike: A True Story of Human Trafficking in America Read two other books in the "Resources" section of this guide Inform yourself about the situation in your community. Compile information, statistics and publications that will be useful to monitor the situation and media coverage of CSE in your area. Present "The Girl is the New Drug" to at least one group in your area - preferably to parents and students. You can do this on your own or as a group.
EASTERN LEVEL 3 Section 2 Commercial Sexual Exploitation in America Suggested Activities Moving forward, it is imperative that you consult with your student advisor, Law Enforcement instructor AND your parents or guardians prior AND during your work. This is important because of the nature of the issue and because it is essential to have guidance and supervision whenever you embark on projects that have potentially life-altering consequences. In this case, it is the lives of the victims you are trying save and restore. Of course, along the way yours will be changed as well. That is why you must involve responsible adults in authority prior to beginning any long-term project listed here. Now it's time to begin reviewing your options for Level 3 Activities. You are about discover a large variety of projects, tasks, and activities each of which has extraordinarily powerful potential. Please take you r time in reviewing these options. Carefully consider which direction you will take. You may find that it is best to delve into several activities that interest you prior to committing to your final choice. That's perfectly fine. It is far better to take extra time to select the correct project for you rather than rush into something you may regret later. Remember, these victims deserve your very best. And if you have come this far in your desire to help them, then you have what it takes to be someone's hero. Option 1 - Ongoing Discovery Google phrases dealing with the issues of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation in your area. (e.g. “child sex trafficking” “human trafficking” “child trafficking” “modern day slavery” “commercial sexual exploitation” and any other phrase that relates to the topic.) This will be a good litmus test to see how aware your local media is and how well – or badly – they report it. You will also see who is already working to actively stop trafficking in your area. It is also just good practice to keep tabs on your area. Then, set Google alerts with the same search settings. Google alerts will send you an email anytime Google comes across a new web posting with certain search words. These extensive searches will ultimately lead you to a greater understanding of how these crimes exist in your area, how they are being reported, who is working or commenting on them, where trouble spots are and where there the greatest needs exist. If you monitor this situation closely enough, and with enough detail, you may become the most well-informed person in your area on the subject of trafficking and exploitation.
Option 2 - Law Enforcement Now that you have been trained by a Law Enforcement professional, maybe it's time to reverse the process. Contact your local police and ask them what training they have had in recognizing and working with victims of human trafficking and CSE. Find out what the police have been instructed to do when dealing with trafficking issues, crimes and victims. Remember, they probably don’t know as much as you do right now. There is no reason that you cannot establish or even present what you have learned to through your own Law Enforcement Training Seminars. This means you will be bringing an educational program that brings the realities of CSE to the first-line of defense, local law enforcement. It will take time to plan a live seminar, with further experts in all fields and disciplines related to trafficking, to facilitate the seminars. But it will be worth it when they have the knowledge they need to recognize and help victims. You can begin by meeting with you local Chief of Police and asking him if his department is familiar with using the "Investigative Checklist for First Responders" checklist developed by the National Center for Missing and Abducted Children (NCMEC). It is meant to "provide a framework of actions, considerations, and activities that may assist in performing competent, productive, and thorough missing/abducted children investigations." You can also inquire if they have adapted its use for potential victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation. If not, you can offer to develop the adaptation for them.
Option 3 - Legislation Find out what laws exist pertaining to Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking in Your State. To affect positive change it is important to understand the existing laws and protocols surrounding human trafficking. Specifically, you must understand the laws in the US that have been implemented, both within your state and on the federal level. Explore laws that have been drafted, as well as those that are in place. Then, set up meetings with your State and Federal Representatives. Again, unless they have taken an interest in the issue, you probably know more about the realities of trafficking in America than they do. They might also have several preconceived notions about it, believe the same myths that many people adhere to, or think that trafficking is only an immigration issue. They will meet with you, eventually, because you are students. Your goal is to provide education to legislators in order to implement more effective laws, thereby protecting others in your age range. However, it may take some time for them to understand that you have come to educate them. In time you may have the chance to ask the politicians that represent you what they are doing to prevent human trafficking and truly help the victims. Again, before you meet with them, you have to know exactly what laws exist better than they do. Find out if there are laws protecting victims of trafficking, especially laws that are effective at preventing them being treated as criminals. While you meet with them, you will want to understand what their priorities are surrounding the topic of Human Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation - if they have any at all. It will be hard work to find out how well those laws are working and what can be done to make them work better or put better laws in place. But it will be worth it. You may be able to help your government create better legislation to prevent and fight human trafficking. Remember, this is your right as a citizen. It goes to waste if you don't use it.
Option 4 - Corporate Zero Tolerance Initiatives In an effort to enlist as many change agents as possible, you can begin building partnerships and collaborations with corporations of influence by providing training, protocol design and implementation, and zero tolerance criteria. You begin by lobbying local businesses, especially hotels, taxi companies and gaming facilities. They will know very little about the realities of what is taking place around them or even on their property. The best approach is to tell them you are students and you want to make a presentation to their staff of “The Girl is the New Drug.” Your goal is to have the company and their entire staff acutely aware of these crimes and the Red Flags often exhibited by victims. They should be made aware of what to do to report possible victims if they encounter them. You can also assist them in creating and instituting policies for their company in order to deal with trafficking and exploitation. You can also do all you can to lobby internet providers, search engines companies, and social networking sites to prevent their websites from being used for prostitution, human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, child pornography and other exploitive crimes. Your goal is to have their employees recognize and report the crime; to be vigilant, speak up and report any activities relating to trafficking to the police
Option 5 - Intervention Efforts To be very clear, EASTERN Curriculum is not advocating nor is it recommending that you, as a student become involved with direct intervention with human trafficking victims. But there are safe and appropriate ways for you to help those who do this kind of work every day. Direct Street Intervention Intervention Specialists from many anti-trafficking organizations regularly journey to the streets looking for trafficking victims, speaking with victims, offering immediate rescue and care, or providing any help they need. You can help these brave people by getting them the resources they need to safely and effectively conduct their work. To get started: Do all you can to find the people in your area doing this kind of work. Meet with them and listen to them. Find out what their priorities are (don't put yours on them). Find out what they need to do their brave work better. Don't promise anything you can't deliver. Do consider what you can do and then keep your promises. Always be open and honest with them CyberVention Trafficking is not just moving off the streets to online, it is exploding there. Cybervention is an aggressive outreach program focusing on trafficking victims listed on various websites, and offering any and all immediate assistance including safety, shelter, freedom, protection, healthcare, education, and a future with hope. It allows trained volunteers to reach out to CSE victims who are being sold by pimps online. Go to Cybervention.org to find out how you can make more people aware of this program and how you can help those who are helping others. (Again, High School age volunteers are NOT permitted to conduct direct Cybervention.) Safe Houses Local, State and Federal law enforcement agencies, along with criminal justice officials, need to provide immediate care and shelter for at-risk trafficking victims they have located or assisted. Emergency housing programs usually work in partnership with law enforcement officials by providing urgently needed secure shelter and comprehensive care for victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation and trafficking. However, while safe houses make it possible for the provision of rescue, shelter and care for victims, they are very rare in the United States, especially those for younger victims. Yet, there is some good news. Several organization in America are urgently trying to establish more safe houses. Do all you can to find out what agencies or people in your area are working on trafficking issues. Sometimes these organizations are very public and easily found. However, many of the best are very discreet and not so easy to locate. These are usually the folks doing the best and most effective work with victims. They have given their lives to their work and to the restoration of victims. They don’t have time to seek publicity or fund raising. They need your help the most. Find them. Ask them what they need. Then do all you can. Like providing assistance to people conducting Direct Street Intervention, you can help the dedicated people who are opening or operating safe houses for trafficking victims. Again, it will take some work to find them, meet with them and determine what they need most. But once you do, every moment of your time working for/with them will be valuable to the victims they are trying to save.
Rescue Kits When young victims (usually between ages 12 and 16) are rescued or taken into custody, they often have no possessions. Rescue kits contain everything for their immediate needs, including new clothes, hygiene products, shoes, etc. This is a very powerful way to engage your larger class or group in providing direct help to victims. With donated backpacks and the items to go inside, you can give several kits to your local Police Department to keep at their facilities in anticipation of victim intake. This will also provide you with the opportunity to open a discussion with more officers from local law enforcement about CSE in your community. Here are some suggestions for what Rescue Kits can contain: Backpacks or Duffel bags Tennis shoes and Hiking boots Slippers Socks Pant Skirts Sweat pants and sweat shirts Underwear Winter jackets, mittens, gloves scarves, hats, snow boots Thermal underwear Towels Blankets, sheets, pillows Sleeping bags Back packs Shampoo and conditioner Personal hygiene products Toothbrushes, dental floss, toothpaste Hairbrushes, combs First Aid kits Hand sanitizer Chapstick Cold medicine Notebooks and pens
Butterflies in the Stall The butterfly is hope. You can use the symbol of the Butterfly to illustrate the life-changing power of people helping each other. The butterfly demonstrates that anyone can change their life for the better and that they are truly worthy of having a meaningful and happy life. Victims of human trafficking and prostitution are everywhere, even in your community. Yet, their presence goes unnoticed. They are hidden in plain sight. The secret lives they lead are filled with fear, abuse, violence and exploitation. Those who control their lives – the trafficker, the pimp – watch their every move. They are rarely left alone or given any time to themselves. They have almost no moments of privacy. Except for one. The one place victims of human trafficking and prostitution can be by themselves is often a public bathroom stall. This is virtually the only place where the criminals who control their lives must allow them to be alone. The Ladies rooms in places like fast food restaurants, gas stations, casinos, hotel lobbies, and convenience stores offer a unique and rare moment of refuge for these young people. So why not strategically place a message on the inside of the bathroom stall door that will speak directly to them and offer them the help they need? Butterflies In The Stall stickers contain a clear offer of hope, a 24-hour Toll-Free phone number, and a simple email address for more information and access to help. The stickers are about half the size of a bumper sticker and adhere to metal surfaces in the same way. This is where you can get directly involved. You can safely and effectively reach out to these young people – offering them a way out. These victims need you to place Butterflies in the Stall stickers on the inside of public bathroom stall doors wherever you can obtain permission to do so. Suddenly, those who need this information will find it staring them in the face. Can you imagine how many people would be saved if we were to place these stickers on the inside of bathroom stall doors all over America? Thousands would have access to this life-saving information - all because you took action and placed Butterflies In The Stall. If you would like to get started putting Butterflies In The Stall, just go to ButterFliesInTheStall.com. Tell us about yourself and let us know where you would like to get started. There is a small fee for the printing and shipping of the stickers. Other than that, it is entirely up to you.
Option - 6 Research: Improve Academic Studies and Research pertaining to trafficking and CSE As you have discovered through the EASTERN Curriculum, useful and reliable data pertaining to human trafficking is almost non-existent. If you are someone who enjoys research, you can begin to change that. Here are some of the areas where you can conduct research or help those who already are. Academics at universities and research institutions around the world play a very important role in supplying policymakers and service providers with useful research on the various aspects of human trafficking. You can contact them an assist them in their work. This is something you can easily do remotely. Remember, there are real weaknesses in the academic research on human trafficking: Few comparative studies of trafficking based on extensive fieldwork Tendency to focus on trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation, neglecting other forms of trafficking Relatively little independent evaluation of counter-trafficking policies and programs to assess impact and effectiveness Tendency to focus more on international trafficking and less on internal trafficking, and the connection between internal and international trafficking Lack of agreement on definitions of terms, and what should be studied Real academic research about human trafficking is difficult to conduct because of: Difficulty interviewing victims of trafficking Limited resources and time The pitfalls faced by academic researchers are: Repeating statistics of how many people are trafficked without providing a disclaimer that these statistics are only estimates Not checking accuracy of claims Holding fast to organizational agendas rather than seeking reliable facts and data
Option 7 - Awareness Continue to make ongoing presentations of "The Girl is the New Drug" to at civic, faithbased, educational, social service and law enforcement groups in your area. Conduct activities to inform students, the local community, law enforcement, politicians etc. in order to raise awareness AND sensitivity to the issue of Commercial Sexual Exploitation. Produce and place Public Service Announcements (PSA's) on television and radio in your area. Start an action oriented Blog or Newsletter. Continue to seek related websites and online information. Build a list of Anti-Trafficking Resources. Then list them your own website for others to find. (Hint: Don't just list news stories. Find actual resources people can use to help victims and prevent more from being abused.) Start a network of Caring Companies that want to do all they can to address human trafficking, CSE and 'Fair Trade' issues. Ask them: Would your company like to join us? Memorize the Red Flags of CSE. (Remember, there are always new ones.) Memorize what questions to ask potential victims. Connect with those clubs that have human rights and relief as their goal (eg: Amnesty International, UNICEF, Human Rights Watch, etc.) If your school doesn’t have a chapter, start one. And if your school doesn’t have some sort of Students to Combat Human Trafficking club, again, start one. Do whatever you can to get other people to care about the issue of Commercial Sexual Exploitation. Be creative. Don't follow the crowd. Don't be afraid to break the rules an push people into action. Remember, lives are truly at stake. You are no longer 'just a student.' You have the ability to teach others what you know, change the world and save lives.
EASTERN LEVEL 3 Section 3 Commercial Sexual Exploitation in America Resources for Extended Study To continue exploring and researching the topic of Commercial Sexual Exploitation in the United States, please refer to these extensive list of resources. The Berlin Turnpike The Berlin Turnpike: A True Story of Human Trafficking in America is a “living book.” It’s ongoing story is told not only in the epic book, but online as an exploration of the truth behind human trafficking in America. This website serves as an essential part of The Berlin Turnpike experience. Here we are constantly collecting and updating materials related to the book, human trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation in the United States. Rescue and Restore Partnerships As a partner in the campaign to Rescue & Restore Victims of Human Trafficking you are asked to: Authorize the listing of your organization as a Rescue & Restore partner and the sharing of your information with Rescue & Restore coalitions. Receive and disseminate to your staff, members and supporters information about human trafficking and the resources available to help victims; Utilize your existing web-based and email information distribution networks to inform your friends and supporters about this pressing problem and steps every person can take to detect and deter human trafficking; and Cooperate with other local members of the Rescue & Restore campaign to publicize key actions in the fight against human trafficking. To become a Rescue & Restore partner, please complete the Request to Become a Partner in the Campaign to Rescue & Restore Victims of Human Trafficking form and email it to email@example.com or fax it to 202-401-5487. As a partner of Rescue & Restore, you will receive information and updates on human trafficking issues, as well as training and funding opportunities. Addressing the Needs of Victims of Human Trafficking: Challenges, Barriers, and Promising Practices This Issue Brief focuses on the needs of victims of human trafficking and the services available to meet those needs. Additionally, it discusses challenges and barriers to providing services to victims, international and domestic, adults and minors, and highlights innovative solutions to these challenges and promising practices to overcome barriers. Throughout the brief we make distinctions, where appropriate, between international adult victims, international minor victims, and domestic minor victims.
Department of Homeland Security DHS offers an enormous amount of information for the study of Human Trafficking and those offering assistance to victims: Immigration Remedies for Trafficking Victims Continued Presence Victim Assistance Program Victim Notification Program Victim Assistance Card Victim Assistance Shoe Card Find a local Rescue and Restore Coalition Find a local Office for Victims of Crime funded grantee program to help victims of trafficking Anti-Human Trafficking Task Force Strategy and Operations E-Guide Developed in partnership by the Department of Justice’s Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) and the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), this e-Guide is a resource for both established and new Task Forces. Established Task Forces can use it to enhance existing operations or as a tool to assist in the revitalization of Task Force efforts and operations. This Guide does not provide OVC or BJA programmatic or grant-specific information as it is intended to be a tool for all anti-trafficking Task Forces, regardless of funding source. This Guide is not offered as the definitive solution to Task Force development strategy and operations but rather as a useful tool that has been carefully screened and evaluated by anti-human trafficking victim service providers and law enforcement officials throughout the United States at all levels. It is anticipated that new practices and resources will become available that may further enhance the value of this e-Guide. United States Trafficking In Person Report 2010 The 2010 Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report marks the 10th anniversary of key milestones in the fight against modern slavery. In 2000, the United States enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), and the United Nations adopted the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, also known as the Palermo Protocol. Since then, the world has made great strides in combating this ultimate exploitation – both in terms of what we know about this crime and how we respond. Project Safe Childhood is a unified and comprehensive strategy to combat child exploitation. Initiated in May, 2006, Project Safe Childhood combines law enforcement efforts, community action, and public awareness. The goal of Project Safe Childhood is to reduce the incidence of sexual exploitation of children. There are five essential components to Project Safe Childhood: (1) building partnerships; (2) coordinating law enforcement; (3) training PSC partners; (4) public awareness; and (5) accountability. Case Management and the Victim of Human Trafficking: A Critical Service For Client Success This Issue Brief focuses on the importance of case management in working with international victims of human trafficking from the point of identification until a victim reaches self-sufficiency. This brief looks at the characteristics of an effective case manager along with the benefits not only to victims, but also other key stakeholders, including law enforcement and service providers. This brief also examines the challenges to effective case management and the implications for victim recovery.
Treating the Hidden Wounds: Trauma Treatment and Mental Health Recovery for Victims of Human Trafficking This Issue Brief focuses on the trauma experienced by most trafficking victims, its impact on health and well-being, some of the challenges to meeting trauma-related needs of trafficking victims, and promising approaches to treatment and recovery. While this issue brief touches on trauma across human trafficking populations, it has a special emphasis on trauma resulting from sex trafficking of women and girls. Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking: Inherent Challenges and Promising Strategies from the Field This issue brief focuses on the identification of international and domestic victims of human trafficking in the United States. Critical to identifying someone as a victim is knowing first who meets the legal definition of a trafficking victim. This brief presents the inherent challenges to identifying victims based on the legal definition, as well as promising strategies undertaken by law enforcement, service providers, and other organizations to identify and reach victims. “Minimum Standards of Care and Support for the Victims of Trafficking and Other Forms of Violence in South Asia.” SARI (South Asia Regional Initiative/Equity Support Program), New Delhi, India “Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Georgia: Service Delivery and Legislative Recommendations for State and Local Policy Makers.” January 2008. Darlene Lynch, JD and Kirsten Widner, JD. The Barton Child Law and Policy Clinic, Emory University Law School, Atlanta, GA. “Prevention and Psycho-social Rehabilitation of Child Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation.” NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child. “Comprehensive Scheme for Prevention of Trafficking and Rescue, Rehabilitation and Re-integration of Victims of Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation.”
International Resources for Human Trafficking Inter-Governmental Organizations International Labour Organization (ILO): Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific International Organization for Migration (IOM) JIT Nepal Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) - Trafficking in Human Beings UN Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT) UNESCO Trafficking Statistics Projects UNICRI "Action Programme against Trafficking in Minors for Sexual Purposes" United Nations International Campaigns Coalition of Organ-Failure Solutions Cross Border Anti Trafficking Network MTV EXIT Campaign National MultiCultural Institute (NMCI) Not For Sale The Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions Trafficking - Focal Point Network The Communication Initiative UN Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (UNIAP) International Networks and Transnational Coalitions Angel Coalition ASEAN Asia ACTs: Southeast Asia Campaign on Anti-Child Trafficking Child Rights Information Network Coalition Against Trafficking in Women December 18th ECPAT International (End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes) Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW) South Asia Regional Initiative – Equity Terre des Hommes (Monitoring Child Rights in Southeast Asia) The Global Commission on International Migration
International Nongovernmental Organizations American Center for International Labor (ACILS)/ Solidarity Center Amnesty International Anti-Slavery International Coalition Against Trafficking in Women- Asia Pacific Human Rights Watch Campaign Against the Trafficking Of Women and Girls Peace Women Terre des Hommes Germany: Southeast Asia The Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions UNICEF UK: The End Child Exploitation Campaign Vital Voices Trafficking Alert WITNESS Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children Internet Resource ChildTrafficking.com CITIZENSHIFT, Trafficking in Humanity Sexual Violence Research Initiative Stop Human Slavery Blog Stop Slavery in Albania National Organizations Protection Project Aasara Action to End Exploitation Arizona League to End Regional Trafficking Backtohome.org Captive Daughters CATW Australia Center for the Advancement of Human Rights - Florida State University Child Wise Coalition Against Human Trafficking – Houston, Texas Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking (CAST) Collier County Coalition Against Human Trafficking ECPAT France ECPAT Japan Girlfest Hawaii's Trafficking Board Global Rights: Partners for Justice - Initiative Against Trafficking in Persons Hagar Human Rights Commission of New Zealand Human Security Centre Human Trafficking in Canada Institute for Policy Studies Campaign for Migrant Domestic Worker Rights International Labor Organization JIT Nepal
La Strada Ukraine Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Services Maria Center MiraMed Institute - Ending the Sexual Trafficking of Girls from Russia National Criminal Justice Reference Service National Mediation Center for World Peace Project Respect Rhode Island Coalition Against Human Trafficking Scelles Foundation Solidarity Center STOPVAW Tenanagita Texas Association Against Sexual Assault The Florida Coalition Against Human Trafficking The Poppy Project The University of Hong Kong UNICEF UK: The End Child Exploitation Campaign Village Focus International Visayan Forum Foundation Women's Human Rights Resources (University of Toronto) www.Eyeonculture.org www.stoptrafiking.or.id Zonta Club of Sanibel-Captiva
Non-fiction books pertaining to Commercial Sexual Exploitation HUMAN TRAFFICKING: INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES [September, 2011], Jones & Bartlett Publishers HUMAN SEX TRAFFICKING by Frances P. Bernat (Editor) [September, 2010] Taylor Francis; originally published as a special issue of Women & Criminal Justice HUMAN TRAFFICKING: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE by Louise Shelley.  Cambridge University Press HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN EUROPE: CHARACTER, CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES by Gillian Wylie and Penny McRedmond (Editors). [August, 2010] Palgrave Macmillan SEX TRAFFICKING HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIAL JUSTICE, Tiantian Zheng (Editor). [July, 2010] Taylor and Francis SEX SLAVES AND DISCOURSE MASTERS: THE CONSTRUCTION OF TRAFFICKING by Jo Doezema. [July, 2010] from Zed Book, Limited SEX TRAFFICKING - INSIDE THE BUSINESS OF MODERN SLAVERY by Siddharth Kara. [May, 2010] Columbia University Press. The author, the first Fellow on Human Trafficking with the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, donates a portion of the proceeds of this book to the anti-slavery organization, Free the Slaves. SEX TRAFFICKING: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE by Kimberly McCabe and and Sabita Manian, editors. [May, 2010] Lexington Books SEX, DRUGS, AND BODY COUNTS: THE POLITICS OF NUMBERS IN GLOBAL CRIME AND CONFLICT by Peter Andreas and Kelly M. Greenhill, Editors. [May, 2010] Cornell Press BLOOD RANSOM [fiction] by Lisa Harris. [April, 2010] Zondervan FREE AT LAST: HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND SEXUAL ABUSE by Dawn E. Worswick.  Create Space. A portion of the proceeds from this book will go to honor the SAGE Project of San Francisco in honor of Norma Hotaling. THE POLITICS OF TRAFFICKING: THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENT TO COMBAT THE SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN by Stephanie A. Limoncelli.  Stanford University Press SEX TRAFFICKING IN SOUTH ASIA: TELLING MAYA'S STORY by Mary Crawford.  Taylor & Francis, THE HIJACKING OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING LEGISLATION DURING ITS CREATION by Nicole Footen Bromfield.  See Amazon. About the U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA).
THE SLAVE ACROSS THE STREET: THE TRUE STORY OF AN AMERICAN TEEN CAUGHT IN HUMAN TRAFFICKING  Ampelon Publishing, LLC A CRIME SO MONSTROUS : FACE-TO-FACE WITH MODERN-DAY SLAVERY by E. Benjamin Skinner.  New York : Free Press HALF THE SKY : TURNING OPPRESSION INTO OPPORTUNITY FOR WOMEN WORLDWIDE by Nicholas D. Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn.  Alfred A. Knopf SEX TRAFFICKING : INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT AND RESPONSE by Marie Segrave, Sanja Milivojevic and Sharon Pickering.  Willan Publishing SEXUAL ENSLAVEMENT OF GIRLS AND WOMEN WORLDWIDE by Andrea Parrot and Nina Cummings.  Praeger THE SNAKEHEAD : AN EPIC TALE OF THE CHINATOWN UNDERWORLD AND THE AMERICAN DREAM by Patrick Radden Keefe.  New York : Doubleday
Fiction books pertaining to Commercial Sexual Exploitation AMERICAN OUTRAGE by Tim Green.  Warner Books COLD IN HAND by John Harvey.  Harcourt Press DIE FOR ME; SCREAM FOR ME (2008) and KILL FOR ME trilogy of murder mysteries by Karen Rose; third book plot is about human trafficking FATAL SECRETS : A NOVEL OF SUSPENSE by Allison Brennan (Book 2 of her FBI trilogy).  Ballantine THE GIRL WHO PLAYED WITH FIRE by Stieg Larsson  New York : Alfred A. Knopf THE GIRL WITH THE DRAGON TATTOO Trilogy by Stieg Larsson  HELL GATE by Linda Fairstein [2010) New York : Dutton, THE HUNTED by Lee, Rachel  Mira Books LOST GIRLS : A Sherry Moore novel by George D. Shuman.  Simon & Schuster, 2008. ROUNDING THE MARK by Andrea Camilleri  Penguin Books WHISPER NO LIES by Cindy Gerard. Black Ops, Book 3  Pocket Star Books WISER THAN SERPENTS by Susan May Warren  . Steeple Hill Books
Articles and Research pertaining to Commercial Sexual Exploitation Brantley, N. (June 2009). Presentation on victims of commercial sexual exploitation on behalf of Motivating, Inspiring, Supporting & Serving Sexually Exploited Youth (MISSSEY). MISSSEY is a project based out of Alameda County, California, created to respond to the epidemic of commercial sexual exploitation of children, especially in the form of child/teen prostitution. MISSSEY works specifically with minor victims of domestic sex trafficking by providing counseling, shelter, and many other rehabilitation services. This data, gathered by MISSSEY, represents a group of commercially sexually exploited youth that were served through West Coast Children’s Clinic’s Screening, Stabilization and Transition program. See also Schetky, D.H. (1988). Child pornography and prostitution. In D.H. Schetky and A.H. Green (Eds.), Child sexual abuse: A handbook for health care and legal professionals. New York: Brunner/Mazel. Fang, B. (2005, October 16). Young lives for sale: Why more kids are getting into the sex trade-and how the feds are fighting back [Electronic version]. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved on July 15, 2009, at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/051024/24sextraffickers.htm U.S. Department of State (November 2004). The link between prostitution and sex trafficking. Retrieved July 22, 2009, from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/38901.pdf Miller, J.L. (1991). Prostitution in contemporary American society. In E. Grauerholz and M.A. Koalewski (Eds.) The European Journal of Criminology January 2010 issue (vol. 7, issue 1), was a themed issue on Human Trafficking: Issues and Perspectives. Sexual coercion: A sourcebook on its nature, causes, and prevention (pp. 45-57). New York: Lexington Books. xvi Raphael, J. & Shapiro, D.L. (2002). Sister speak out: The lives and needs of prostituted women in Chicago. Center for Impact Research. Brewer, D.D., Potterat, J.J., Muth, S.Q. & Roberts, J.M. Jr. (2006). Clients of prostitute women: Deterrence, prevalence, characteristics, and violence [Electronic version]. Paper for the U.S. Department of Justice.
Articles on Working with Men and Boys on the topic of Commercial Sexual Exploitation Berkowitz, A. D. (2002). Fostering men’s responsibility for preventing sexual assault. Preventing Violence in Relationships, 163-196. Berkowitz, A. D. (2004). Working with men to prevent violence against women: An overview. National Resource Center on Domestic Violence. Berkowitz, A. D. (2004). Working with men to prevent violence against women: Program modalities and formulas. National Resource Center on Domestic Violence. Buchwalk, E., Fletcher, P., and Roth, M. (Eds.) (2005). Transforming a Rape Culture: Revised Edition. Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed Editions. Fabiano, P. et al. (2003). Engaging men as social justice allies in ending violence against women: Evidence for a social norms approach. Journal of American College Health, Vol. 52. Flood, M. (2005). Changing men: Best practice in sexual violence education. Women Against Violence, Issue 18. Flood, M. (2002). Engaging men: Strategies and dilemmas in violence prevention education among men. Women Against Violence, Issue 13. Funk, R. E. (2006). Reaching men: strategies for preventing sexist attitudes, behaviors, and violence. Indiana Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Katz, J. (2006). The Macho Paradox: Why Some Men Hurt Women and How All Men Can Help. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks, Inc. Kimmel, M. (2008). Guyland: The Perilous World Where Boys Become Men. New York, NY: Haper-Collins Publisher. Pascoe, C. J. (2007). Dude, You’re a Fag: Masculinity & Sexuality in High School. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. Powell, K. (2008). The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life. New York, NY: Astria Books, Simon & Schuster, Inc. Tarrant, S. Men Speak Out: Views on Gender, Sex, & Power. New York, NY: Routledge. The Men’s Nonviolence Project of the Texas Council on Family Violence. A guide to engaging men and boys in preventing violence against women. Young Women’s Action Team. (2007). Engaging young men as allies: A summary report of survey research.
EASTERN LEVEL 3 Section Four Dynamics of the Pimp and Victim Generally, pimping involves a complex relationship between a male pimp and one or more women and/or girls. In this relationship, the pimp wields complete control and domination and induces commercial sex acts in order to make money. The pimp attains authoritative levels of control and obedience through a combination of intense manipulation and feigned affection, brutal violence, and verbal, psychological, and/or emotional abuse. In the pimp relationship, the pimp is motivated primarily by the pursuit of money. He keeps all the money from the commercial sex acts of the women and girls he controls and prides himself on achieving higher and higher levels of blind obedience. Rules and techniques of the pimp Pimps enforce “rules” for the women and minors under their control. A sampling of the formal “rules” of pimping is included below: The Term “Daddy”: Women and girls under a pimp’s control must never know his real name or identity and refer to him exclusively as “daddy.” Eye Contact: A woman or girl may not ever make eye contact with another pimp. If this rule is broken, the woman or girl suffers serious physical violence. Sidewalks and Streets: As indicated by the term “Pimps Up, Ho’s Down,” women and girls must always exist in “lower” ways than the pimp, including by standing only on the street during street prostitution. A woman or girl who ventures onto the sidewalk is severely reprimanded or forced into what is known as a “pimp circle.” Quotas: Pimps set nightly monetary quotas that the women or girls must reach through providing commercial sex or theft. Language and terminology of the pimp The following is a sample glossary of terms that are heavily used throughout the pimp culture in street prostitution. “Daddy” – a term used to describe one’s own pimp, evoking images of fatherhood. “Bottom” or “Bottom Bitch” – the woman who’s been with the pimp the longest and often takes on a mid-level controlling role to keep other victims in line. “Dates,” “Johns,” and “Tricks” – terms used to describe buyers of commercial sex. “Square” – a term used that describes trying to go straight and get out of the life, or that describes law enforcement and those that don’t understand “the game.” The “Stroll” or “Track” – the common area or cross-streets where street prostitution is known to occur on a nightly basis. “Pimp circle” – the process of multiple pimps swarming and surrounding one woman or girl and hissing insults at her, for the purposes of humiliation and intimidation. “Wife in Law” – each individual in a group of women or girls that are with the same pimp. “Family” and “folks” also are synonyms. “Stable” – refers to the group of women and girls under a pimp’s control (i.e., a pimp’s stable). “Out of Pocket” – a term used to describe when a woman or girl breaks “the rules” by making eye contact with another pimp.
Other illegal activity common to pimps Drug offenses Sexual assault offenses Violent crimes Tax evasion False and fraudulent identities Fraudulent checks Racketeering Child pornography Pandering Falsifying business records Initial Recruiting Behavior Erecting the Front of False Love and Selling the Dream pimps manipulate their victims beginning with an initial period of false love and feigned affection. This initial period is critical to attaining long-term mind-control. This period often includes: o Warmth, gifts, compliments, and sexual and physical intimacy o Elaborate promises of a better life, fast money, and future luxuries o Purposeful and pre-meditated targeting of vulnerability (e.g., runaways, throwaways) o Purposeful targeting of minors due to naivete, virginity, and youthful appearance With an Ongoing Search for Victims and the Relentless Pursuit of Wealth and Power, pimps are known to engage in constant recruiting to attempt to entice women and children into their web of control. Common recruiting locations include: o Junior high and high schools o Group homes o Rehab programs and facilities o Courtrooms o Homeless shelters o Hallways of court buildings o Halfway houses o Foster homes o Restaurants and bars o Bus stations o Parks and playgrounds
Preparing Women and Girls for Commercial Sexual Exploitation The process of “breaking-down” a girl from healthy adolescent sexual boundaries to commercial sex with strangers is often referred to as “grooming” or “seasoning.” It is a systematic process that has been documented and replicated by pimps nationwide. In essence, this process aims to achieve complete control over someone’s identity or individuality using a combination of physical, mental, and emotional means. In the trafficking paradigm, this process involves force, fraud, and coercion, as elaborated below. Seasoning often involves: Beating/Slapping/Whipping – With hands, fists, and kicking, as well as with objects such as bats, tools, chains, belts, hangers, canes, and cords Burning – Of personal items and items of meaning to foster hopelessness and demoralization or directly burning women and girls using cigarette/cigar butts Sexual assault – Rape or gang rape Confinement – Using torture practices such as confinement to lock women and girls in closets, trunks of cars, or rooms for indeterminate amounts of time. Other torture techniques – Such as deprivation of food or water or various forms of bondage such as chaining individuals to items or tying them up. Emotional abuse – Direct verbal insults, name-calling, threats, mind control, brainwashing, cognitive re-programming Re-naming – Offering “nicknames” both for endearment and to erase former identity Creating dependencies – By instructing how to walk, how to talk, what to wear, when to eat, when to Sleep, and where to sleep. Removal from familiarity and support structures – By transporting a woman or minor to a new location where she knows no one Document confiscation – Of identification documents (ID, birth certificate, SS number) Forced sexual education – Inducement of viewing pornography to learn to have sex Role of money and debt in the pimp relationship Money is often the primary motivating factor driving pimp behavior. It is widely-known and welldocumented that pimps establish nightly monetary quotas that the women and girls under their control must make in order to end each night of commercial sex. Currently, these quotas typically fall in the range of $500 - $1,000 each night. Through whatever means necessary (including forced theft), the woman or girl must reach these quotas each night to be allowed to eat or sleep. If she does not make enough money, the woman or girl will be forced back out into her venue of commercial sex until she reaches her quota. Quotas are strictly enforced, and the punishment for failing to meet a quota is severe physical retaliation from the pimp or other torture methods. It is also essential to note that in pimpcontrolled situations, the women and girls keep zero of this money and turn over 100 percent of the profits to the pimp.
Why victims don’t seek help Women and girls under a pimp’s control often do not self-identify as victims of human trafficking or Commercial Sexual Exploitation. Consequently, they will not seek help on their own. This is a list of common reasons why victims of CSE cannot or will not leave their exploitative situations: Captivity/Confinement – locked indoors, locked in rooms, locked in closets Frequent accompaniment/guarded – interactions are monitored or controlled by the pimp Use and threat of violence – severe physical retaliation (beatings, rapes, sexual assault) Fear – of physical retaliation, of death, or of arrest Use and threat of reprisals against loved ones – against children or family members Shame – about the activities they have been forced to perform Self-blame – brainwashed by the pimp to blame themselves Dependency – on the pimp after years of control Debt bondage – may have a debt to the pimp that they feel they need to pay off Loyalty to the pimp – Stolkholm syndrome, similarities to Battered Women’s Syndrome Social barriers and unfamiliarity with surroundings – due to frequent movement No personal ID or documentation – which is often confiscated by the pimp Distrust of law enforcement – brainwashed to fear law enforcement by the pimp or learned distrust of law enforcement due to direct negative experiences Isolation – from others, from other support structures, from means of relief Misinformation and false promises – have been told lies or deceitful information Hopelessness/Resignation – feelings of no self-worth, disassociation, giving up, apathy Lack of knowledge of social systems – may not understand social service infrastructure or how and where to access help Difficulty in identifying victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation These factors also complicate the process of identifying domestic sex trafficking victims: Frequent movement – may not be in one place long enough to form social connections Distrust of service providers – generalized impressions and perceived judgmental attitudes Lies and false stories – may be self-generated or trained to tell lies, fake names, fake SSN Rarely come into contact with institutional systems – that are designed to help them Low likelihood of multiple encounters – within institutions or through doing outreach Indicators of Commercial Sexual Exploitation It is important to be aware of potential indicators of Commercial Sexual Exploitation. Each of these indicators may or may not be a tell-tale sign of domestic sex trafficking, but it is recommended that each be taken in an overall context of appearance, demeanor, and affect: Presence of an overly controlling and abusive ‘boyfriend’ Inability to look in the eyes or face of people, especially her ‘boyfriend’ Injuries/signs of physical abuse or torture Signs of malnourishment Restricted or controlled communication Demeanor - Fear, anxiety, depression, submissive, tense, nervous Claims of being an adult although appearance suggests adolescent features Lack of identification documents (ID, birth certificate, Social Security card) Presence of different aliases and ages Lack of knowledge of a given community or whereabouts
Frequent movement Claims of “just visiting” and inability to clarify addresses Few or no personal possessions Few or no personal financial records Inconsistencies in their story Inappropriately dressed for court Reporting an excessive amount of sexual partners during a health check-up
Potential victim indicators Things to remember for initial encounters and Interactions with potential victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation: o Building trust is the first priority o Reassure the potential victim that: You are there to help and you care about them You are not trying to get them arrested or send them to jail o One-on-one interactions are ideal Attempt one-on-one interactions as much as possible If possible, no one else should be in the room or within listening distance (interactions should occur in private settings and out of sight) One-on-one interactions are ideal for building trust and receiving an honest account o Terminology and cultural sensitivity are important Avoid technical terminology and jargon Knowing appropriate “street terms” helps to build trust o Many victims do not self-identify as “trafficking victims: Expect the potential victim not to know the term “human trafficking” Do not expect to receive the full and honest story during a first encounter: Be aware of and expect lies, canned stories, untruths Canned stories may include “I’m just visiting,” “I’m from out of town,” or “I do this on my own because I want to – I don’t have a pimp.” Do not be offended if they lie; do not take it personally Women and girls may have been coached to give certain stories It often takes up to 3-5 encounters before the true story may emerge o Be on their level: Avoid victim-blaming attitudes, body language, or behaviors Avoid “gasps” or acting “shocked” Avoid pity, judgment, or patronization o Assess safety and threat levels: Ask the woman or girl if she feels like she is under threat or if she is with her “folks” o Anticipate and expect that the client may return to the pimp: Due to high levels of loyalty, brain-washing, and/or fear, victims may return to their pimp during the course of receiving services o Understand her world view: The victim may have a very difficult time understanding that she has been a victim of a crime and that the pimp may be arrested for what he has done to her. This difficulty occurs because pimps brainwash their victims.
Victims’ needs General comprehensive service needs of Commercial Sexual Exploitation victims are varied and diverse. This list outlines the types of services victims often require: Emergency, Transitional, and Long-term housing Legal services Medical and Mental health services Clothing and food Court and daily accompaniment Crisis intervention Emotional support and counseling Employment assistance Protection/safety planning Social service advocacy Transportation Literacy education (school, G.E.D.) Assistance in accessing government benefits Safety Concerns These questions are helpful for conducting a safety and threat assessment of Commercial Sexual Exploitation victims. The answers will help to develop a personalized course of service: Where is the trafficker? Are you living under any current threats or fears? Are you afraid someone is looking for you? Are you concerned for your safety? Why? How? Does anyone else know where you are right now? Contingency planning o What to do in an encounter with the trafficker? o What to do if trafficker calls? o Phone protocols/Internet and email protocols
Contact with Potential CSE Victims If you come in contact with a suspected CSE victim, you should be aware of and sensitive to a number of issues. Victims of CSE have experienced a great deal of trauma and face an equal amount of uncertainty in their lives. Often they may seem unwilling to cooperate due to their experience. Law enforcement officers should be aware of the following things: 1. Victims of human trafficking are hesitant to come forward because of their fear of being deported. While many of these victims are women and children who have been beaten and/or raped, their current situation may still be better than where they came from. 2. Victims come from different social and ethnic backgrounds than the investigating officers. There may be significant cultural differences between the victim and U.S. law enforcement officials. 3. Victims may be completely unaware of their rights or may have been intentionally misinformed about their rights in this country. 4. Many victims do not self-identify as victims. They also do not see themselves as people who are homeless or as drug addicts who rely on shelters or assistance. Victims may not appear to need social services because they have a place to live, food to eat, medical care and what they think is a paying job. 5. The victims may fear not only for their own safety but also for that of their families in their home countries. Some traffickers threaten that they will harm their victims' families if the victims report their situations to, or cooperate with, law enforcement 6. Take into consideration a victim’s cultural and social background as these traits will impact the way victims should be managed as witnesses, as well as the way the investigation of their cases are carried out. If possible, you should work with a culturally and linguistically competent interpreter when a victim demonstrates any of the abovementioned characteristics. Ideally, this person could serve as a language interpreter and be able to interpret the cultural values and unique behaviors that are characteristic of the victim’s national and ethnic background.
Mental Health Effects and the Importance of Counseling This list outlines the various mental health effects that victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation may display: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Drug use Depression Disconnection from feelings and flat affect Anxiety disorders Self-blame Hopelessness, helplessness Nightmares – dreams of rapes, sexual assaults, physical abuse Anger and anger management issues Suicidal ideation and attempts Paranoia Stockholm Syndrome Spiritual disruption Fatalism and rage Dual diagnosis Self-care issues Sleeping issues Dis-associative disorders
This chart provides basic examples of how pimps use the elements of force, fraud, and coercion in Commercial Sexual Exploitation.
FORCE Beating/Slapping Beating with Objects (bat, tools, chains, belts, hangers, canes, cords) Burning Sexual Assault Rape/Gang Rape Confinement/Locked in Torture Practices Seasoning/Initiation
FRAUD False promises Deceitful enticing and affectionate behavior Withholding wages Lying about working conditions Lying about the promise of “a better life” Preying on desperation and poverty Blackmail, extortion
COERCION Threats of serious harm or restraint Threatened abuse of legal process Intimidation/Humiliation Emotional Abuse Climate of Fear Modeling abusive behavior Controlling daily life skills Creating dependency Establishing quotas
EASTERN LEVEL 3 Section Five Resources for Law Enforcement This resource guide contains information developed to provide background information and guidance for law enforcement officers to identify and communicate with victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. Identifying the Crime of Human Trafficking Law enforcement officers should keep in mind that the following scenarios may involve some form of human trafficking, or may be situations in which victims and/or traffickers could be found: o Prostitution rings o Operations of massage parlors, strip clubs, etc. o Domestic abuse o "False" or poorly examined 911 calls o Vice raid where foreign nationals are encountered o Encounters with migrant workers where a foreman or supervisor attempts to keep the group away from the law enforcement officers or attempts to control all communication between the officer and the group o Brawls between people in which money is owed o Crimes involving immigrant children in situations such as prostitution or forced labor Law enforcement officers may encounter the perpetrators or traffickers themselves who will offer alleged explanations of the situation. In these cases it is important for the first responding officer to note the following about others at the scene of the crime who may be victims of human trafficking: o What are their living conditions? o What are their working conditions? o Are there indications of restriction of movement (e.g., Are they allowed to leave the premises?) o Are they forced to make frequent moves? o Are there any behavioral indicators of severe dependency (e.g., submissive behavior, fearful behavior in the presence of others)? o Who is in physical possession of their legal documents of identification? o Who insists on providing information to law enforcement? o Are they in the country legally? Traffickers use various techniques to keep victims enslaved. Some traffickers keep their victims under lock and key, however, the more frequent practice is to use less obvious techniques including: o Debt bondage – financial obligations, honor-bound to satisfy debt o Isolation from the public – limiting contact with outsiders and making sure that any contact is monitored or superficial in nature o Isolation from family members and members of their ethnic and religious community o Confiscation of passports, visas and/or identification documents o Use or threat of violence toward victims and/or families of victims o The threat of shaming victims by exposing circumstances to family o Telling victims they will be imprisoned or deported for immigration violations if they contact authorities
Control of the victims’ money, e.g., holding their money for “safe-keeping” The result of such techniques is to instill fear in victims. The victims’ isolation is further exacerbated because many do not speak English and are from countries where law enforcement is corrupt and feared.
Traffickers may also violate multiple state and local laws including: Crimes associated with human trafficking Murder Assault Kidnapping Sexual assault and battery Prostitution, pandering or False imprisonment promoting prostitution
Screening Victims of Human Trafficking This tool contains key questions law enforcement officers should consider asking to determine whether someone is a victim of human trafficking. The questions will also help to secure information that can later be used as testimonial evidence. Fraud/Financial Coercion Questions How did you get your job? How did you get into this country? Who brought you into this country? Did you come to this country for a specific job that you were promised? Who promised you this job? Were you forced to do different work? Who forced you into doing different work than what was promised? Was there some sort of work contract signed? Who organized your travel? How was payment for your travel handled? Are you getting paid to do your job? Do you actually receive payment or is your money being held for you? Do you owe your employer money? Are there records or receipts of what is owed to your employer/recruiter? Are there records/receipts of what was earned/paid to you? How were financial transactions handled? Are you in possession of your own legal (I.D.) documents? If not, why? Were you provided false documents or identification? Are you being made to do things that you do not want to do?
Physical Abuse Questions Were you ever threatened with harm if you tried to leave? Did you ever witness any threats against other people if they tried to leave? Has your family been threatened? Do you know about any other person’s family ever being threatened? Were you ever physically abused, or did you ever witness abuse against another person? What type of physical abuse did you witness? Were there any objects or weapons used in the physical abuse? Where are these objects or weapons located? Was knowledge of this abuse ever communicated to a person outside of this situation (e.g., police reports, domestic violence reports, hospital records, social service records)? Was anyone else ever abused or threatened with harm in your presence? How were medical problems handled, and who attended to them? Freedom of Movement Questions Is your freedom of movement restricted? Do you live and work in the same place? What were the conditions under which you were left unattended? Were there instances of physical restriction through locks, chains, etc.? Where are the locks used and who has the keys to them? How was movement in public places handled (e.g., car, van, bus, subway)? Who supervised your movement in public places? How was the purchase of private goods and services handled (e.g., medicines, prescriptions)? What forms of media or telecommunication did you have access to (e.g., television, radio, newspapers, magazines, telephone, the Internet)? Psychological Coercion Questions Behavioral indicators: Who are you afraid of? Why are you afraid of them? What would you like to see happen to the people who hurt you (e.g., jail, deportation)? How do you feel about the police? Why? Environmental Indicators: Do you live and work in the same place? Where do you live/eat/sleep? Where do the alleged perpetrators live/eat/sleep? Are the living conditions between the two excessively disparate? Law enforcement officers questioning the victim should consider the following: Is there evidence of possible “Stockholm” or “Patty Hearst” Syndrome where the victim, because of his or her dependency, actually begins to identify with the trafficker?
The Mindset of a Human Trafficking Victim The following points illustrate how victims of trafficking may see themselves and their situations. It highlights the challenges that you may face as a law enforcement officer when interacting with potential victims. Victims are taught by their traffickers to distrust outsiders, especially law enforcement. They have a sense of fear and/or distrust toward the government and police because they are afraid they will be deported. Sometimes they feel that it is their fault that they are in this situation. As a coping or survival skill, they may develop loyalties and positive feelings toward their trafficker or may even try to protect them from authorities. Victims of human trafficking are hesitant to come forward because of their fear of being deported. While many of these victims are women and children who have been beaten and/or raped, their current situation may still be better than where they came from. Victims come from different social and ethnic backgrounds than the investigating officers. There may be significant cultural differences between the victim and U.S. law enforcement officials. Victims may be completely unaware of their rights or may have been intentionally misinformed about their rights in this country. Many victims do not self-identify as victims. They also do not see themselves as people who are homeless or as drug addicts who rely on shelters or assistance. Victims may not appear to need social services because they have a place to live, food to eat, medical care and what they think is a paying job. The victims may fear not only for their own safety but also for that of their families in their home countries. Some traffickers threaten that they will harm their victims' families if the victims report their situations to, or cooperate with, law enforcement. Criminal prosecution should empower the victims and should facilitate their healing process so that they see the crimes committed against them condemned and the people who harmed them punished.
Communicating with Victims of Human Trafficking Most victims are afraid and initially hesitant to cooperate, often fearing for their lives. This document provides law enforcement with strategic word choice and usage geared to establish trust between the officer and the victim. You are safe now. No one here will hurt you. Under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, victims of trafficking can apply for special visas or could receive other forms of immigration relief. Coming to us/Working with us will help you. You are a victim, not a criminal. What happened to you was wrong, and the person who did this to you should be in jail. You have a right to live without being abused. You deserve the chance to become self-sufficient and independent. By helping us, you are helping yourself. We can help get you what you need. We can help to protect your family. You can trust me. We want to make sure what happened to you doesn't happen to anyone else. You have rights. You are entitled to assistance. We can help you get assistance. If you are a victim of trafficking, you can receive help to rebuild your life safely in this country.
Identifying and Interacting With Victims of Human Trafficking Victims of human trafficking are vulnerable human beings who have been subjected to severe physical and emotional coercion. Most have been “taught” to distrust law enforcement, so victims of human trafficking need to be reassured that once they come in contact with law enforcement officers, they will be protected and safe. Following are some things law enforcement officers should consider when dealing with victims of trafficking. Being aware of these items will help promote a cooperative relationship, helping law enforcement to gain the assistance of victims in the investigation and prosecution of traffickers. Human trafficking is a devastating human rights violation that takes place not only internationally, but also here in the United States. As a law enforcement officer, you play an important role in identifying and helping trafficking victims. While trafficking is largely a hidden social problem, trafficking victims are in plain sight if you know what to look for. Trafficking is not just forced prostitution. Victims of human trafficking may also be in forced labor situations as domestic servants (nannies or maids); sweatshop workers; janitors; restaurant workers; migrant farm workers; fishery workers; hotel or tourist industry workers; and as beggars. A person who is trafficked may look like many of the people you see daily, but asking the right questions and looking for small clues will help you identify those people who have been forced or coerced into a life of sexual exploitation or forced labor. Look for the following clues: o Evidence of being controlled o Evidence of an inability to move or leave job o Bruises or other signs of battering o Fear or depression o Non-English speaking o Recently brought to this country from Eastern Europe, Asia, Latin America, Canada, Africa or India o Lack of passport, immigration or identification documentation o There are four areas of general victim needs: o Immediate assistance (housing, food, medical, safety and security) o Mental health assistance (counseling) o Income assistance (cash) o Legal status (certification, immigration)
Take into consideration a victim’s cultural and social background as these traits will impact the way victims should be managed as witnesses, as well as the way the investigation of their cases are carried out. If possible, you should work with a culturally and linguistically competent interpreter when a victim demonstrates any of the above-mentioned characteristics. Ideally, this person could serve as a language interpreter and be able to interpret the cultural values and unique behaviors that are characteristic of the victim’s national and ethnic background. Effective communication is essential in gaining trust of victims as well as defining their immediate needs. Effective witness management extends into the courtroom when the time comes to present testimony and evidence to a jury. Screen interpreters to ensure they do not know the victim or the traffickers and do not otherwise have a conflict of interest. A successful investigation and prosecution of a human trafficking case is victim-centered. This requires lending support to traumatized and confused victims before you can gain their confidence. Once victims of human trafficking are rescued from the traffickers, they generally will be incapable of finding outside support due to the isolation they have suffered while in captivity. This especially impacts you as law enforcement officers because it can place you in the initial position of having to arrange for such support. Victims of human trafficking in the U.S. who are non-citizens may be eligible to receive special visas and to receive benefits and services through the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) to the same extent as refugees. Victims who are U.S. citizens are already eligible to receive many of these benefits. If you think you have come in contact with a victim of human trafficking, call the National Human Trafficking Resource Center at 1.888.3737.888. This hotline will help you determine if you have encountered victims of human trafficking, will identify local resources available in your community to help victims, and will help you coordinate with local social service organizations to help protect and serve victims so they can begin the process of restoring their lives.
EASTERN LEVEL 3 Section Six Standards of Holistic Care for Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation "We have a long way to go both here and abroad to recognize victims and bring their perpetrators to justice, and provide for the compassionate care mandated by law and our common ethic; to raise awareness and combat the demand that traffickers rush to meet through violence and exploitation." Luis CdeBaca Ambassador-at-Large, Office To Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons These are "Best Practice" Protocols for the care of Commercial Sexual Exploitation Victims: 1. Ensure that victims are identified as such, and that they are not arrested or treated as offenders. This is especially important in cases involving commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), where “prostitutes” (even those over age 18) are actually victims. Those under age 18 should not be arrested, detained, or turned over to the juvenile justice system without first ensuring their status as offenders and not victims. 2. All victims should be treated with compassion and respect. 3. Victims should be isolated completely and protected at all times from their accused traffickers/procures/pimps/brothel keepers and their representatives (if deemed a viable threat, this may include the families or guardians of children under 18). 4. All victims should be provided with food, clean clothing, and personal hygiene products within the first hour of rescue. 5. An adult female support person should be present when female victims are interviewed. 6. All victims should be taken immediately to a certified place of safety that houses victims of the same gender, with as little time as possible detained in police stations, and allowed to remain there for a period adequate to facilitate recovery (usually between 12-18 months). 7. Safe houses and shelters must maintain 24/7/365 staffing. Because victims of CSE have often been deeply indoctrinated by and are deeply attached to their exploiters, many try to return to the streets. Safe houses therefore require around-the-clock monitors, preferably prostitute “survivors”/peers, to try to discourage victims from leaving. However, the victim has the final choice – staying must always be voluntary. Shelters should, whenever possible, hold spaces open for victims who choose to return. 8. Safe houses and shelters must be secure and should be physically, socially and culturally welcoming, including an orientation program and provision for victims with special needs. Rural settings may reduce stress, prevent triggers, and enhance recovery. 9. Victims should be assigned a case worker trained in the care of CSE victims, who is charged with helping victims develop an individual life plan and who will coordinate medical care, psychological care, legal counsel (including a victim witness advocate), acquisition of identification documents, academic assessments, and other social services needed for recovery and reintegration. 10. All victims will be systematically linked to a variety of support structures and given the skill and confidence to avail themselves of these services. 11. Victims should never be coerced into care. They should be enabled and empowered to make their own choices and to use services in a manner and at a pace with which they can cope. 12. Medical attention, including initial mental health counseling and HIV/AIDS/STD testing, should be rendered within the first 12 hours of rescue.
13. Victims should be provided with supervised access to telephones and/or electronic communications. 14. Every effort should be made to reunite trafficking victims with their children. 15. Every effort should be made to recover the personal belongings of the victim. 16. All victims should be assisted in the recovery or replacement of legal identification and other necessary documents. 17. Victims should be ensured freedom of movement, without any physical restrictions. 18. Safe houses and shelters must develop crisis management plans to address foreseeable problems such as outbreaks of illness, death, fires, accidents, serious complaints, staff shortages, or control problems. 19. Each victim must have a separate, single bed with appropriate bedding, and a place for the safe storage of personal belongings. 20. Victims should be provided with opportunities for outdoor reflection and recreation whenever possible. 21. Mental health/trauma counseling is a right of all victims and should be provided at no cost. Victims should be provided with private and confidential needs-based, sustained, professionally designed and delivered services to promote overall psycho-social wellbeing, including psychotherapeutic counseling, group therapy, 12-step programs, and psychiatric treatment as necessary. 22. Meals should be arranged jointly by the victims and the staff of the safe house, with guidance by medical personnel and nutritionists as necessary. 23. Victims should be provided with new clothes, outerwear, and shoes at no cost. 24. Victims should be helped to locate trusted family members, community members, or friends. 25. Adult victims should have access to their files at any time. 26. Victims of trafficking and other forms of violence often suffer serious damage to their selfesteem, self-image, self-confidence and self-identity. They may at times adopt self-destructive behaviors. Every victim must be helped to regain a positive self-identity. 27. Staff-mediated peer group discussions should be encouraged to raise issues affecting day-to-day living in the safe house, such as bullying, fighting, abusive language, and sexual exploitation. 28. Staff responses to unacceptable behavior on the part of any victim must be constructive and follow known disciplinary measures, and will never include any form of physical punishment, confinement, or food deprivation. 29. Staff members should build positive relationships with victims, setting clear boundaries, expectations for acceptable behavior, and rights and responsibilities. 30. Physical restraint must only be used to prevent likely injury to the victim concerned or to others. 31. Under no circumstances will the dependence of victims be used to transfer any particular faith system to victims, and no services will be conditional on the victim belonging to or accepting any particular faith system. 32. Faith-based counseling should be provided at the request of the victim. 33. Victims often have suffered multiple sexual offenses and extreme insecurity and may have become or made to become addicted to drugs ranging from nicotine and alcohol to hard narcotics. Victims must be offered specialized professional assistance to overcome drug dependence/addiction. 34. Free time is essential to healing and must be balanced with structured day-to-day activities. 35. Victims should be empowered to make their own decisions. 36. Victims should have access to news media, books, magazines, music, writing materials such as personal journals, and games. 37. Education must be considered an inalienable right of every victim.
38. Victims should be provided with supportive educational services such as tutoring or special education, including vocational training as requested. 39. All victims will be provided with basic life skills education, including self-knowledge, work dynamics and ethics, managing money, problem solving, relationship building, health, effective communication, citizenship. 40. Professional legal services should be made available to all victims at every stage free of cost. 41. Legal representation must be provided unconditionally and not be associated with the victim’s willingness to testify or serve as a witness in any prosecution. 42. Every effort should be made to facilitate prosecution of traffickers/procures/pimps/ brothel keepers or others involved in the abuse or exploitation of the victim. 43. Where necessary, victims should be given the option of the Witness Protection Program. 44. All victims will be provided with the education, knowledge, skills, orientation, and micro-credit to secure work and economic independence. 45. All victims’ records must be kept confidential and secure, including health information. 46. Complete confidentiality must be maintained about the facial and other personal identifiers of the victim – from rescue to rehabilitation to reintegration. 47. Victims should not be reconnected with their families without adequate assessment. 48. Monthly follow-up should be provided for each victim for the first six to twelve months after reintegration or repatriation to ensure that the victim is receiving adequate support and does not get re-trafficked, abused, or exploited. 49. In the case of non-US residents, repatriation should be facilitated only with the consent of the victim and with adequate protections to prevent re-trafficking or exploitation. 50. Federal and/or State governments should reimburse all expenses related to victim care and support, from rescue through rehabilitation and eventual reintegration.
EASTERN LEVEL 3 Section Seven Residential Facilities for Underage Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation A Guide for Students Who Want to Help Many people are interested in developing residential programs for underage victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation (CSE) in America. Here, you will find provide practical information about the characteristics and needs of these young people, and describe the type of residential programs and facilities currently providing services for this population. While we recognize that males and transgender youth are also victims of CSE in America, current emphasis and service delivery is focused on females. Therefore, this information is limited to minor female victims of CSE. What are the Impacts of CSE on Young People? While there is no consensus on the number of underage CSE victims in the United States, there is clear consensus that the impact of this crime on the victims is devastating. Girls who have been domestically trafficked experience physical, emotional, psychological, and spiritual repercussions from the trauma of sexual exploitation. Providers of care often report that victims present with the following health-related issues: Physical health problems associated with beatings and rapes, including broken bones and the need for wound care; Reproductive health problems, including exposure to HIV and other STDs, pregnancies, and fertility issues; Malnutrition; Mental health problems, including PTSD and somatic complaints (headaches, chronic pain) resulting from the trauma, and others listed below; and Alcohol and other drug use, as well as addiction. Mental health symptoms resulting from repeated abuse include: Extreme anxiety and fear; Changed relationships with others (including the inability to trust); Self-destructive behaviors (including suicide attempts); Changed feelings or beliefs about oneself (including profound shame and guilt); Changed perception of the perpetrator (including establishing a traumatic bond); and Despair and hopelessness. Certainly, female CSE victims in America experience a different level of abuse and trauma. As one provider of care for these victims describes it, “Their level of trauma is much greater and their level of damage, severe.” These girls are in need of a new identity separate from “The Life.” They also need to develop healthy attachments with peers, adults, and family members (whenever possible). Perhaps most important, these girls need to feel safe, both physically and emotionally.
What are Current Challenges and Limitations to Serving this Population? Law enforcement and health and social services providers working with this population acknowledged several challenges and limitations to effectively meeting the needs of these girls. Overarching challenges include: Difficulty identifying victims. The hidden nature of the crime and the use of the Internet by traffickers make identifying victims challenging. Additionally, the lack of standard protocols for identifying potential victims coming in contact with law enforcement, child protective case workers, street outreach workers, drop-in centers, school counselors, and emergency shelters is problematic. Perhaps the greatest challenge is the lack of recognition of these minors as victims. It is reported that many law enforcement, child protective services workers, and shelter providers believe that these girls had “chosen” to become involved in prostitution and therefore should be held accountable for their “criminal” actions. The stigma associated with prostitution is evident to all who are involved with this issue, especially the young victims themselves. It is typical that the girls do not view themselves as victims and, in many cases, say that they do not want help. Viewing these minors as victims of human trafficking instead of “criminals” or “prostitutes” represents a huge paradigm shift that has occurred within the law, but not in practice. Lack of understanding of domestic human trafficking. A significant is the lack of knowledge and understanding that human trafficking can occur in America. Specifically, many people think human trafficking is a crime that happens only to immigrants. The relationship between the prostitution of minors and human trafficking is not well understood by most providers. Not only does this impact the ability to identify victims, but it impacts the ability of staff to provide appropriate services to meet the needs of these girls. Inadequate services. It is clear to even the casual observer that the services provided to this population are terribly inadequate. In some runaway and homeless youth shelter programs, the time restrictions on the length of stay imposed by funding sources make it impossible to build trust with the girls, let alone begin any meaningful treatment. Additionally, the diversity of the minors in shelter programs and group homes make it difficult to tailor services for a specific population. Within juvenile detention facilities, treatment plans are often aligned with the criminal charges — often crimes unrelated to prostitution (e.g., curfew violations, truancy, shoplifting, runaway) — and, therefore, they are ineffective in addressing the real issues facing these girls. For minors placed in foster care or group homes, once again, the sexual exploitation is often not recognized and, therefore, the trauma and related problems are not treated. Safety concerns. The issue of safety for staff, other residents, and the girls themselves extremely important. In the case of runaway and homeless shelters and drop-in centers, the location is often known to the trafficker. In fact, there are many reported cases of traffickers recruiting girls outside these facilities or, in some cases, girls being sent into the shelters to recruit other girls. Very few programs are equipped to handle these situations.
Flight Risk. Another challenge is the flight risk that these girls pose for law enforcement and the programs working with them. Law enforcement and providers often describe how a girl usually believes she was in love with her trafficker and felt compelled to return to him, out of this love or out of fear of retribution if she didn’t return. This is a facet of the powerful trauma bond created with her abuser, which is one form of the Stockholm Syndrome — an extreme form of PTSD otherwise most frequently seen in torture victims. Additionally, these girls often feel like there is nothing they are good at outside of “The Life”; which is the term girls often use to describe their experiences with prostitution. This belief that their value lies in being an object of sexual abuse — a belief often first developed as a child sexual abuse victim — often compels a victim to return to her perpetrator and “The Life.” They frequently speak of the immediate gratification or lure associated with street life in general, and “prostitution” in particular; something difficult for any program to compete with. Furthermore, for the majority of girls, their current situation includes a sense of belonging that feels better than where they were before they were recruited and includes various “perks” such as trips to different states, nice clothing and jewelry, etc.
Residential Facilities The majority of domestically trafficked girls who are not living in their homes during the exploitation are being placed in a variety of settings, including residential treatment centers, child protective servicesfunded group homes and foster care placements, and juvenile corrections facilities. Additionally, many of these girls are flowing in and out of shelters for runaway and homeless youth and frequenting drop-in centers, often without detection as a victim of domestic sex trafficking by the staff. There are very few residential facilities specific to this population in existence in the United States. These include Girls Educational and Mentoring Services (GEMS) Transition to Independent Living (TIL) program, Standing Against Global Exploitation (SAGE) Safe House, Children of the Night, and Angela’s House. Despite the limited number of these programs, across sites, street outreach workers, shelter providers, residential facility staff, law enforcement, and child protective services workers agree on the importance and priority for more residential programs uniquely tailored to young victims of CSE. Population Served While the current focus is on female victims of trafficking in America, there is a need for similar facilities for males and transgender youth. Several of the runaway and homeless youth shelters note challenges trying to house this population among mixed age and mixed gender populations. Most providers advocate for smaller programs and populations for care settings. Underage victims of trafficking have difficulty navigating relationships and, therefore, need — and are more likely to benefit from — a smaller, more intimate setting. This extends to believing that no more than two girls should share a room; a model similar to domestic violence shelters. Advocates for larger programs believe in the ability to serve a greater number of young people more economically. A larger program must have appropriate space to allow for smaller subgroups to interact. Facilities should consider grouping residents by similar age and/or stage of recovery. This could be done through different units within a single residence or through different facilities. Finally, there are some exclusion criteria or conditions under which the existing residential facilities and alternative placements, including runaway and homeless youth shelters and domestic violence shelters, will not serve underage victims. While these varied by program, the criteria often included the presence of a severe mental disorder (psychotic, suicidal), active and severe substance abuse and addiction, and severe violent behavior (homicidal, threat to others). These victims need the intensive treatment often available through hospitalization, staff-secured residential treatment facilities for minors with emotional and/or behavioral disorders, or inpatient substance abuse treatment
facilities. However, few beds are available for a minor with either no insurance or Medicaid and the lack of in-depth understanding of the experiences of victims of domestic sex trafficking among staff at these facilities. Length of Stay Providers and law enforcement working with this population advocate for a minimum length of stay at an appropriate facility of at least 18 months. This is also echoed by survivors. The 18-month length of stay is recognized as sufficient time to build trust with the girls, provide the necessary therapy to address their trauma, and to begin “working their treatment plan” and rebuilding their lives. Providers also advocate for continued connection to the program following exit and long-term aftercare services. Voluntary Stay Most providers feel strongly that recovery from the trauma and victimization cannot happen until a victim is ready and willing to work on her recovery. They call for a voluntary residential program in which participants could opt in once they were invested in exiting “The Life.” Survivors universally agree on the policy of voluntary placement, saying, “The girls need to make the choice themselves.” Furthermore, providers acknowledged that being ready to use the services and support in a residence takes time. For example, providers at SAGE report, “Bringing girls into the group home slowly has shown benefits in terms of buy-in.” For Children of the Night, their success rate is reportedly higher among residents who voluntarily enroll in their program compared to court-mandated placements. Whether advocating for a voluntary or mandatory program, many people recognize that this population is prone to run away or relapse, similar to the phenomenon in substance abuse treatment programs. Unlike some residential treatment programs and group homes funded through the child protection system within the United States and several of the runaway and homeless youth shelters, all of the dedicated programs for underage victims of CSE have a policy to allow girls to return after they run away from the facility. One survivor says, “Programs need to be able to hold a space open for someone to come back.” Programs should also specific protocols in place to work with running as part of each girl’s treatment plan and provided intensive one-on-one case management during heightened risk periods for running (e.g., initial intake, specific points in therapy, etc.). Program Location There is a great deal of debate among providers as to the appropriate setting for a stand-alone residential program for American victims of CSE. Currently, many of the residential programs are sited within urban areas, although all of these programs are away from “the track” or known areas of street prostitution. Those providers who advocate for a program within city limits believe that locating a program within the city allows girls to retain any healthy emotional supports already in place, including any family members, therapists, outreach workers, and school personnel. The girl may also be in a position to better access supports that an urban area can provide, such as a diversity of medical providers, therapists, educational opportunities, recreational opportunities, and job training and employment opportunities. In addition, these providers believe that her real recovery can only occur within the context of her triggers; a victim must learn how to navigate the environment to which she will undoubtedly return. Providers who advocate for programs sited outside of an urban environment believe that anyone with PTSD is better able to begin recovery away from the daily triggers. For combat veterans, this would be outside of the area of war; for girls who have been the victims of CSE, this would be away from the areas of their exploitation. Furthermore, many people believe that the distance will provide an added measure of security from traffickers and other predators, and decrease the likelihood that a girl on the run from a program will easily find her way back to the area in which she was trafficked for sex.
In some cases, the decision as to where to locate a residential facility may be driven by availability and cost. Some providers find that they are constrained by which neighborhoods will allow their program to be located there and the costs associated with housing in each neighborhood. Security of Facility There is universal agreement that any residential facility needs to be secure in order to establish physical and emotional safety for these girls, which is an essential ingredient for their recovery. Ensuring the safety of the facility and staff themselves is also a priority. Examples of security measures to put in place at a residential facility are identified from the existing residential facilities, domestic violence shelters, and many of the runaway and homeless youth shelters. These measures include: undisclosed location, security cameras and alarm systems, 24-hour staffing and presence of security guards, unannounced room searches and drug screens, limited phone use, supervised or no access to the Internet, locked doors at all times with staff and residents buzzed in and out of the facility, preapproved/screened contact lists, etc. For some runaway and homeless youth shelter programs currently housing this population, the staff makes the most of close relationships with local law enforcement and ongoing safety training for staff and residents as key elements to ensuring a safe environment. Not only are these security measures important for programming, they are also important items to consider when developing a program budget. Additionally, the development of safety plans for each resident, similar to practices employed by domestic violence shelters, is practiced and recommended across the residential programs. Girls are taught to find safety zones for themselves (e.g., within a local convenience store or a fire station) that they can use to flee their trafficker or simply avoid an old acquaintance. These safety plans are put in place to address both the possibility of running and to navigate day-to-day life after exit. Program Staffing Programs for domestically victims of trafficking must be run by individuals who “live and breathe trafficking” in contrast to administrators lacking that expertise and specialization. Because domestically sex-trafficked girls have been exploited primarily by males, programs believe it is important to begin their recovery in an all-female environment and therefore advocate for hiring only female staff. One survivor says there is a need to create a “community of women.” However, some providers do advocate for the appropriate use of male staff to demonstrate the possibility of a relationship with a male that is non-exploitative. It is of primary importance that staff truly understand underage victims of domestic trafficking in the United States and the impact of their life experience. The staff needs to be able to be consistent, nonjudgmental, and treat victims with the utmost respect. This requires a staff with an authentic understanding of “The Life.” The need to have a natural ability to connect with domestically trafficked girls has led to some providers advocating for the hiring of survivors. Both SAGE and GEMS prioritize hiring women who were sexually exploited, including minor victims of domestic sex trafficking and have successfully exited “The Life.” SAGE explains the rationale for using a “peer support model” as follows: — “Clinicians spend 75% of their time establishing trust, while peers can start from a place of trust.” One service provider observed that someone who has exited “can convey hope in a way those of us who haven’t been there cannot,” while another commented that survivors show that “people can survive and pull themselves out.” Among the benefits of survivor mentoring is that hearing the life story of someone who has been trafficked for sex often paves the way for girls to open up. Regardless of whether a program employs survivors or not, it is important for all staff to be well trained in understanding sexual exploitation, the realities of prostitution and sex trafficking, the methods of recruitment, the physical/psychological/spiritual impact of the trauma, potential methods
for exit, an overview of youth development programming, and appropriate boundaries and healthy working relationships. Services Provided While not all programs are able to offer all services onsite, there is universal agreement regarding the range of services that need to be available to residents. These include: Basic needs. Programs housing victims must meet the basic needs of all residents, similar to runaway and homeless youth programs. That is, each program should provide clothes that fit appropriately (including undergarments); food; shelter, including showers; and a safe place to sleep. Intensive case management. One of the most important services to be offered is intensive case management. Girls should paired with staff with an emphasis on their relational development — their connection to the staff person builds simultaneously while the services are provided. As described by one provider, this requires “lots of time commitment — she needs 24-hour access to her advocate/case manager.” Girls must be guided and supported through the complexity of their life situations by case managers (i.e., legal services, medical services, etc.). The case managers must work in collaboration with girls to develop Individual Service Plans. The overall goal of treatment relates to the general mental and physical health-related goals of building self-worth, self-respect, and selfefficacy. This treatment must be delivered within the context of “understanding the developmental hindrances of having been under the control of someone [her trafficker] for so long.” Mental health counseling/treatment. There is an urgent need for trauma-informed ongoing mental health services, with a variety of specific treatments receiving particular emphasis (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)). In addition, programs should tailor their program to ensure trauma-informed care. For example, residents can be given an MP3 player and headphones as a means of offering one particular coping and self-soothing tool. In addition, there is a need for trained staff to provide crisis management around the clock. As one outreach program describes it, vulnerable youth, in general, and trafficking victims, in particular, “need someone there all the time to help them stop and process the crisis.” Medical screening/routine care. Given the physical health needs of this population, all programs must provide medical screening for STDs, pregnancy, and other health-related problems, often through local medical providers sensitive to this issue or onsite nurse practitioners. Depending on the source of referral to the program, victims should receive medical screening (and emergency treatment, if required) prior to entering the facility (e.g., detention facility, child protective services). For more critical or emergency needs while staying at the facility, programs should access local urgent or emergency care facilities. Mobile health clinics and local teen clinics should also be utilized by the runaway and homeless youth shelters housing this population. Life skills and job training programs. Programs serving underage victims of SCE should integrate some type of life skills, job training, and career development process as part of a girl’s treatment plan. This may include check writing, bank account management, learning to pay phone bills, and other types of financial literacy. As described by provider, a primary goal when working with these girls is to “deconstruct their relationship with money.” All girls should become involved in a pre-employment and employment program. Girls should be able to apply for hourly work in the office of the provider or as part of outreach, building skills they can take with them. Furthermore, girls should be offered a stipend in the form of
a $5 coupon for attending workshops, classes, or helping out in general. They can then able cash these coupons with staff once every other week. Along with teaching them to manage their money and finances, this communicates to girls “you can do things that aren’t harmful to yourself and still get compensated and keep the money.” Youth development programming. Many programs, both those serving minor victims of domestic sex trafficking and other forms of commercial sexual exploitation and those serving vulnerable youth in general (runaway and homeless populations), stress the importance of creative youth development-oriented programming that builds on the strengths of each young person — programming that helps her “find her gifts.” These programs need to provide multiple types of educational opportunities for victims to “keep her engaged and busy.” One provider described that “it can’t be boring — it has to be a meaningful alternative [to ‘The Life’].” The most important piece of this creative programming is to involve the young people in its development — the “key is that kids are included in determining what they want to do.” Several runaway and homeless youth programs and drop-in centers provide engaging programming informed by youth and often led by youth, including music production, art and poetry, and sports and recreation. Education. The educational programming offered by the existing residential facilities varies. Some programs opt for referring girls to mainstream schools, GED programs, or vocational schools. Other programs offer educational programming through a collaborative arrangement with a local day-treatment provider. These models are also similar for the runaway and homeless youth shelter programs. It is agreed that it can be difficult to serve all of the girls in the same educational program, given the differences in their cognitive abilities, past school experiences, and interests. Family involvement/reunification. When a healthy relationship is possible, it is of vital importance to involve biological family members or other appropriate support people in the lives of victims. Unfortunately, many providers assume there is no family of origin to whom the girl can return. While the outcome may never be returning home, there may be an opportunity to maintain some type of family relationship through counseling and education. It is clear, however, that because of the extensive abuse histories of most trafficking victims, programs need to provide structured, safe environments in which families can reconnect.
Other Factors Needed for Success While providers and law enforcement stress the need for residential facilities for the underage victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation as a priority, they also recognize that a residential facility alone will never be enough to effectively serve these girls. There is wide agreement that residential facilities need to be situated along a continuum of care that begins with prevention education and outreach to at-risk populations, teachers and school counselors, health and human services professionals, juvenile justice and child welfare systems personnel, parents, and communities at large. The residential facilities also need to be connected to existing community-based programs, including youth drop-in centers and emergency shelters, given their contact with this population and the importance of these programs as an identification and referral source for the facilities. Finally, providers and law enforcement alike say the need for long-term aftercare services, including support groups, mentoring, individual counseling, and education is acute. Once there is welldesigned and well-funded residential facilities to house these girls, then other aspects of their restoration can begin. One program alone is unlikely to be able to provide the entire platform of services needed. Collaboration, specifically among law enforcement, juvenile courts and probation, schools, child protective services, and direct service providers (including runaway and homeless youth shelters), is an
essential ingredient for successfully meeting the needs of these girls. In fact, providers and law enforcement alike in constantly attribute their current successes to collaboration, open communication, a common language and shared definition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation and its underage victims, information sharing, trust, and ultimately a genuine desire to help this most vulnerable population. Finally, funding to support new programs or enhancements to existing programs is critical for this movement. Not only are current resources scarce, but limitations on funding with respect to who could be served (e.g., age, city/county of residency) and how long services could be provided (e.g., 14 days, 30 days, 90 days) create significant obstacles that limit access to much needed services for this population. Summary Underage victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation are frequently in need of services, including out-ofhome placement. Providers and law enforcement across multiple cities are advocating for more options for residential facilities in which these girls can receive support, comprehensive services, and a start on the path to recovery. But there is a great need across all sectors of society to recognize that minors exploited as “prostitutes” by a “pimp” meet the statutory definition of a “minor victim of sex trafficking” and therefore deserve the humanitarian protections called for under TVPA. This change in paradigm is made more difficult, however, by the historical treatment of prostitution and prostitutes as a criminal matter, and the denial of minor victims themselves that they are “victims” of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation. Providers and law enforcement agree that there is not a “one size fits all” model to serving domestically sex-trafficked girls. Different levels of care and different types of care are needed to ensure long-term stability and exit. However, the few programs that are providing services specifically to this population identify certain common components or elements that show promise of being effective. At a minimum, these programs need to be safe, trauma informed, population specific, and adequately funded. Furthermore, programs currently housing domestically sex-trafficked girls, such as runaway and homeless youth shelters, detention facilities, and group homes, need additional training and access to appropriate resources to better serve this population. The future safety and stability of this vulnerable population of girls rests on our society's ability to provide a “home” in which they can recover from the trauma of their trafficking situation and be given a chance at a new life free from Commercial Sexual Exploitation.
EASTERN LEVEL 3 Section Eight “Targeted, some drug dealers switch to prostitution: Authorities fear surge in human trafficking” By Maria Cramer, Boston Globe, October 26, 2008
A federal crackdown on drug dealers has succeeded in taking some of Boston's most dangerous offenders off the streets, but it is also driving some dealers and gang leaders to pursue another line of criminal work: prostitution. Law enforcement officials and victim advocates say girls as young as 14 have become a prized commodity for criminals who would rather exploit them than run the risk of serving a long federal sentence for dealing drugs. "The girl has become the new drug," said Kelley O'Connell, a sergeant detective who runs the Boston Police Department's human trafficking unit, which has been working with the drug unit to track dealers who may have turned to prostitution. The trend is in part a consequence of the comparative ease of sexual exploitation in the digital age. Pimps can advertise girls and women online - a way both to increase demand and avoid street arrests. But the department's more aggressive use of tough federal drug laws to target gangs and so-called impact players - those police believe to be involved in shootings - has also sent a message that criminals should consider another path, according to police officials and some community leaders. Some teenagers have recoiled from crime entirely, deciding to stick with school and seek legitimate jobs rather than deal drugs, community organizers say. Others have turned to theft. But the greatest impact has been on human trafficking. Most of the city's fledgling pimps are men in their late 20s and early 30s who served time in prison for drugs, have recently been released, and have settled on a new source of illicit income, said Deputy Superintendent Paul Fitzgerald, head of the drug unit. "They know we're looking hard at drug dealing," he said. "They're taking the path of least resistance when they go toward the girls." In recent years, the department has been working more aggressively with the FBI to target dealers, who are often gang members responsible for much of the city's gun violence. During one 2006 sweep, Boston police and the FBI arrested 23 men - half of whom were alleged gang members - for dealing cocaine near the BromleyHeath housing development in Jamaica Plain. Last year the department and federal officials announced three stings in which more than 50 men were arrested for drug and gun charges. Some of the drug arrests have led to sentences of 15 years in out-of-state federal prisons; if prosecuted under state law, they would have faced five to 10 years in a state prison. So criminals have adapted. Tracking the change through statistics is difficult, police officials say, because law enforcement is focusing less on arresting prostitutes than on tracking down the people who appear to be exploiting them. But police have seen the trend in the arrests of people like James Williams, 26, who was caught by Boston police and the FBI, who were investigating him in Miami in 2006 for luring a 16-year-old girl there and forcing her into prostitution. Williams, who was sentenced to more than seven years in federal prison, had been arrested for drug-dealing in Boston three years earlier. The trend can also be detected in the reports police are getting from their informants and the stories of prostitutes approaching victim advocates for help. Cherie Jimenez, coordinator of Kim's Project in Brighton, an organization that helps former prostitutes, said the number of women who have come through her door has more than doubled since 2006 to 40. Police are conducting several ongoing investigations that they believe could soon lead to more arrests. Police still monitor busy strips like Blue Hill Avenue in Mattapan, where some women sell their services, usually to help feed a drug addiction. But law enforcement's focus has turned to pimps who run more organized operations and recruit girls and young women from online social networks and in places that teens frequent, such as bus stops, shopping centers, and outside urban schools. O'Connell and her staff are reviewing the arrests and criminal backgrounds of dealers, looking for other charges in their recent history, including domestic violence calls, which might be clues that they are also exploiting women. In the last year, school police officers have begun visiting the homes of girls who could be at risk of being drawn into prostitution. In June, the trafficking unit finished training all of the department's patrol officers to look
for warning signs: expensive jewelry or excessive makeup on particularly young girls; truancy and long absences from home; and bruises, which could be the result of an abusive pimp. Fitzgerald said the drug trade still keeps his unit busy. Last year, officers obtained 288 search warrants for reputed drug houses, about the same number of searches they conducted in prior years. But the threat of a federal sentence has caused many dealers to take the business inside. Now dealers are more likely to conduct transactions using cellphones and will arrange meeting places with clients, rather than deal more openly on the streets. The money is harder to come by, and the work less appealing, especially for new teenage recruits. "What's different is that except for a few key people, kids are not making the kind of money they used to," said Emmett Folgert, head of the Dorchester Youth Collaborative. "Entry-level jobs are actually competing with what many of these kids were making on the streets. More of these kids are going back to school. They don't have the pull of the big money. In general there's been a change, and we're thankful." One drug dealer, a sleepy-eyed 18-year-old from Dorchester who said he peddles marijuana laced with crack and heroin, said he is tired of dealing and constantly being worried that he will be stopped by police or robbed by other dealers. "I'd rather have a job," he said, looking younger than 18 in his oversized gray sweat shirt and black pants. The shift of some to prostitution and pimping has tragic consequences of its own, as is evident in the stories of women like Ashley. A 22-year-old from Boston, she finally got away from her pimp - and boyfriend three years ago, but not before he beat her repeatedly and got her pregnant. He was a drug dealer when they met five years ago. At first, he had her meet with clients a couple of times a week. But soon, Ashley said, he was spending less time dealing and more time driving her to clubs and places like Atlantic City to find clients. Her pimp, who was about three years older, saw the trade as "something to fall back on," Ashley said, an easy way to make money and steer clear of law enforcement. "They don't really have to go out there and put in the effort to do anything. It's just drop you off and pick you up." By the time she was 19, he had her working every day, sometimes for 12 hours. He would not let her quit each day until she had brought in at least $500, Ashley said. If she protested, he beat her up, she said. Ultimately, her pimp was arrested on drug charges. Pimps are generally charged under federal human trafficking laws, which can carry significant prison terms. But they are difficult cases to prosecute, said Fitzgerald. The women are often too afraid of their pimps, too in love , or both, to testify against them. In Massachusetts, there is no specific human trafficking law. State Senator Mark C. Montigny has proposed legislation that would create a state law against traffickers and punish offenders with up to 20 years in prison. Victim advocates say they hope more government attention to the issue will show people that prostitution is not a victimless crime. "The major thing that we have to look at as a city and as a country is that this is going to be a major public health crisis," O'Connell said. "More and more individuals are seeing the criminal side of this and the big money they can make. You're going to be seeing more and more of this demand. There is going to be more need for product and that product is a girl."
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