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Columbia University Spring 2005 Yves Baeyens

Outline of Lecture 4

Short recap of lecture 3 (TL’s), power capacity HW1 Network analysis

Impedance and admittance matrix Scattering matrix Calculating S-parameters, signal flow graphs

**Impedance matching and tuning
**

Matching with lumped elements

Dr. Y. Baeyens

E4318-Microwave Circuit Design

L.4 – 2/46

Announcements

CVN has no room available for an extended lecture, so we will have the rescheduled class Next Tuesday (2/22)at 4:10-6:40PM also in Mudd 1024. Please let me know if this is a problem for any of you (will be taped) Midterm exam: Thursday 3/3, will provide formula-sheet by next week,

Dr. Y. Baeyens

E4318-Microwave Circuit Design

L.4 – 3/46

Calendar

Course: Th 4:10-6:40 PM, 1024 Mudd

01/20 01/27 02/03 rescheduled 02/10 02/17 02/22 lecture 5 02/24 03/03 Midterm

Dr. Y. Baeyens

03/10 03/17 Spring Holidays 03/24 03/31 04/07 04/14 04/21 Final

E4318-Microwave Circuit Design

L.4 – 4/46

current and impedance well-defined TE or TM: closed conductor or higher order modes TEM propagation constant β dependent frequency & geometry β = 2 k 2 − kc k =ω µε = 2 π λ quasi-TEM (different εr under and above line) leads to concept of effective dielectric constant β = ω vp =ω µ 0ε 0ε e = ε e k0 vp = c εe L. 2 or more conductors needed.4 – 5/46 Dr.Recap practical transmission lines vp = c εr kc = 0 TEM: β = ω µε = k the transverse fields of TEM wave are same as static fields. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design . Y. no TEM in closed conductor voltage.

4 – 6/46 E4318-Microwave Circuit Design . Y. Baeyens 2 a+b fc = 2π ck c εr L. use from DC-to mm-waves EM-fields from static fields using cylindrical coordinates First higher order mode is TE11.Recap practical transmission lines (2) Attenuation in transmission lines α = αd + αc αc αd ~ Rs Rs = 1 σδ = s ωµ 2σ k 2 tan δ ≅ Np/m (TE or TM waves) 2β k tan δ ≅ Np/m (TEM waves) 2 Coaxial line: TEM mode. kc ≅ Dr. cutoff frequency approx.

all field components will decay exponentially: cut-off or evanescent modes f c 10 = 1 Higher order modes: TE10 . for normal case a>2b waveguide BW typically factor of two Strip-line: integrated. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.Recap (3): Waveguides. more recent. (micro)stripline. TEM. requires via Coplanar Waveguide: integrated. Y. β is imaginary. low dispersion and loss Microstrip: integrated. most used. no via-holes Dr.4 – 7/46 . quasi-TEM. CPW Rectangular waveguide has limited bandwidth β = k 2 − (π a )2 dominant mode is TE10: 2 a µε For f<fc. quasi-TEM.

4 – 8/46 . Y.Power capacity of TL’s Power in TL’s is limited by voltage breakdown.025 ⎛ cEd ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 5. for ρ=a Vmax = Ed a ln b a and maximum power capacity becomes: 2 2 Vmax πa 2 Ed b = ln Pmax = 2 Z0 η0 a As expected power capacity increases for larger diameter cable. for air occurring at breakdown electric field Ed=3x106 V/m Calculation of capacity requires knowledge of E-field For air-filled coax: E ρ = V0 (ρ ln b a ) this is max. limit is cut-off frequency of higher order mode TE11 ⎛ E ⎞ 0. Baeyens 2 2 @10GHz = 520kW E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.8 × 1012 ⎜ d ⎟ Pmax = ⎜ f ⎟ η0 ⎜ fmax ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ max ⎠ Dr.

max. with fmax the maximum operating frequency. Y. voltage can double) Higher breakdown using inert gas or dielectric Dr.11 ⎛ cEd ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 2. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. Eo at x=a/2 and maximum power capacity becomes: 2 2 abEo abEd = Pmax = 4Zw 4Zw As expected. Maximum power capacity of guide can be shown: ⎛ E ⎞ 0. a<c/fmax.Power capacity of waveguides For air-filled rectangular waveguide: E y = Eo sin(πx a ) this is max.4 – 9/46 . safety factor of two + some care for reflections (for |Γ|=1. for most waveguides b ≅ a/2.6 × 1013 ⎜ d ⎟ Pmax = ⎜ f ⎟ η0 ⎜ fmax ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ max ⎠ 2 2 @10GHz = 2300kW In practice. power capacity increases for guide size. to avoid TE20 mode.

Negligible phase change throughout the circuit. propagation constants and characteristic impedances.4 – 10/46 . Components are characterized by their dimensions. Circuit theory — Kirchhoff’s laws and Ohm’s law. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. Circuit dimensions ≈ wavelength Distributed passive and active components.Microwave Circuit Analysis Circuit dimensions << wavelength Lumped passive and active components. Dr. Microwave network theory. Phase depends on position. Y.

voltage and current The voltage. Dr.4 – 11/46 . The above integrations are independent of path. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. I and Z0 because: The lines have well defined terminal pairs. Y. current and characteristic impedance of transmission lines are defined as: V = Φ+ − Φ− = ∫ E ⋅dl + − I = C+ ∫ H ⋅dl V I Z0 = TEM-type TL have unique V.Impedance.

voltage from the transverse fields can be written as: V = − j ωµ a π A ⋅ sin π x − jβ z e ∫ dy a y The above voltage depends on the position. as well as the length of the integration contour along the y-direction. For the dominant TE10 mode in rectangular waveguide.4 – 12/46 . Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. x. V & Z used (not discussed here) Dr. I and Z0 values because: The lines DO NOT have well defined terminal pairs. The above integrations are path dependent. For non-TEM: equivalent I. Y.Characteristics & calculations non-TEM lines Non TEM-type transmission lines such as rectangular waveguide do not have unique V.

Y. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.An arbitrary N-port Microwave Network Dr.4 – 13/46 .

i≠j Dr. V and I ⇒ Equivalent V and I. At the nth reference plane. Reference planes are defined to provide a phase reference for the (equivalent) V and I phasors. Y. the total voltage and current are: V n = V n+ + V n− + − In = In − In The impedance matrix relates these voltages and currents: [V ] = [Z ][I ].Impedance Matrix Two-terminal pair ⇒ Port.4 – 14/46 . Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. Z ij = Vi Ij I k = 0 for k ≠ j Zii: input impedance Zij: transfer impedance between ports i and j.

. Y ij = Ii Vj V k = 0 for k ≠ j Yii: input admittance Yij: transfer admittance between ports i and j..). ferrites.Admittance Matrix The admittance matrix is defined as: [I ] = [Y ][V ]. i≠j For reciprocal networks (no active devices. Y. Zij and Yij are purely imaginary Dr.4 – 15/46 . the impedance and admittance matrices are symmetric: Zij=Zji and Yij=Yji If the network is lossless. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.

Y. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.Example: evaluation of impedance parameters Example: Find Z-parameters two-port T-network Solution: Z11: input impedance port 1 when port 2 is open circuited V Z11 = 1 = Z A + ZC I1 I =0 2 Transfer impedance Z12: measure open-circuit voltage at port 1 when current I2 applied at port 2: V V ZC Z12 = 1 = 2 = ZC I 2 I = 0 I 2 Z B + ZC 1 Z12=Z21 and Z22 can be found: V Z 22 = 2 = Z B + ZC I 2 I =0 1 Dr.4 – 16/46 .

4 – 17/46 . such as power transistors. however these parameters cannot be measured easily: VSWR. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. Dr. Scattering parameters can be measured directly with a vector network analyzer (VNA). very often are not open. Y. Active devices.The Scattering Matrix (S-parameters) Impedances and admittances are easy to work with. non-TEM complicate measurement Short and open circuits are difficult to achieve over a broad-band of microwave frequencies. Conversion from scattering parameters to other matrix parameters can be easily done.reflected and transmitted voltage waves.or short-circuit stable Scattering parameters deal directly with incident.

are the amplitudes of the incident and reflected voltage waves at the nth port Sij is found by driving port j with incident wave of voltage Vj+and measuring the reflected wave amplitude Vi-. coming out of port i.4 – 18/46 . Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.Scattering Matrix The scattering matrix of a N-port network with the same characteristic impedance at all ports is defined as: ⎡V1− ⎤ ⎡ S11 ⎢ −⎥ ⎢ ⎢V2 ⎥ = ⎢ S 21 ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ M ⎢ −⎥ ⎢ ⎢V N ⎥ ⎣ S N 1 ⎣ ⎦ S12 S 22 SN 2 + L O L S1 N ⎤ ⎡V1+ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ S 2 N ⎥ ⎢V2+ ⎥ ⎥ M ⎥⎢ M ⎥ ⎥⎢ + ⎥ S NN ⎦ ⎣V N ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ V = S ⋅V − Sij = V j+ Vi − Vk + = 0 for k ≠ j Vn+ and Vn. incident waves on all other ports set ot zero. terminated with matched load Dr. Y.

V2S21 = Dr.4 – 19/46 .Example: evaluation of S-parameters Example: Find S-parameters 3-dB attenuator network Solution: Sii: reflection coefficient into port i with other ports terminated Sij: transmission coefficient from port j to i.56 + 50 )] (141. Baeyens V1+ V + = 0 2 − V2 3-db attenuator E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.56 + [141. S11: reflection coefficient port 1 when port 2 is terminated in matched load (Z0=50Ω) (1) − Z − Z0 V S11 = 1 = Γ (1) + = in V2 = 0 Z (1) + Z V1+ V + = 0 0 Z on port 2 in 2 0 For S21: (1 Z in ) = 8. other terminated So. V1+ measure outcoming wave at port 2.8 + 8.8(8.56 + 50 ) = 50Ω apply incident wave at port 1. Y.

56 ⎞⎛ − V2 = V2 = V1 ⎜ ⎟ = 0.707 ⎦ 2 +2 −2 +2 +2 V2 2 Z 0 = S21V1 2 Z 0 = S21 V1 2 Z 0 = V1 4 Z0 so attenuator effectively attenuates with 3-dB (half power put into 2-port is transmitted.707V1 ⎟⎜ ⎝ 141. so V1-=0 if port 2 terminated in 50 Ω (V2+=0) ⇒V1+=V1 & V2-=V2 So applying V1 and calculating V2 (2x voltage division) : 50 ⎞ ⎛ 141.Example: evaluation of S-parameters S11=S22=0. other half is dissipated in resistors) 3-db attenuator Dr.56 ⎠ So.56 ⎠⎝ 50 + 8.707 If input power is +2 V1 2 Z0 then output power is: 0. S21=S12=0. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. Y.8 // 58.8 // 58.4 – 20/46 .56 + 8.707⎤ ⎡ 0 S=⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎣0.

[S] can be determined as: [ S ] = ([ Z ] + [U ])−1 ([ Z ] − [U ]) z −1 for one-port this becomes: S11 = 11 in agreement with z11 + 1 reflection coefficient For [Z] as function of [S] Dr.Determination [S] from [Z] or [Y] (Z0n equal) Total voltage and current at nth port (and set Z0n=1): V n = V n+ + V n− + − + − In = In − In = Vn − Vn then: [ Z ][ I ] = [ Z ][V + ] − [ Z ][V − ] = [V ] = [V + ] + [V − ] rewritten as: ([ Z ] + [U ])[V − ] = ([ Z ] − [U ])[V − ] with [U] the unit or identity matrix.4 – 21/46 . Y. Baeyens [ Z ] = ([U ] + [ S ])([U ] − [ S ])−1 E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.

4 – 22/46 . Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. Y.Generalized scattering Matrix The scattering matrix of a N-port network with characteristic impedance Z0n at the nth port is defined as: ⎡ b1 ⎤ ⎡ S11 ⎢b ⎥ ⎢ S ⎢ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 21 ⎢M⎥ ⎢ M ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣bn ⎦ ⎣ S n1 S12 S 22 O Sn2 L L S1n ⎤ ⎡ a1 ⎤ S 2 n ⎥ ⎢ a2 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ M ⎥⎢ M ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ Snn ⎦ ⎣an ⎦ + an = Vn − bn = Vn Z 0n Z 0n Z 0n = Z 0 at port n [b] = [ S ] ⋅ [a ] b Sij = i aj = Vk = 0 for k ≠ j + Vi − Z 0 j V j + Z0i Vk + = 0 for k ≠ j Vn+ and Vn.are the amplitudes of the incident and reflected voltage waves at the nth port Dr.

Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design { ( )} reflected L.4 – 23/46 .Power Power Delivered an and bn can be expressed in terms of Vn and In: + an = Vn + Z 0n = Z 0n I n − bn = Vn − Z 0n = Z 0n I n an + bn = Vn an = Z0n an − bn = Z 0n I n bn = 1 [Vn − Z0n I n ] 2 Z 0n 1 [Vn + Z0n I n ] 2 Z 0n Average power delivered to the port n is: 1 * Pn = Re Vn I n 2 { } ⎧ 1 ⎪ + − = Re⎨ Vn + Vn 2 ⎪ ⎩ ( ) + − ⎛ Vn − Vn ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ Z ⎟ 0n ⎠ ⎝ *⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ * ⎧ ⎛ an − bn ⎞ ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎟ ⎪ = Re⎨ Z0n (an + bn )⎜ ⎜ Z ⎟ ⎬ 2 ⎪ 0n ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ incident 2 2 a b 1 2 2 * * = Re an − bn + bnan − bnan = n − n 2 2 2 Dr. Y.

product with conjugate different column gives zero k =1 N k =1 * ∑ Ski Ski = 1 * ∑ S ki Skj = 0 N for i ≠ j Dr.Reciprocal and lossless networks For reciprocal networks (no active elements. Y. [Z] and [Y] are symmetric.4 – 24/46 . ferrites). [Z] and [Y] are purely imaginary The S-parameters of a lossless network form a unitary matrix: [S]t[S]*=[U]. Similarly. product any column [S] with own conjugate gives unity. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. [S]-matrix of reciprocal network is symmetric: [S]=[S]t ([S]t is transpose matrix) For lossless networks.

65 ≠ 1 2 2 Calculation reflection coefficient for shorted port 2 (V2+= -V2-) from definition S-parameters: V1− = S11V1+ + S12V2+ = S11V1+ − S12V2− V2− = S 21V1+ + S22V2+ = S21V1+ − S22V2− Dr.1∠ 0 [S ] = ⎢ ⎢0.Application of S-parameters Measured S-parameters 2-port: ⎡ 0. so 2-port is reciprocal Not lossless: evaluation 1st row: S11 + S12 = (0. calculate return loss at port1 for short at port 2 Solution: [S] is symmetric.4 – 25/46 .2∠ 0 ⎥ ⎦ Determine if 2-port is reciprocal or lossless.8∠ 90° ⎣ 0.8 )2 = 0.1)2 + (0. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.8∠ 90° ⎤ ⎥ 0. Y.

633 = 0.1 − ( j 0. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.8)( j 0. inserting V2-: Γ= V1+ V1− = S11 − S12 S21 1 + S22 = 0.4 – 26/46 .2 So return loss becomes: RL = −20 log Γ = 3.97dB Dr.Application of S-parameters (2) From last equation: V2− = S21 V1+ 1 + S 22 Dividing 1st equation by V1+.8) 1 + 0. Y.

Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.4 – 27/46 . Y.Shift in Reference Planes Phase reference planes needed for each port of network S-parameters transformed when reference planes moved from original locations For original & new reference: [V − ] = [ S ] ⋅ [V + ] [V ′ − ] = [ S ′] ⋅ [V ′ + ] From transmission line theory: + ′ Vn + = Vn e jθ n − ′ Vn − = Vn e − jθ n With θn=βnln electrical length of outward shift reference plane Dr.

Y.4 – 28/46 . Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. phase twice shifted by electrical length of shift in terminal plane n (wave travels twice along length) Dr.Shift in Reference Planes Writing S-parameter equation in matrix form: ⎡ e jθ 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ e jθ 2 ⎡ e − jθ 1 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥[V ′ − ] = [ S ]⎢ O ⎢ ⎥ jθ n ⎥ ⎢ 0 e ⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎡ e − jθ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥[ S ]⎢ O ⎥ ⎢ − jθ n ⎥ ⎢ e ⎦ ⎣ 0 e − jθ 2 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥[V ′ + ] O ⎥ − jθ n ⎥ e ⎦ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥[V ′ + ] O ⎥ − jθ n ⎥ e ⎦ ⎡ e − jθ 1 ⎢ − [V ′ ] = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ Multiplying with inverse matrix on left: e − jθ 2 e − jθ 2 Gives expression for new S-parameter matrix ⎡ e − jθ 1 ⎢ [ S ′] = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ e − jθ 2 0 ⎤ ⎡ e − jθ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥[ S ]⎢ O ⎥ ⎢ − jθ n ⎥ ⎢ e ⎦ ⎣ 0 e − jθ 2 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ O ⎥ − jθ n ⎥ e ⎦ Note: Snń=e-2jθn.

Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. Y.The Vector Network Analyzer Critical component is directional coupler (will see later) Dr.4 – 29/46 .

Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design .4 – 30/46 Dr. Y.The transmission (ABCD) Matrix Used to calculate cascade connection of networks by multiplying ABCD matrices of individual two-ports Defined as: V1 = AV2 + BI 2 I1 = CV2 + DI 2 ⎡V1 ⎤ ⎡ A B ⎤ ⎡V2 ⎤ ⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢C D ⎥ ⎢ I ⎥ ⎦⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 1⎦ ⎣ I2 flowing out port 2! Cascade connection: ⎡V1 ⎤ ⎡ A1 ⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢C ⎣ 1⎦ ⎣ 1 B1 ⎤ ⎡V2 ⎤ D1 ⎥ ⎢ I 2 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎡V2 ⎤ ⎡ A2 ⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢C ⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ 2 B2 ⎤ ⎡V3 ⎤ D2 ⎥ ⎢ I 3 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ So: ⎡V1 ⎤ ⎡ A1 ⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢C ⎣ 1⎦ ⎣ 1 B1 ⎤ ⎡ A2 D1 ⎥ ⎢C 2 ⎦⎣ B2 ⎤ ⎡V3 ⎤ D2 ⎥ ⎢ I 3 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ L.

Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. Y.ABCD-parameters of some useful 2-ports Library building blocks Not commutative Example 1st network: A = V1 V2 V1 I2 I1 V2 I1 I2 =1 I2 =0 B = = V2 = 0 V1 V1 Z = Z C = = 0 I2 =0 D = = V2 = 0 I1 =1 I1 Dr.4 – 31/46 .

Relation Transmission and Impedance Matrix Z-parameters (consistent with sign convention I2 ABCD): V1 = I1 Z11 − I 2 Z12 V2 = I1 Z 21 − I 2 Z 22 Results in calculation ABCD: A= V1 V2 = I2 =0 I1 Z11 Z11 = I1 Z 21 Z 21 B= V1 I2 V = 2 =0 I1 Z11 − I 2 Z12 I2 V = 2 =0 I1 Z11 I2 V 2 =0 − Z12 I1 Z 22 Z Z − Z12 Z 21 − Z12 = 11 22 I1 Z 21 Z 21 I I1 1 = = C= 1 V2 I = 0 I1 Z 21 Z 21 = Z11 2 D= I1 I2 V = 2 =0 Z 22 Z 21 Reciprocal: AD-BC=1 E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. Y. Baeyens .4 – 32/46 Dr.

Conversions between 2-port parameters (p.4 – 33/46 . Y. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.211) Dr.

4 – 34/46 . Y. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.Equivalent circuits for two-ports Discontinuity: storage electrical-magnetic energy: results in reactances Example: coax-to-µstrip transition representation: Black-box S-parameters Equivalent circuit with # idealized components Dr.

Y. six independent parameters needed (real. imag.T and π-equivalent networks reciprocal 2-ports For reciprocal networks.4 – 35/46 . 3 matrix elements) Leads to two possible equivalent networks: using impedance: T using admittance: π Lossless networks: elements purely reactive Dr. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.

R.Example: equivalent network spiral inductor Π-equivalent circuit spiral inductor L R C1 C2 ⎛ 1 L = − Im ⎜ ⎜Y ⎝ 12 C1 = ⎞ ⎟ ω ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ 1 R = − Re ⎜ ⎜Y ⎝ 12 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Extracted inductance [nH] & R [ž] 5 50 Extracted groundcapacitance [fF] 40 Im (Y 11 + Y 12 ) ω C2 = Im (Y 22 + Y 12 ) ω 4 C1 C2 R Extraction procedure: Measure S-parameters (welldefined reference planes) Calculate L. afo frequency Take average where constant Dr. Baeyens 3 30 2 20 1 L 10 0 1 10 Frequency [GHz] 50 0 E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L..4 – 36/46 ..C. Y.

Y. bi with wave reflected from port I Branches: directed path between a-node and b-node representing signal flow. each branch has associated Sparameter or reflection coefficient See also Agilents application note on S-parameters posted on website Dr. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.4 – 37/46 . Node ai is identified with wave entering port i.Signal flow graphs Technique for analysis of microwave networks in terms of transmitted and reflected waves Construction of signal flow graph: primary components are nodes and branches Nodes: each port I of microwave network has two nodes ai and bi.

Y.4 – 38/46 .Signal flowgraph of two-port Wave a1 incident at port 1 split. part transmitted through S21 to node b2. can be partly reflected by load re-enter two-port at a2 . Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. At node b2 wave goes out port 2. part transmitted out port 1 through S12 Dr. part through S11 and out port 1 as reflected wave. reflected back out port 2 through S22.

Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.4 – 39/46 .Network for one-port network and source Signal flow graph of microwave network can be solved for ration of combination wave amplitudes using decomposition rules (or using Mason’s rule control system theory) Dr. Y.

4 – 40/46 . Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. Y.Decomposition rules signal flow graphs Series rule V3 = S 32V2 = S32 S 21V1 Parallel rule V2 = SaV1 + SbV1 = ( Sa + Sb )V1 Self-loop rule V2 = S 21V1 + S 22V2 V2 = S21 V1 1 − S 22 Splitting rule V4 = S42V2 = S 21 S42V1 Dr.

Y. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.4 – 41/46 .Example signal flow graph (1) Dr.

4 – 42/46 .Example signal flow graph (2) a2 = Γl b2 so S 22a2 collapsed to S 22Γl b2 Another example in book involves application of signal flow graphs to determine error boxes of TRL-calibration VNA Dr. Y. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.

Dr. etc. LNA.Impedance Matching and Tuning Matching network: lossless (ideally) network matching arbitrary load impedance (non-zero real part) to a TL Maximum power is delivered when the load and generator are matched to the line. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. Y. Proper input impedance transformation of sensitive receiver components (antenna.) improves the S/N ratio For power amplifier often transformation load to optimum load line needed to increase power output active device Impedance matching in a power distribution network (such as antenna array feed network) will reduce amplitude and phase errors.4 – 43/46 .

and less lossy than a more complex design. Bandwidth — typical matching network gives only match at single frequency. Y.Transforming Network Selection Criteria Complexity — A simpler impedance transformation network is usually cheaper. Dr. more reliable. Implementation — Short-circuited stubs in coax and waveguide (shorting stubs easy to implement in waveguide). Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. larger BW → increase in complexity (for instance multi-section transformers). Adjustability — some applications may require adjustments (tuning stubs with micrometer in waveguides).4 – 44/46 . Open-circuited stubs in stripline and microstrip.

Y. Dr.Lossless Matching Network Z0 ΓL In general. The impedance looking in to the matching network is Z0. for network matching an arbitrary load impedance to a transmission line: To avoid unnecessary power loss. There will be multiple reflections between the matching network and the load. Reflections are eliminated on the transmission line to the left of the matching network. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L.4 – 45/46 . matching network is ideally lossless.

Homework & next lecture!! Pozar.10 4.16 Due date: 2/24 Next week we’ll review finish impedance matching and review HW2 Dr. Y.!) Will put on site! 4. Baeyens E4318-Microwave Circuit Design L. “Microwave Engineering” (3rd Ed.4 – 46/46 .

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