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World Unmanned

Aerial Vehicle
Systems

Market Profile
and Forecast
2008

World
Unmanned
Aerial
Vehicle Systems
Market Profile and Forecast
2008 Edition

Steven J. Zaloga, Senior Analyst - Missiles & UAVs
(410) 676-7698
email: s.zaloga1@comcast.net

Dr. David Rockwell, Senior Analyst - Military Electronics
(703) 385-1992 ext. 106
email: drockwell@tealgroup.com

Philip Finnegan, Senior Analyst - Defense & Aerospace Companies
(703) 385-1992 ext. 105
email: pfinnegan@tealgroup.com

homepage: www.tealgroup.com

Main Office
3900 University Dr.
Suite 220
Fairfax, VA 22030
(703) 385-1992
(703) 691-9591 fax
Sales Offices:
Eastern Region
Doug Cornell
P.O. Box 3029
Falls Church, VA 22043
(703) 573-5374
dcornell@tealgroup.com
Mid Western Region
David Conklin
8031 Buckland Dr. Briefing Book Series
Cincinnati, OH 45249
(513) 247-9350 Defense & Aerospace Agencies Briefing
dgconklin@aol.com Defense & Aerospace Companies Briefing
International Defense Briefing
Western Region
Pravin Parmar Military Electronics Briefing
2618 E. First St. World Missiles & UAVs Briefing
Long Beach, CA 90803 World Military & Civil Aircraft Briefing
(562) 434-7159 World Power Systems Briefing (Aero)
pravparmar@aol.com
World Power Systems Briefing (I&M)
Europe World Space Systems Briefing
Monika Cornell
P.O. Box 3029 Weekly Newsletter
Falls Church, VA 22043 Defense Business Briefing
(703) 573-0559
mcornell@tealgroup.com
Sector Studies
World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems
World Space Mission Model

© Teal Group Corporation
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Table of Contents
Executive Overview
The Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
World UAV Expenditures Forecast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
UAV Unit Production Forecast by Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
UAV Unit Production Forecast by Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Study Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Forecast Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Forecast Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Assessing the UAV Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Civil UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
The Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Regional Acquisition Forecast Summary by UAV Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Middle East . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Asia-Pacific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
The Americas (less USA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Americas/Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
UAV Regional Production Forecast Summary by UAV Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Mini-UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Tactical UAVs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Naval UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
MALE UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
HALE UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
UCAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Civil UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

The US Market
Market Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
DOD UAV Funding History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
US UAV Budget Forecast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
US Production Forecast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
US Procurement Expenditure by Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Program Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
RQ-1/MQ-9 Predator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
RQ-4A Global Hawk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
RQ-7A Tactical UAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
US Army Future UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
US Navy UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
US Marine Corps Tactical UAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
US Micro-/Mini-UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
UCAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
US Coast Guard UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
US Civil UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

European UAV Market
Market Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Current European Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Civil UAV Development in Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Country Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Belgium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Croatia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Denmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

page ii Table of Contents

European Union/NATO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Finland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Romania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Serbia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Spain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Switzerland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Rest of the World UAV Market
Market Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Middle East . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Bahrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Iran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Jordan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Kuwait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Qatar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Saudi Arabia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
United Arab Emirates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Algeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Angola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Botswana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Ivory Coast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Libya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Morocco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Asia-Pacific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Korea (ROK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Singapore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Sri Lanka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Taiwan (ROC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
The Americas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Argentina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 The Demand for ISR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Sensor Payloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Navy BAMS E-O/IR Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Mini-UAV E-O/IR Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 US UAV E-O/IR Procurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Endurance UAV E-O/IR Sensors . . . 161 RQ-11 Raven ThermoVision Micron IR Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 US Mini-UAV E-O/IR Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 US Air Force/Navy UCAV E-O/IR Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Predator RAPTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents page iii Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 International UAV E-O/IR Sensor Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Tactical UAV E-O/IR Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 FCS Class I MAV E-O Sensors (DRS) . . . . . . . . . . 155 US Commercial UAV E-O/IR Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Global Hawk SPIRITT & USAF Hyperspectral Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 The UAV Market. . . . . 137 Reality Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Nano Air Vehicle (NAV) E-O Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 International UAV E-O/IR Procurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 US Army MQ-8B FCS Class 4A (Fire Scout) E-O/IR Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Sensors Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Predator AN/AAS-52(V) MTS-A/B (Multi-Spectral Targeting System) . . . . . . 139 Global Hawk SYERS (Senior Year E-O Reconnaissance System) . . . . . . 156 US Army Shadow 200 TUAV E-O/IR Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Coast Guard Deepwater Endurance UAV E-O/IR Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Persistent Surveillance and Endurance UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Market Overview . . . . . . . . . . 138 Funding Forecast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 US Army Hunter Raven Eye II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 USCG Bell Eagle Eye Star SAFIRE III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Global Hawk Basic and Enhanced Integrated Sensor Suite . . . . . . 147 [Predator] Imaging Laser Radar Development Contract . . 148 Army RQ-1C Warrior ER/MP E-O/IR Sensor . . . . . . . . . 166 French E-O/IR Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . 150 UCAV E-O/IR Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . . 162 Pointer and Exdrone ThermoVision Micron IR Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 USAF FINDER UAV E-O/IR Sensors . . 149 SensorCraft ISR UAV E-O/IR Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 USMC RQ-2A Pioneer POP 200 . 165 Israeli E-O/IR Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 US Navy UCAS-D E-O/IR Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 US UAV E-O/IR RDT&E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Marine Corps Dragon Eye ThermoVision Micron IR Sensor . 138 US Airborne Hyperspectral E-O/IR Technology RDT&E+Procurement (also for non-UAVs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Micro-Air Vehicle (MAV) E-O/IR Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Marine Corps ScanEagle Photon IR Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 US Army A160 Hummingbird FCS Class II UAV ARGUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Air Force Desert Hawk (was Sentry Owl) E-O Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 US Civil Endurance UAV E-O/IR Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 US Navy MQ-8B Fire Scout BRITE Star II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 US Marine Corps Shadow 200 MCTUAS E-O/IR Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Penetrating High Altitude Endurance (PHARE) UAV E-O/IR Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 The Market Upside . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 AWARDS (All-Weather Airborne Reconnaissance Drone Sensor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 SWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 The SAR Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 SeaVue SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page iv Table of Contents German E-O/IR Programs . . . . . 201 MicroSAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Recent SAR Solicitations and RDT&E Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Synthetic Aperture Radars Market Overview . . . . . 182 Market Shares . . . . . . 203 Mini-SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 EL/M-2022U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Airborne UAV-Specific Solicitations and Contracts. . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 MiSAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 SIGINT: The New EW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 South African E-O/IR Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Coast Guard Deepwater Endurance UAV ISAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 EL/M-2055 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Persistence Pays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Army Future Combat System (FCS) A160 FORESTER FOPEN SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 QuaSAR . . . . . . . . . 201 EuroHawk SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 UAV E-O/IR Market Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Army Shadow 200 TUAV SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 I-Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 MiniSAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Warrior ER/MP Lynx II SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 US Navy UCAS-D Radars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Bell Eagle Eye RDR 1700 MMR . . . . . . . . 183 Global Hawk MP-RTIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 MQ-8B Fire Scout Lynx II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Predator TESAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Global Hawk AGS/MP-RTIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 US Markets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 CARABAS (Coherent All Radio Band Sensing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Penetrating High Altitude Endurance (PHARE) UAV SAR. . . . 185 Global Hawk HISAR. 182 Endurance UAV SARs. . . . . . . . . . 202 PicoSAR . . 167 LASH & EPAS & AURORA & Navy & Army Hyperspectral Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Tactical UAV Programs . . . . . . . . . 196 Vulture SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 SensorCraft ISR UAV SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 E-O/IR Technology Program Solicitations and Contracts . . . 167 Technology Development Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Changing Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 International UAV SAR Programs . . . 197 UCAV Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 SAR Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Navy BAMS ISAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 SIGINT & Electronic Warfare Systems Market Overview . . . . . . . . . . . 200 USMC Dragon Warrior MiniSAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Predator B Lynx SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 US Civil UAV SARs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 221 Skyfix COMINT/DF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 US Air Force/Navy UCAV Electronic Warfare Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Global Hawk Hyperwide COMINT . 240 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 C4I (Networking) . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Lightweight Modular Support Jammer (LMSJ) (USAF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 EPLRS & SADL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Chemical & Biological Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 US Navy Tactical Data Links (TDL)/Link-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 New Technology Developments . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Airborne Signals Intelligence Program (ASIP) & High Band System (HBS) & Low Band System (LBS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Funding Forecast. . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Data Link Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Data Fusion . . . 225 USAF Tactical Data Links (TDL)/Link-16 . 221 C4I Systems Market Overview . . . . . 211 LR-100 RWR/ESM/ELINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Funding Forecast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents page v International Markets . . . . 220 Top Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 FCS Class III & IV ESM Warning Systems (Army). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Tactical Common Data Link-Network (TCDL-N). . . . . 219 International UAV EW & SIGINT Programs . . . . . . . . 215 Tactical SIGINT Payload (TSP) (US Army). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 CEC (Cooperative Engagement Capability) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Recent EW Solicitations and RDT&E Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 CBRN Sensors Market Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 US Army Tactical Data Links (TDL)/Link-16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Tactical UAV EW & SIGINT Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Dragonfly COMINT (USN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Common Data Link (CDL) & Tactical Common Data Link (TCDL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Global Hawk Electronic Warfare Systems . . . . . . . . . . 225 JTIDS and MIDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 US Marine Corps Electronic Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Skyfix SIGINT Suite . 219 UK Watchkeeper SIGINT: Soothsayer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Teal Group Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Endurance UAV EW & SIGINT Programs . . . . . . 216 Adaptive Joint C4ISR Node (AJCN) (USAF & US Army) . . 224 Funding Forecast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 US Navy UCAS-D SIGINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 System Type Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 EuroHawk ISIS SIGINT System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Communications Data Link System (CDLS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Predator SIGINT (USAF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 EL/K-7071 COMINT/DF & EL/L-8385 ESM/ELINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Improved Data Modem (IDM) . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Smart Tanker/ROBE (Link-16/Satellite). . 220 TRC 274 & TRC 6200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Battlefield Helicopter Emulator (BHE) (DARPA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Tactical Control System (TCS) & UAV Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Networking and Data Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 UCAV EW & SIGINT Programs .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 AeroVironment Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Aurora Flight Sciences . . . . . . . . . 259 EMT Ingenieurgesellschaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Counter Terrorism CBRN BAA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 UAV Manufacturers Overview AAI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Honeywell Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 JBPDS Biological Detection Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Handheld Bio Aerosol Detection Solicitation . . . . . . . . 240 IPDS Systems for Navy Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Alternative Nuclear Detection Technologies Sought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 CBRNE Non-Intrusive Detection Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Joint Material Decontamination System Solicitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Chemical Alarm/Detector Contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Radiological Collection UGV . . . . . . 257 Elbit Systems Ltd. . . 247 CBRN Unmanned Ground Reconnaissance (CUGR) . . 244 JBPDS Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 European Aeronautic Defense and Space Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 $1 Billion for Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Closure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 CUGR MARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 CBRN Services Contract. . . . . . . 244 Chemical Agent Alarm Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Biological Assessment Mobile Laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 248 CBRN Detection & Remediation Contract. . . . 242 FY06 Chemical/Biological Initiative Solicitation . 243 TACTIC Solicitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Northrop Grumman Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Fox NBC Vehicle Contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 FLIR GasFindIR Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Chem/Bio Solicitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Nuclear Radiation Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 ScanEagle UAV Biological Agent Detection Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Bright Onyx UAV Chemical Sensor Contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Combating Terrorism Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 J-UCAS Revolutionary Technologies Solicitation. . . . . . . . . 256 The Boeing Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Fox NBC Recon Vehicle Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Battele Gets $500 Million for DHS Biodefense Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Joint Biological Point Detection System Contract to GD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Biological Agent ID Contract . . . . . . . . . 240 ACTD Selections. .page vi Table of Contents TACTIC: Aerosol/Vapor Cloud Detection and Countermeasures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 JBAIDS Toxin Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Kaman Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 CBRN Medical Science Solicitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Lockheed Martin Corp. . . . . . . . . 261 General Atomics. . . . . . (EADS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 General Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Insitu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Radioactive Liquid ID System Contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Radiological & Nuclear Countermeasure System Architectures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Radiological & Nuclear Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 ScanEagle Chem-Bio Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Safran . 272 Swift Engineering Inc. . 273 Textron Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents page vii Proxy Aviation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Thales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Appendix US DoD UAV Prime Contracts . . . . . . . . 273 Teledyne Technologies Inc. . . . . . . 277 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

page viii Table of Contents World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation .

. . . . 34. . . 264-266. . . . . . 103 Adaptive Joint C4ISR Node . . . . 150-151. . . . . . . . . 235 Austria . 214 Brazil . . . . . 156 274-275 Bigua. . 72. . . 184-187. . . . Altus . 170. 58. 62-63. 177. 2. . 262 APY-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63. 102. 195 Boeing 7. . . . . 181. . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116. . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . 235. 275 BAMS 19. . . 235. . . . . . 49-51. 141. . . . 258-259. 111-112. . . . 264 132-134. . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148. . 270 145. . . . . . . . . 132 Aquila . . 145. . . . . . . . . . . . 236. . . . . . . . Aurora Flight Sciences . . . . . . 234 Argentina . . 139. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6. . . . . 186. . . . 35. . . . . . . . . . 214. 78-79. . . 270 China . . . . . . . 102. . . 168. . 271 ASIP . . 65. 198 Bright Onyx . . . 192. . . . . . . . . 223-224. . . . 194. . . . . . 220. 223-225. . . . . 116. . . . . 40. . 140. 102. . . . . . . 149. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46-49. 76-77. Class 4 UAV. 240. 234 Aerosonde 38. 160-161. . 78 246 Aladin . 127. . . . . . 51. . . . 8. . . . . . 30. . . . . 148. . . . . . . 182. . . . . . . . 124 AAI . . . . . . . . 74. 166 198-200. . . . . 147. . . . . 95. . . 57-58. . . 215 Banshee . . 182. 47. 76. . . . 260. . . . . . . . . 32. . . . . . . 221. . . 166. . . . . . . 54. . . . . 102. . . . . 102. 66-67. . . . . 265 CEC . . . . . 65. . 263. 112 CL-289 . . . . . 79. . . 6. . 232. 116. . . 75. . 6. . 160-161. . . . . . . 92. 3. . 115-118. . . . 33 Class 2 UAV. . 38. 131 CONOPS . . 127-129. . . . 167-169. . . . 164. 32. 63. . . . 59-60. 132. 42. . . . . . . Aerostar . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 COMINT 189. . . . . . . 71-73. 34-35. . . . . 71 157-159. . . . . 113 AN/ALE-50 . . . 157-158 Asia-Pacific. . . . . . 203 C Ababil . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . 58. 72. Coast Guard UAV . . . . 152. . . . . . . . . . . 194. . . . 11 BQM-147. . . . . . 114 CL-89 . . 19. . 58. . . . 140. . . 269 123-124. . . . 109. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146. 6. 187-188 Broad Area Maritime Surveillance System . . . . 192-194. . . 129. . . . Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-28. . . . . . . . 34-35. 215-218. . . . . 79. . 34 BAE Systems . . . . BQM-155 . . 39. . . 167. . . . . 106. . . . . . . . . CBRN Sensors . . . 44. . . . . . 225. 93. . . 81 AeroVironment . . . . . . . 275 124. . . . . 77. 21. 189. 182. . 182. . . . . . . . 21. . . . . 41. . . . . . . . 191. . . . . . 154. . . . . . Belgium . 60 AURORA . . . . . 200-201 Beejoe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AN/AAS-44 . . 23. 234. . . . 242 ASARS-2 . . . . . . . . . 125. . . 161. . 105. . . 58. . . . . . 57. 96. . . . . . . . . 275 AN/AAS-52. 59. . . AGS. . 212. 95. . . . . . . 145-147. . . . . . . . 198-199 B Class 1 UAV. . 260 CIRA . . . . 95-97. . . . . 223-225. . . . . . . . . . . . 148. 195 Botswana . 244-245. . 20. . . . 72. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. 144. . . . . . 30-31. 149. . . . 102. . . . . 167-169 AWARDS . . 36-37. . . . . . . . . . 211-212. . . . . . . 96. . . . 111. 162. 109. . . 124 AAS-52 . . . . . . 165. 79 AAS-44 . 129. 23-24. . . . . . . . . . . . . 87. . 143-144. . 150-151. . . . . . . . . 252. . . 60. . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . 57. . . . . 145. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272. . 205. . . . . . . 158 232-234 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . . . . 90 202. . . . . . 200-201. . 172. Australia . . . . 143. 115 Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77. . . 183-184. 98-99. . . 83. . . . . 219-221. 78-79. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. 255-256. . . . . . . . . 11 212-213. . . 6. . . . 34 118. . . . . . Agilucho . . 86. . . 63. 62-63. . . . . . . . 163 Common Data Link. . . . . . . . 49 125. . . . 257. . . 132 Brevel . . . 48. . . 147. . 14-17. . 187 CATRIN . . 28. . . . . . . . . Bell Textron . . . . . 63-64. . . 234 Army Future Combat System. . . 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 252. . . . . . . 67. . . . 200 Camcopter . . . 229-232. . . 72. . . . . . . . 251-253. 10. . . . . . . . . . 255-259. . . . . . 196. . . . . . . 19-20. . . . . . . . . . . 238. 67. 79. . 118 Bahrain . 28. 131. . . 145-147. . .Index A BQM-34 . 11. . . 108. . . . 79 Algeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258. . . . . . . . . . 102. . . 28. 42-46. . . . 265-271. . 182. . . 101. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195. . . . . 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192-195. . . . . . 79. . . . 145. . . . . . 155. . . 270. . 177. . 190. . . 106. . . . . . . 81-82. . . . . . 112. . . . . . . . . . . 58. . . 253. . . . . . . . 254-256 CDL-N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115-118. . 256. . . . . . Class 3 UAV. . . . . 160. . . . 102. . . . . . 43. . . . . 21. 239. . 126. 101. . BAI Aerosystems . . . . . . . . . . 205-207. . . 215-217. . . . . . 85. 31-32. ALE-50 . . 5. . 263-264. 26-31. 273. 132 AN/USD-502 . . . . . . 156. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92. . 269 Commercial Leasing . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58. . . 102 A-45 . . . . . 2. . . . 252-253. . 138. . . . 127 A160 . . . . . 263. . . . . 169. . . . . 30-31. . . . . . 33-34. . . . . . 166. 259. . . . . . 53. . . . . Coast Guard 8-14. . 144-146. 12. . . . . . 263. . . 108. . . . . . 217-218 CARABAS. . . . . 111 Civil UAV . . . 198. . . . . 52. . . 62-63. . . . . . 107-109. . . . . 174. . . . . . . . . 49-51. Commercial Applications. . . . 116. . . 33-41. . 28. . . . . 166 Bijo . . . . 193. . . . . . . . . . . 106. . 11-13. 80. 242. . . . . 134 255. . . . 118-120. . . 68-69. 265-267. . 131. . . . . 168. . . . 117. 37-39. . . . . . . . . 266. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97. . . . . . 166 252-253. 239-250 83. . 34 185-186. . 272. . 210-215 Bulgaria. 214 189-191. . . . . . . 203 Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar System. . . . . . . 6. 227. . 262 Angola . . 189-191. . 189-190. . . . . 209-212.

272 Finland. 60. . . . . 70. . 44. . 261-262. 43. . 274 FLIR Systems . 243. . 274 209-210. . . . . 230. 62-65. . 150. 268 Fire Scout . . . . 21. 163 Data Fusion . . 261 Czech Republic . 84 178-179. . . . . . 181-191. 190-195. 262. . . . . 165-166. 154-155. 24. 185-186. 72. . 229. . 194. . 115-116. . 132-133. 58. . 133. 172. 202. 270 225. . . 127. 235. 24. . . 32-33. 90. . . 252 FOAS . . 33. 212. . 165. . 247. 57-58. . . . 110-111. . 75. 275 81-82. . . . . . . . . . 266 148. . . 62-63. 111. . . . . . . . 274-276 Elbit 27. 205. . 230. . . 248 E Fox-T. . . . . . . . . 74-77. 80. . 10. . . . . . . . 191. . 12. . . . . . 67. . 221 Future Combat System 24. . 159-160. . . . . . 122. 11. . . . . 201-203. 67. . . . . DARPA . . . . 238. . . . 273 175-177. . . 83. . . . . 226-228. . 255 173. 105. 66. 49-51. . . 220. . 200. . 198. 79 Desert Hawk. 264. 53. 46-48. 58. EADS . . 270. . . . . . . . 168. World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . 67. . . 49-50. 255. . . . . . . . . . . 217-218. . 220-221. 161-164. . . . 5. 33-36. 30. . 92. . 123. 26-28. 270. . . . . 172. . 71-72. 5. 197. 192. . . . 66-72. . 76-77. 196. . . . . . . . . 7. 197. 129. 96. . . 194. . . . . 261. 127. . . . . . 268. . 182. 61-62 Exdrone. . 19. 8-10. 155-158. 275 166-167. 243. . 161. . . . . 20. . . . 85-86. 30. 252. . . . . . . 272. 270-272. . 122-123 EL/L-8385 . 33-36. . . 67. 38. . . . . 52. . . 223. . 44. . 89. . . . . 152-156. 58. . . . . 32-33. . . . 62. 210-214. . 158. 70. . 201 215-216. . . . . 255. . . 270. . 71-72. 10. . . . 78 Epervier. . 270. 238. . 70-72. . . . . 225. . . 145. . 256. . . . . . . Eagle 2 . . . . . . . . Eagle 1 . . . . 24. . . 35. . Croatia . . . 113. 232. 132-133. . 252. . . 79. . . . . . . . . 91. . . 266-267. . 35-36. 41-43. . . . EL/M-2055 . 80. 21. . 81. Dragon Eye . 120. 98. . . 155. . . . . 219. . . . 75-77. . 42. . 262 Cormorant . 271. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. Eagle Eye . . . . . . . 171. 256. . . . . . . . . . . 92-93. . Deepwater 9. . . . 171. . . . 154. . . . . 39. . . . . 145. 198. 42. . . . . . . 75. . . . 28. 74. 238 FURI . 42-43. . . . . . 189. 21. . 164. . . 126. 216. . . . . 272. . . . . 127. . . . 252-253. . . . . 75-77. . . 170. 254 129. 62. . . 173. 201. 129. . . . 192. . . . . . 251. . 261-262. . 117. . . . . . 271-272 125. 66-68. . . . . . . . . . . 101-103. 263. . 234-236. . . . . . 65-66. 215-216. 38-39. . . . 269. . . . 90. 150-151. . . 252. . . . 122-124 235-237. . 144-146. 155-156. 32. 67. . . 273-274 ELINT. . 62-67. . . . . . . 274 FCS. . . 154-155. . . Global Hawk 4-6. . 266. . . 253. 68. . . 116. . 78. . . 81. . . . . . . . . 264. 19-21. 42-45. 266 58. . . . 76-77. . . . 118 Fox NBC Vehicle . . 150-151. . 218. . . 178. . . . 164. 44. . . . . 103-107. . .page x Index Condor . 57-58. . . . . . 239-240. 275-276 275-276 EL/K-7071. . . 261. 36-38. . . 35-39. . . . . 229 194-195. . . . . 252 Firebee . . . . 111. . . 272-273. 58. . . . . 97. 62-63. . . . 121. 28. . . . . 241 DP-5X . . . . . . . . . 175-177. . . 260-262. . . 247. 97-98 Daewoo . . 148. . . . 129. 201-202. . 177-179. . . . 160-161. . . . . . . . . . 185-186. 195. . . 223. . . . . . . 23. . 26-31. . . . 252. . 148. . . . . . 268. 268 EuroMALE. . 12. . . . 6-7. 52-53. 92. 116. 150. . . . . . 38-39. . . . 110. . . . 177. . . . 259. 19. . . 67-68. . . . . . . . . . 230. . . 72. . . . . 82. 198-200. . . 172. . . . 167 275 Filin . . . . . . . 164-165. 170. . 62-63. . . . . . . 106. . . . . 97. . . . . . . . 147. . . . . . 266. . . . . . 220. . . 75. 58. . . 102. 219. . . . 154. . . 205. . . . . . 152-153. . 182. . 174. 109. . . 85 Denmark . . 81-82. FFOS . . 4. 117-119. 27. . . . 260-261 G EPAS . 42. 53. 66. . . . . . 256 General Atomics 10. . . . 81. 87. . . . . Future Combat Systems 24. 41. . . 154. . . . . . . . EL/M-2022U . . 177. . . . 81. 156. . . . 271. FAA . . . . . . . . 50. . 39. . . 60-61 261-262 Crécerelle 3. . . 28. . . 237. . 49-51. . . . 167 European Union . . . . 124-125 FQM-151 . . . . 133-134. 12. . . . 80. . . . 41. 64. 164-165. 201. 63-64. . . . . . . . . . 101. 67. 21. . 219-221 EMT . 185-186. . . . . 93. 167-169 ER/MP. 133-134. 271. 50-53. . Egypt . . . . . . 98. . 146. 116-117. . . 12. . . 257. 182. . 192. 125. . . . 75-76. 214. . 145. . . . . . . 44. . . . 89. 31. . . 196. . 219. 270. 30. . . . . . 210. . . 138-147. 230 EuroHawk . . 153. 182. . . . 205. . . 182. . 238. . . 266. . 160-161. . . . . 202. 204 173-174. . . . 252. 207. . . . 160. 118. . . 49-50. Germany . . 255. . 253. . 147. 252. . 70. 200-201. . . . . . 219. . 157. . . 259-260. 5. 174. . . . . . . . . . . 148. 76-77. 191. . DBR-1 . . 217-218. . 75-77. . . . 127. 154-155. 57-58. . . . . . 207. . . . . 219. 118 Data Links. . 105. 33-37. 71-72. . . . 225. 203-204 260. 89-90. . . . . . . . 239-240. . . . . . . . . 133. . 54 235-237. . 138. . 237. . . . . . 157-158. . . . 162-163 D F DAR . . . 236. . . 156. . 200-201. 236 Falco. . . . 105. 95-96. Dragon Warrior . . . GPS . . . 216. . . . . . . 261-262. . . 55. . . 201. . . . . . 65. . . . . FBI. 198. . 96. 42. 77. 21. 46-48. . 83. . . 161-163. 116 France 7. . . 60 Cooperative Engagement Capability . . . 185. 148-149. . . 59. 72. 268-271 Dragonfly . . . . . . . 159. . . . . . . . 79. 221 Fuji . . 272. . . .

. . . . 103. . . . . . 24. . . 86 233-234. 189-191. . 109. . . 260 232-234. . 42. 267. . 215. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101. . . 37-38. . . . . . . . 263 166. . . . 106. . . . . . . . . . 130. . 90. . 120-121. . . 206. . 139-142. . 144. . 271 L-3 WESCAM . 87. . . . . 31. . . 24. . 257. 91-93. . . . 31. . 266-267. . . . 178. . 101-109. . . . . . . 211-212 185. . 93-94. . . . . . . . 6. . 49-50. . . . . . 182. . 127-128. . 213. . 127. 72-73. 7. 36. . . . . . . 105-106. . 273 Latin America. . . 101. . 200. . . . . . 167. . . 271 H Italy . . . . . Hunter . . . . 35. . . 37. 63-64. . . . . . . 24. . . 157-159. . . . . . . 83. . 4. . . 160. . 26-27. . . . . . . . . 145. . . . . . . . . 26. . . . 275 Japan 1. . 53 JBPDS . . . . . . . . 148. . 269 204. 234. . 80. . . 259-260. . . . . . . . . . . 267-269. . . . . . . . . . 258 Hungary . 108-109. 194. . . 148. 270-271 I Korean Aerospace . 219 Libya . . . . 31. . . . 270 HAE-UAV. 260-262. . . . . . . . . . 108. 159. . . . . Global Observer . 260 JTIDS . . . . 187-188 271 HV-911 . 12-14. 203-204. 252-253. . . . . . . 258. . . . . . 158. 147. 182. 144. . . . . . . . . . . 71. . 232 LASH . . . . . 75-76. . 177. . . . . . . . . 123-127. . . 8. . 20. . . 36. . 36. . . 221. . . . . 252. 189. . . . 74. Integrated Sensor Suite . . . . . 140. . . . . . . 112. . . . . . 274 130-131. . . 139-141. . 134. . . . . 112 164-166. 270. . . 121 JBAIDS . . 252-253. . . . . 90. . 169. . . . . . 235. 266. 266-267. . 110. . . 103-109. 216 India. . 255. . . . . . . . . 185-186. . . 82. . . 201. 145. 166. 67. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . 28. . . . HISAR . 137. . Irkut . . 117. . . . . . . . . . Littoral Airborne Sensor/Hyperspectral. . . 263. 23. 253. 114-115. . 157. . . . . 108. . . 194. . . . . . . . . 154. . . 108-109. . . 204. . . 254-255 191-192. . . . . . . 260-261. . . 193-194 259-262. 109. . . . . . 238. 116. 128. . . . 150-151. . 12. . 10-12. . . 271 Kentron . . Joint Tactical UAV . . . 51-52. . . . 113 HALE 2. 110 IAI 6. . 262. . 53. . . . . . . 191-192. . . . . . 146-147. . . 61. . . 79. 99. 26-27. 60. . . . 266. . . . . 65. 269. 256. . . . 148. 93. 127 ISURSS. . 156-159. . . . 147. . . . 166. . 138-139. . 127. . . . 102. . . . . . 77-78. . . . 78. . . 122-124. 96. . . . 71-72. 269. . . . 38. . 21. . 256-257. 178-179. . 211 52. . . . . 220. . . 85-86 Israel Aerospace Industries . . . 86. . . . . 216-217 142-144. . 64. . 28. 104-105. . 151. . 83 KZO . . . . . . . 265. . . 264 K Hummingbird . . . 89. 265. . 35. . . . . . . 88. 252. 154. . 124-126. . 116. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129. 114-115. . . 148. . 98. 53. 9-10. 37. 147. . . . . . 223-226. 127. 26-27. . 204. . . . 204. . 88. 38. 111. . 203-204. . . . . . 236-237. 156. . . 165. Gnat . 48-49. 127. Jordan . . . 67. 272. . 85. . . . . . . . . . . 234-235 J-UCAS 21. . . . . . . . 148. . 196. 120. . 109-110 260-262. 35. . . . . . . 59. 117-118. 58. . 66-67. . 269. . . Iran . . 271 GrANT . 228-230 Hermes 450 . 106. 134 ISS . . 260. . . . . . . 63-64. . 258-259. 38-39. 98. 199. . 241 Helios . . . . . 30 Ivory Coast. . . . . . 220-221. . . . . . . . . . 102. 106. 270 Heron . . . . 96-97. . . 263. 225. 69. . . . . . 270 Insitu . 147. . . 224. . 71. 167-169 ISR. 202. . 108-109. 244 Hermes 1500. . 259. . . 214-218. . . . . 109. 255. . . . 67. 68. . 19. . . 30. . . 58. . . . . 103. . . . 177. . . . 146-147. 156 J/AQM-1 . . 266. 139-140. . . Lark . 86 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . . . . 133. 230-231. 87 I-View . . 92-93. 220-221. . . . . 215. . . . . . . . 67. . . . . . . . 120-122. . . . . Hermes 750. . . 187-188. . . . . . . . . . . . 121-122 Littoral Combat Ship . . . . . . 147. . 78. . . 44. . 240-242. . . . . . 247. . . . . 194. 266. 41. . . . . . . 24. . . . 259-260. 101. . . . . 116. . 76. . . 215. 224. . . . . . . 84. . 120 Korea. 146. . . . . . . . . . . . 36-38. . 105. . . . 148. . . . 152. . . . 16. . . 215. . . 144-145. . . 41. 271. . 1. 134. 158-160. 43 Lightweight Modular Support Jammer . . . . 45. 67. 272 Israel Aircraft Industries . 269-271. . . . . . . 232. 67. . 275 Lockheed Martin 24. 154. . . . 124. . . . . . . 253. 108. . 101. . . . 153. 153. . 120-122. . . Luch . 238. . . 78-79. . . . . 116. . . . . . . . . 70. . 78. . 58. . . . . . Israel 3. . . . . . . 275 169 Indonesia . . . . . 76. . 255. . 113. . . 147-148. 124-125 Korshun . 46-48. . . 259-260. . 40. . . 165-167. . 273. . . . . 255. . . 255-257. . Kaman. . 122 Harpy . . . 149. . . . . . . 150. . . . 40. 114. 252. . . . . . 101. 39. 193 IMI . 194. . 273-274 105. . 147. 105 263. . . . 42. . 6. 19. 266-267 Kuwait . . . . . . 153. 178. . . 189-191. . . 221. . 54. . 110. . . . . . . 167. JUSTAS . 1. . . . . . . 252-253. . 274 60-61. . . . . 217. . 133. . . 149. . 133-134. 78. . . LR-100 . 67. . . . .Index page xi 219. 112-116. . . . 116-117. 81. . . . . . 266-267. . . . . . . LMSJ . . . 261. . . . . . . . . 271 Honeywell 33-34. . 266 Greece . . . . . 105-106. . . . . . 153. 6. 118. . 196. . 238. . 130-131. 262-263. . . . . . 191. . 104. 164. . . J 115. 95-96. . 34. L 165-166. 76. 35. . . 158 120-121. . . . . . . . . . . . . 115.

. . . . . . 15-17. . . 140. 63. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102. . 69. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61-64. . 103-105 Pegasus . . . . . . . . . 120-121. . . . . . M 203. . . . . . . 157-158 Norway . . . 235 O MQ-2 . 78-81 Predator 4-7. . . . . 203 Philippines. . . MCMM . 145-147. . . . . 58. . . . . . . 12. . . 177. . Mirach 26 . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . Middle East . . . . 192-193. . 96-98. . . . 140. . . 45. . . . . . . . 99. . . . . . Northrop Grumman. . . . . . . . . . 196-201. . 139-140. 153. . . . . . 20-21. .page xii Index Luna . . . . . . . . . . . 171. . 71-72. . . . . . . . . . . 107. . . . . 128 Micro UAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248-249 MP-RTIP . . . . . . . . . . PW-1 . 6. . . . 160. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145. . . . . . . . 232. . . . . 139. . . . . . . . . . . . . . MAVUS . . . . . . . . 207. . . 10. . . 3. . . 6. . . . 125. . . . . . 177. . . . . . . . 66-67. 255. . . 181. . . . N 214. . 125. . . 67-68. 132 Mini UAV . . . . 80 204-205. . . 30. . . 80. . . . . . . . . 266 159. . . 127. . . . 153. . . . . 96. 215 Nano Air Vehicle . . . . 124-126. . . . . . . . . . . 140. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79. . . . 78 OAV . . . . . . 197. . . 82. . . . . . . 50. . . 251-252 Midge. . . . . . . 194. . . 264 Malakhit. . . . . 52 MQ-9 4. . 210-213. . 39 Pchela . . . . Morocco . 265. . . . . . . 122. 133. . . 42-43. . . . . . . . 108-109. . 261. . . . . 96-98. . . . 97. 210. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Organic Air Vehicle. . 54. . . . . . 243. . 102. 75-76. . 133-134. . . . 262-263. 64 Malat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257. 97. . 87. . . . . . . 164. . . . 238. 106. . . . 45. . 67. 113. . . . 113-114 65-68. . . Moshkara. . . . . . . . . 7-8. . . 5-6. 23. . . . . . . . 273-275 260. . . . . 46-50. . . . 77. 34. . . 80. . 174. . . . . 83 Mirach . . . . . . . . . 235. . . . . 34-35. . . 29-31. 12-14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-39. . . . . . . . . . 12. 178-179. . . 165 Netherlands 58. . . 24-28. . 145 Predator B . . . 113 210-211. . . 20-21. 147-148. 184-187. . . . . . 20. 261-263. 23-28. 57-58. 72. . . 57. . 228-231. . . 271 132-133. 117. . . . . 78 Pointer . . . . 89-90. . . 197 157-158. 221. . . . . . 31-32. . . . 167. . . 245-246. . . . . . 95. 29. . . . . . . 227. . . . 215. MALP . . . . . . . . . 30. 177-178. 144-148. . . . . . 253. . . . . . . . . . . . . 58. . . . 117. 170. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138. . 31-33. . . . 132 Piver . . . 270 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . . . . . . . . 224. 203. . 218. . 82. 120-121. . 90. . . . . 145-147. . . . . . . . . . . 87 MTS-A/B . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232. . . . . . . . . Proxy Aviation Systems. . . . . . . . . . . 134-135. 79 MQ-4 . . . . . . . 218. . 263. . . . . . . . . . . 258. . . . . . 36. . 148-157. . . . 199-201 Portugal. . . . . . 89. 147. 124 102-103. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181-187. 23-28. . . . 263 Marine Corps Tactical UAV . . 189-192. 270 MQ-1 . . . . . . . 116. . . . . . . . . 142 161. 106. . . . . . . . . 117. . . . . . . . 75. . . . . . . . . . . 68. . . . . . . 58. Mirach 150 . . . . . . . . . . . . 93-94. . 259 P Malaysia . . . 68. . . . . . . . . . . 101-102. . . 159 Pelican . . 161-163. . . 192-194. . . . . . . . . 85 Mastiff . . . 77. 66. . . . . . . 46. . . . . . . . 252 MQM-105 . . . . . . . 52. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192-195. . . . . 234. . 95-96. . 186. . . 150. . . . . . . 182. 130. . . . . . . . . PHARE . . . . . 78-81 166. . . . 182. . . . . . . 131-134. . . . 263 NATO . . . . . 85 Lynx SAR . . 116. . . 204. . . . . . . 229 Micro-bat . . . . . . . . . . . . 232. . 78-79 117. . . . 65-67 273-274 MCTUAS . 145. 265-271. . . . . . 6. . . . 144-147. . . . . 13. . . 85-86 252-253. . . . 119 228. . . . 238. . . . . . . . 181-187. . . . . . . . 24-27. . Night Intruder . . . . . . . 251-253. . . . . . . 270 Nuclear . 239. 85 Outrider . . . 138-139. 155. 234. 235 One Station . . . . . 81-82. . . . . . 121. 252 MiniSAR . . . . . . . . . . 76-77. 63. . . . . . . 93. 202. 133 235. 251-254. . . . . . . . . 271-272 Multi-Spectral Targeting System . . . . . . . 127. . . . . 260-261. 146. . . . 133. . . . . . . 163 Mini-SAR. . . . . . . 270. . . . 58-59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93. 50. . . 45. 6. . . . . 74-77. . Pakistan . . . . . . . . 118. . . . . . . . . . 199. 78 MiSAR. 19-21. . 271 Predator C . 31-32. . . . . . . . 37-42. . 271 Mexico . . . . . . 44 Pioneer . 226. . 97. . . . . . 204. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Orel . . . 213-215. 3. . . . . . . . 26-27. . . . . . 127-128. Puma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58. . . . . . . . 74. . 177-178. . . 223-226. . . . 49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81-82. . . . . 170. . . 31. . . 167 MALE. 91. . . . 23. 234. . . 141. . . . 40-41. . . 109-112. . . . . . 224. 16. 254-255 252. . 78-79 52-54. . . . . . . . . 203 Poland. 101. . 79-83. . . . . 150. . . . . . 111. . . . . . . . . . . . 182. . . 214. 190. 182. . . . 2-4. . 101. . . 81. Mirach 20 . . . 256-260. . . . . . . . . . . . 103-104. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Marine Corps . . 67. . . . . 266. . 33-37. . . . 238 MIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147. . 39-41. 78. . . 272-273 Nibbio. . 6. . . . 7. 227. . . . . . . . 263. . . . . 234-235. . . . . . . 82-83. . . . 260 NII Kulon . 5. . . 190-195. . . . 186. . 58-59. . . 88-91. . 68. . . . 161. . . . 270-271 NATO AGS . . . . . . . 213. . 185-186. 75-81. . Nigeria . . . . . 30-31. . . . . . . 76. . . . . 115. . . 94. . 28. 53. . . . . . . 158-159. . . . . . . . . . 31. . 213. . 72. . . . . . . . . . . . . 218-219. . 77 Phoenix . . . . . 65-66. . 165-166. . . . 62-63. . 128-129. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105. Serbia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114. 244. . 76. . . . . . . 26-27. . . . . . . . . 265. Sky-X . . 243 Schweizer . . . . . . . . . . 261-262. 71-72. . 83. . . . . . 38-39. 270 116. . . . . . . . . . . 39 Swift Engineering . . . . . . . TCDL-N . . . . . 28. . . 167. . . . . . . . . . . 33-35. . . . . 65-67 Spiral 2 . . 63. . . . . 64. . . . . . . . 245-246. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110-112. . . 199. . . . . . 67. . . . 83. . 273 SWARM . . . 273. . . 229. . . . . . . . . . 69. . . . 233. . . . . . . 76. . . . 204. . 44. 273. 234-236. . . . . . . . . 42-44. . . . . . . . . . . 182. . . . 81-82. . 164. . 125 Soviet Union . . . . . . . . . . 231. 83-84. . 260 Singapore . . . . . 76-77. . 157. . . . 199 Shmel . . . 83. . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75. . . . . . . . . 115 138-142. . . 265. 3. . 28-31. . . . . . . . . . . 128-130. . . . 124 South Africa. . . 110. . . . 96 RQ-1. . . 232. . . . 76-77. . . 253. . . . . . . 116. . . . . 6. . . . 178. . . . 270. 167. . . . . . . . . 109. 101 Spain . . . . . . . . . . . 35-36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161-162. . 33. . . . . 38. 153 TCAR . . . . . . 71-72. . 92. . 167 Sweden . 106-108. . . . . 191. . 270 Spiral 1 . . . . . . . 178. . 27. . . 158 Sentry Owl . 204. 151. . . ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . . . . . . . . . 72. 120. . . . . 103-106. . . 58-59. . Seraph. . 74. . 113. . . . 149. . . . . . 112. . 45. . . 80. 88-89. . . . . . 155. 221. . . . . . 114-115. . . . 159-160. . . 216. . 166. . 148-149. . . . 58. . . . . . 35-36. . . 103. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . 70. . 65-67. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102. . . . . 8. . . . 272 SURSS . . . . . . 66-67. 110. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178-179. . . . 88 RQ-8 . . 76-77. . . . 20. . 129 Sea Sentinel . . . 237. . . . . . . . 273 Soothsayer . . 237. . . . . . . 154. 127. 266 R Seeker . . . . . . 167. . . . . . . 35-36. . . . . . . . . . . . 143 SAGEM . . 63-65. . . . . . . 129. . . . . . . . . . 88 219. . . 35-39. . . . . . . . . . . 195 Searcher . . . . . . . . . . . 253-256. 187-189. . . . . 273 SWORD. . . . . 268 RQ-4 20. . . . . . . . . . . 253. . . . . . 145. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . 260 Radiological . . . . . . 223-225. . . . . . . . . 153-154. 134 Russia . 274 97-98. . . 142-143 69. . . . . . . . 81. . . . 33. 49-50. 144-147. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sojka . . . . . . . 91-92. 116. . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-32. . . . 270 Shadow 200 . . . 32-33. . . . . . . . 81. . . . 266 167-168. 43. . . . . 182. . 49-50. . . . . Senior Year . . 182-188. . . . . . 184-186 Scout . . . . 41-42. . . . . 30. . 191. 69. 164. 23-25. . . . 89. . 234. . . 166. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83-84. 233-235. . 83. . . . 192. . 101. . . 104. . . . 95. . 78. . . 254. . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 244 SDTI. . . . . . . 80-81 236. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63. . 265. 47-48. . . . 259. . 203 SeaVue . . . . . . . . . . 249 Silver Fox . . . . . . . 166. . . . . 29. . 70. . . 116. 80. 266. RQ-7 20-21. . . . . . . . 164. . . . . . . . 203. . 109. . . . 54. . . 32-33. . . . . . . . . . . . . 255. . . 120-122. . . . 270. . . 153. 72. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229-231. . . . . . . . . . . 31-32. . . 197. . . . . . 58. 252 South America . . . . . . 219. 185. . . . . . . 257-259. . . . . . 42. . 275 SHARC . . . . . . . . 242. 69. . . 96. . . . 182. . . 156-159. 107. . . . . . 264 Skyfix . . . 117. . . 52. . . . . . . . 146. . . . Silver Arrow . . 6-7. . . 257. 115. . . . . . . 89. . . . . . . 84-88. . 115. . 272 SAIC . . . . . . . 127. . . . . . . 115. . . 62. . . . . . 106. . . 104. 128-129. 132 Sukhoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Stalker . . . . 31. . . 91. . . . . . . 130. 71. . . . . . . . . 88. . . . . . . . . . . 120 Sender . . . . . . 77-78. 270. . . . . 213-214. . 63. . . . . . 38. 212-215. 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 193. . . . 39. 111. . . . . . 117. . . . . . . 162-163. . . . . . 7. . . 264. . . . . . . 191. . . . . . . 102. . 156. 40-41. . . 195. . . 59. 194. . . 124. . . . . . 225. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Safran . 234 76-77. 198. . . 71. . . . . . . . . 272 Saudi Arabia . 40. . 84. 149-150. 103-105. . . 202-203 Switchblade . 166. 58-59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128-131. . 142-143 Switzerland . . . . . . 36. . . . . . . 102. . . 275 89-90. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152-156. . 111-115. . . 65. . . . . 133 QuaSAR . 106-109. . 64-67. . . . . . . . 270-271. 266. . . . . 102. 101. 132-134. 220 Republic of Korea . . 127. . . 270 T ScanEagle .Index page xiii Q 158. . . . 133-134. . . 58. 110-111. . . . SensorCraft . . . . . . . . . . 104-105. . 66. . . 255 SYERS . . 200 Surveyor 2500. 157. . . 197. . . . 275 TACTIC . 252. 262 SPIRITT . 83. Raven . . . 89. . . 59. 108-109. . . . . . . . 40-46. . . . . . 41-44 Swift . . . . . . 244-245 SEAMOS . . 270. . . . . 30. . . . 232. . . . 96. . 240. . . . . 161. 85-87 SOCOM . 133 RQ-2 . . . . 155-156 bed . 268-271 Qatar . . 97. 154. . . 41. . . . . 61 265. . 41. . . . . . 62. . 58. . 90. . . 78. 45. 116. . . . 23. 211. . 167 Romania. . . . . . . 275 200. Sperwer. 80. . . . 40-41. . . 221 Raytheon . . . 138. 117. 133 Rafael . . . . 119. . . 85 SIVAM . S 185-186. . . . . . 126. . . . . . . . . . . . Skylark . . . . 125. . 201. . 78. . . 3. . 62. . . . . . 163. . . . . . 45. . 36-37. . . . . 276 Spectral Infrared Remote Imaging Transition Test- SAFIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . 123. . 251-252. 178. . . 71. 196 236 Sentinel . . 121. 220. 215-216. . . . . . . 89-91. . 31-32. . . . . 39-40. 65. . . 262 Sri Lanka . . . 139-142. . 143-144. . . . . . . . 85. . . . . . 261 Sterkh . . . . . . 93. . . . . 162. . . . . . . . 252. . 46. . . 205. . 268 SIDM . . . . . 154. . .

154-155. 27. . . . . . 133. . . . . . . 134-135. 153. . . . . . . . 255. . 35-39. 29-30. VTUAV . . . . . . . . 41. . . 24. . . . . . . 123-124. 232. 34. . . 129-130. 92 Warrior . 106. . . . . . . . . 35-39. 106. . . . . . . . . 46. . . . . . 240-241. . . . . . . 105-106. . . . 269 216. . . 91. . . . . . 148. . . 215. . . . 165-166. 220. 202. 154-157. 129. . 86 Tipchak . 138. . . 156. 91. . . . . 264. 72-73. 39 165-166. . . . . . 204. . . . . 210-214. 238. . 45-49. . 80-84. . 145. . . . 252. . . . . . . . . . . 133. . . . . 162. . . . 197-199. . . . . . . 25-31. . . . . . . . . . . . . 254-256. . . . . 156. 35-36. . 165. . . 33-35. . . 27. 31-32. . 95-96. . 89. 84 Thales 58. . . . 275 150-152. . . . . . . . . . USAF . 251-252. . . . 33. . . 234-235. . . . 263-264. . . 7. . . . . . . 118-122. . . . . 150. 70-71. 110. . 39. . . . . . 270 Teledyne. . . . . . . . 252. . . . . . 37. . . . . . . . . . . TDL . . . 60-62. . . . . . . . . . . . . 236. . 234-235 US Air Force . . 207. . . . TRC 6200 . 140-143. 101-104. 58. . . . . . . . US Coast Guard UAV . . . . . 72. . . 102-103. . . . 263 Turna. . . 23. . . 269-271. . 41. . 23. 24-25. . . 271 Tier 1. 210. . . . . . . 234 238 Tactical Control System . . . . . 271-272. 174. . 197. 232. . . . 252 215-217. 220. 275-276 219. 23. 161. . . Witness . . . 232. . 52-53. . . 182-189. . TUAV 13-14. 118. . . . . . . 204. 46. . . . 234. . . 145-146. . 41. . . 95-97. . 24. . . 236. .page xiv Index TCS. . . . . 41. . . 47. 223-228 109. . 138-139. . . 164. 246. . . . . 269 Wasp. . 71-78. 11. . 160-161. . 24-27. 142-145. 12. . 7. 37-41. 224-226. . . . . 185-186. 220 167. . . . . . . 210. . . . 153. . 124-125. . . . . . . 254 UCAV . . . . . . . . . . . . TRW . . . . 63-64. . . 6. . . 92 148-149. 202-203. . 121. . 201. 128-132. 145. . . 194. . 126. 181. 196 Turkey . . . . 46-49. . . 190. . 138. 97-99. . . . . . . . 126-127. . . . . . 191-192. . . . . . . . . 111. 52-53. . . 156-159. 244. . 153. . 232. . 115. . . 41. . . . . 39. 238. . . . . . . 67-68. 210. . . 229-230. . 114-115 WK450 . . . 223-224. . . . 35-36. . 58. 228. . . . . . . . . . . 223-225. 215. . . . 205. 226-228 USMC. 92-94. 168. . . 217-218 158-159. 234 USCG . 243 Tactical UAV 2-4. . . . . . 92 W U WESCAM . . . . . . . . . . . 116. . . . . . . . . . . . . 221. . 148-149. . 266. . . . 197. 218. . . . . . . . . . . . 102. . . . . . . 234-235. . . . . 35. Tadiran. 116. . . 31-33. 192. . . 138. . 12-15. . . . . . . 202 UAV-X1 . 268. 87. 2. . . . 27. . . . 218-219. . . . . . 106. 193 WK180 . . . 145. . . . 234. . . . . . . . . . 257. . . 273-274 V Terrorism . . 258 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . 148. 145. . 37. . 273 Vega Radio . . 7-8. . . . . . 67. . . . . . 212. . . . . 46-47. 219. 197. . . . 215. . . 182. . . 220 97. . . . . . 39-45. . 129. 263. . 263. . . . . . . 32. 67. . 210-211. 88. . . 34. 266. . 72. . . . . . . . . 182. . . 156 US Army . . . . 12. . . 150-151. 44-45. . . . . . 150. . . . . . . . 274 82. . . 190-191. . . 21. . United Arab Emirates . 177. . 260. . . . . 152. . 133. 28. 191-192. 270. . 26-27. . 159. . . 88-96. . . . . 130-131. . . . . . 177. 3. 246. 165. 14. 64-65. . . . . . 210. . . . . . . . . . . 58. . 267. . . 23. . . . . 21. . . . . 65. . TRC 274 . . . . . . . . . . . 94-95 138-139. . 225. . TESAR . . . . . . . . 80-81. . . . . 166. . . 19. . 223. . . . . . . . 198. . . . 104. 129-131. 61. . . 96 UAOS . 159-160. . . . . 154. . . . . 195. 96. . 155-156. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tactical SIGINT Payload . . . . 49. . . 148. . . . . . 86. 271. . . . . 152-153. . . . . . 46. 92 262. 91. . 106. 85 Thailand . . 12-13. . 166. . . . US Marine Corps Tactical UAV. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274-275 VR-2 . . . 82. . . . . 35 Tucan . . . . 198 Tactical Data Links . 201. . . . . . 275 261. . . . . . . 251. . . 253. . 131 VR-3 . . . 272 UCAV-N. 235. . . . 40. . . . . 270 210-211. . . . 44. 158. 95-99. . . . . . . . . 117. 31-32. . 259-260. . . . . . . 89. 99. . . . . . . 177. . 238. . 118-119. 257-258. 82 Top Scan . . . 192. . 23-24. 215. . . . . 76. . . . . 109. . 87. . . 216-217. . . 108-109. . 124-126. . . 197-199. 194. 182 Tier 2 . . 267. . . 86 Vektor . . 82 Vulture . . . . . . 192. . . 177. 224. . . . . . . 115. . . . . . . . . . . . . USN . . . . . 7. . . . 220 Vigilante . 101. . . 271-273 TR911D. . 259-260. 271 147. 157-158. . 267. 262. . . . . . . 158. 268. . . 253. . . . . 223-224. . . . . . . . 267-268. . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . 49. . . 30. . 194-195. . . . . . . 249 Textron . 198. 108-109. . . . 49-50. . 197. . 39-40. 20-23. . . 271. . . . 231 110-115. 16. . . 199 215. . 24. . . . . . . . . . 197. . 99. . . . 72. . . Tactical Common Data Link . 150 X X-45 . . . . . 49-50. . Watchkeeper . . 157-158. 74. . 49 123-124. . . 253. . . . . 40-41. . . 68. 266-267. . 21. . . 274 UCAS-D . . . 55. UCAR. . . 104. . 270 United Kingdom 95. . . 97. . . . . . . . 74. . . . . . . 28. 215-216. . . . 101. . . 23. . 194-195. . . . . . . 221 275 Taiwan . 192-194. . . . 182. 251-252. 145 VUAV. . 31. . . 22-23. . 87-89. 49-51. . . . . 93. 199. . . 156. . V-22 . . 34. . 32-33. . . . . . . 78. UAV-XI . . . . . 99. 162-163. . . . . . 210. . 259-260. 48. 170-172. . 228-230. . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . Ukraine . . . . . . . . . 253. 118. 109. . 226.

. . . . . . . . . . . 109. . . . . . . . . . . . 46-47. . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 X-50 . . . . . . . . . . 150 Y X-47 . . . . . . . . 252 Yugoslavia . . . 7. . . . 49. . . 96 Yula . . . . . . . . . 88. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 78. . . . . . . . 145 XRAE1 . . 258. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Index page xv X-46 . 150-151. . . . .

page xvi Index World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation .

UAVs are a key ting-edge technologies observed over tems similar to military UAVs such as element in the intelligence. border patrol organiza- lance. and they are weapons. est markets for UAVs. major aerospace centers such as Eu. solved late in the forecast period. Africa and Latin Teal Group market study estimates total worldwide defense R&D spend. A c o mmer c ial. RoW R&D RoW Proc. This study suggests that the Teal Group expects that the sales some niche markets such as Japan un- US will account for 73% of the of UAVs will follow recent patterns of til the airspace access issue is fully re- RDT&E spending on UAV technol. high-tech arms procurement world. expanding into other missions as well technology. 6 4 2 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 RoW = Rest of World The most significant catalyst to ting-edge technologies. starting first with government organi- wards information warfare and rope. information and sensor g a n iz a tio n s .Executive Overview The Outlook Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) sent higher shares of the market than worldwide total followed by Europe. military. lysts in such areas as precision guided tions and similar national security or- tion of this revolution. These discrepancies are due to access to national airspace until suit- within a decade. the past decade by Teal Group ana. and about wide. and the have been created. This the US accounting for about 67% of aerospace products.3 billion casts. coast guards. and military application non-governmental UAV market will with the advent of hunter-killer of space systems. America are expected to be very mod- that the market will more than double ing and 37% or procurement spend. This follows trends in other cut. about 18% of the ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . tied to the general trend to. able UAV standards and practices World UAV Forecast R&D and Procurement ($ Billions) 8 US R&D US Proc. zations requiring surveillance sys- net-centric systems. emerge much more slowly except in UAVs. A civil market over the next decade from current i n g a c c o r d i n g to Te a l G r o u p for UAVs is only beginning to emerge worldwide UAV expenditures of International Defense Briefing fore. especially slowly emerge over the next decade. with Asia representing the sec- 59% of the procurement. the heavier US investment in cut. with As in the case of many cutting edge the aerospace industry today. surveil. in no small measure due to the lack of about $3.4 billion to $7. are the most dynamic growth sector of for defense spending in general. and reconnaissance (ISR) por. These repre. ogy over the next decade. Teal Group ex- this market has been the enormous marked lag-time in such research and pects that a civil UAV market will growth of interest in UAVs by the US procurement elsewhere. ond largest market.

500.0 2.5 470.0 2.686 2.035.9 623.556 Europe 368 409 385 301 283 403 572 655 492 174 4.105.233.720.060.3 44.032.9 478.0 674.0 75.896 2.242.5 3.0 2.730.0 448.6 583.636.0 1.0 590.265.1 12.0 220.0 75.0 300.500.820.3 4.488.230.448 1.300.436 2.0 261.0 726.772 1.105.2 697.485.830.0 2.1 60.7 3.729 25.0 Europe 200.0 62.132 2.6 1.042 Mid East 150 88 197 386 98 178 171 110 109 23 1.2 3.501.6 3.0 1.085.0 2.4 43.0 6.2 3.6 53.2 1.0 40.686 2.631 UAV Total 2.663.090.700.2 3.4 52.0 227.0 259.380.0 235.992.0 770.718 1.405.956 Americas 21 33 13 29 75 34 40 1 1 45 292 Africa 30 5 6 11 36 31 25 40 5 21 210 Total 2.2 3.566 (Value.450.120 1.4 3.6 3.896 2.0 18.705.145.0 2.8 625.470.095.0 1870.0 2.793.4 451.6 3.6 5.6 3.0 — 60.0 910.590.0 1.0 744.0 3.0 1.771.4 266.5 726.0 1.5 373.0 801.4 3.4 280.4 3.5 665.779.0 1.395.889.0 1.595.6 Asia-Pacific 283.6 510.590.2 5.0 2.085.0 401.730.370 2.600.723.709 Naval UAVs 1 6 6 38 27 40 48 50 55 59 330 MALE UAVs 43 51 63 105 91 84 86 73 57 62 715 HALE UAVs 7 8 13 11 16 13 17 14 19 27 145 UCAVs 3 1 2 4 1 1 — 6 5 11 34 Civil UAVs 307 307 317 317 345 375 372 389 427 475 3.5 3.0 52.555.000.0 122.0 2.765.960.140.0 68.3 1.718 1.610.505.985 1.7 225.550.0 1.583.0 5.0 1.0 24.0 1.8 Total 1.885 620 885 2.7 1.6 1.3 292.7 7.5 3.0 2.060. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 1.566 (Value.1 31.010.000.0 5.0 17.270.992.505.896.499 1.4 136.5 199.5 517.0 2.4 183.125.0 237.0 1.0 470.0 1.0 1.0 30.583.0 Total 1.081.0 2.095.6 Grand Total R&D/Procurement 3.242.0 2.722 1.2 425.787 13. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total mini-uavs 50.9 566.501.0 2.2 5.6 761.0 310.3 1.6 609.0 2.333.6 UAV Unit Production Forecast by Region (Units.0 675.250.195 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation .840.0 195.110.705.836.242 3.305.5 6.0 3.8 455.3 3.0 HALE UAVs 525.4 325.0 1.0 10.0 1.510 Asia 419 463 558 554 687 788 662 604 542 679 5.310.395.0 Total R&D 1.0 Naval UAVs 40.0 3.437 189 267 1.635.7 54.5 2.7 308.0 254.0 2.085.242 3.0 Procurement ($ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 1.0 1.658 2.1 54.800.5 305.729 25.6 5.0 1.195 UAV Unit Production Forecast by Type (Units.5 430.5 MALE UAVs 351.0 1.505.5 848.0 Rest of World 250.658 2.9 429.194.0 1.0 8.8 70.0 2.0 1.723.747 1.0 2.862.1 31.500.415 2.0 18.3 1.0 2.305.8 57.2 Mid-East 186.242.025.5 1.225.2 1.960.0 588.6 3.865.6 Total Procurement 1.0 105.992.0 1.580.0 1.0 1.0 Civil UAVs 120.723.195.0 850.0 200.368 1701 3.5 561.4 5.951 18.0 24.0 725.501.552.205.865.0 845.705.368 1.765.0 1.1 31.701 3.0 120.105.0 320.0 3.7 3.7 Other 9.035.2 59.0 367.265.0 1.0 5.0 430.0 668. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 1.7 3.2 71.4 655.0 241.590.806 1.585.0 939.8 613.750.0 330.Page 2 Executive Overview World UAV Expenditures Forecast R&D ($ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 1.8 52.965 1.0 805.242.5 422.9 492.0 1.4 1.849.025.3 81.132 2. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAVs 1.002 Tactical UAVs 269 328 292 358 268 303 304 230 213 144 2.5 56.6 718.8 Tactical UAVs 418.3 597.2 3.483.700.270.0 650.0 1.688 1.265.2 3.0 Rest of World 680.583.0 2.0 UCAVs 200.0 510.0 1.436 2.6 3.650.0 35.0 23.

the hand. This that point. it is organized on a tions the size of a division or less. This approach has been taken tion of the study. reconnaissance by Army forma- ments. the UAV market is so new those with a low probability of ac. the Crécerelle/Sperwer. Teal Group UAV deliveries. The approach taken in this market categories that are common in the in. does not cover target drones. Rather than dustry. but the cate. Some typical examples are or aircraft. and Israeli necessary. The aim of this study is to comple. World Missiles & UAVs Briefing more data is available. estimates. • Naval UAVs—A tactical UAV is requirements-driven. • Tactical UAVs—A UAV used for spective. The primary focus of the study Sometimes called “Over-the-Hill” sis. is the military requirements for recon- UAV or back-pack UAV ment the WMUB by examining the naissance and strike UAVs.500 2. German and undeveloped that another quiring UAVs are not included. tion for shipboard operations.500 1. the British Phoenix. market on a program-by-program ba. Unlike more which have been assessed to have a and operating radius of 200 km or established markets such as missiles likely UAV requirement are included. Air Vehicles) 2.Executive Overview Page 3 World UAV Forecast (Units.000 1. enough to be held in the palm of • MALE UAVs—A Medium Alti- tions. The reason for this is that the market is very new and so past trends tude/Long Endurance UAV with ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . The primary forecasts are based on than a kilogram. customized ground controls sta- and extrapolate growth rates from gories are useful both in terms of re. manned aerial vehicles. The study market from a complementary per. US Shadow. Countries with endurance of several hours has distinct limitations. market has been divided into various Searcher. The categories are: MALE UAVs operated by navies try-by-country basis and estimates the likely scale and pace of acquisi- • Micro UAVs—A UAV small from shore bases. both budget A ty p i c a l e x a mp l e is th e (WMUB) which examines the UAV and production forecasts are pro- AeroVironment RQ-11 raven. Due to the requirements orienta. less. Some of these begin to blend adapted for shipboard use with a try to estimate the current market size together at the margins. as a study based on existing programs regional/country basis. vided. In the US case where • Mini-UAVs—A UAV small enough to be launched by a person. usually weighing less the future worldwide market for un. the study examines likely quirements assessments and costing does not include tactical UAVs or requirements for UAVs on a coun. Tucan. not orders or budget already covers the UAV market in its appropriations.000 500 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Mini Tactical MALE HALE UCAV Naval Civil Study Parameters The aim of this study is to examine provide little guidance for the future. French approach to market assessment is From a technical standpoint. namely national require.

each air vehicle has been as- assessed in a wide variety of ways in. By its na. an d treme is the possibility of global that this is the only possible scenario. generally ground attack. zero military UAVs Forecast Costs The cost of UAV systems can be lar payloads. technology. to formulate the value of tactical UAV Assessing the UAV Market Forecasting the size of the future this. a system including these costs plus a clude one ground control station While not ideal. zero or the only plausible forecast. an art. major politi. Some systems can in. simplifications which invariably Armageddon in which case. viewed as the limbs. but in their original plat- form/size category. etc. generally used for strategic reconnaissance. They are not an estab. new technologies. tions in this report. systems on offer. local political de. The numerical senting major alternative scenarios ble branch of the many potential forecasts in this report may seem to such as future conflicts. The reader the limbs represent variations within ferent scenarios or assumptions. a typical tactical UAV numbers are lacking.) where there are UAV market is far more problematic cal UAVs are a revolutionary new clearly defined requirements and es- than in other areas of aerospace tech. The most important is that tacti. UAV systems system might cost about $10 million international expenditures outside the vary enormously in complexity and and has five air vehicles. been assessed against each UAV. While World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . The Global Hawk is currently the strike capability such as the MQ-9 sance. s u mmar ie s . treme is global peace and tranquility phorically as a tree. etc. At one ex. UAVs will be built. more precise. and (GCS) while others can include two ing approach is more practical than a these costs plus operations and main. There are several reasons for lished technology (such as missiles. a high performance endurance of a day or more and UAV designed primarily for Forecast Assumptions Forecasting is by its nature. for example. service. We do not include operations and are quite elementary with simple and a portion of the system costs have maintenance costs associated with commercial-off-the-shelf TV cam. We do not claim s u mp tio n s . the number of market. We should not be fooled by the seeming these major scenarios influenced by attempt to make clear our assump- precision of these numbers. velopments. The future can be bers of UAV systems likely to be should be regarded as “impression. There are endless varia- not a science. that is will be built. MALE UAVs with secondary used for operational reconnais. some systems include multiple modu. and so on.the limbs repre. or more. So UAV operations in this report as the eras while others have elaborate sen. the cost of a system in. this forecast is based upon as. To stretch this analogy the recent size of the market over the tions in between with varying num- further. lion @ 5 air vehicles per system) even the system. cles but other packages might include though the actual cost of the air vehi- cluding spares and support. solid knowledge of the trunk. the forecasts in this report past few years. approach such as estimating is to use the bare-bones “fly-away” issues. Some tactical UAVs specific categories of UAV systems. f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l co u n t r y future UAV spending is the variety of tems. Typical examples are the only example of this type now in Predator B are not included in this Predator and Eagle 1. Tactical UAVs and long range capability. combat aircraft. Many other pos- provide a highly detailed “realistic” cal upheavals. but unwieldy if not im- tenance expenses. Costs have been estimated for requirement. air vehicles per system vary so that signed a cost of $2 million ($10 mil- cluding the basic “fly-away” cost of some systems include four air vehi. The approach here Due to the complexity of these cost possible. cle is typically less than $2 million. built. • UCAVs—Uninhabited Combat tude/Long Endurance UAV with Air Vehicle. The branches on sible forecasts are plausible given dif- portrayal of the market. Our forecast is only one possi- ism” not “realism”. the cost of six or eight. A second problem in estimating been used here for non-US UAV sys. We have a fairly in which case.Page 4 Executive Overview endurance of about 24 hours and long range capability. that foster their procurement. Finally. branches of the tree. tions and rationale in each of the sec- ture. category. • HALE UAVs—A High Alti. As a result. involve large margins of imprecision. a simplified cost forecast has different costs for different systems cost. Likewise. this simplified pric- share of the RDT&E spending. US. tablished bureaucratic organizations nology. especially for sor suites. on the other ex- Forecasting can be viewed meta.

While these may be ex. and can cover a wide area on a single their cost and over-estimation of their ability rates have steadily improved. restricted areas. tactical UAVs. ment since they seem to offer a means tion platform. operations. bers for UAV deployment. In UAVs such as the CL-289. making them useful for moni- capabilities. only in numbers but also in missions. there are still ELINT or other sensor packages. To further complicate matters. and some high-end platforms such as toring truces. Until recently. and including thermal imaging cameras.Executive Overview Page 5 there has been a considerable amount a d d in g s o p h is tic a te d f e a tu r e s duce the loss rate. other UAVs are UAVs have been proliferating not damage to 13 more. in recent years they stan. techno. comes interrupted. and hence market was probably less than $100 pense of durability.and tactical orders-of-battle. and provide a capability to recover a UAV an enormous number of unanswered survivability enhancements. As a result. durability and control restrictions since they usually ket assessment are also lacking. Many of these problems or sniper fire. as well as the difficulties in UAVs offer a partial solution. their application in peacekeeping of the NATO armies have insisted in logical innovations are helping to re. objectives. semi-expendable mini-UAVs are en- While UAVs have traditionally been Canada deployed a single new joying a flurry of attention at the mo- thought of as an intelligence collec. Crécerelle UAV system to Afghani. carrying inexpensive sensor pack. which UAVs by many armies. have proven to be especially attrac- sion? Will the assets fall under army ages. The inherent risks such missions are very averse to suf- needs based on existing national of the use of remote control to pilot fering casualties. treme examples. ated without cumbersome air-traffic Other traditional measures of mar. less affordable for tactical roles such million annually worldwide. might have been acceptable when Mini-UAVs and tactical UAVs ployed in a typical maneuver divi. to demand a far more durable and ro. These to a predetermined location if the questions about the nature of UAVs sensors add weight and cost to the data-link to the ground station be- and their operation that make any designs. the lightweight and low-cost at the ex. crashing two air vehicles and around the cost dilemma posed by the have expanded into potential combat sidelining two more due to stress more sophisticated and expensive s tr ik e p la tf o r ms w h ic h c o u ld cracks and making the system unser. operation. British forces not progressed as deeply as many method to assess the future market conducted 138 Phoenix UAV sorties. such as recent op- Since there are no established num. The success of UAVs in expectation that they were simple and ability comparable to similar manned Bosnia. optional are becoming more common. the threshold of air-traffic control organization and equipment of a UAV While loss rates such as these (ATC) rules. most In the case of small UAVs. casualty rate of over 25%. the UAV. Mini. In addition. These early sys. up as brigade or divisional assets. and as scouting for mechanized units. size. larger and more expensive. traditional placement. early tactical UAVs put the accent on packages have been making them In the mid-1990s. Afghanistan. or other terested in UAVs in the 1990s on the Predator and Global Hawk have reli. they have been ending billion is spent annually worldwide dozen missions before requiring re. losing 23 air vehicles and sustaining Curiously enough. in other words a emerging for this role. GPS. US UAV reli. ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . it is very bust air vehicle than was common Most nations deploying troops on difficult to extrapolate on future UAV with early UAVs. Many armies became in. and Iraq is cheap to operate. squad of infantry can now be accom- and Problems These problems should have been plished by an unmanned aircraft. flight. for example. stemmed from under-estimations of are being overcome. erations in Iraq and Afghanistan. For reliability of UAVs remains a operate at very low altitudes below example: what will be a likely table of significant hurdle. likely to lead to growing interest in early systems were elementary. In- expanded more than ten-fold in less their construction led to high attrition stead of directly serving the small unit than a decade. Cheap. With the advent of of attention to UAVs in the press. While many of the aircraft such as the U-2. It has tems were viewed as expendable. the airframes on many sophistication of these UAV sensor the UAV market was relatively small. such as extrapolations based on past UAV operations during Operation the proliferation of tactical UAVs has growth rates do not offer a plausible Telic in Iraq in 2003. Patrol remotely landing UAVs led to high missions that formerly required a Technology Trends: Promise loss and damage rates. unit? How many UAVs will be de. In 2004. on UAVs. inexpensive inertial platforms considerable experimentation with encrypted data transmission. But the increasing forecasting difficult. Some recent examples much like the earlier generation of methods of estimating market size will highlight these difficulties. UAVs are unobtrusive. The other attraction of substantially increase their market viceable after only a few months of mini-UAVs is that they can be oper- potential. with The difficulties with the current expected given the novel nature of the no risk of human casualties to mines generation of tactical UAVs have tactical UAV. imagined a few years ago. the trend towards million dollar tive in peace-keeping operations control or be a multi-service asset? sensor packages has prompted armies short of all-out war. As a result. and currently about $3 rates with many types not exceeding a commander.

viewed as having an application to ur- RPVs in actual combat in the 1982 fare”. However. BQM-155 Hunter. These rather considered on large. gram. The Past as Prologue market was in spite of all of the pub. Israeli systems like the Scout The utility of UAVs in contempo. However. cro-UAVs RPVs that could provide real-time in. inclusion of counter-measures on fu- tactical reconnaissance drones start. What are the trade-offs ing in the 1970s such as CL-89. while the US likely that countermeasures are not lines-canners with no real-time data operated a small number of AAI/IAI worthwhile for small tactical UAVs transmission features. many contemporary tactical drone the air campaign over Kosovo. and fense missiles. Be. the loss of a UAV does and their mission was primarily stra. the UAV mar. The Israelis Malat Pioneers from US Navy battle. sev. a Predator. By their very nature. tion which is often needed in mine detection equipment that could nated by Israeli firms. and how ily. This was about ten times traced back to US use of the BQM-34 sides these programs. In addition. real-time UAV systems in the 1990s. altitudes offers better imagery resolu- The US is now looking at remote ket was very small and was domi. or a spy satellite. high-cost Lebanon War. able to operate within war. Mini. These systems not have real-time intelligence operation as was the case with the used wet film cameras and infrared capability. IAI produced only 600 UAVs 27 UAVs were lost. someone or something has to ban warfare.Page 6 Executive Overview This interest will be heightened if intelligence field in the early 1980s important. In addition. such as the CL-289 Piver which did not compel a risky search-and-rescue tegic reconnaissance. Balkan Lessons gun to attract considerable attention eras. in terms of weight. go out and collect the information. this mission alone branch. On the down side.and Micro-UAVs have be- telligence using simple video cam. Kosovo also re- It is useful to take a brief look at the licity. systems. In an age of “information war.and Mi- 1970s to begin developing small transmission capability. systems such as the Global Hawk. US RPV efforts. not the least of which Army stumbled badly in the real-time Space based reconnaissance remains is size. from a wide variety of potential mili- and Mastiff were the forerunners of rary conflicts was highlighted during tary users over the past few years. The Kosovo data capability. Through the 1990s. One of the most nettle. Should this Israel Aircraft Industries’ Malat viduals and small objects need to be prove practical. Kosovo saw the use of a wide will justify the procurement of 90% of the world production of range of UAVs including the RQ-1 additional UAVs. modest operations in 1991 were prob. though in Firebee and its derivatives at the time tablished UAV program in Europe. In buildings instead of flying over In the wake of the 1982 Mid East past wars this might have been a buildings. generation of reconnaissance UAVs Furthermore. to include countermeasures. many having been pur. or for much of the hype surrounding this low casualties. Technology line-scanners. eral countries had a handful of UAV ture designs. but they might be in the 1973 October War and 1982 and target location data. which significantly put back immediately after the mission is as- some problems in peacekeeping oper. flexible and offer real time imagery finally occur. downed F-117 aircraft. and payload CL-289. these World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . the US the U-2 or SR-71. lion. problems. the mini-UAVs. contemporary air defenses. IAI Malat represented about tracked. T h e u s e o f U AV s f o r through the beginning of 1998. terms of expense. The These are seen as potential reconnais- programs. especially peace-keeping operations where indi- be carried on a UAV. extensive use of drones in combat. there is little evidence that sticky incidents such as captured pi. A total of preciate the current and future mar. some to operational reconnaissance purposes can be less than a hundred UAV systems. the period averaged under $100 mil. and the Italian Mirach fam. War. and its annual business during vealed the vulnerability of UAVs to recent history of UAVs to better ap. these systems gener. Early experiences with these ably the first large-scale use of tacti- drones led Israeli firms in the late cal UAVs with real-time data New Markets: Mini. that are much smaller than contempo- used both the US Firebee and Chukar ships to provide gun fire correction rary fighter aircraft. subject. operation at low ations is the presence of mines/IEDs. the scale of aircraft losses. signed. advanced micro-UAV designs are there was extensive use of these lots. especially politically perimeter security tasks. there was an es. chased as technology demonstrators. Once again. some to air de- k e t. the UAV losses of the Vietnam War. they had no real-time losses are less as well. but UAVs are far more certain technological developments with its overly ambitious Aquila pro. and telling comment on how small this CL-289 Piver. This was the first but this concentrated on the earlier were considerably less significant. contrary to new style of warfare is dependent on sance assets at small unit level. the US reinvigorated its own manned reconnaissance aircraft like There are numerous challenges to RPV programs. The French operated a handful of might they be activated? It seems ally carried wet film cameras and IR ALTEC Mart systems. The European NATO Gulf War Lessons experience raises the question of the countries showed an early interest in At the time of the Gulf War. cost.

armed native. Al Qaeda official in Yemen in the au. lots dueling with guns. 7 surrogate for attack aircraft. tilt. Their flight com. it was used to track Boeing. about future UCAVs. The first use of the Predator as a but so far little developmental fund- velopment stage without large scale UCAV raises an interesting question ing has been committed outside the serial manufacture or deployment. While this is a fea. and still of air-to-air combat in 1914 with pi. The mission was not success. Further UCAV operations have gram has undergone considerable for a 10 pound UAV. The US Air Force experi. speed jet UAV for such missions. This was the Army decision to acquire the sion. the size. the Navy now in charge of a rump vances in miniaturized sensors. searching promise their use for security tasks 1960s and early 1970s. and bear little similarity to payloads in simple ball mounts with shelter. era. They compartmented programs. and then to fire a missile near a These are sleek. unmanned frame. taken place. This such as perimeter patrols if the sys. ful. cal potential of UCAVs. In- sensor limitations. but even as fighter aircraft. These first demonstra. the effort than a scheme to actually arm Predator. anti-tank missiles earlier. but that mi. Due to their small tack role. been experimenting with a RQ-1 tempted to assert its control over graded by wind-induced motion. The US Air Force has at- provided to the operator can be de. this is a revival of target and attacks it. but Britain has cles (UCAVs) tional strike aircraft. The US Air United States. and degradation of imagery the Afghanistan theater including the ment for future requirements. or Pred ato r armed w ith H ellfire MALE and HALE UAVS owing to vibration from the aircraft propul. since a rela- days a week due to periodic vulnera. periments were aimed at developing a raises some question about the con- tems cannot perform 24 hours a day. such as the attack on an turmoil over the past few years with It remains to be seen whether ad. to carry out dangerous ground attack tively slow UAV like the Predator bility to weather. The Predator mission low altitude. that in the mid-term. It will also com. but at the moment. long been forgotten.Executive Overview Page 7 UAVs rely on very small airframes craft. cro-UAVs will still remain at the de. and as a result. Russia had plans for a ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . problem had to do with rules of en. and secure low-power tions of the UCAV in combat are carrier landing capabilities. it is too much ogy. But when conflict broke appears to be letting the services go the narrow viewing angle of the cam. primarily figuration of the UCAV. in Afghanistan suggests another alter- on their use in areas such as near the mented with Firebee drones. deed. It is difficult to fit such a sensor in October 2001 when UAVs were UCAVs mentioned below. many has already flown its Barrakuda is to replace conventional combat air. During at one mission Force’s X-45 being developed by the UAV and the operator due to weak in October 2001. and “black”. The US Air Force had the UAVs. out in the wake of the 11 September their own way. these UAVs are forced to rely on The lessons of this experience have procurement of these hunter-killer very small. not with the basic technol. perhaps under that are subject to wind conditions at an old idea rather than an entirely new human control.in the world of secret sonable limits. tumn of 2002. ficial. stealthy. Even if using some of the newer more of a technology demonstration MQ-9C Sky Warrior variant of the optical stabilization technologies. come more serious the smaller the air. missions. ick guided missiles back in the late form and a strike aircraft. the image Afghanistan. serves as both a reconnaissance plat- and frequent gusts. have expressed interest in UCAVs. Once again. The US pro- weighing 50 pounds. This will put a damper concept. air vehicles that perform like conven. For example. the market for provide only a hint of their future Several of the European air forces mini-UAVs will deepen. and then the air vehicle flies out to the demonstrator. The early ex. is This results in several related prob. Initial flight trials have begun ing only 6 pounds. bricks. The “hunter-killer” UAV coast where there are apt to be intense with laser-guided bombs and Maver. which should help to clarify the tacti- sible payload for a mini-UAV gagement. European UCAV. the Air by transmission problems between armed version. the Predator was deployed to Two UCAVs were under develop- cameras. developed by Northrop-Grumman. the convoy of a senior government of. and zoom functions weigh. France is trying to push Force and Navy have been studying its neuron program as the basis for a Unmanned Combat Air Vehi. One of the to a stabilized platform due to payload used in combat for the first time over issues to be settled will be control of restrictions. light-weight cameras. It is as- communication links can continue to reminiscent of the first use incidents sumption of this study that the US Air chip away at these hurdles. demonstration program concerning power sources. funded its own Taranis effort and Ger- The latest visionary role for UAVs puter is briefed on a strike mission. the ungainly and slow reconnaissance pan. there are UAV bunker where the delegation took strike jets. Today’s futurists see a role may be more versatile than a high The second technical challenge is for UCAVs not only in the ground at. potential. Force UCAV program has gone keep the unit cost of the UAVs to rea. Teal Group expects other improvised weapons. out the target before attack it. These problems be. in the forecast period here. poor resolution of low-power attacks. DoD imagery is often far from ideal due to the Predator. but press accounts suggest the UAVs. UCAVs became a bit less futuristic far more likely than the stealth lems. UAVs such as the MQ-9A Reaper. and the Navy’s X-47 being power sources.

and arms control politics. flight control. a pilot under a wide range of real life and high maintenance costs. siles with relatively low maintenance tems. sion requires a wide range of abilities “hunter-killer” UAVs such as MQ-9A ple tactical UAVs should help provide that are not currently achievable with reaper will prosper. ing rules through their civil aviation whether UAVs might blossom in the tique” manufacture of air vehicles for administration. the next decade. civil aviation market. this cannot be lightly onstrations of tactical UCAVs will Serbian helicopters flying alongside assumed. lieves that non-military government aviation over the interference experi- While this is an intriguing issue. as small. be largely ignored as it is likely to re. The fighter these UAVs are included under the tical obstacles to such a system. Unlike production will be quite small in the ment now seems a distant dream. existing technology. There is no existing life-cycle costs. the lack of an liver guided weapons against a target. forecast period and limited primarily brief examination of the difficulties determined objective. there is little 35 $1 million Tomahawk cruise mis- the aircrew and related support sys. a fighter mis. based on existing UAV airframes. tine UAV operations in US airspace. The long-term issue is main limited to small scale “bou. In study is limited to the likely growth of portion of the civil UAV market over 2006. there have been complaints by Israeli ceeding the scope of military UAVs. doubt that a UCAV can be built to de. At the moment. remains to be seen when it will be a UCAV may be attractive as air de- Civil UAVs One of the most frequent questions To begin with. civil UAV market: hurdle to the growth of the civil UAV ket?” Since there are so few civil market is the issue of UAV operations UAV programs at the moment. • University/Research UAVs. the re. In addition. In view of recent politically unacceptable. and phisticated. ploy a $25-35 million UCAV with an moval of the pilot promises to reduce sors of similar size that can duplicate expected survivability of 15 missions the size of the air vehicle by eliminat. which have established UAV operat- dustry interest. The single largest “when will there be a civil UAV mar. believes that the civil market will re. and that commercial Tel Aviv airport where a UAV came Within this time frame. come from three directions: human. Teal Group be. and appears to be getting back grated computer. outside the Department of Defense our analysts have been asked is tinguish at least three elements of the and Coast Guard. intelligent. fenses continue to become more so- days. A reconnaissance missions over a pre. The mission currently seems the most relevant UAV headings since they are challenge to the tactical UCAV will distant for a UCAV. it is helpful to dis. Safety Agency (EASA) issued a call some growth as access to national space in early 2006 for the formation of a airspace becomes more accessible. it is • Government UAVs in controlled airspace. but forecasts for a more sober perspective on the prac. assum- for use in international crises where threatened by hostile fighters? Is it ing UCAV technology proves practi- the loss or capture of a pilot would be simply a sitting duck? This was cer. But in this role. The market for UAVs outside of This is also true worldwide with the the military is extremely small at the Of these categories. or 25 to ing the space and weight required for conditions. FAA standards worth examining this issue in some • Commercial UAVs are only beginning to emerge for rou- detail at the opening of this study. the European Aviation main small but begin to experience Operations in National Air. It sions against a predetermined target. In the case of ground attack mis- missile. this use of UAVs will be the largest single enced due to UAV operations. costs? This tradeoff will be the center aircrew makes the UCAV desirable But what happens when the UCAV is of much of the future debate. scientific research. cal and affordable. On the one hand. We expect that the US has faced in fielding even sim. there are a number new organization to co-ordinate the of exploratory programs to examine use of UAVs in Europe. door-mounted machine guns. to demonstrators. combination of computers and sen. number of UAVs were shot down by sance UAVs. the third will exceptions of Israel and South Africa moment. This will come down to There are two main attractions to human pilot. The aim is to UAVs by various federal agencies permit “normalized” UAV flights in World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . but one of considerable in. their actual deploy. In Europe. close to a passenger aircraft. Even in these cases. Teal Group use of UAVs will lag substantially. and versatile as a missiles. matching or ex. there was an incident near the the market over the next decade. For example. tainly the case in Kosovo where a experiences with tactical reconnais- Although advanced concept dem. Is it cheaper to de- UCAVs. the into this business with designs like electro-optical sensing system that is UCAV will have to compete against the MiG Skat. take place in the next decade in the and attacking them with simple Teal Group believes that UCAV United States.Page 8 Executive Overview number of UCAVs back in the Soviet possible to design and field an inte.

system in a few months of operation though the Japanese crop-dusting dards with other standards such as in Afghanistan. How. and the Department of Home- fered a casualty rate of almost 25% on structure for the use of small helicop. most part reconnaissance platforms a high-cost. there may FAA and other international organi. the British suf. to see a city council funding police chases have been minimal. namely insurance. This is even more tude environment like Japanese agri- ment the case with potential commercial cultural helicopter UAVs to avoid One of the technological issue extensions of the surveillance UAV FAA restrictions. roles. lan d S e c u r ity’s b o r d e r p a tr o l UAV sorties in Iraq in 2003 in a few ter UAVs for crop-dusting. As mentioned else. a firm that Organization) in Montreal in March life-or-death situations. and IAOPA accident rates far in excess of police (TAG) in California received a $2. which suggests that the Aviation Equipment) considering the tional manned aircraft. This initiative on the Mexican border. this would still summarize. other obstacles re. This will include coast ment is needed of the current market. an d s imilar Even once the issue of access to air except in the margins of experimental quasi-military homeland security space is resolved. police traffic monitoring. Many proposed civil million contract to provide 14 heli- ICAO (International Civil Aviation U AV ap p lic a tio n s a r e n o t copter UAVs to Rotor F/X. So parallel applications in the courage the proliferation of low cost. efforts incapacitate its single tactical UAV the Japanese section of the study.8 made a presentation on this issue to helicopters. the US Coast Guard’s Deepwater pro- where in this study. These be a far more substantial issue than in will presumably be used in a low alti- “Sense-and-Avoid” Require. It’s worth noting connected to airspace access will be such as their use by TV news stations that TAG claims this is the largest the need for sense-and-avoid systems for collecting video imagery. These types of applications are main. fairly similar. As a result. how soon will a significant be in the paramilitary sphere where (which further clouds any market civil/commercial market emerge? the requirements and missions are forecast!) To begin with. gram. Once non-military UAV purchase to date in on UAVs operating in controlled air. The first broad application of ments for different types of UAVs op. where are the technology does reach maturity. The ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . in a non-war situation such as and subsidies. some brief assess. ing point for UAV proliferation. Assuming that industry and the civil sector seem the most likely start- small UAVs. Tactical Aerospace Company in the ATC environment. government’s agricultural policies IAOPA (International Council of ever. In the case of market is based on peculiarities of Ja- development of mirror standards with the military. At the moment. Once the durable enough. While these loss rates UAVs have been on offer for several those being developed in the US by are higher than those experienced by years on the international market. cant extent. until UAVs prove cost-effec. This issue is addressed in more tive with relatively high reliability step in a market that would grow detail in the US civil UAV section. military UAV there have been civil UAV markets in already being studied for example by durability is low. In April tional standard for UAV compatibility UAV operations if the UAVs suffer 2005. distinct liability hazard. UAVs continue to they have not caught on to any signifi- (European Organization for Civilian have a higher loss rate than conven. zations manage to create a flexible en. their use in such a role remains ten-fold in five years. cost. Commercial In view of the fact that the US ogy does not exist today and until it operation of UAVs will be inhibited if civil/commercial market is nearly does exist. place since the 1980s. and so fiscal provides airmobile cameras to the 2006. constraints and operating costs will film industry and television. Even if this sale was the first space. the US. it is difficult In the US. the military case. Al- are underway to unify European stan. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Associa. civil UAV market since the technol. notably in Ja. only mean a $30 million market by systems will have an impact on the ity issue is tied to another commercial 2010.Executive Overview Page 9 non-segregated airspace by early in weeks time. Beyond the Airspace Barrier sors. RTCA and ASTM. In addition. end up being different SAA require. mon- tudes moment there is essentially no market ito r in g b o r d e r s . issue. commercial UAV pur- tion) has been pushing for an interna. such as high sales of civil UAVs likely to emerge? sues such as size. the mission justifies the cost. This is fairly easy to answer as at the for monitoring maritime traffic. pan where there is a significant infra. again. it will be difficult for a insurance firms feel that UAVs are not non-existent at the moment aside civil UAV market to emerge. and weight potential for crashes in a dense urban Existing military UAVs are for the will effect the civil UAV market since environment. is. power intensive equipped with various types of sen- system will favor large UAVs but dis. The durabil. and Canada managed to market is discussed in more detail in the next decade. and if they present a from these rare sales. this is not a big issue if p a n ’s g e o g r a p h y a n d th e FAA cooperation. and research use. requirements for SAA financially unattractive. large. with EUROCAE the US UAV fleet. vironment for the operation of civil UAVs outside the military is likely to erating under different conditions UAVs. guard and border guard applications Durability: Civil vs Military Atti. To rates. Outside the US.

in 2006. agencies are more likely to wait until transport and other roles that an un- ine other roles for UAVs including UAVs are a proven technology with manned UAV is incapable of per- their use as a communication relay an established record of operational forming. While UAVs such as those of the US Forest Service lice organizations acquire a modest have attractions for some types of (USFS). UAVs for State and Local Gov. this could include drug missions such as traffic patrol. commercial UAV service which space access mentioned above. ernment Applications their performance is demonstrated at ple availability of alternate platforms. quake areas and volcanic eruptions. Since the require. the LA Sheriff’s and UAVs have been used in Israel for g o v e r n men t f o r emerg e n c y department attempted to operate police surveillance patrols. border patrols in remote areas. For the time being. to realistically estimate the trade-offs operating such UAVs is likely to be US military costs have significant between helicopters and UAVs for more expensive than manned aircraft. versatile and can be used for missions wildfire and providing real-time ments seem less pressing. these applications ment are very specialized platforms The USFS has tested a NASA seem more distant and on a smaller suitable mainly for the surveillance General Atomics Altair (Predator de. over the next decade f or any ble at the moment. to prove to be a suitable substitute for pushed forward by the state’s two tive to manned aircraft operations. these issues. and eventually penetrate other govern. there is no reli. an occasional significant number of UAVs for state Patrol UAV initiative is still small. It seems likely that UAVs will ments of a national government. as well as the am. VIP video. search search agency ONERA began a test enforcement activity such as surveil. scale than other government applica. similar functions. As excluding civil disaster scenarios ment for civil UAVs will be in similar in the case of fire-fighting aircraft. police helicopters for existing police senators. At the moment. law enforcement agencies are also in more confined geographic areas. For gun to examine UAVs for this role. There are few state agencies prehensive border security system cations with the type of surveillance require- including UAVs.Page 10 Executive Overview Coast Guard program is in deep trou. which the Border lance is. Saudi June the effort was shut down by the Arabia is currently looking at a com. these such as medical evacuation. Part of the over-land border patrol assignments. state Predator/Mariner UAV it was using cations surveillance. established technology. to see state and local police agencies emerging due to the usual litany of taking a growing interest in the use of reasons: airspace access. The USFS also plans to exam. and off applications. This application has been UAV operations becomes competi. weaknesses due to their use in a com. civil disaster surveil. The other likely near-term require. theless. some missions in locales where sur- Similar trials are occurring in France bat environment and the willingness veillance operations are a persistent and elsewhere in Europe. & rescue. it would not be surprising This market is likely to be slow in other segments of the government. It is also unclear when which could be a substitute ground costs. At the moment. helicop- already acquired small numbers of risky situations where a civil UAV ters will be a more versatile and helicopter UAVs which have been would probably be grounded. For example. leases UAVs to state and local example. durability. and local government applications. At the moment. medical evacuation and campaign in 2005 to use older Busard lance of terrain for drug cultivation. mission while a helicopter is more rivative) for monitoring a remote tions noted above. by its nature. So able track record to determine costs. UAVs at the mo- UAVs for fire patrol. UAVs in Other Federal Appli. it would levels are likely to act as a significant Another potential surveillance not be surprising to see the FBI and impediment until UAVs are a more market would be forest fire patrols comparable international federal po. Never. cost-effective alternative to UAVs. UAVs late in the forecast period as and cost concerns. the high rate of attrition of and the use of UAVs too risky and un- for example surveillance of earth. For example. impediment to UAV proliferation into However. UAVs will develop a track record of based repeaters in remote areas. used for similar disaster surveillance. SAGEM and the French re. it seems unlikely federal level and as a civil UAV in- namely manned aircraft. Besides that a significant market will emerge dustry begins to mature. FAA. budget limitations at state and local Civil Disaster Surveillance ment agencies. military UAVs serves as another certain to create a substantial market. This as coast guard maritime patrol and 2006. Other federal and local police tend to have missions for demonstration purposes to con. tenance of a dedicated UAV force. this could lead to the emergence of a problem is the impediment of air- The US border patrol has already be. event which may not merit the main. the Coast Guard employed a could be both optical and communi. operations’ costs to allow police units far. In assist in surveillance operations. This could World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . mentioned already above. duct surveillance on wildfires in potential customers once the cost of UAVs are unlikely in the mid-term Alaska. Japan has of the military to operate UAVs in mission. The applications would be number of UAVs in the long-term to broad area surveillance missions such for a variety of different platforms. USFS studies have concluded that air vehicle reliability or other factors. Chang Industry SkySeer UAV but in Angola for patrol of oil rigs.

Nev. power-lines. not serial production. air. nal/terrorist threats such as nuclear market has been undermined by prob- power plants. some organizations have sur. a small number of patrol efforts already mentioned. As a result. or the use of UAVs as a lems in the communications industry Research UAVs substitute for manned aircraft for sur. but ports and the like. serve as orbiting communication re. Fixed sites such as power of restricted terrain that inhibit UAV cal and gravimetric data. industry. For the emerge. US Department of Defense has dis- trols as well as fixed surveillance de. but the cost of ac. that no substantial market is likely to could include UAV surveillance. Teal Group is not fore- idly. Commercial Leasing/UAV Ser. Teal Group does not believe that a ports. such as the Coast Guard and Border surveillance methods would probably ranted. a California firm is op. and heightened perimeter security. a small number of Eagle Eye tilt-rotor specific local requirements such as tary-like reconnaissance UAVs to UAV by a company which plans to wide area search missions in areas paramilitary and surveillance roles. well under 10% ownership. provide UAV services to industry and near national forests and so on. radiologi- cost basis. ertheless. as airborne cellular antennas. Endurance UAVs UAV services than acquire and oper- There have been suggestions that have been suggested as the basis for a ate UAVs. these seem contrived and commer. At the moment. Some of plants and other industrial facilities operations. Should a vices operate research UAVs over the Pa- significant domestic terrorist threat One of the first commercial appli. low-cost alternative to satellites to vices option may prove to be the most mental security roles such as patrol. There have been reports that of the overall market. numerous applications have been government. come commercial. training crews and op. more economically addressed by an. contracting with the Is. agricultural addition. vehicles. This be met by UAVs. This could lays for communication networks and in th e s h o r t-term u n til U AV include surveillance against crimi. but quiring UAVs. cussed contracting private firms to vices such as CCTV. popular commercial route for UAVs ling critical infrastructure. The US Forest Service suggested for civilian UAVs. For example. near term. raeli government in 2004 to conduct vehicles are likely to be identical to cialist aviation firms contracting out surveillance operations over Gaza in their military counterparts. mental monitoring. emerge until the mid-term (2011-12) even in these dire circumstances. For example. cations for UAVs may not be direct time being. chemical plants tennas mounted on tethered balloons envisioned for UAVs such as environ- and so on appears to be remote due to or on minimally controlled balloons. The be the preferred choice until UAVs firms have already been organized to initial growth in the civil UAV field is mature. above. Some of has already stated that at least in the Surveillance of Critical Infra. The Israeli most likely to be quasi-military secu- The use of UAVs for survey of firm Aeronautics was one of the first rity applications such as maritime pa- power lines and pipelines is a niche in this field. and high altitude geolog- against existing technologies on a links in urban areas and in other types ical mapping of magnetic. It is none of this has transitioned to high use of UAVs for critical infrastructure possible that such a function could be volume commercial applications. the methods including both manned pa. or even rocket propelled grenades ernment or industrials firms for sur- (RPG) and begin attacking airlines veillance missions. there would likely be a call for veillance or survey needs that might substantial civil market yet exists. it would prefer to lease structure cially dubious. e n o u g h f lig h t time to j u s tif y erating UAVs for the film and TV and in our estimate. In communication relay UAVs as a solu. protection of fixed sites such as nu. if terrorists manage commercial applications but rather casting these non-commercial UAVs to smuggle man-portable anti-aircraft commercial ownership of UAVs as they are likely to be single air missiles (MANPADS) into a country. the UAV ser- UAVs might be used for non-govern. As men. be small through this forecast period. the yet emerged and may never do so. the civil UAV market is likely to purchase by firms which do not need tioned above. graphic data collection. erating the systems may be more beyond already established programs other more traditional patrol and complex and expensive than is war. This could pave the way these research applications could be- can use less expensive surveillance for civilian off-shoots. rather than technology hurdles. sult. attitudes could change rap. This technology matures. UAVs have been used extensively veys of pipelines.Executive Overview Page 11 begin with the lease or purchase of Commercial Applications Bell Textron already has contracts for small numbers of mini-UAVs for Besides the adaptation of mili. Scientific applications can be easily clear power plants. As suggested Civil UAV Market Summary from the perimeter of commercial air. oceano- use of UAVs already mentioned. weather/atmo- the many factors inhibiting the civil The military is beginning to look at spheric data collection. provide UAV services. which are in turn leased out to gov. cific to collect weather data. such an application has not for civilian scientific research. ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . As a re- UAV services rather than outright a quasi-military/police role. As a result. trol and border patrol and the air market that could be satisfied by spe. UAVs have to compete tion to the use of line-of-sight data monitoring.

heli. quisition by government agencies decade. The bottom line is DoD forced the Army and Navy to bly be slow in coming. this would the civil market in substantial should be recalled that the US Air probably push back this spurt to the numbers until the 1960s. poor decision ing industry to cater to other of aircraft manufacture up to 1920 making. spurt will be noticeable in the As aircraft technology became more The army finally settled on the mid-term of this forecast (2011) as- mature through the 1920s.500 1.295 1. Iraq roughly 30 years after the Army space access are formalized and are sible for roles such as mail delivery tactical UAV program began. Likewise. then the Air Force likely to be significant growth in overly ambitious design.747 1. Shadow includes numerous improve.405 1. not entering messy and less prolonged. lutionary technological advance.556 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . At no will be a spurt of small-scale UAV ac. The army U AV time-lin e is ev en mo r e non-military governmental and com- again tried repeatedly in the 1990s to protracted. occur before 2020.448 1. followed by cur until well outside this forecast pe. but that this is a poor Army decision making on the riod. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAVs 1. or oner- they reached maturity.772 1. is likely to be followed by a lull of a which may elucidate the time frame tems such as Compass Cope (1970s).500 1. logical barrier since in the same time such as the Coast Guard and Border The Numbers Regional Acquisition Forecast Summary by UAV Type USA (Units. A rapid rise in field a tactical UAV but was frustrated These historical analogies suggest civil UAV acquisition is unlikely to by bureaucratic interference when the that the civil UAV market will proba. and other normal impedi.499 1. This numbers of aircraft in civilian hands. few years while government and in- of civil UAV proliferation is the mili.722 1. strictions remain in place or include port. Rather it was a combi.688 1. Should the FAA re- and eventually for passenger trans.437 189 267 1. with modest ments to technological innovation initial commercial demand.500 1. Condor (1980s) before the advent of dustry become familiar with UAV op- tary example. mercial use of UAVs. If erations and associated issues such as Army. manifest until well into the next time was there any specific techno. which crippled the Army program. The bulk bureaucratic hurdles. tential for civilian use of UAVs is joint program (Hunter). civil appli.787 13. In the case of the US Predator and Global Hawk.310 1. Shadow and began deploying it in suming that the FAA standards for air- cations of aircraft became more plau. quite plausible. and within a decade had become ments over Israeli UAVs of the 1980s. complicated and expen- tary roles well into the 1950s until US Air Force example is perhaps less sive certification procedures.Page 12 Executive Overview UAVs today are probably in a situ. The not too onerous. tablishing a small UAV services/leas- at the end of World War II.150 — — 1. A likely scenario is that there long-term potential that will not be follow-on program (Outrider). by a handful of commercial firms es- of the First World War or helicopters nation of technological ambitions. This spurt Another more relevant analogy period of experimentation with sys. and that its that Teal Group believes that the po- join their disparate requirements in a most rapid rise will probably not oc. the army attempted to field a non-real-time reconnaissance RPVs durability and operational cost.160 Tactical UAVs 110 225 125 175 80 135 145 75 75 60 1205 Naval UAVs 1 6 6 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 78 MALE UAVs 27 38 45 88 59 49 39 40 38 38 461 HALE UAVs 5 6 5 5 7 7 9 9 8 8 69 UCAVs 3 1 1 4 — — — 4 5 10 28 Civil UAVs 7 7 7 7 35 67 69 84 111 161 555 Total 1.500 11. but it can hardly be considered a revo. such as a restrictive sense-and-avoid copters were largely confined to mili. The requirement. Only tactical UAV in the late 1970s are included such as the Vietnam-era after these issues are settled is there (Aquila) but was frustrated by and Firebee drones. as well as modest acquisitions ation analogous to aircraft at the end tactical UAVs. but it ous insurance levels. Force also took decades with a long end of the forecast period. government agencies as well as for was for the military. substantial technological hindrances a significant market. frame the Israelis managed to field Patrol.

0 75.0 1.0 120.0 Total 1.0 25.4 183.0 Total 200.0 — 40.0 45.0 50.0 147.0 UCAVs 200.4 2.0 100.0 96.0 36.0 — 48.0 125.510 (Value.0 30.9 23.000.897.0 1.0 210.0 Civil UAVs — — — — — 24.550.0 150.6 761.0 5.2 2.0 5.0 1.0 — 60.0 128.080 Tactical UAVs 20 26 59 43 48 36 36 6 6 6 286 MALE UAVs 8 — 2 7 14 16 13 2 — 6 68 HALE UAVs 2 2 6 6 6 1 2 — 3 11 39 Coast Guard MALE UAVs — — — — — — — 2 — — 2 Police TUAVs — — 10 10 10 5 — — — — 35 Total 150 88 197 386 98 178 171 110 109 23 1.6 Tactical UAVs 50.2 Middle East (Units.0 144.0 100.0 35.0 120.0 35.4 266.0 150.0 HALE UAVs 70.5 MALE UAVs 72.265.0 120.2 425.0 65.0 120.0 15.0 112.5 142.0 75.0 690.0 70.0 420.025.0 820.355.0 685.0 385.8 195.0 900.0 210.5 28.0 400.4 280.5 165.0 45.0 2.4 2.0 96.0 1.4 6.9 429.7 27.0 130.0 260. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAVs 331 390 345 225 190 295 460 540 390 96 3.0 104.365.4 17.0 2.4 325.035.0 — — — 300.0 448.7 308.0 90.0 605.850.0 715.0 35.0 15.9 566.0 2.0 95.0 — — 185.5 269.305.0 2.0 100.0 300.4 655.2 697.0 220.0 120.0 1.7 Tactical UAVs 108.395.0 100.0 888.0 75.4 20.4 5.0 70.5 276.0 — 21.3 4.5 11.5 276.095.0 900.0 157.Executive Overview Page 13 (Value.4 0.765.0 120.0 2.0 Civil UAVs 75.0 16.9 492.0 680.0 20.0 MALE UAVs 64.0 150.0 1.0 Tactical UAVs 35.0 18.0 95.0 15.0 HALE UAVs — — 40.0 140. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAVs 120 60 120 320 20 120 120 100 100 — 1.0 210.0 56.6 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems .060.0 1.0 105.4 2.0 91.0 2.0 UCAVs — — 30.0 — 30.0 75.6 32.0 5.7 13.0 285.0 — 105. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAVs 19.0 25.5 470.260.0 — 16.960.4 1.5 107.0 780.0 900.0 24.0 Europe (Units.0 Naval UAVs 40.0 MALE UAVs 195.0 HALE UAVs 455.0 75.0 25.0 Naval UAVs — — — 22.5 52.4 136.0 605.0 780.0 112.0 — 30.0 12.0 120.0 Civil UAVs — — 50.0 12.0 150.0 1.0 Total 186.0 2.262 Tactical UAVs 31 8 26 71 79 81 77 79 58 32 542 Naval UAVs — — — 3 7 16 23 22 21 19 111 MALE UAVs 6 11 12 2 5 5 8 8 7 10 74 HALE UAVs — — 1 — 1 3 3 3 3 3 17 UCAVs — — 1 — 1 1 — 2 — 1 6 Small Civil UAVs — — — — — — — — 12 12 24 Civil MALE UAVs — — — — — 2 1 1 1 1 6 Total 368 409 385 301 283 403 572 655 492 174 4.0 122.0 200.0 172.5 120.0 75. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAVs 25.865.0 25.5 120.0 225.0 385.0 60.0 7.0 635.0 705.5 832.0 150.0 1045.0 5.0 805.4 23.042 (Value.0 90.0 900.830.0 320.0 40.0 132.0 1.9 623.0 180.0 60.5 203. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAVs 2.0 248.0 84.0 225.0 50.105.0 36.0 25.793.0 — 10.4 43.0 385.5 283.0 544.

0 2. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAVs 45 105 190 165 310 410 280 210 130 300 2.0 30.0 45.6 16.0 9.0 165.0 24.849.3 44.0 45.8 52.0 141.0 90.956 (Value.0 5.145 Tactical UAVs 72 58 67 55 51 47 41 50 69 35 545 Naval UAVs — — — 27 12 15 15 18 24 30 141 MALE UAVs 2 — — 7 12 13 21 22 11 8 96 HALE UAVs — — 1 — 2 2 3 2 5 5 20 Coast Guard MALEs — — — — — 1 2 2 3 1 9 Commercial VTUAVs 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 3.0 52.0 — 144.0 150. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAVs — — — 10 35 30 20 20 — 10 125 Tactical UAVs 30 5 5 — — — 5 20 5 11 81 MALE UAVs — — 1 1 1 1 — — — — 4 Total 30 5 6 11 36 31 25 40 5 21 210 Americas/Africa (Value.7 225.0 HALE UAVs — — 35.0 45.0 9.0 15.0 62.0 Civil MALE UAVs — — — — — 10.8 18.0 120.0 3.8 17.635.0 123.3 11.0 700.8 70.7 6. $ millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAVs 2.9 478.0 Total 283.0 10.0 174.7 The Americas (less USA) (Units.000 Total 419 463 558 554 687 788 662 604 542 679 5.0 — 2.0 72.0 24.8 1.0 Naval UAVs — — — 162.6 24.0 210.0 30.3 — 1.8 1.0 15.0 — 70.0 35. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAVs 15 25 — 15 65 30 35 — — 45 230 Tactical UAVs 6 6 10 14 10 4 — — — — 50 MALE UAVs — 2 3 — — — 5 1 1 — 12 Total 21 33 13 29 75 34 40 1 1 45 292 Africa (Units.0 80.0 45.0 153.3 292.0 450.0 45.0 MALE UAVs 20.0 Commercial UAVs 45.6 510.6 718.0 846.0 105.8 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation .0 45.0 20.0 105.Page 14 Executive Overview Asia-Pacific (Units.9 18.0 45.0 45.0 175.0 Total 9.0 294.0 175.0 144.3 5.8 455.0 201. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAVs 0.0 — — 70.0 60.0 108.0 9.0 90.0 90.000.0 130.3 81.0 207.0 9.0 45.0 36.4 9.4 451.0 42.0 12.0 1.0 220.0 128.8 625.0 45.0 MALE UAVs — 18.0 33.0 9.0 45.6 7.0 180.7 Tactical UAVs 216.0 2.8 12.8 Tactical UAVs 9.0 70.0 70.0 20.8 613.0 110.6 609.0 33.

0 72.0 401.500 1.262 Middle East 120 60 120 320 20 120 120 100 100 — 1.3 — 1.0 75.5 832.635.8 195.0 144.5 276.0 294.965 1.0 90.4 2.355.0 40.0 95.5 726.0 165.0 25.0 90.0 30.150 — — 1.0 310. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 1 6 6 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 78 Europe — — — 3 7 16 23 22 21 19 111 Asia-Pacific — — — 27 12 15 15 18 24 30 141 Total 1 6 6 38 27 40 48 50 55 59 330 (Value.0 45.8 12.709 (Value.0 12.0 172.6 32.4 52.806 1.0 5.0 5.0 105.0 60.6 53.2 2.5 203.6 24.0 2.120 1.0 105.0 225.9 18.310 1.6 7.0 141.0 123.0 33.4 6.4 20.5 276.0 20.0 15.0 3.4 1.8 57.5 52.5 373.0 45.0 674.0 25.0 1.7 54.0 45.5 28.3 11.0 65.500 1.0 25.0 1.0 Total 418.896.7 Middle East 2.0 180.0 153.8 1.0 33.7 Americas/Africa 0.0 75.0 15.1 60. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 25.0 40.500 1.0 5.483.370 2.8 18.0 100.8 Total 50.145 Americas 15 25 — 15 65 30 35 — — 45 230 Africa — — — 10 35 30 20 20 — 10 125 Total 1.0 5.0 108.951 18.5 120.5 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems .7 27.0 805.0 15.0 Europe 19. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 40.0 744.0 715.5 517. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 35.0 225.0 150.5 430.4 2.0 260. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 110 225 125 175 80 135 145 75 75 60 1.9 23.0 Total 40.0 25.0 35.4 9.6 16.985 1.0 147.0 367.5 422.5 283.0 Europe — — — 22.5 142.4 2.0 90.0 — 2.0 2.8 1.0 100.5 56.080 Asia-Pacific 45 105 190 165 310 410 280 210 130 300 2.5 561.2 59.0 130.4 5.0 112.0 95.5 Asia-Pacific — — — 162.4 23.160 Europe 331 390 345 225 190 295 460 540 390 96 3.500 11.7 6.2 71.885 620 885 2. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 1.5 305.0 Naval UAVs (Units.6 583.0 42.8 Tactical UAVs (Units.295 1.897.0 Middle East 50.5 2.0 75.0 248.5 269.5 199.3 5.6 Asia-Pacific 2.7 13.0 91.5 11.0 — 21.5 665.0 259.0 35.0 90.5 120.0 Asia-Pacific 216.415 2.5 165.0 128.5 107.0 174.0 846.4 0.0 15.0 285.0 220.0 201.0 75.Executive Overview Page 15 UAV Regional Production Forecast Summary by UAV Type Mini-UAVs (Units.205 Europe 31 8 26 71 79 81 77 79 58 32 542 Middle East 20 26 59 43 48 36 36 6 6 6 286 Asia-Pacific 72 58 67 55 51 47 41 50 69 35 545 Americas 6 6 10 14 10 4 — — — — 50 Africa 30 5 5 — — — 5 20 5 11 81 Total 269 328 292 358 268 303 304 230 213 144 2.0 68.0 1.4 17.0 Americas/Africa 9.002 (Value.0 157.0 Europe 108.405 1.0 15.8 17.0 100.0 207.5 848.

0 75.0 1.0 939.300.580.0 210.0 1.0 726.0 1.0 175.0 845.0 Asia-Pacific — — 35.0 690.0 — 16.0 1105.0 70.0 — 70. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 7 7 7 7 35 67 69 84 111 161 555 Europe — — — — — 2 1 1 13 13 30 Middle East — — 10 10 10 5 — 2 — — 37 Asia 300 300 300 300 300 301 302 302 303 301 3.0 175.0 888.0 210.0 1140.595.0 300.195. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 195.0 1. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total US 27 38 45 88 59 49 39 40 38 38 461 Europe 6 11 12 2 5 5 8 8 7 10 74 Middle East 8 — 2 7 14 16 13 2 — 6 68 Asia 2 — — 7 12 13 21 22 11 8 96 Americas — 2 3 — — — 5 1 1 — 12 Africa — — 1 1 1 1 — — — — 4 Total 43 51 63 105 91 84 86 73 57 62 715 (Value.0 385.0 900.0 9.0 30.009 Total 307 307 317 317 345 375 372 389 427 475 3.0 70.0 — — — 300.0 220.0 36.0 HALE UAVs (Units.0 — 30.0 120.0 1.0 128.0 120.0 9.0 56.0 84.090. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 3 1 1 4 — — — 4 5 10 28 Europe — — 1 — 1 1 — 2 — 1 6 Total 3 1 2 4 1 1 — 6 5 11 34 (Value.0 1032.0 16.0 75.0 Middle East 70.0 9.0 — 30.0 2.0 420.0 80.0 112.0 — 144.0 7.0 330. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 455.0 70.0 780.0 75.0 Americas/Africa — 18.0 544.0 1081.0 605.260.00 Civil UAVs (Units.0 705.0 900.0 430.0 120.631 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation .0 668.0 45.0 130.0 30.0 300.0 210.0 110.0 1.0 104. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 5 6 5 5 7 7 9 9 8 8 69 Europe — — 1 — 1 3 3 3 3 3 17 Middle East 2 2 6 6 6 1 2 — 3 11 39 Asia — — 1 — 2 2 3 2 5 5 20 Total 7 8 13 11 16 13 17 14 19 27 145 (Value.0 200.0 132.0 1.0 35.365.0 96.0 900.850.0 9.010. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 200.0 1.836.0 320.0 210.0 120.0 400.0 680.0 — 48.0 Europe 72.000.0 — 60.0 120.730.0 105.0 Asia-Pacific 20.0 Europe — — 40.0 Total 351.0 8.0 1.0 Europe — — 30.0 120.0 385.0 105.0 96.0 801.0 200.0 UCAVs (Units.0 Middle East 64.0 780.0 470.0 5.0 635.0 685.0 180.0 70.0 24.0 9.0 120.0 820.Page 16 Executive Overview MALE UAVs (Units.0 675.0 — 60.0 385.0 Total 525.0 60.0 — — 70.0 10.0 — 40.0 Total 200.550.0 605.0 — 105.0 144.0 700.0 1045.0 900.0 60.270.0 588.

0 150.0 50.0 125.0 195.0 237.0 150.0 — — 185.0 540.0 — 10.0 36.0 45.0 12.0 12.0 254.Executive Overview Page 17 (Value.0 100.0 Total 120.0 140.0 75.0 Europe — — — — — 24.0 65.2110.0 241.0 Asia-Pacific 45.0 65.0 .0 36.0 45.0 25.0 120.0 120.0 55.265.0 45.0 75.0 1.0 150.0 150.0 261.0 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems .0 227.0 50. $ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USA 75.0 150.0 55.0 45.0 Middle East — — 50.0 220.0 235.

Page 18 Executive Overview World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation .

Global Hawk. Most of the reconnaissance systems too ambitious and after nearly a de- nam War based primarily on the were the older generation which re. and United States. followed with tactical short-range UAVs. sition that is likely to taper off over the Even if a full set of regulations be- Past as Prologue The US made extensive use of re. On the other hand. civil UAV operations. cade of development and $1. a civil market forefront of developing and deploy. and BAMS are likely sense-and-avoid requirements for even. This MQM-105 Aquila UAV which began tience with the ineffective manner in US UAV Production Forecast By Type (Production. In general. the MALE and may take time to emerge depending ing reconnaissance and strike UAVs. the mid-term around 2011-2012. Israel’s innovative use of tactical durance and hypersonic UAVs in the bility. for a variety of missions. HALE programs such as Predator.5 billion BQM-34 Firebee drone. The US Navy op. Congress finally lost pa- in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The first serious effort to de. on t echni cal i s s ues s uc h a s the path has been protracted and un. least a temporary bow-wave of acqui. line scanners with no real time capa. it was finally cancelled.500 200 $2. velop a new-generation tactical UAV lighted the potential value of this new erated hundreds of QH-50 DASH with real-time intelligence capability generation of real-time intelligence anti-helicopter drones off destroyers was the US Army’s ambitious systems.000 50 $500 0 $0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Mini (x10) Tactical MALE HALE Naval UCAV Civil Expenditures ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . in the late 1970s. The first stage is small in the out-years by relatively small the current production effort is a re. The combat op. tradition has been largely forgotten. come available by then. presumes that the civil market will be- with strategic endurance UAVs than ket are beginning to emerge in the gin with federal investment. $ Millions) 250 $2. some flection of this trend.000 150 $1. The program proved connaissance UAVs during the Viet. the US armed forces to see a more even acquisition pattern. UAVs in the 1982 Lebanon war high- 1960’s and 1970s. extensive development effort in en. The lack of of which will be lease operations erations in Iraq have encouraged a FAA regulations for regular access to aimed at government requirements rapid introduction of mini-UAVs and national airspace will limit the scope such as fire-fighting and weather pa- tactical UAVs which have caused at of civil UAV acquisition at least until trols. and had an lied on wet film cameras and infrared in funding. scale use of UAVs by federal agencies scale commercial acquisitions. Our forecast have had considerably more success The first signs of a civil UAV mar.The US Market Market Overview Although the US is currently in the mid-term as operations wind down.500 100 $1. Air Vehicles) (Expenditures.

4 37.2 797.6 622. deploy volatile fuels on board ship though mini-UAVs have distinct limi- The long delay in deploying UAVs but heavy fuel engines were a techno.3 44. the three services. At the root of the problems quirements. gen. and Marine requirements.7 763. quality. Even ture efforts. The joint programs the obvious.7 90. $2.1 Navy — — — — — — — — 37.7 123. Furthermore. the army had no prob. but unat. Force systems rely on runways for tem.0 324.2 38. own way in the late 1990s. and endurance. range.5 721.4 972. tactical UAV missions mini-UAVs has emerged due to the well suited to a naval environment typically required a day’s notification distinct requirements of the Iraq oper. mini-UAVs in recent years such as the later.0 157.5 USAF — — — — 200.2 133. hardly a desirable ations that were not even envisioned premium.6 422.Page 20 The US Market which the US armed services were incompatible requirements.1 248. Army. logical barrier.1 581.4 29.7 USMC — — — — — 2.4 105. In June 1988. grams stem from the need to have 1996.2 133. phibious operations.6 153.6 157. small unit UAVs for timely intelli- rected the requirement in recent years tional naval missions.2 816.9 95.9 397. while the Navy is still fum- submitted a seven-year. cal close.0 138. Vertical-take off is the ob.0 34.2 407. gasoline.9 834. durance RQ-4 Global Hawk were the air vehicle of limited range since the The Marine Corps. The “me. and the needed.6 513. for the Shadow rather than yet an- dium-range” RQ-1 Predator and en. It is worth vious solution for the Navy.8 511. The Navy was loathe to can avoid these restrictions.7 322.5 33. Belatedly recognizing capability.0 162. it is now opting a variety of missions. The Navy has only modest in.4 56.4 218. gence gathering.059. Prior to the arrival of the oneer. ping UAV efforts and in 1987 it froze were merged into a joint effort by the At the moment.0 5.4 319. the planning to piggy-back on the Navy Medium-Range.0 7.3 35. not constrained by with the ERMP effort. and Air first into service followed by the endurance mission is left to the Air Force have all deployed off-the-shelf Army’s RQ-7 Shadow some 15 years Force.9 299. The Army is content with an other Pioneer life-extension.9 DoD 210. after a pursuing separate and often overlap.2 7. tactical UAV effort.9 761. aviation fuels and diesel in immediate intelligence gathering ance UAVs under the Air Force.8 47. they tors. and weight.3 74.1 35.8 587.2 793.3 917.7 165. situation under fluid counter-insur- under the original scheme.1 102. imagery in the 1990s was due to a host of fac. Army and Air into the local air traffic control sys- Marine Corps is still stuck with the Pi.8 91.108. An entirely new class of small take-off and landing which are not mini-UAVs.5 362.2 67. These pro- (BQM-155 Hunter) was cancelled in to support the Marine Corps in am. they the likely production potential of fu. the early 1990s combining Army.5 Procurement ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 Army — 0.1 Navy 30. The short-range program terest in short range systems.7 14. though the army has resur. OSD finally consented thrived.6 347. the Pentagon Navy.0 6.5 Total 157.8 889.7 1.4 231. have generally had problems due to to letting the Army and Navy go their DOD UAV Funding History RDT&E ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 Army 50. The tacti.2 87. substantial delay in the program.3 billion the programs were an embarrassing bling around trying to define its re- master plan covering development mess. they have erally prospered.8 176. quirements were fundamentally dif. As a result.9 1160.4 395.2 913. tations in terms of durability.2 USAF 157.3 631.2 45.3 208. its vehicles. The Navy has faster. the medium and high endur. The Marine Corps has and procurement of four different were the divergent requirements of been left in the lurch because it was UAVs (Close-Range. g e n c y co n d itio n s . The programs with a single lems with the fuel issue as its uses can provide tactical units with near sponsor. 30 years after the start of the Aquila vice plan.1 51.and short-range system.2 1.9 98. and higher endurance system is the need to integrate their missions not bought any tactical UAVs.3 244. mainly Raven and Dragon Eye. and Endurance) for Army requirements and Navy re. But for tradi.5 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . a longer range. and program. where deck space is at an absolute prior to missions. ferent.1 13. the Army has fi- all RDT&E funding and directed Office of the Secretary of Defense in nally fielded its RQ-7 Outrider almost DoD to develop a coherent joint-ser. In particular. S in c e th e recalling the long development span tractive to the army and the air force mini-UAVs fly under the generally of these UAVs when trying to forecast since it adds unwanted complexity accepted controlled-airspace.0 Total 291. Short-Range.

to be considered. However. The Marine Corps plans to finally tracking and other weather and re- the USAF has backed away from an replace Pioneer with Shadow. since the Air Force of the Warrior for the ERMP require.2 133. perhaps a dozen air vehicles. The Customs Service will be that the USAF suddenly lost interest tain.7 1. un.329. The FAA is currently black (and very expensive) for much ments in the short term.5 1. In total. albeit one higher altitudes.596. Boeing Scan Eagles in Iraq. NOAA would like and a futuristic hypersonic bomber as technology effort that is likely more to acquire a small number of endur- envisioned under the joint DARPA than a decade off. space access. gence of a civil UAV market remains within the forecast period will be the though the Navy has yet to fully de. but compartmented secret program.1 2. air space. JSF late in the forecast period.3 631. on this issue due to their role in pro- drop in USAF RDT&E funding after with the future requirement most moting the use of UAVs in the civil the J-UCAS was reorganized and put closely tied to the LCS Littoral Com. ance UAVs. on the Mexican and Canadian borders p r o g r a m “ w e n t b l a c k ” in t o a gram is likely to be frail.a research purposes. limbo. press on with other tactical UAV pro.1 248.4 218. market is likely to begin in the US systems for large UAVs operating at during this forecast period. DARPA Falcon rubric.5 Procurement 157.8 1. these unmanned strategic bomber.5 Total 448. but elaborate capabilities.2 1. bit hard to believe until carrier land.977. In recent months. foreshad. On the technological side.425. beyond the procurement of such a system is diffi. Hawks and Predators.8 511.The US Market Page 21 US Summary ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 RDT&E 291.6 513.2 816. the Navy’s commitment operating small numbers of Predators in UCAS and far more likely that the to the remnants of the J-UCAS pro. The idea that due to Congressional initiatives. The several emerging markets are likely to most likely mission will be the Broad single greatest barrier to the emer- reach fruition. RQ-7 and the eventual procurement existing waivers for temporary use of cult to predict. rules will emerge. the follow on pro.081. the sive) with both the Predator and grams. a cat. but with the cancellation gies depending on the size of the UAV of sensors adding significantly to the of this program.0 Future US UAV Trends The Navy is finally starting to that is likely to be restricted to the Looking across the next decade.2 729. role. A quick perusal of the fund. primarily for fense) aircraft.9 761. It is preposterous bat Ship.3 917. with the trying to establish guidelines for of our forecast period. initially with of collision avoidance system is likely support in spite of some significant Warrior but eventually with a to impact the nature of UAV access to cost escalation. be far more problematic and may There are several significant hurdles The other Air Force programs are never emerge. The Navy is still The Coast Guard was paving the way ing chart above will show a marked slow on the tactical UAV mission. primarily for hurricane Falcon program.9 98. The Army is likely to here. sector.073. especially an armed FAA’s likely insistence on some form Global Hawk enjoying solid service hunter-killer capability. a strategic bomber. but this effort has gone into under Navy control. Finally.3 208. P-8 MMA aircraft. government activities might total as effort will probably remain in limbo e g o r y s o me w h e r e b e tw e e n many as three dozen endurance UAVs over the next decade under the mini-UAVs and TUAV. The governmental sector initially. The start of completion of the fielding of the day-to-day use of UAVs. but the FAA is aim- bow-wave with the arrival of the F-35 grams connected to FCS are likely to ing for the 2011-2012 time frame. rate systems for mini-UAVs operating adding considerably to the system’s The emergence of a civil UAV at very low-altitudes. though at the same time. another one will have and its flight regime with less elabo- system costs. cal. NASA is applications including a fighter-sized manned aircraft off their carriers is a acquiring a modest number of Global SEAD (suppression of enemy air de.9 1160. ing capabilities are fully proved. It is unclear how soon these faces an upcoming procurement ment. The cost escalation stand-alone system optimized to this airspace. The the Navy will seriously entertain the the force is likely to remain small. uncertainties over the timing of ac- Air force follow-on to the cancelled fine how BAMS will relate to the new cess to controlled national airspace.059. This might end up being a has been largely connected to capabil.1 2. and to search applications. with the addition by UCAR. The far most owed by extensive use of Leased The emergence of a commercial likely area of USAF RDT&E invest.9 834. the moment due to the lack of air and the program is likely to remain atively well defined set of require.108.8 1. shape its future requirements. civil UAV market is unpredictable at ment will be in a fighter-sized UCAS The Army at the moment has a rel. over the forecast period. This might have been satisfied menu of sense-and-avoid technolo- ities improvements. Air Force has several potential UCAS operation of relatively large.2 793.2 913.3 382. Should some single ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . J-UCAS. which itself is far from cer.5 1. so this join the Navy on a “small” UAV. The biggest single item Area Maritime Surveillance role.2 307.4 972. both administrative and techni- by far the most mature (and expen.

0 Navy 797.0 11.7 95.761.240.136.0 350.638.5 1.555.8 5. and mature considerably before it at the fringes. or other applications.2 20.1 863.4 816.0 12.0 1. and other missions.108.0 357.0 35.095.0 USAF 889.8 485.742.200.0 2.2 300.7 1.0 3.0 USAF 662. lance.5 12. system for detection and avoidance.0 460. fied by UAVs such as emergency ser.596.0 650.3 603. implies that UAV technology must tive ventures into commercial UAVs vices.0 1.0 885.0 Total 1.0 943.2 1. able to afford a permanent UAV force.0 650.0 50.1 317.0 350.200.0 750.6 1.0 50.0 1.4 1.0 8.5 776.3 994. have requirements that could be satis.0 Total 1.0 2.508.0 1.0 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation .0 485.2 403.102. small/tactical-sized UAVs which are fire-fighting companies.5 1.588.893. A A modest commercial leasing indus- this could adversely affect the emer.200.345.0 50.670.1 484.254. However.0 1.0 2.345. have such a steady requirement to be US UAV Funding Forecast RDT&E.894. Procurement and O&M ($ Billions) $7 $6 $5 $4 $3 $2 $1 RDT&E Procurement O&M $0 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 US UAV Budget Forecast RDT&E ($ Millions) FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 Army 95.0 700.9 979.0 Procurement ($ Millions) FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 Army 91.3 1.0 200.022.4 100.0 Navy 37.9 895.Page 22 The US Market approach be chosen. cost-competitive alternatives which There will probably be some tenta.674. for example the use of search-and-rescue but who do not becomes commercially attractive. TV.0 1.498.767.0 3.0 460.638.6 1.0 970. Many civil commercial demand for UAVs will be likely to be the inexpensive entry government organizations might more tightly constrained by cost and point for commercial use.3 736. more likely scenario would be the try may emerge to satisfy these needs gence of a civil/commercial UAV emergence of a UAV leasing industry as well analogous commercial needs market since such systems might be directed towards government re.1 46.0 1.8 5. road/infrastructure survey.2 25.621.0 200. mini-UAVs that operate under con.0 USMC 90.0 2.022.7 1.5 1.0 12.0 45.6 5.4 1.7 860. for observation.1 619.545.5 301. such as an active trolled airspace for possible surveil.3 475.9 8.9 10.5 699.0 1. land and crop sur- impractical or too expensive on quirements analogous to the aircraft veying.0 1.0 1.1 122.

0 UCAV 200.0 Naval UAV 40.761.000 1.2 3.767.500 1.0 400.0 320.674.660.6 3.638 1.0 4.0 1.295 1.0 2.5 1.893.0 3.0 2.1 3.894.0 1.0 5.0 35.638.0 420.7 1.125.0 605.001 USCG (Eagle Eye) — — — — — 2 4 4 6 6 22 USG (Large UAV) 2 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 38 US Commercial (Small UAV) 5 5 5 5 30 60 60 75 100 150 495 Total US Civilian 7 7 7 7 35 67 69 84 111 161 555 US Procurement Expenditure by Category ($ Millions) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Mini-UAV 25.0 1.0 375.0 50.0 45.0 O&M 265.0 25.626 13.430 154 200 1.656.0 330.621.160 USN/USMC (STUAS) 75 150 120 120 65 120 120 — — — 770 US (TUAV) 30 50 5 55 — — — 60 60 60 320 USMC (MCTUAS) 5 25 — — — — 10 — — — 40 USA (MQ-8B) — — — — 15 15 15 15 15 — 75 Subtotal TUAVs 110 225 125 175 80 135 145 75 75 60 1205 USN (MQ-8) 1 6 6 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 78 Subtotal Naval UAVs 1 6 6 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 78 USAF (R/MQ-1) 24 24 24 41 26 27 20 20 20 20 246 USAF (MQ-9) 3 2 9 11 9 10 7 8 8 8 75 USA (ERMP) — 12 12 36 24 12 12 12 10 10 140 Subtotal MALE UAVs 27 38 45 88 59 49 39 40 38 38 461 USN (BAMS) — — — — 2 2 4 4 3 3 18 USAF (RQ-4) 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 51 Subtotal HALE UAVs 5 6 5 5 7 7 9 9 8 8 69 USAF (X-45) 1 — — — — — — — — — 1 USN (X-47) 2 1 1 2 — — — — — — 6 USAF (NG-SEAD) — — — 2 — — — 4 5 10 21 Subtotal UCAVs 3 1 1 4 — — — 4 5 10 28 Total US Military 1.0 75.0 NOTE: This is an estimate of calendar year expenditures on UAVs.0 290.0 900.0 270.607.5 3.0 310.6 1.0 1.0 400.0 2.0 300.500 6.0 35.500 1.0 430.0 3.0 25.0 US Production Forecast (Units.0 295. ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems .0 900.500 11.0 Civil UAV 55.563.4 1.0 690.0 100.0 Total 1.681 1.0 65.0 Total 2.928. Air Vehicles) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total RQ-11 Raven (USA) 1.0 900.0 345.498.2 1.596.555.0 705.0 95.710.0 75.0 2.150 — — 1.636 1.0 MALE UAV 195.370.0 685.023.0 5.0 — — — 300.360.0 100.0 385.867.0 Procurement 1.4 1.638.0 40.0 5.0 1.655.772.345.095.0 400.108.500 1.0 200.6 1.0 310.0 2.0 400.0 295.7 1.819.0 75.000 Subtotal Mini-UAVs 1.7 3.0 330.0 900.595.0 1.0 330.588.000 — — — — — — 4.703 1.000 1.155.0 100.0 2.500 1.860.0 1.742.0 45.508.0 75.0 490.022.0 605.0 2.500 1.0 320.492 1.0 635.0 370.000 1.670.022.0 1.0 500.000 RQ-11 Raven (USMC) 145 275 120 — — — — — — — 540 BATMAV (USAF) 150 130 190 150 — — — — — — 620 Other Mini (US) — — — — — — 1.0 65.0 3.The US Market Page 23 Summary ($ Millions) FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 RDT&E 1.0 820.607.0 460.500 1.310 1.0 65.0 25.0 385.0 1.0 HALE UAV 455.190. not fiscal year procurement budget.0 1045.0 100.441 1.0 105.0 2.0 780.0 5.0 780.0 35.405 1.0 Tactical UAV 185.0 40.0 300.250.

T h e u p g r a d e d v e r s io n . UCAVs.Britain began steps to ational requirements document in the MQ-1A Predator. the Predator-B ner (a. acquire the MQ-9A alongside the five in 2004. The Tier 1 was devel- oped primarily under CIA funding. improved types such as the MQ-9A The Army plans to acquire seven or and currently stands at 367 air vehi. Italy became the first September 1996. th e Gnat-750-TE Predator won the DoD’s Tier 2 competition with a de- velopment award in January 1994 and in 1997 was redesignated as the RQ-1A. lease or borrow Predators for opera- summer of 1997.Page 24 The US Market Program Profiles This section of the study examines ture categories of UAVs including the Future Combat Systems (FCS) each of the major UAV programs sep.a. Earth Science Enterprise for research tract for two GCS and eight air vehi. and mini-/micro-UAVs. arately. it is the first civil on 20 August 1997. national airspace. General Atomics delivered its General Atomics and Lockheed 100th Predator on 5 February 2004. its UAV requirements for a divi. Additional sales to steadily increased to accommodate raeli Heron called Hunter II in 2005. Martin are teamed to offer a deriva- A new version of the Predator was tive of the Predator called the Mari- announced in 2000. The Predator was first de- ployed over Bosnia in the summer of MQ-9A Predator B 1995. and was operationally deployed for surveillance missions over the former Yugoslavia in 1993-94. applications as the Altair and first cles was awarded to General Atomics tended Range Multipurpose UAV flew in June 2003. more systems. The Predator stemmed from the ear- lier Tier 1 and Tier 2 Medium Endur- ance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MAE-UAV). and has brief overviews of fu- RQ-1/MQ-9 Predator Overview The RQ-1A Predator is the US Air Force’s first medium endurance UAV. The US Army awarded a contract tions in Iraq in early 2004 and has came the first ACTD program to be in May 2003 for three IGNAT UAVs used them in combat. and Predator be. sional/corps level UAV called the Ex. The Air Force is planning to ing six systems in 2000 and a further agreement on the system’s joint oper. plans. It uses the General Atomics Gnat 750 air vehicle. The US Air Force (ERMP). but this number has petition against a derivative of the Is. NASA and NOAA are expected. Army programs related to program. Force.k. The first series production con. The US Air Force assumed op- erational control of the Predator on 2 hunter-killer version for the Air requirement. A Predator derivative called UAV to win an FAA airworthiness had a requirement for 12 systems and Warrior won the Army ERMP com. certificate which facilitates its use in 101 air vehicles. each with 12 air cles though FY11 under current vehicles. it is designated as the MQ-9A export customer for Predator. In its (Broad Area Mission Surveillance) US Army Warrior ERMP World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . The Predator-B approved for procurement in August based on the Predator to help define version was selected by NASA’s 1997. order- The armed forces reached final Reaper. Predator B-ER) as a which was first acquired by NASA contender for the US Navy’s BAMS for research purposes.

000 (MQ-1B) $8. The Air Force se.7 Reaper mods — — — — — — — — — 20.000 (MQ-9) FY07: $4. each consisting of FY04 budget plan.0 320.0 203. The FY07 budget submission ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . The bomb.000 (MQ-1B) $14.4 30. the FY02 Plus-Up added four MQ-1B.9 A P r e d a to r B Air Force service. Costs Procurement unit costs (then-year $) from P-1 documents: FY99: $7.7 57. Under the lected the Predator B for this mission.909.0 (quantity) (11) (7) (7) (22) (25) (15) (27) (24) (24) (24) Reaper — — — — — — — — — 58.1 PE0305204A Tactical UAV ERMP — — — — — — — 92. for a grand total of eight in the basic ap- propriation and 21 in the various add-ons.6 253.9 45.0 PE0305219F Predator Development Predator — — — — — 40.499. ered to Creech AFB in Nevada in The Budget Roller-Coaster sion of Predator.263.095.0 278. The FY08 budget sub.1 67.667.3 PE0304260F Airborne SIGINT MQ-9 SIGINT — — — — — — — — 2.000 (MQ-9) FY08: $5.0 74.6 18.000 (MQ-1B) $13.000 (MQ-1B) $12.1 13.5 9.302.6 US Army Procurement: BA2 Communications and Electronics Equipment ERMP — — — — — — — 42.9 58. After FY07.5 (quantity) — — — — — — — — — (1) *Request **In FY02.440. hunter-killer UAVs in the FY02-09 funding in the FY02 budget covered mission anticipates funding 50 budgets. but under the FY05 budget the acquisition of the first three Reapers through FY13.561.459.1 82. and AGM-65 Maverick mis- The success of the armed RQ-1A first Reaper was built in January 2002 sile. Predators led the Air Force to acceler.5 235.4 — — 14. The FY02 Supplemental added nine MQ-1B and 1 MQ-9.2 120. this was slashed to 27 air vehicles and MQ-9As.9 22.4 118.664.The US Market Page 25 Funding History RDT&E ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02** FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08* PE0205219F Reaper Development Reaper — — — — — — — — — 61.5 29.000 (MQ-1B) $11.000 (MQ-9) FY03: $3.1 54.367.000 (MQ-9) FY04: $4.3 139.000 (MQ-1B) $12.924.000 (MQ-9) FY06: $3. the Predator program received an additional $167. the Air The Air Force has funded 102 air hunter-killer role.8 10. Force objective was to acquire two vehicles through FY04.5 (quantity) — — — — — — — (2) (2) (4) Predator mods 3. the USAF was to now designated MQ-9A Reaper in 20 air vehicles and five ground con. it would appear the actual number funded was lower with a total of 102 air vehicles funded in FY97-03. and a total of 23 Reapers The Air Force is also expected to revised yet again in the FY06 budget were funded as part of the Predator begin trials of other munitions from back up to 101 Predator Bs through line in FY02-07. However.400.2 Procurement ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02** FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08* US Air Force Procurement 3010F Predator 129.By mid-2002.000 (MQ-9) Current Developments MQ-9A Reaper is funded on its own budget line.800 (RQ-1) FY02: $2. Supplementary trol stations.6 million from the Defense Emergency Relief Fund (DERF) which was used to equip the Predator with a Multi-Spectral Laser Designator/Sensor and Hellfire launch capability as well as purchase an additional four RQ-1A and three MQ-9A air vehicles.7 36.727.1 202. f u n d 6 2 MQ . Reaper the MQ-9A including the JDAM FY11. dedicated to the March 2007.632.000 (MQ-1B) $11. MQ-9 squadrons.000 (MQ-9) FY05: $4. and first operational reaper was deliv- ate the development of a heavier ver.

support system will involve and Aus. In 2007 during the Predator derivative called Warrior. Multi-Purpose UAV. not as. Under the level. The Navy cles each. teamed with Lockheed tive time on station” objective that FY05 and included General Atomics Martin. for an undisclosed application. 2005. The Navy began its Maritime gram. One of aircraft starting in 2014. noting that it will be a com. during the FY06 based on the Predator to help define shift in procurement objectives. partner on the program. of FY09. for the BAMS requirement with ment on 13 January 2007 to become Funding for engineering develop- eventual procurement of an endur. pected to be completed by 1QFY08.Page 26 The US Market in February 2006 again saw a major budget. was expected to cost $280. 285 Predators from FY02 to FY13. and the two Global Hawks ment funding of the first system in will be delivered in 2004-05. but a more capa- creased from 59 to 218 aircraft while plementary system to the P-8A Posei. the FY08 budget envisions the initial offerings was a turbo-jet has not yet publicly announced an ac.5 million lance. At the same RDT&E funding as well as planned Shadow for use at division/corps time. a Mariner.32 billion cost sion of the Israeli Heron called The Navy has acquired two Global assigned to the program. The MQ-1 objective in. ment for over 120 air vehicles. implying a require- unmanned Gulfstream derivative. ble platform was desired by the Army. The Army expects to reach veillance role. is offering a derivative of the could be met by different aircraft in (teamed with AAI and Sparta) with a Predator B. the objective is of 2007. Under the FY05 budget plant. The SDD pro. that it has a $2. The Army re- Although the Navy selected the contract in 1QFY08. acquired a single MQ-9A Predator B full-rate production award at the end tions of UAVs for the maritime sur. budget. estimates the ERMP requirement on 8 August This is intended to serve as the basis Australia signed a BAMS agree. initial Extended Range UAV procurement funding for the BAMS The US Army awarded a contract UAV would be provided in the FY07 in May 2003 for three IGNAT UAVs World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . not an entirely new veillance The Navy plans to award the SDD system infrastructure. two more aircraft. The Army plans to begin procure- in FY03. there was a pronounced shift in procurement funding. In the FY08 program were submitted in the spring tween the Army Shadow and the Air budget submission. funded in the FY09 to entail about four-five systems each time surveillance role. The RQ-5 Hunter was once the composition of the planned force FY07 budget released in February considered a possible candidate for in favor of the MQ-1 over the MQ-9 2006. the Navy indicated Northrop-Grumman team with a ver- flew on 22 April 2004. Force MQ-9 Predator B in capability. fering a derivative of its RQ-4B However. The General Atomics Hawk endurance UAVs to conduct a billion increase compared to previous Warrior was selected by the Army for Maritime Demonstration Program. eral Atomics offering the Mariner. The plan is to begin low-rate with 12-18 air vehicles and five GCS. BAMS. The deliberations in the autumn of 2005. a $1. but now General since the requirement is for an “effec. the SDD phase is ex- Demonstration Program and a Con. it has broadened its sociated with BAMS. Recent Army documents sug- the procurement stage to consider and the program may be associated gest that the program objective is now other candidates including the Gen. Navy Armed Predator FY08 with starting with low-rate ini- Although the US Navy selected In December 2005. competitors which took place in early Atomics. the ten divisions. MQ-9 fell from 101 to only 37 aircraft don MMA aircraft. and expects that the ground through FY11. it has broad.3 Hunter II. The powered version of the Predator. However. called Predator B-ER or different ways. the Shadow UAV. The bids for the ERMP is designed to fill a spot be- in the FY05-11 plans. The acquisition first unit equipped in late 2009/early search for the definitive air vehicle at does not appear in the open budget 2010. the Navy reinstated funding for th e A r my’s Ex te n d e d Ra n g e versions. The prototype Mariner first bidding process. ened its search for the definitive air initial production of four aircraft in the subsequent plans through FY11 vehicle at the procurement stage to FY11 with an objective to field these are for seven systems with 12 air vehi- consider Predator derivatives. going BA MS p r o g r a m a n d cu t b o th possible with the smaller RQ-7A from 160 to 255 aircraft. leased the RFP for ERMP in Septem- RQ-4 Global Hawk for its original gram will include the acquisition of ber 2004. its UAV requirements for a tactical USAF added a substantial number of the Navy completely gutted the UAV with capabilities beyond those Predators to the FY05-11 plan. the US Navy tial production in FY08-FY10 and a the RQ-4 for its original demonstra. The program was planned demonstrations of UAVs for the mari. with Northrop Grumman of. quisition objective on the aircraft Phase I involved a down-select to two dubbed Predator C. cept of Operation (CONOPS) effort tralian company. nine systems through FY13. Australia has ment of the ERMP began in FY06 and ance UAV for long-range surveil. with support of navy operations in set at one Warrior system in each of eral Atomics Predator/Mariner and an combat theaters such as Iraq. the Army wants to operate Block 20 and Lockheed Martin/Gen. some unique objectives for its pro. the ERMP using the existing GCS of Navy Broad Area Maritime Sur.

The bombs as part of a 3. with the spread of figuration. Warrior derivative to complement is Altair. and Border Protection (CPB) to add ditional UAVs will lead to expanded quirement UAVs to its aviation force. the missions were Border Patrol Predator Congress funded two more Predators cancelled due to national airspace Congressional support for UAV in the FY06 supplemental. The sions. further UAV use by other government quirement are expected to be General port along the Mexican border. In May 2006. looking at the Predator for their own issue. technology prompted US Customs FY07 budget funds two more. flight over four months and the CPB effort is being controlled out of load. der as a possible tool for border pa. In 2004. and the Air Force now forecast for the Navy BAMS require- high altitude anti-aircraft missiles plans to acquire the MQ-1B and the ment will be found in the Global like the Russian S-200 Angara (SA-5 longer range MQ-9A Reaper at the Hawk section. use Predators over the United States stated that it would like to field the gram proved successful enough that during disaster relief operations for first aircraft by the end of 2007 and set Congress funded another Predator search and rescue. Katrina in 2005. North to industry for a next generation conduct trials along the Mexican bor. capability in the wake of Hurricane erations at about $10 million per year. these missions became too same time. the Predator have continued to ex. Although the Air a unit cost of $10 million and a system which deployed in November 2006. Yemen in 2002. However. force was ready to provide this cost of $30 million as the objective. the US pand over the past few years. The successful use for its BAMS requirement. Until recently. Dakota in the autumn of 2007 and a hunter-killer UAV capable of carry. Other contenders for the re. The ad- Teal Group Analysis The Predator UAV program has the Air Force’s acquisition plans for UAVs. the Mariner variant of the Predator B the way with sales into the civil/gov- est in the program. and the restrictions. tions Center in Riverside. demonstration efforts with a Cana- In late 2004. 2005 from Sierra Vista municipal air. this is not intended to Gammon). the FAA also Atomics. This is likely to continue ing UCAV capability today instead of Force which in 2007 attempted to take and these are included in the US Gov- at the end of the decade. half-size Global Hawk derivative budget for the acquisition of a Gen. long-endurance mis. The Hermes logged 590 hours of Florida in the spring of 2007. likely to resist this effort. first with experi- of the Predator in this role over Af. prejudge the winner in this competi- risky. Northrop Grumman has been Hunter a further 329 hours over three an integrated Air and Marine Opera- promoting a UAV derivative of the months. Army has selected the Predator’s mental types such as the NASA ghanistan in 2001. California Scaled Composites Model 395 endur. while the ernment market. but more recently with surveil- and Iraq in 2003 has opened the Air short-range RQ-7 Tactical UAV. This lance types such as the Border Patrol Force’s eyes to the possibility of hav. Efforts to ance UAVs. The Navy will consider The Predator has also been leading role has considerably expanded inter. The Air Force has due to apparent pilot error but the pro. the US Air Force re. also failed to reach an agreement. has caused some friction with the Air Predators. and Predator crashed on 24 April 2006 gave the Air Force the green light to Lockheed Martin. This demonstration prompted a which facilitates coordination with ance aircraft after ruling out a Congressional addition to the CPB the FAA.The US Market Page 27 Air Force Hunter-Killer Re. tors in a more versatile hunter-killer requirements. Aurora Flight Sciences. Both the Army and Navy are also tion but is merely an administrative The decision to employ the Preda. control of the medium-high altitude ernment (USG) line below. re-equipped into the MQ-1B/-1L con. joint CPB/Coast Guard effort in ing up to four 500 pound guided trol. The CPB program is proving to be called the Model 396 due to the size eral Atomics Predator B in 2005 the ground-breaker for UAV airspace and price constraints of the USAF re. CPB now has plans to fund UAV op.000 pound pay. As a result. The agencies. ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Both the Army and Navy are laid the groundwork for future endur. It now combine USAF/USA contracting for military has relied on U-2s to perform seems likely that all Predators will be Predator/Reaper/Warrior in 2006-07 high altitude. CPB leased an Israeli Elbit Hermes dian border patrol demonstration to leased a request for information (RFI) and borrowed a US Army Hunter to be based out of Grand Forks. which began operations in October access issues and so could facilitate quest.

The US Coast onstrations of the Global Hawk for two USN) from Lot 1 (FY02) to Lot 3 Guard is also planning to acquire the co n s id eratio n f o r fu tu re ISR (FY04).9 PE# 0305205D8Z Endurance UAV Common Ground Segment 46. NATO se- renamed as the more conventional maritime surveillance role and may lected Global Hawk as part of its Blocks which are detailed below.5 10. A total of seven Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) air vehicles were built plus two Mission Control Elements and three Launch & Recov- ery Elements. In 2004. and maritime surveillance require- planning a series of evolutionary up. 26 Block 30 and 15 first Block 30 aircraft with the ASIP quire the “EuroHawk” for its SIGINT Block 40 aircraft. Australia became a partner ada and the UK have requested dem- was nine air vehicles (seven USAF. veillance requirement. Ini. hicle of Lot 3. The Global Hawk conducted its first flight in February 1998.9 10. on BAMS in 2007. Series USN Global Hawk BAMS Demonstrator production was first funded in the FY02 budget and plans now call for 17th aircraft built. The Air Force is sensor began in 2006 on AF13. The eighth Global Hawk (which was also the first series production aircraft) was delivered to the 9th Reconnaissance Wing at Beale AFB in September 2003. Production of the enhanced Global Hawk for its Deepwater sur. and a second Global Hawk made its maiden flight in November 1998. Development began in the spring of 1995 with the selection of the Teledyne Ryan/E-Systems team. The US Navy has acquired two ments with a short term requirement grades first called “spirals” and now RQ-4As to examine their utility in a for five aircraft. RQ-4B started with the second air ve.6 — — — — — — — — — World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . procure the aircraft under its BAMS forthcoming AGS radar system. requirements. Can- tial serial production of the RQ-4A program. Assembly of the Germany is also planning to ac- six Block 20.Page 28 The US Market Production Forecast User (Variant) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total General Atomics USAF (R/MQ-1) 24 24 24 41 26 27 20 20 20 20 246 USAF (MQ-9) 3 2 9 11 9 10 7 8 8 8 75 USA (ERMP) — 12 12 36 24 12 12 12 10 10 140 Total 27 38 45 88 59 49 39 40 38 38 461 RQ-4A Global Hawk Overview The RQ-4A Global Hawk High Altitude Endurance U AV (HAE-UAV) is a high altitude recon- naissance UAV with greater range and endurance than the RQ-1A Predator. funded in FY04. the Funding History RDT&E ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08* PE# 0304260 Airborne SIGINT RQ-4 — — — — — — — 4.

tion Program and a Concept of Opera- now call for six Block 20. The FY09 funding in.6 24. The Navy funded the acquisition (plus the seven ACTD aircraft). effort in FY04 and planned to acquire for a total of 56 aircraft.7 FY07: $84. The Navy began its Maritime Demonstra- Blocks (formerly “spirals”).3 *request Costs Procurement (flyaway) unit costs (then-year $) for P-1 documents: (USAF. sors to drive down the cost. and 15 Block 40 aircraft in addition to acquire 15 RQ-4 Block 40 with the The Navy started the BAMS UAV the nine Block 9 aircraft already built MP-RTIP radar. the Air Force plans to tion (CONOPS) effort in FY03. The the Global Hawk through a series of ity aircraft with both sensors. $ millions) FY02: $50.2 181.9 FY13: $101.0 162. The first The Air Force is now starting to another BAMS UAV with FY05 Block 20 aircraft was rolled out in late fund the upgraded sensor packages funding to further push this concept 2006. via a modification line in the budget. 26 Block 30 At the moment.0 — 26.4 FY06: $61.6 FY12: $98.6 FY05: $73.The US Market Page 29 PE# 0305220F Global Hawk Global Hawk — — — — — — 345.7 480.1 64. UAVs in FY03 to conduct a Maritime documents have made this less firm. the RQ-4 for its original demonstra- can be used on large manned plat. The Navy Northrop Grumman and Raytheon items for three SIGINT sensors and began flight testing of the first of its are working on a new family of modu.7 247.7 382.0 577. The Air Force is now SAR but not the RTIP instead of buy. Demonstration Program.9 FY11: $82.1 359. RQ-4A in October 2004 and the sec- lar surveillance radars under the cluded long-lead for three more ond aircraft made its first flight in Multi-Platform Radar Technology In. SIGINT packages and purchases June 2005.4 95.6 448. The aim three SIGINT sensors and one RTIP Although the US Navy selected is to develop a family of radars that radar.7 359. procurement of an endurance UAV planning to incrementally improve ing all 38 Multi-Intelligence Capabil.2 FY08: $86.8 FY09: $101.2 116. the procurement changing the mix of platforms/sen. However.8 (quantity) — — — (3) (3) (4) (4) (5) (5) (5) RQ-4 mods — — — — — — — — 4.7 PE# 0305205N Endurance UAV BAMS — — — 188.4 Current Developments USAF Program Plans forms akin to the E-8 JSTARS as well US Navy Broad Area Maritime The current procurement objective as smaller platforms such as Global Surveillance has been for 54 production UAVs Hawk.4 FY04: $50. along.0 246. emerge and so the demonstration will New Sensors ing starts in FY08 with long-lead be limited to two aircraft. one RTIP. for long-range surveillance. This is in- referring to future acquisition objec. sertion Program (MP-RTIP).2 Procurement ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08* US Air Force Procurement 3010F Global Hawk — — 21. this funding did not The first aircraft modification fund.7 FY03: $46. The Air Force is also considering of two RQ-4 Global Hawk endurance though since 2007.3 FY10: $80. Plans remaining 13 would have the RTIP. One op. tions of UAVs for the maritime sur- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . tion considered would be to buy 25 of tended to serve as the basis for the tives with the generic disclaimer “to the Global Hawks with the improved BAMS requirement with eventual be determined”.6 327.

the Global Hawk. but this was achieved in 2003. estimates sor option. In the interim. the Navy indicated NATO will acquire seven Global Teal Group Analysis The Global Hawk is at the cutting concern in recent years has been the planned to acquire the HAE-UAV for edge of the use of UAV technology increasing demand for Global Hawk $10 million a copy. the lion. smaller 90 foot wingspan and 1. the flyaway price escalating over combat operations over Afghanistan duction aircraft and two more for the $60 million by the enhancements to and Iraq. of the airframe is closer to $25 mil- Predator and Global Hawk in recent craft in addition to the seven pre-pro.3 plans called for the RQ-4B Global the procurement stage to consider billion increase compared to previous Hawks to retain the US Air Force sen- other candidates including the Gen. Indeed. In 2007 during the porting system. services with other government has been thrown out the window as a tude of the Congress has warmed up agencies vying for flight hours. a USCG has spoken about paying for P-175 Polecat. SA-10/-20. The procurement objective now sensors. which are intended primarily for re- tive time on station” objective that dar (TCAR) as the base platform. result of the continued addition of towards these strategic reconnais. Under the The Coast Guard is expected to se. could be met by different aircraft in the RQ-4B Global Hawk as the sup- different ways. tin’s Skunk Works began work on a FY07 budget released in February lect the Global Hawk for its endur. the Navy reinstated funding for ance Deepwater UAV requirement. These may be DoD oper. and it is possi- eral Atomics Predator/Mariner and an Australia signed a BAMS agree. general configuration but with a tract in 1QFY08. a major craft. The atti. funded in the FY09 four-eight air vehicles. Under current plans.32 billion cost Hawks and five Airbus AGS. The SDD program ated facilities. the unit cost sance programs due to the use of appears to be over 56 production air. However. but the actual the program funded even in the event has been the escalating cost of the air. The Navy veillance (AGS) program reached a NASA Global Hawk has not yet publicly announced an ac. SAM systems such as the Russian of 2007. lion. At the moment. the Navy completely gutted the BA MS p r o g r a m a n d cu t b o th US Coast Guard Deepwater Stealth HAE-UAV RDT&E funding as well as planned Plans In March 2003. during the support system will involve and Aus. and expects that the ground about scrapping the manned Airbus FY07 budget. ment on 13 January 2007 to become provided as early as 2007 by loan of a Under the FY05 budget plant. The plan is to begin low-rate when the prototype was lost in a flight initial production of four aircraft in NATO AGS UAV accident. FY11 with an objective to field these The NATO Alliance Ground Sur- aircraft starting in 2014.000 will include the acquisition of two ment will probably total about pound payload. lighted the value of such systems to increase in later years. land bases. 2005. not TCAR. resembling the B-2 bomber in Navy plans to award the SDD con. Nevertheless. Although it was originally funded by the Navy should help to World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . Lockheed Mar- procurement funding. 321 platform and relying entirely on FY06 deliberations in the autumn of tralian company. Australia has US Air Force Global Hawk. significant roadblock until 2003 was USAF will eventually require a plementary system to the P-8A Posei. flight tests of the two RQ-4A already of cost escalation. ini. These numbers will probably the sensor suite. and was unveiled in 2006 as the eral Atomics offering the Mariner. The design is a flying derivative of the Predator B. Navy. the lack of a FAA certification for the Global Hawk follow-on able to oper- don MMA aircraft. A (PHAE) due to its conviction that the BAMS. turmoil in 2007 has led to some talk BAMS UAV would be provided in the gram. The bids for the operation of the Global Hawk over ate over countries deploying newer program were submitted in the spring the US. a $1. Three flight tests more aircraft. The data from UAVs operated from two wing. This was internally fering a derivative of its RQ-4B tion probably won’t occur until 2014 funded at a cost of around $28 mil- Block 20 and Lockheed Martin/Gen. Transatlantic Cooperative AGS Ra. partner on the program. Recent search for the definitive air vehicle at assigned to the program. at the earliest. milestone in 2004 with the selection NASA is attempting to acquire two quisition objective on the aircraft of the Airbus A321 equipped with the ACTD Global Hawks from the USAF since the requirement is for an “effec. this benchmark for strategic reconnaissance. The eventual require. it has broadened its that it has a $2. with Northrop Grumman of. One of the The Navy has been notoriously er- national leaders and will help to keep main inhibitions in further acquisition ratic in its UAV plans. Global Hawk acquisi. ble that an interim capability could be unmanned Gulfstream derivative. were conducted through March 2007 budget. Funding tial procurement funding for the some unique objectives for its pro.Page 30 The US Market veillance role. bidding process. This publicity has high. stealthy Penetrating HAE-UAV 2006. noting that it will be a com. and search purposes.

the 4th Infantry Division at Ft. One wonders quirement for a MALE UAV but may which is beginning to consider the use why the State Department does not try proceed first with a national program. The Army awarded a second LRIP contract for four systems on 30 over the past few years from a low of greater payload. likely candidates for the eventual Control Regime in 2003-2004. There are other moment. it is likely that the USAF will delivery? nificant w ay from actually have priority in these missions. TCS improvements (MCTUAS) requirement to replace The system was first deployed with and other features. im. South Korea has a stated re- Agency (formerly NIMA. Export prospects for the Global be limited both by the high cost of the Hawk appear good in spite of the re. TUAV suffered a series of misfor- tu n e s an d f a ls e s tar ts in th e mid-1990s. and target acquisition informa- tion to US Army brigades. its Marine Corps Tactical UAS tion contract on 27 December 2002. After this led to a string of failures. system and technology concerns. quisition objective has fluctuated ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . the near term buyers as well as the Eu- potential US clients for the Global compoops at the State Department ropean AGS batch. the Army awarded a contract to AAI De- fense Systems for their Shadow 200 RQ-7A TUAV UAV. it would appear that the nin. fuel and and March 2001. surveil- lance. the Marine Corps decided sion was made on 25 September 2002 fund improvements in the TUAV sys. exports could add substan- gards. The number of export aircraft will committing to such a program. to acquire six Shadow systems under leading to an award of a full produc- tem including increased payload. Other mid-term Hawk including the CIA and the Na. However. The Army ac- an expected purchase of two systems. Hood aimed at the new 2004 RQ-7B config. In late December 1999. of HALE UAVs as an alternative to its to limit airliners sales on the grounds Singapore has expressed interest in traditional satellites. Global Hawk or a maritime ment linkage between the Global tially to Global Hawk production in version of Predator seem the most Hawk and the Missile Technology the out-years of the forecast period. but for the mo. becoming entangled by DoD insistence that the Army and Navy combine their tactical UAV re- quirements. will consent to Global Hawk sales if customers could include Britain and tional Geospatial Intelligence the recipient countries promise not to Japan. Production Forecast User (Variant) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Northrop Grumman USAF (RQ-4) 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 51 RQ-7A Tactical UAV Overview The RQ-7A Shadow TUAV pro- gram is a UAV system to provide real-time reconnaissance. 2002. and a third in March 37 systems to the current high of 79 endurance. The Army is continuing to In 2006. A favorable Milestone III deci- systems. At the Germany and Australia appear to be BAMS requirement. that they can be fitted for weapons Global Hawk. in November 1998 the Joint Requirements Oversight Coun- cil gave the Army the go-ahead to proceed alone with the TUAV pro- gram.The US Market Page 31 clarify the Navy’s needs in this re. proved sensors. some of which are its old RQ-2 Pioneers UAVs. but is probably a sig- ment. NRO) fit them with missiles. Poland became the first export in 2002 and was operationally de- uration of the air vehicle which has customer for the Shadow in 2006 with ployed in Iraq in 2003. markable inanity of the State Depart.

These budget submission in February 2006. tion is due to a decision to press ahead Marines appear to be focusing on the The RQ-7 production forecast be- with a longer-range system. controlled air space over the US. a custom built design. im.3 million. The Army appears now portunities such as for civilian organi- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . AAI was awarded a $11. now at 79 systems after over-aged Pioneers. sion. integration with the Joint Tactical Ra.0 15.9 15. the deci.5 (systems) — — (4) (5) (9) (8) (22) (16) — — Marine Corps Procurement BA 04: Navy Weapons Procurement MCTUAS — — — — — — — — — 90. There has been some talk of a will probably take five years at least quirement for the Shadow has USMC acquisition connected with its for the FAA to approve a regime for bounced up and down over the past Tier III requirement to replace its UAV operation. and may have some acquired per system (4+1 attrition general confusion over its future additional domestic procurement op. improvements in the TUAV system Link. but RQ-7 will have a few years. with L-3 Communications and tems up to FY03.9 Procurement ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08* Army Procurement BA 02: Communications and Electronics Equipment TUAV — 0. The program also in. the Marine Corps decided the FY06 budget submission it was Tactical Common Data Link (TCDL).7 mil- The Army has changed its pro. rent FY08 budget documents and the the decade. In the FY05 budget submis.0 34.6 305.2 36. proved sensors. cludes efforts to incorporate reliabil. it has opted for its FCS-related UAV efforts will also UAVs are not authorized to operate in a low-cost off-the-shelf solution.4 121. its Marine Corps Tactical UAS tional funding being slotted into the dio System (JTRS) and an improved (MCTUAS) requirement to replace FY08-11 time frame and in the FY07 laser designator. raised to 79 systems.2 45.2 68. no good shot at civil applications at that reaching its nadir of 39 systems in the funding for this is included in the cur.4 105. and other features. more the capability sooner rather than later security patrol. UAV needs. and the Army’s export potential. The civil require- than 25 years after its first doomed due to the demonstrated performance ments for RQ-7 are much more diffi- UAV program. Consolidation of cult to predict since at the moment. However. then raised to 60 including increased payload. Instead of of the RQ-7 in Iraq.8 47. low is for air vehicles and presumes sion to acquire the RQ-8 Fire Scout The RQ-7 could have a significant that at least four air vehicles will be for the FCS brigade. spare).Page 32 The US Market Funding RDT&E ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08* PE# 0305204A Tactical UAV Project 114 TUAV 50.2 (systems) — — — — — — — — — (5) *Request Current Developments Shadow Program Plans in the FY)8 budget submission it was in Iraq.0 39. highlighted by operating experiences Teal Group Analysis The Army is finally on the way to to have decided it would rather have zations such as US Customs for fielding its own tactical UAV. TCS improvements effort. to acquire six Shadow systems under increased to 55 systems with addi. It AAI Shadow 200. its old RQ-2 Pioneers UAVs.6 67. it was reduced again to 39 sys. lion contract in July 2006 to develop curement objective several times over The Army is continuing to fund the new Tactical Commons Data the past few years. will be funded in FY08-09 at a total it was raised again to 74 systems and ity fixes and other improvements program cost of $139.6 305. It was set at 44 sys. In error (TLKE) system. with procurement funding provements include a target location MCTUAS ending in FY07 instead of FY09. Tier II requirement instead. This fluctua. the help Shadow.8 24.9 7. The Army’s re. Cubic being its major partners on the systems. the Aquila. addition of a In 2006. Air vehicle im- tems. stage due to its maturity by the end of FY05 budget request.4 56.1 35.

As part of the Army’s quest for tem integrators for the FCS program Class I is the platoon UAV with an “transformation”. futurists have in March 2002. The Army (MAV) which is being developed by 6. based on the General cles called the Future Combat System RQ-11 Raven until DARPA com.200 Class 2.0 9. Army FCS UAV Plans cro-Air Vehicle (MAV). This system is expected to in.0 7. To conduct mis.0 5. the Class IV-A at bri. pletes its objective Micro-Air Vehicle tive). 1.600 problem from the US Army perspec.600 UAVs consisting of about on the modern battlefield. tract Class 3/Class 4B and 275 Class 4B. UAVs each consisting each of 108 munications-Electronics Command ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . the FCS Action would operate about 200 In April 2003. tude of 90 minutes. This contract is for the operational radius of 16 km.5 — PE# 0604662A FCS Recon (UAV) Platforms Project FC3 Recon (UAV) Platforms — — — — — — — — — 41. AeroVironment RQ-11 Raven until information gathering at a distance DARPA completes its objective Mi- rather than a close-combat platform. Atomics Warrior (Predator deriva- (FCS). This began examining whether contempo.1 1.6 9. 3. ranges. the US Army Com- would incorporate UAVs into the de.1 Current Developments Requirement sign to enable the platform to acquire Class 1. and therefore does not Under the scheme. sions at extended ranges. A team consisting of Boeing and porting heavy divisions around the SAIC were selected as the lead sys. 1.600 UAVs to equip its future bri- had identified four Classes of UAVs it Honeywell.6 27. The Army cur- aimed at a family of light vehicles lowed by additional contracts if the ren tly p lan s to u se th e which would place a greater stress on options are exercised.3 27. plans to use the AeroVironment (ERMP-UAV). der its small UAV program (SUAV) hostile fire. a one pushed for a radically different ap. 36 Class 2.0 PE# 0604645A Armored Vehicle Systems Modernization Eng.600 Class 1. gades but this is likely to be expected to acquire but in yet another durance UAVs.0 7. each of the army’s and more details can be found in the have to be armored. The Army is This is attractive since it implies that The Army is currently categoriz. and an operating alti- proach in future combat systems phase (CTD) which could be fol. concept and technology development pound payload. leaving Scout and the Class IVB at divisional The US Army. Project F62 Recon platforms & Sensors Class 1 UAV — — — — — 13. would represent an objective of about rary main battle tanks have any future 6. Dev.1 6. Class I is the and corps level which is the Ex- DARPA.1 — Class III UAV — — — — — — 0. Class 1 UAV globe.2 5. 48 Class 3/Class During the 1990s.3 11.0 — Class IV UAV — — — — — 16. tive has been the difficulty of trans. is beginning to explore a platoon UAV and the Army currently tended-Range/Multi-Purpose UAV family of networked armored vehi. The main Boeing/SAIC wins LSI Con. substantially reconsidered. acquiring Raven in large numbers un- the FCS will not come under direct ing its UAV requirements into classes. Class IV is a pair of en.3 1. shake-up of the program dumped gade level which is the RQ-8B Fire Funding History RDT&E ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08* PE# 0603286E Advanced Aerospace Systems A160 Advanced Air Vehicle — — — — 13. the US Army and engage targets at extended 4A and eight Class 4B UAVs. 33 planned brigade-sized Units of Mini-UAV section in this report.6 40. The Army envisioned acquiring corporate several UAVs. in cooperation with only Class I and Class 4.8 — Class II UAV — — — — — — 0.6 17.3 4.The US Market Page 33 Production Forecast User (Variant) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total US (TUAV) 30 50 5 55 — — — 60 60 60 320 USMC (MCTUAS) 5 25 — — — — 10 — — — 40 US Army Future UAVs Overview Class II and Class III in 2006.

Page 34 The US Market

awarded Mission Technologies in
San Antonio, TX a contract for the de-
velopment and production of three
G en eratio n I I min i-U AV s .
Honeywell Aerospace is the prime
contractor for the MAV with AAI
Corp. being the airframe subcontrac-
tor. AAI won a February 2006 con-
tract for $1.7 million for the
construction of 55 MAV air vehicles.
The Honeywell MAV underwent its
first untethered free flight in 2005 and
in late May 2006 the Army selected
the Honeywell MAV for the SDD
phase, awarding Honeywell a $61
million contract which includes the
manufacture of 12 systems. The
Honeywell was fielded in Iraq on a
trials basis in the summer of 2007.

Class 2 UAV
The Army Class II was the com-
pany-level Organic Air Vehicle
(OAV) with a 30 km range, 10 pound
payload, five hour endurance and
1,000 feet operating altitude. DARPA
was planning to validate the OAV ad-
verse weather capability in late 2002 US Army Class I Mini-UAV
in at least two different size UAVs,
followed by demonstrations of OAV OAV-II effort. This left Aurora with Boeing/SAIC down-selected three
waypoint flight and collision avoid- its Goldeneye and Honeywell with its contenders for the requirement in Au-
ance technology in January 2003. The ISTAR based on the earlier Allied gust 2005 including the Piasecki Air
program awarded two Phase I devel- Aerospace design. DARPA was Guard, AAI Shadow II and Teledyne
opment contracts in 2002 with deliv- scheduled to down-select to one OAV Brown Engineering’s Prospector. The
ery of air vehicles by December 2002. II developed in 3QFY06 which will Prospector is a US variant of the
These went to a team headed by Mi- lead to the Phase II program with the Rheinmetall KZO Tucan UAV being
cro Craft (TRW, Athena Technolo- design and construction of two acquired by the German army. This
gies, Alturdyne) and a team headed prototypes for FY07/08 flight trials. program was expected to continue
by Honeywell Engines and Systems The Class II program underwent a with the next major decision point be-
(AeroVironment, D-Star Engineer- shakeup in mid-2004 with a decision ing the down-select to a single con-
ing, MLB, Honeywell Labs, NASA to fund a parallel Class II UAV not us- tractor for SDD. However, the Class
Ames Research Center, Cypress Int’l, ing ducted-fan technology. In August III program was chopped out of the
and Techsburg). In November 2004, 2005, Boeing/SAIC down-selected FY08 budget request in February
DARPA awarded three contracts for the Piasecki Air Guard shrouded rotor 2006.
the development of prototype OAV-II vehicle for this effort. Under the 2006
to Aurora Flight Sciences, BAE Sys- plan, the Army Class II contender was Class 4 UAV
tems and Honeywell Internationals. expected to fly-off against the The US Army awarded a contract
The requirement was for a 112 pound DARPA-sponsored OAV-II around to General Atomics in May 2003 for
UAV with two hours endurance and a FY08. However, the Class II program three IGNAT UAVs based on the
10 km operational range. The cost ob- was chopped out of the FY08 budget Predator to help define its UAV re-
jective was $75,000 per air vehicle, request in February 2006. quirements. These UAVs were de-
excluding the sensors. An early ob- ployed to Iraq in 2004 to help define
jective of the flight test program was Class 3 UAV army requirements. For a variety of
to examine collision avoidance tech- Class 3 was the battalion-level reasons, the Army decided to break
nology. In July 2005, BAE an- UAV. The program had a major the Class IV category into two sepa-
nounced its decision to drop out of the shake-up in the summer of 2004 and rate types: the Class IVA at brigade

World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation

The US Market Page 35

foot package capable of being carried
by the RQ-8 Fire Scout. The module
is being developed by BAE Systems.

A160 Hummingbird
Until 2002, the FCS program fo-
cused mainly on concept develop-
ment and preliminary examination of
key technologies. These included
preliminary work on the A160 UAV
and the OAV. The plan was to com-
plete three A160 air vehicles by June
2002 and to conduct the first flight
tests of a synthetic aperture radar/
moving target indicator (SAR/GMTI)
sensor on the A160 by October 2002.
The A160 Hummingbird was being
A160 Hummingbird
developed by Frontier Systems, but
level which will be the RQ-8B Fire However, in August 2003, the Army Boeing acquired the air vehicle in
Scout and the Class IVB at divisional decided to select Fire Scout as the ba- 2004. The design employs a rigid ro-
and corps level which is the Ex- sis for its Class IV UAV for the Future tor and was initially funded under a
tended-Range/Multi-Purpose UAV Combat System program for its bri- separate DARPA effort codenamed
(ERMP-UAV). Two teams were com- gade level Class 4A system. At the Hummingbird Warrior. The first
peting for ERMP: General Atomics moment, the Army is contracting with flight of the A160 was conducted on
(teamed with AAI and Sparta) with a Northrop Grumman to build eight 29 January 2002. The Army contin-
Predator derivative called Warrior, MQ-8B Fire Scouts to continue the ued flight tests on the A160 in
and a Northrop-Grumman team with development effort. There have been FY03-FY05, including tests up to a
a version of the Israeli Heron called some attempts by other firms to un- gross weight of 5,000 pounds and an
Hunter II. The General Atomics seat Northrop Grumman in this pro- altitude of 30,000 feet, but the trials
Warrior was selected by the Army for gram, with Boeing pushing for an were delayed by the loss of one of the
the ERMP requirement on 8 August unmanned version of the AH-6 Little prototype air vehicles. The effort con-
2005. This program is covered in Bird Helicopter called Unmanned tinues to be funded by DARPA but is
more detail in the RQ-1 Predator Little Bird (ULB) and Bell offering an being monitored by the Army. The
section. unmanned version of the Bell 407X Army is also expected to support a
The Class IVB is the RQ-8B Fire w h ich won th e A rmed demonstration effort of Frontier
Scout, based on an earlier Navy pro- Reconnaissance Helicopter (ARH) Sciences Maverick VTUAV for
gram. The Navy initiated a VTOL contest. special forces applications.
UAV program in its FY00 budget and
on 11 February 2000, the Navy se- SIGINT UAV Other UAV Efforts
lected the Northrop Grumman The US Army is currently contem- The Army has also supported a va-
RQ-8A Fire Scout. In late 2001, the plating the use of a UAV for signals riety of other UAV efforts. For exam-
Navy announced plans to cancel the intelligence collection. An initial pro- ple, the Army has been using the
Fire Scout program, though it later re- gram to package the Division Tactical SAIC Vigilante VTUAV as a test-bed
started the program. In any event, the UAV SIGINT system into a 60 pound, to examine UAV armament and in
Army began considering the use of one cubic foot module small enough early 2005 conducted firing trials of
the Fire Scout as a test-bed for their to be carried by the RQ-7 Shadow the APKWS from the Vigilante at the
UCAR (Unmanned Combat Armed proved beyond state-of-the-art and Yuma Proving Grounds.
Rotorcraft) program in 2002-03. the Army back-pedaled to three cubic

Teal Group Analysis
The Army is embarking on a wide vehicles are too light to be survivable, envelope of enemy close-combat
range of new UAV concepts, many of and therefore need UAVs to allow weapons.
which are connected with its Future them to carry out some of their mis- The FCS program is a tinker-toy
Combat System (FCS) effort. The sions at stand-off ranges outside the assortment of fads and alarmingly un-
UAVs are essential to FCS since the realistic planning assumptions that

©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

Page 36 The US Market

has been continually reorganized Unfortunately, the Army’s track This leaves only the Class I in de-
over the past few years as the Army record on UAVs does not inspire a velopment. Yet the Army has been
absorbs the fiscal reverberations and great deal of confidence over the pro- buying substantial numbers of RQ-11
tactical lessons of the recent fighting posed schedule or the scope of the Raven mini-UAVs for the same re-
in Iraq. On the fiscal side, the Army planned acquisition, nor has the UAV quirement under its SUAV program.
faces substantial operations and aspect of the FCS program been It remains to be seen whether the
maintenance costs as its current fleet helped by its erratic funding and an- Honeywell MAV proves practical and
of combat and tactical vehicles have nual course changes. It took the army affordable. If so, it may complement
become worn out and in serious need nearly 25 years to field an adequate rather than replace the Raven for mis-
of rehabilitation or replacement. The tactical UAV from the Aquila of the sions where hover/stare features are
combat lessons of Iraq are unlikely to late 1970s to today’s RQ-7 Shadow. important such as urban warfare.
support the current conception of In addition, army funding for UAVs However, helicopter type UAVs are
FCS which emphasizes light weight in recent years has been modest, and inevitably less fuel efficient than air-
transportability over survivability. until recently, the FCS budget was craft types, so Raven is likely to re-
The heavy losses suffered by the army quite skimpy on UAV funding. That main in u s e f o r o p en f ield
against RPGs and IEDs will likely so many of the key UAVs are still be- environments.
force a reconsideration of the need for ing developed by DARPA strongly The Army seems more likely to
heavy armored vehicles for the close suggests that the technology is not press ahead with the Class 4A/-4B
combat role. mature enough for serial production programs, with the Fire Scout already
Even after the FCS program is sub- until late in the forecast period. The selected for the Class 4A requirement.
stantially reorganized, renamed, or program has been suffering from a Due to its substantial payload, the
cancelled, the Army is likely to press roller-coaster ride where one aspect Fire Scout may branch out to satisfy
ahead with the associated UAV pro- of FCS receives priority one year, other requirements including a surro-
grams. If anything, a reorganization only to be switched in priority the gate UCAR armed platform, and also
of the FCS program could shift the next year. This happened yet again in as a divisional/brigade SIGINT plat-
funding from the sillier aspects of the 2006 when the army dumped two of form. The Warrior ERMP also has
programs such as the family of light the programs, the Class II and Class reasonably good prospects, and that
armored vehicles, and back to its true III, bizarrely the two programs which forecast is contained within the
transformational core of digitization in 2005 the Army had decided to Predator section.
and ISR (intelligence, surveillance, afford more priority.
reconnaissance).
Production Forecast
User (Variant) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total
Northrop Grumman
USA (Class 4A MQ-8B) — — — — 15 15 15 15 15 — 75

US Navy UAVs
Overview ever, in late 2001, the Navy an- as the basis for the BAMS require-
The US Navy is attempting to de- nounced it was planning to cancel the ment with eventual procurement of an
fine its future UAV requirements after Fire Scout program and buy four endurance UAV for long-range sur-
several years of disjointed and con- Global Hawk UAVs instead. The veillance. The Navy has contracted
fused effort. At the moment, it is con- Navy reversed itself again in 2003, four firms and teams to propose
centrating on two efforts, the MQ-8B stating that the Fire Scout was being BA MS c o n te n d e r s : N o r th r o p
F i r e S c o u t V T U A V ( Ve r t i c a l re-examined. Under current budget Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk, the
Take-Off UAV) and the BAMS plans, the Navy plans to begin Lockheed Martin teamed with Gen-
(Broad Area Maritime Surveillance) VTUAV procurement in FY07 to eral Atomics with the Predator
endurance UAV. In addition, it has support the new Littoral Combat Ship B-ER/Mariner, General Dynamics
hosted a variety of smaller study ef- (LCS), with an objective of 168 air teamed with Aeronautics with the
forts, including several futuristic vehicles. Dominator, and an undisclosed offer-
efforts with DARPA. With the money saved from post- ing from the Boeing Phantom Works.
In February 2000, the Navy se- poning the Fire Scout, the Navy ac- The Navy hopes to begin procure-
lected the Northrop Grumman quired two RQ-4A Global Hawks to ment funding the BAMS UAV in
RQ-8A Firescout VTUAV. How- conduct a Maritime Demonstration FY11 and deploy the first series
Program. This was intended to serve production UAV around FY13.

World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation

The US Market Page 37

Both the Marine Corps and Navy begin a formal program to acquire a systems in FY09-13 and may extend
have been leasing the Boeing/Insitu Small Tactical UAS (STUAS) for the program beyond this date.
Scan Eagle for operations and dem- both Navy and USMC Tier II require-
onstrations and have also studied ments. with initial deliveries in May
other small UAVs for various applica- 2010. The Navy plans to acquire 88
tions as mentioned below. In January
2007, the Navy announced it would
Funding History
RDT&E ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08*
PE# 0305204N Tactical UAV
VTUAV — 38.3 35.9 73.2 65.4 85.6 59.1 76.4 104.7 32.9
STUAS — — — — — — — — — 6.1
PE# 0305205N Endurance UAV
BAMS — — — — 188.4 95.1 64.0 — 26.2 116.7
PE# 0603261N Tactical Abn. Recon.
UAV Conops — 38.3 35.9 37.8 46.4 — — — — —
Procurement ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY98*
Navy Aircraft Procurement BA.4: Other Aircraft
VTUAV — — — — — — — — 37.4 37.7
(quantity) — — — — — — — — (4) (3)
*Request

Current Developments
BAMS Endurance UAV
The Navy began funding in the
FY03 RDT&E budget for a Global
Hawk Maritime Demonstration Pro-
gram and a Concept of Operation
(CONOPS) effort to start its Broad
Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS)
program. The effort was intended to
piggyback on US Air Force contracts
for the Global Hawk to minimize the
expense of acquiring a Global Hawk
and associated equipment to conduct
the experiments. The original plan
was to acquire two Global Hawks, but
then it was reduced to one Global
Hawk, and finally changed back to
two Global Hawks. The Navy began
flight testing of the first of its RQ-4A
in October 2004 and the second air-
craft made its first flight in June 2005. MQ-8B Fire Scout
The Global Hawk underwent accep-
tance tests and flight trials then UAV derivative of the General Dy- General Dynamics Advanced Infor-
deployed on fleet exercises and namics Gulfstream G550. A request mation Systems teamed the Israeli
missions near Iraq. for information on BAMS was re- Aeronautics firm and their Dominator
Although the Navy focused on the leased to industry on 17 March 2004. UAV, and an undisclosed UAV from
Global Hawk in its original BAMS In September 2005, the Navy selected th e Bo e in g P h a n to m Wo r k s .
program, it was pushed to open the four bidders for the program: AeroVironment has also proposed its
competition to other suitable plat- Northrop Grumman with the RQ-4 Global Observer for the requirement.
forms such as the General Atomics Global Hawk, Lockheed Martin Under the current plans, the Navy
Mariner (an extended range maritime teamed with General Atomics with will conduct the Milestone B in
patrol version of the Predator) and a the Mariner derivative of Predator, 4QFY07 based on the flight trials

©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

Page 38 The US Market

with the two Global Hawks. This will
permit a SDD contract award to begin
development in 1QFY08. The Navy
plans to conduct the Milestone C de-
cision in 4QFY11 and so expects to
begin procurement funding in FY11
as well which will permit low-rate ini-
tial production and initial deliv-
ery/operational capability in FY13.

MQ-8 VTUAV
In spite of the curtailment of fur-
ther funding for the RQ-8A Fire Scout
in 2001, subsequent Navy budgets re-
versed course again and provided
funding for trials on the existing air
vehicles. The Fire Scout was tested in
April 2003 aboard a surrogate Littoral
Combat Ship (USS Denver) to exam-
ine its suitability for this future re-
quirement. Northrop Grumman Silver Fox
received a $8.3 million contract in
January 2006 to conduct flight trials In January 2007, the Navy an- In 2003, Congress added $4.2 mil-
aboard the High Speed Vessel-2. Two nounced it would begin a formal pro- lion for the Navy to examine a Preci-
of the EMD RQ-8A aircraft con- gram to acquire a Small Tactical UAS sion Re-supply Vehicle, type of
ducted autonomous landings on the (STUAS) for both Navy and USMC UAV.
LPD-13 Nashville off Patuxent Naval Tier II requirements. The program is The Navy has funded a team of
Air Station on 16-17 January 2006. expected to be in three stages, Incre- Boeing and Insitu Group in February
The Navy plans to procure nine ment 0 (off the shelf); Increment 1 2002 to conduct a 15 month study of
MQ-8B Fire Scouts in the engineer- (C2 integration, communications re- their ScanEagle UAV, a very small
ing manufacturing development lay, heavy fuel engine); Increment 3 UAV weighing only 33 pounds that
phase to serve as the basis for the tri- (payload enhancement). The Navy could be used for a variety of mis-
als and to provide interim capability; would like to reach Milestone B in sions. The ScanEagle is small enough
this is a an increase of four air vehi- FY08, low rate production in that it could conceivably be launched
cles due to a Congressional plus-ups 3QFY10; initial deliveries in May from a submarine. In this regards, the
in FY05 and FY06. The Navy expects 2010, and initial operational capabil- Navy contracted with Northrop
that the Milestone C decision will be ity in FY10. The acquisition objective Grumman in early 2003 to develop an
made in 3-4QFY07, low-rate pro- is not entirely clear, but the Navy indi- expendable launch capsule to enable
curement of seven MQ-8B take place cates it plans to acquire 88 systems in a submarine to launch a small UAV
in FY07-08, and that the full rate pro- FY09-13. Contenders for the require- from underwater, dubbed the SACS
duction decision will be made in ment are expected to include the BAE (stealthy affordable capsule system).
1QFY09. The Navy currently plans to Systems Skylynx, AAI Aerosonde The Navy has been funding the Ad-
acquire 168 MQ-8B under the pro- Mk 4; Advanced Ceramics Silver vanced Ceramics Research Silver
curement program of which 43 will be Fox; Boeing Scan Eagle; Northrop Fox mini-UAV for various applica-
funded in FY07-FY13. G r u mman K iller Bee, an d tions including use as a stand-off
The Navy is also considering a presumably an AeroVironment chemical detection system. In August
hunter-killer version as the MQ-8 design. 2005, the Navy acquired three A-160
Seascout. Hummingbird helicopter UAVs for
Naval UAV Concepts a flight demonstration program.
STUAS (Marine Tier II) The Navy is considering the use of DARPA has been cooperating with
Both the Marine Corps and Navy the AeroVironment Helios very long the Navy on a futuristic Cormorant
have been leasing the Boeing/Insitu endurance UAV as a possible adjunct S u b - lau n c h e d an d Re c o v e r e d
Scan Eagle for operations and dem- communications relay, bridging the Multi-purpose UAV (MPUAV/a.k.a.
onstrations and have also studied gap between satellites and surface MPAV) and in May 2003 funded
other small UAVs for various applica- based means. Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works for
tions as mentioned below. a Phase 0 study effort of the concept.

World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation

The US Market Page 39

DARPA and the Navy have also been naissance systems that could be used 2002. These are unusual in that they
cooperating on a study program to ex- in place of the existing aircraft based can take off and land on water and are
amine the use of micro-air vehicles TARPS pod. The Navy has received being studied for special operations
for ship self-defense, using the Congressional plus-ups to study the applications. The Navy has an objec-
AeroVironment Wasp MAV as a test development of low-cost Smart tive of 27 Neptunes. SOCOM ac-
bed. Warfighting Array Reconfigurable quired 65 XPV-1 Tern tactical UAVs
T h e N a v y b e g a n f u n d in g Modules (SWARM), a type of which were operated by the Navy’s
DUSTER (Deployable Unmanned E-O/IR system for long-endurance Fleet Composite Squadron-6 (VC-6)
System for Targeting, Exploitation UAVs. The Navy has also procured in Afghanistan in support of special
and Recon) in FY04. The program is 15 Neptune tactical UAVs from DRS forces operations.
aimed at examining airborne recon- Unmanned Technologies starting in

Teal Group Analysis
The Navy has shown belated inter- that the Navy funds about three per the mission as the Marine Corps has
est in UAVs for surveillance applica- year to the end of the forecast period. argued. It is also possible that the
tions compared to the Army or The Fire Scout program now ap- navy will acquire the MQ-8B for an
Marine Corps due to fundamentally pears tied to the Littoral Combat Ship initial group of ships, but opt for an-
different tactical intelligence gather- program, a program which is by no other system on the later ships. As a
ing requirements. Until recently, the means assured of reaching series pro- result, the forecast below for MQ-8B
Navy felt that existing naval sensors duction. However, even this is better should be regarded as optimistic.
are capable of detecting hostile ships, news than previous Navy plans to Should the Fire Scout reach full
aircraft and submarines; over-the-ho- shelve the program entirely. Navy scale production, it has fairly good
rizon surveillance and targeting is al- procurement began procurement export prospects as there are few
r e a d y p e r f o r me d t o b y N a v y funding for VTUAV in FY07 and ex- ship-compatible UAVs in production
helicopters, aircraft and ocean tend well beyond FY13 with the pace at the moment. The forecast below
surveillance satellites. likely depending upon the progress of does not include Army acquisition of
Over the past few years, the Navy the LCS program in general and the the RQ-8 for the FCS program which
has begun to more seriously consider suitability of the VTUAV. The Navy is covered separately in the US Army
the applicability of an endurance currently plans to field a set of three UAV section.
UAV to its surveillance missions in UAVs per LCS, and the objective for The Navy has also decided to for-
conjunction with the new P-8 MMA the LCS has been put at 56-60 ships malize its Small UAV program which
which will replace the aged P-3 which the Navy plans to support with until recently took the form of leasing
Orion. At the moment, the Navy plans 168 air vehicles. The real question is UAV services such as the Boeing
to begin funding the production series the Navy’s commitment to the pro- Scan Eye. The new STUAS program
of BAMS around FY11 but the scale gram given its past roller-coaster his- will acquire STUAS/Tier II UAVs for
of this funding is still not clear in the tory. It is entirely possible that the both the Navy and Marine Corps
out years since the quantity will be Navy will reverse course again. There rather than rely on continued leasing.
tied to which air vehicle the Navy se- have been some arguments that the
lects. The forecast below presumes Eagle Eye tilt-rotor is better suited to

Production Forecast
User (Variant) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total
Northrop Grumman
USN (MQ-8) 1 6 6 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 78
Undetermined
USN/USMC (STUAS) 75 150 120 120 65 120 120 — — — 770
Undetermined
USN (BAMS) — — — — 2 2 4 4 3 3 18

US Marine Corps Tactical UAV
Overview Navy acquired it in the late 1980s as cluded at least nine systems and
The RQ-2A Pioneer is a remotely an interim UAV system for use off US slightly over 100 air vehicles. Con-
piloted vehicle developed in Israel for Navy ships and by the US Marine gress ordered the Navy to halt future
surveillance requirements. The US Corps. Production to date has in- purchases in FY88 due to the decision

©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

System such as smaller efforts. to gradually improve the air vehicle. and associated awarded Boeing with a contract for Raytheon Tactical Ground Control logistics support. (VMU-2) deployed them to the Al cludes procurement of an improved Asad area of Iraq and they are being Ground Control Station based on the used alongside the Pioneer. In late 2006. Marine UAV Squadron 2 of $35. Air vehicle up. rather than continue to fund the Pio.Page 40 The US Market to press ahead with a Joint Tactical UAV (BQM-155 Hunter. see report). The Raven will neer as an interim Tier II small UAV. a further 20 air vehicles in FY94. Marine ScanEagle (Tier 2) In 2000. the Marine Corps started upgrades to the Launch and Recovery As part of its UAV improvement a Pioneer Improvement Program. Tier 2 (intermediate tactical) its components. funded in FY08-09. L a c k in g a follow-on.2 (systems) — — — — — — — — — (5) Current Developments Pioneer PIP Ended system used with the Army Shadow. the Marine Corps starting with the software from the and engine upgrades. and 15 air vehicles in 1996 to keep ex- isting units operational until a new UAV system arrives in service.9 12.6 million. These World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . In 2007. Tactical programs in 2004 into Tier 1 (small table and to extend the useful life of Data Link upgrades. The ScanEagle was first The Marines started to fund pro. Procurement funding for the upgrade began in FY03 with a program cost of $35 million. The program in. They de. There are also plans grade kits including a more capable and Tier 3 (tactical such as Pioneer). it would be more cost effective deployed in Iraq in August 2004 and curement elements of this effort in to simply buy a new UAV.9 16. E-O/IR payload. RQ-2A Pioneer the Marines decided to satisfy their Tier III requirement by buying six ScanEagle UAV units to Iraq which is covered in the US Navy UAV RQ-7 Raven systems which will be are being operated alongside the Pio. auxiliary fuel tanks. neer. However. ary Force. the USMC recategorized its aimed at making the system more por. The Ma- rines started a new vertical unmanned aircraft system (VUAS) effort in FY06 which quickly ended due to funding and other issues. The program was to two ScanEagle UAV systems (mobile Station. the Navy purchased 12 at- trition replacements after the Gulf War.7 4. the Navy has initiated a for- In July 2004. Cur- rent plans are to keep Pioneer opera- tio n a l u n til 2 0 1 0 .9 — — — 8. However. trailer-mounted launchers.8 1. UAVs). the Marines instituted a Pi- oneer Improvement program in 2000 to keep the system viable until the end of the decade.000 FY03 with an expected program cost cided to acquire the US Army RQ-7 flight hours. replace the Pioneer once available. and later extending the effort be completed by FY09. section above. by May 2005 had accumulated 3. Shadow as detailed below. the Marines awarded mal Tier II Small Tactical UAS devel- a contract to Boeing to deploy two opment/acquisition program. but this Funding History Procurement ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 Navy Weapons Procurement (WPN) BA 2: Other Missiles Pioneer UAV 18. in deployment units) for deployment to to the sensors and communication late 2006. In July 2004. the Marines decided that Iraq with the 1st Marine Expedition- links.4 — Marine Corps Procurement BA 04: Navy Weapons Procurement MCTUAS — — — — — — — — — 90.

quired some RQ-8 Fire Scouts. the decade after the Navy has ac. the Marines The Pioneer is so aged that rather than Shadow acquisition is covered above and Navy will jointly acquire a new continue to pour money into its repair. acquire six systems. cro-UAVs are very small air vehicles. the FQM-151 Pioneer and the ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . The program was expected to program was trimmed back to a one planned. This implies a ISR services contract rather than pro. launched or use some form of launch The US deployed two MAVs in the Mini-UAVs are tactical systems in. As abruptly cancelled the program in a result of this decision. The Marines planned to start run for four years (FY06-09) at a cost year effort to study alternatives. cations. program renamed Marine Corps Tac- Navy RQ-8 Firescout and rejected cant problems which raised the issue tical Unmanned Aerial System both. the Marine Corps Corps planned a three-year demon. The Marines ideally would like of whether the Eagle Eye would in (MCTUAS). Although the USMC Oversight tails of the Tier II/STUAS program Council issued a decision memo in are contained in the US Navy UAV re. would look at various UAVs as poten- tial candidates. This will satisfy their operation of Tier II small UAVs. of $26. man-portable. which can be held in the hand. assistance such as a bungee cord. a category between the Tier 1 SURSS though it is possible that the Marines mini-UAV and the Tier III Shadow. and specifi- The Tier II program will be a joint c a lly lo o k in g f o r a Ver tic a l USN/USMC acquisition and is being Unmanned Aircraft System (VUAV). This is covered in the US the USMC decided to simply buy six At the same time. The funding was expected to term solution was to go off-the-shelf two ground control stations and four be sufficient for two GCS and eight and a decision was made to acquire air vehicles. system.3 million. Generally these are cate. low-cost UAVs are being perimeter security and similar appli. the summer of 2004 suggesting it port in this section. US Micro-/Mini-UAVs Overview tended for small unit reconnaissance. under a both the Army RQ-7 Shadow and Guard program ran into some signifi. stration of the HV-911 starting in vice until 2010-2011 though attrition FY06 for its future UAV require- could end the service life faster than ments. but also to in the FY07 budget submission this FY08-09 at a cost of $139. gorized as mini. higher speed airframe such as the curement. The Tier II/STUAS program. the Marine with the 15th Marine Expeditionary Corps announced that it was reorient- Unit starting in the summer of 2006. Under the new sions about its future UAV program. the Marine 2001. This program plans to a system which could be employed in fact be available in time. the Marine Corps fi- pected to develop a system which million in air vehicle procurement nally concluded that the best short would include 11 systems each with funding. act as an armed escort for its planned Teal Group Analysis In the past year. Small. managed by the US Navy so the de. a new program in FY06 which ex. funded in the reconnaissance role. In this examined for a variety of military ap. In the meantime. ScanEagle was forced to keep the Pioneer in ser. operating the Silver Fox small UAV In the summer of 2004. the Marines and Navy UAV section above since it is RQ-7 Raven systems of the type oper. The Marines considered VUAV. Mi.2 In late 2006. They are small enough to be report the abbreviation MAV is used plications. the short term Tier III requirement. the Coast the US Army RQ-7 Shadow.3 million in RDT&E and $45. USMC could then leverage off the neer for its Tier 3 requirement but Coast Guard’s development effort. As a result. the Marine Corps might revisit the requirement late in Until now. in the RQ-7 Shadow section. they have been leasing has finally made several critical deci. Navy. ing the TUAV program.and micro-UAVs.The US Market Page 41 UAVs are being operated under an V-22 Osprey force. the Navy are proceeding to regularize being managed and funded by the ated by the US Army. and are either hand to encompass both types. As a result. 1990s. Boeing Scan Eagles. The Marine Corps is also Textron Eagle Eye tilt-rotor UAV. it was later decided to Future Marine UAS (Tier 3) narrow the focus to the Coast Guard The Navy planned to acquire the HV-911 on the grounds that the RQ-8 Fire Scout to replace the Pio.

0 10.400 cle.000 cles and a manportable ground con- in the initial versions.000.8 13.7 14. Unit costs for the Exdrone have ment of the FQM-151 Pointer totaled not been released. a mini-UAV intended for small unit reconnais- sance. each with an aim to drop costs down The Marine Corps objective for to $5. The Marine Corps has begun to acquire the Dragon Eye as part of its SURSS (Small Unit Remote Scouting System) in FY04 with an objective of 176 systems and about 1. but are believed to $220. (SUAS) in FY06-11.000 air vehi- cles for a program cost of $25. Dragon Eye was a system cost of duction version.5 mil- lion. the Marine Corps took its first steps to de- velop the Dragon Eye.1 13. DARPA has funded a significant tractor on the FCS-related MAV. The ground control $60-70k which includes two air vehi- unit is believed to cost about $20. trol station.2 20.7 (quantity) — — — — — (185) (270) (106) (64) (100) Marine Corps Procurement (PMC): Communications and Electronics Equipment SURSS — — — — — 2. Due to high wash out rates. a profusion of programs have sprouted up primarily to support operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. the Marines decided to substitute the Army’s RQ-11 Raven as the “Block 1” of SURSS starting with part of the FY06 funding.0 6. In 1997. The contract for Dragon Eye was awarded to AeroVironment in No- vember 2003.000 per air vehi- Pointer in the 1989 buy was $16.Page 42 The US Market BQM-147 Exdrone.4 19.000 to $10. T h e U S A r my a c q u i r e d AeroVironment RQ-11A Raven mini-UAV systems for operations in FQM-151 Pointer Iraq and Afghanistan and plans to ac- quire 648 Small UAV systems planning to acquire a very small UAV Combat System MAV requirement. According to FY06 Sentry Owl World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . Unit cost of the FQM-151 have been about $10. Honeywell has been the prime con- selected for this requirement in 2006.7 n/a (quantity) — — — — — (9) (50) (113) (83) (46) Costs Private funding for the develop. the Raven B was called BATMAV in FY07-11.000 in a mass pro. The Air Force has acquired the number of Micro-UAV efforts and Lockheed Martin Sentry Owl MAV this effort in part supports the Future for perimeter security functions and is Funding History Procurement ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08* US Army Procurement: Communications and Electronics Equipment SUAV — — — — — 109. In recent years. in 2006.

The first large scale acquisition was by SOCOM with a purchase of five systems with options for 10 more. The Army procured a fur. the UAV eventually evolved into the RQ-11 Raven under the Army’s Pathfinder ACTD. The air vehicles quirement for a Small Unmanned Ae. The US Army UAV report in this section. This is $60-70k per system. The in October 2006. The goal was later program.000 for the FY06 buy. Under around a portable laptop computer. ond award was to mount a miniature acquire 1. This system was initially dubbed SUAV (Small UAV). funding for the SUAV effort is closer RQ-11A Raven has an system cost to $200.2 million in FY02. Marine funding for the late 2 0 0 4 .000 more under tracts valued at over $1 million for ciated ground control station based contract. with AeroVironment offering deriva. the Army determined the need for an im- mediate capability for a small unit Dragon Eye UAV and decided to increase the scope of the Raven acquisition to 185 Army Small UAVs for the foreseeable with each system including three air Raven systems. about $3. BAI converted 60 The Dragon Eye carries a small one fielding modular units.000 per GCS.000 each and In the longer term. A c c o r d in g to Marine Dragon Eye program was $3 million in FY01 and AeroVironment. future. and a ground station based AeroVironment received a $20. as of early 2005.000 per air vehicles and competed in the Marine Dragon Eye The US Marines had a requirement $10. and an upgraded sensor.300 Raven air vehicle had been Aerosystems was awarded two con. battery operated. the Army ap- proach AeroVironment about the construction of a smaller UAV.000 per system including objective of about $25. configuration with a GPS upgrade. systems cost about $25. The Army opened were applied to the bulk of the flyable units during Operation Iraqi Free- this requirement to competitive bid examples of the approximately 85 dom. The sec.4 million. Ini- tially dubbed “Flashlight”. the Navy Research include three air vehicles. ToughBook laptop computer. vehicles.The US Market Page 43 budget documents. the Army is In July 2001. a ground looking for a mini-UAV with VTOL Lab awarded a competitive develop- control station. The RQ-11 Raven B SUAS re.3 4 lion contract for the 185 systems. rial System (SUAS) and plans to fund experimented with the Dragon Drone A small number of Dragon Eyes were 648 systems in FY06-11 at a cost of for shipboard launches. Exdrone into the new Dragon Drone pound daylight camera and is entirely The Army has a continuing re. but actual procurement $154. Exdrones still in inventory. sensors and three air cost was $130. The upgrades deployed in March 2003 with Marine $127.000 which in.7 mil.000 Dragon Eyes and 200 cations offering the BAI Aerosystems chemical weapons detector on a Dragon control stations at a cost of Evolution XTS which had earlier Dragon Drone for future trials. remote video terminal capability and this is covered in the men t c o n tr a c t to BA I an d and associated sensor pack. further work on the Exdrone. with each system and so Raven will form the basis for based around the Dragon Eye MAV consisting of two air vehicles and one ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems .000 in FY04 and vehicles. The aim was to 1. field a four pound drone and an asso- built with about 2. and L3 Communi. I n S e p te mb e r 1 9 9 7 . Current Developments Army Small UAV (SUAS) After a 1999 demonstration of the FQM-151 Pointer for military opera- tions in urban terrain. funded in FY03-04. ther 270 systems in FY05 to support the first award. the actual unit cludes a GCS. During operations in Iraq. spares. AeroVironment for prototypes of the 100th Raven system was delivered in Dragon Eye. The Marines originally planned to tives of the Raven. AeroVironment won the for an Interim Small Unit Remote stated to be 311 systems at a cost of competition with the RQ-11 Raven B Sensing System (ISURSS). ceived full rate production authority a r o u n d a P a n a s o n ic CF . BA I $2. The USMC have a durability of about 40 flights.

However. DARPA spent about $12 Department of Defense Advanced phase. Honeywell Aerospace is the prime sibility of micro-UAVs since the contractor for the MAV with AAI sect mid-1990s. powered UAVs using miniatur. These are small (under 1 Corp. Concept Technology Development million contract which includes the In December 1997. awarding Honeywell a $61 million on the program in FY98-00. efforts. The remain. DARPA narrowed construction of 55 MAV air vehicles. AeroVironment developed manufacture of 12 systems. AeroVironment was selected to pro- vide the Dragon Eye and a contract was awarded in November 2003 for the FY04 batch of nine systems. under the re- vised program covered in the FY06 budget plan. In 2006. fuel effi. TX a contract for the develop- artificial muscle actuators) ment and production of three Micro-UAVs DARPA has been studying the fea- • Vanderbilt University (elastic-dy. • California Institute of Technology tor.000 air vehicles due to the expendable nature of the UAVs. This acquisi- tion objective would probably in- clude 1. tems-based micro-gas turbine en- the Army’s Class 1 MAV requirement ing SURSS requirement will be satis. extended program are incomplete. The program is now called SURSS (Small Unit Remote Scouting System) and the objective was repegged at 291 new acquisition systems since 20 AeroVironment systems were pro- vided earlier in the development pro- gram. while the remaining 12 delivered in • MIT (micromechanical sys- DARPA has also been involved in early 2007 were Ravens. 101 of the systems funded in including: 2002. tracts were given out for the purpose the Wasp MAV for DARPA and in sult. platoon UAV with an operational ra- documentation on the funding for this servable. World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . a number of con. being the airframe subcontrac- foot). first untethered free flight in 2005 and they have a range up to 10 km.7 million. Marine • D-STAR Engineering (low ob. Mission Technologies in San Anto- the program was shelved in 2003.5 million. set an endurance record of one FY06 are “Block 0” Dragon Eyes hour. The requirement is that MicroCraft for a 36 month cost-shar. A Micro-Air in late May 2006 the Army selected up to 30 mph. G en eratio n I I min i-U AV s . safe-operation. a one pound payload. speeds ing VTOL UAV study. the competitors to Honeywell and The Honeywell MAV underwent its ronments. AAI won a February 2006 con- ized cameras. and endurance of Vehicle (MAV) was included in 2002 the Honeywell MAV for the SDD 20-120 min. The Army currently plans to use FY08-09 for a further 131 systems Micro-UAV) the AeroVironment Raven until (46+85) DARPA completes its objective Mi- The Marines studied a larger and • T e c h n o lo g y in Bla c k s b u r g cro-Air Vehicle (MAV). Total acquisition costs in FY04-FY09 were expected to be $25. the acquisition objective was trimmed to 176 systems in FY04-07 at a cost of $26. In April more elaborate helicopter UAV called (thermo-electric-based advanced Micro-UAV) 2003. gines for micro-UAV) for the FCS program.Page 44 The US Market ground control station. the US Army Communica- Dragon Warrior. but cient. As a re. This was based tions-Electronics Command awarded around Sikorsky’s Cypher UAV. to scout ahead in urban warfare envi. but • SRI Int’l (flapping wing propul.7 million for the could be used by individual soldiers In June 2001. dius of 16 km. namic ornithopic flying robotic in. Class I is the fied by the Raven Block 1. 47 minutes. sion using electrostrictive polymer nio. The idea is that they (Micro-bat) tract for $1. light weight propulsion and and an operating altitude of 90 min- suggest that funding will continue in power system for advanced utes. the Marine corps decided to switch from the Dragon Eye to the RQ-11 Raven Army’s Raven due to a high wash out rate during operations in Iraq.

75 in FY08. In released in September 2006 and was a Swamp using Swamp Works funding 2001. These problems be. vibration from the aircraft propul. Over the past from a wide variety of potential mili. The Naval Surface Warfare the Pointer. million for 100-150 systems. The Air to develop a UAV under $2. Fox that was originally intended to for an initial batch of UAVs for this tem). These are seen as potential to a stabilized platform due to payload Army.and Micro-UAVs have be. Battlefield Airmen The Office of Naval Research’s Flight released a request for informa. ing only six pounds. For example. payloads in simple ball mounts with limited anyway. vanced Ceramics Research (ACR) to airbases. seen is how valuable these systems such as perimeter patrols if the sys. Center (NSWC) at Carderock has RQ-2A Pioneer. on the order of $25 signs are viewed as having an appli. The RFP was been examining a small UAV called perimental Cypher flying disc. The in- level. and Sikorsky’s ex. This will put a damper power sources. and degradation of imagery This pattern may be paralleled UAVs rely on very small airframes by transmission problems between elsewhere. surveillance. 116 in FY09 and Research (ONR) has funded Ad- man-portable SAM operators near 93 in FY10) The proposed system in. significant technical limitations. force units for base surveillance in for this requirement. the acquisition (RSTA) and battle dam. The US cation to urban warfare. It has subsequently application. existing systems to test them in actual gun to attract considerable attention This results in several related prob. the US Marine Corps. but ap- instead of flying over buildings. mini-UAV system in spite of its limi- on their use in areas such as near the come more serious the smaller the air. While this is a will prove. tems for the primary customer. the image quiring mini-UAV systems. and zoom functions weigh. advanced micro-UAV de. and was used in were experimentally deployed by air AeroVironment Wasp was selected small numbers over Iraq in 2003. It will also com. Even if using some of the newer Army has requirements even beyond operate within and around buildings optical stabilization technologies. Un- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Congress added a further $15 million Afghanistan in 2002. graded by wind-induced motion. funding in FY04 to acquire more The Special Operations Systems Navy Efforts Silver Foxes. these UAVs are forced to rely on opment programs. US tary users. Vehicle (BATMAV). the the initial Raven purchase. The Office of Naval amining small UAVs to detect FY07. light-weight cameras. or relatively modest. they size. with the expectation that the coast where there are apt to be intense frame. there are UAV shelf-life of the air vehicles is fairly and frequent gusts. and as a result. much like a sonobouy. tremely valuable in low intensity con- The second technical challenge is Several armed forces have decided flicts for patrolling. vestments for these systems are In addition. it is too much Army in Iraq is that they are ex- vulnerability to weather. Group (SOFSG). not the least of which era. these cameras. What remains to be promise their use for security tasks pan. A small number of Sentry Owls h a v e b e e n r e p o r ts th a t th e tions for mini-UAVs. A contract was awarded to cludes a Ground Control Station (one develop a low-cost UAV called Silver the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works per system). The aim is to Lead Line) with the Fifth Fleet for po- curity duties at forward-deployed US provide a small UAV for real-time re. Among the candidates were connaissance. able to sion. and target tection. the Sea Dragon. and simply acquire have some decided advantages. Air Vehicle (two per sys. It is difficult to fit such a sensor few years. provided to the operator can be de. sensor. based on the Sentry Owl funding the system in FY06. working conditions. tems cannot perform 24 hours a day. with a quick reaction program aimed at ex. By their very nature. Due to their small to forego the usual prolonged devel. In spite of their sensor limitations. and not wait for a the mini-UAVs. age assessment (BDA). feasible payload for a mini-UAV The initial word from the US seven days a week due to periodic weighing 50 pounds. The Air Force planned to begin track whales. (30 in cheap camera. and USAF have all begun ac- reconnaissance assets at small unit restrictions. very small.The US Market Page 45 AF MAV Requirement tion on 21 December 2005 to acquire variant of the Marine Corps Dragon The USAF had a requirement for a a Battlefield Air Targeting Micro Air Eye called Sea ALL (Sea Airborne small UAV to conduct perimeter se. tilt. the Air Force’s Electronic Sys. is size. with armies first acquiring that are subject to wind conditions at the UAV and the operator due to weak an ex istin g mo d estly-p riced low altitude.000 that tems Command at Hanscom AFB Force has stated the requirement for could be employed as an expendable took over this effort under its FPASS BATMAV as approximately 314 sys. for a five pound UAV. small business set-aside. Swamp Works has been examining a Teal Group Analysis Mini. There been used to examine other applica- UAV. imagery is often far from ideal due to pears to be interested in fielding avail- There are numerous challenges to the narrow viewing angle of the cam. able systems now. or for perimeter security tasks. tations. tential applications in naval force pro- airbases. poor resolution of low-power an optimum system. lems.

est if for no other reason than the rela. Annual tion/warfighting technology as valu. The J-UCAS summer of 2007. Northrop Grumman won are intended primarily for reconnais.500 6. UCAVs are a combat mon Operating System. cept for technology demonstrations. Operational Assessment phase in strike N-UCAS in FY18.000 — — — — — — 4. mini-UAVs are operated at such Micro-UAVs face an even greater The micro-UAV market is even a low level that they can be employed technical and tactical challenge.000 1. tially developed under separate US FY07 through FY10 at which point The Air Force examined a strate- Air Force and US Navy programs but the services would decide whether to gic stealth strike platform under its in June 2003. basic and advanced research.500 1. Production Forecast User (Variant) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total AeroVironment RQ-11 Raven (USA 1. They are readily available. air vehicles and systems will prove bly drive up the mini-UAV market to feasible. Even should these programs soaked up a small but significant army officers are referring to them as proceed to serial production. December 2005. UCAV programs were ini. In program split in two with the Air pursued. largely in the US. the US armed effort back to the Air Force to occur in ble for the remnants of the UCAV forces began to examine the concept FY06 (October 2005). It has proba. Force shifting its attention to a classi- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . If the tively modest costs of the air vehicles. the Boeing demonstration effort. bly tripled in size over the past few Actual micro-UAV procurement over and there is likely to be a continuing years. in Program. the demonstration contract in the sance missions. Until recently. rent SUAS and SURSS programs. though it is difficult the scope of mini-UAV purchases national market for mini-UAVs has to identify all this funding as some has could expand significantly in coming probably been on the order of about been allotted for multi-role technol- years. Command. Instead. but it appears to be since it is by no means clear that such DoD organizations such as the Air the start of a trend which will proba. Annual without a major concern over other the moment. now limited to a carrier of UCAVs (uninhabited combat air were being developed. DoD decided to shift manage. Some mation. 2004. or New Generation Long Range Strike both programs into a common effort terminate the program. it is hard to see how they funding has probably been higher air traffic. of the decade. but it would now appear referred to as J-UCAS (Joint Unin.Page 46 The US Market like tactical UAVs where there is a Force and Special Operations $35 million annually through the end need for deconfliction with other air. Unlike current UAVs that X-45C and the Northrop Grumman UCAS-D. now called vehicles).000 RQ-11 Raven (USMC) 145 275 120 — — — — — — — 540 Undetermined BATMAV (USAF) 150 130 190 150 — — — — — — 620 Other (US) — — — — — — 1. as the and units don’t have to wait hours or large enough to provide useful infor. Some of this is a spurt caused the next decade is difficult to assess though small acquisition by other by Iraqi war needs. At more difficult to predict. million in procurement. craft.500 1. technology for miniaturization has days to schedule a mission. can carry a sensor and transmitter than in the case of mini-UAVs. X-47B Pegasus which shared a Com. The Navy effort is UAV that could be employed on strike program was expected to reach the aimed at fielding the carrier-borne missions. and the Navy responsi- In the mid-1990s.000 1.500 1. DoD decided to merge proceed engineering development. world funding in this field has proba- able as night vision goggles. bly exceeded $10 million annually night vision goggle analogy holds. DoD ordered the that a manned aircraft will be habited Combat Air Systems). Two systems program. the size of the inter. of the market is likely to remain mod.000 UCAVs Overview ment responsibility for the J-UCAS fied program. Procurement so Army and Marines will continue to RDT&E spending and perhaps $10 far has been nearly non-existent ex- acquire mini-UAVs beyond the cur. It seems likely that both the $5 million in annual world-wide ogy demonstrations. the size amount of funding from DARPA for b ein g an in tellig en ce co llec.000 1.

J-UCAS Consolidation In FY02.8 — — — PE# 0604400D J-UCAS ACPD — — — — — — 217. the US armed forces began to study he possibility of using UAVs to carry out lethal strike missions as well as conventional re- connaissance missions.6 — — — — PE# 0604731F UCAV — — — — 160.7 — — PE# 0604400F J-UCAS — — — — — — — 272.6 161. Under the ef- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Boeing will probably build three Spiral 1 was planned to involve the Air System). This was and Northrop Grumman two at a cost tors and include demonstrations of formally announced on 23 June 2003. with one service taking charge of development.The US Market Page 47 Funding History RDT&E ($ Millions) FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08* PE# 0207256F J-UCAS — — — — — 2. the Office of the Secre- tary of Defense began considering the amalgamation of the USAF and USN UCAV programs under a single of- fice.5 — — — — — PE# 0603400F J-UCAS — — — — — — — 76. patterned on the current JSF pro- gram office.3 — — — — PE# 0604731F UCAV — — — — 40. arrested landings and other dem- develop new UCAV designs capable into the program. The BQM-34 Firebee drone was tested in a strike configuration during the late 1960s as an effort to develop a system capable of penetrating concentrated air de- fenses and reducing crew casualties. two year operational assessment observable airframes. of $160 million.6 *Request Current Developments UCAV Requirement In the mid-1990s. with management being UCAV at a cost of about $140 million larger X-45C and X-47 demonstra- centralized under DARPA. DoD decided to consolidate the Air Force X-45A UCAV and Navy program under a common J-UCAS (Joint Uninhabited Combat fort.4 — — — PE# 0604402N UCAV — — — — — — — — 99. This was largely an offshoot of existing studies of the utility of UAVs. Boeing received a low-cost low observability features.3 — — PE# 0603400D J-UCAS ATD — — — — — — 354. The concept is not entirely new.0 14. onstrations of system capabilities.300 nautical miles and The Spiral 0 effort was planned to This effort was to be followed by a a payload of 4.500 pounds with low include two X-45As and one X-47A. of a range of 1. In May 2003. DARPA instructed contract from DARPA in July 2003 to catapult launches for the naval vari- Boeing and Northrop Grumman to integrate the new Spiral 1 objectives ants. In 2003.

The plan calls for the aircraft to be de- was reorganized. probably have enough money to pre- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . and won the Teal Group Analysis The Uninhabited Combat Air Ve. but may be an enlarged conducted to develop the necessary to back off from the J-UCAS effort. options under its Next Generation demonstration program is intended to erational Assessment (OA) phase. The Navy has tentatively program is not clear but may include mid-FY07 with Boeing and Northrop set a goal of an IOC of FY18. the Air Force decided public view. indicated that a manned platform was land-based testing to begin in J-UCAS Killed the preferred solution. The immediate in-air refueling system. rently stands has probably entered the application for UAVs. but both a tactical strike UCAV and a stra. December 2005 when the program billion in RDT&E funding in FY11. development effort. Long Range Strike (NGLRS) pro. In 2004. DoD decided to shift management of the J-UCAS back from DARPA to the Air Force. The Navy has gram. A ir F o r c e b e g a n lo o k in g a t Martin for this contract. with the Navy taking program as a two element advanced provements including an automated over the remnants of the J-UCAS pro. and has seen solidation. The tactical 3Q-FY11 and ship testing to begin in As a result of the Quadrennial De. Grumman competing. Part of X-47A Pegasus First Flight the consolidation effort meant that the Spiral 1 risk-reduction phase would long-range manned and unmanned award in the summer of 2007. The de- velopment program was expected to last seven years with operational de- ployment of the Air Force A-45 around 2010 and the Navy system around 2105. The Navy issued a RFP for rier-borne strike UCAV. The Grumman teamed with Lockheed sketchiest of goals. This be curtailed in favor of an earlier Op. The program as it cur- hicle (UCAV) is the most futuristic program until through the recent con. only to see DoD again “land of the walking dead” as the considerable turmoil over the past break up the program with the Navy Navy is lukewarm at best about this several years while the services pursuing the carrier-based J-UCAS requirement. DARPA announced plans to include a Common Operating System into the J-UCAS program. in 2007. this is the tegic (long-range) strike element. D A R PA h e a d e d t h e fied UCAV. Navy program will thrash out what they expect from the and the Air Force pursuing a classi. UCAV effort has disappeared from 1Q-FY13. Back to the USAF In April 2004. DoD ordered the J-UCAS. However. Northrop given the lack of planning. pay- loads and other potential shared sys- tems. Air Force officials v e lo p e d b y th e e n d o f F Y 11 . explore the feasibility of carrier based This became largely moot in gram which is expected to reach $1.Page 48 The US Market scheduled to begin in 2007. version of the current J-UCAS ship interface including precision Various public explanations have designs. In In the wake of the cancellation of Technology Maturation effort which December 2005. concern that the current platforms are UCAS-D The second program is a UCAS too small for the USAF mission. A parallel program will be fense Review. This was an attempt to impose an inte- grator/broker to manage the program between Boeing and Northrop Grumman and to ensure commonality on certain aspects of the program such as ground control. sensors. navigation systems and the mission been offered. the Navy restructured the will examine a variety of UCAS im- program split. now called The future direction of the USAF the demonstration program in N-UCAS. and the Air Force initiating a program is a carrier demonstration tentatively discussed a future car- classified program. program. apparently centered on control system.1 UCAS operations no later than FY13. p r o g r a m.

pression of enemy air defense As of 2007. and the idea of funding a re. The first prototype TR918 VUAV began flight testing in 2006 but crashed shortly after the start of the program. the Air Force has stated (SEAD) missions in the event that the User (Variant) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Boeing USAF (X-45) 1 — — — — — — — — — 1 Northrop Grumman USN (X-47) 2 1 1 2 — — — — — — 6 Undetermined USAF (NG-SEAD) — — — 2 — — — 4 5 10 21 US Coast Guard UAVs Overview The US Coast Guard is consider- ing the acquisition of two or more UAVs for its Deepwater moderniza- tion effort. fort in 2002 dubbed Deepwater. and the thirty The Marine Corps was planning a purchase. Guard patrol vessels. a joint venture of Northrop The Coast Guard plans to acquire Grumman and Lockheed Martin. B-1s and B-2s. These include a Vertical take-off and landing UAV (VUAV) and a high altitude endurance UAV. rangement rather than an outright 20 years of the program. much sooner. As a result. The Deepwater effort includes a HV-911 starting in FY06 for its future Deepwater Requirement wide range of equipment such as sur- UAV requirements. The prosper. ICGS. probably with long-range platform to take up the stealth strike platform aimed at pro. an unmanned bomber re. but given more hostile than it is today.The US Market Page 49 vent the current effort from com. In November 2002. mains a possibility. the USCG se- lected the Bell Textron TR-911D Ea- gle Eye over the Northrop Grumman RQ-8 Fire Scout for its VUAV re- quirement. The aim is apparently to The Air Force is another matter long-range requirements. The time that the Coast Guard has ac- ance UAV requirement but this could program began in June 2002 with the quired UAVs for its traditional change. Bell Helicopter Eagle Eye leased in February 2007 has no UAV procurement funding beyond FY07. The US Coast Guard embarked on veillance aircraft and new Coast The Coast Guard was expected to a major 20 year re-capitalization ef. The tactical field an advanced long-range strike a n d th e s e r v ice w o u ld lik e a program would most likely be a program by FY18. This will probably total four award of a $11 billion contract to missions. collection of B-52s. The Navy has not shown any its past predilection for black aircraft problem with the Air Force program particular enthusiasm for UAVs in programs. but the FY08 budget submission re. year cost is expected to total $17 bil- three-year demonstration of the lion. that it would lean towards a manned air defense environment becomes pletely dying. is that much of this activity will prob- general. the scope and direc- carrier decks seems exceedingly risky UCAV program. air vehicles and may be a lease ar. The first eight VUAV’s were funded in the FY04 budget. The USCG was considering the acquisi- tion of 43-45 UAVs (down from 69). but not enough for it to option for its future bomber. one aimed at tactical tion of the program will be publicly and unattractive. It is likely that the ably be in the black world for several motely piloted air vehicle to land on USAF will pursue more than a single years. strike requirements and one for invisible. some form of demonstrator flying slack from its aging and hodge-podge viding a capability to conduct sup. The at least two types of UAVs: a vertical $11 billion price tag covers the first ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . It is the first select the Global Hawk for its endur.

the earliest. tered flight demonstrations on 26 RQ-8 Fire Scout for its VUAV re. impact the crash will have on the pro- gram. The FY08 budget submission Textron Eagle Eye for the VUAV re. Under program. but it has been unable to crash occurred. The Coast Guard be. The new Guard had earlier stated that it ex. The USCG is considering Alaska to demonstrate its value for 2006 after losing engine power dur- the acquisition of 69 UAVs and up to endurance surveillance. The critical design re. The TR918 Eagle Eye received In November 2002. So far. begin the VUAV program in February Operational testing aboard a Large ance UAV requirement. However. The plan was to begin ship- Endurance UAV Requirement HV-911 VUAV Program Plan board tests aboard a Large Maritime The Coast Guard is expected to se. AC&I fund. Under these circumstances. Production Forecast User (Variant) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total USCG (Eagle Eye) — — — — — 2 4 4 6 6 6 28 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . sues such as sense-and-avoid require. operational issues are resolved. Ini- FAA certification for the operation of 29 January 2004 and so the program tial operational capability was the Global Hawk over the US. In the interim. air vehicles. there are no quired under previous budgets for came under intense Congressional clear guidelines for the routine use of testing and demonstration. The main 2003. facilities. center near Fort Worth. dicate the program objective was from UAVs operated from two land gan funding the VUAV in the FY04 43-45 air vehicles. The first prototype en- Eye over the Northrop Grumman derivative) on a “Concept of Opera. tions” demonstration in July 2004 in January 2006 but crashed on 5 April quirement. The plan was to this mission as part of its Deepwater through the first test phase when the begin funding the Eagle Eye in FY06 requirement. down from a high bases. VUAV Requirement utility of land-based UAV operations. but our scrutiny in 2006-07 over the issue of UAVs in controlled air space. ICGS was awarded a contract to Security Cutter in December 2006. push back the UAV elements of Deep- civilian use of UAVs in the United organization of program management water until the operations issues are States. it will be the first large scale next year as Congress may force a re. Guard oversight. These may be DoD operated budget for $50 million. Maritime Security Cutter was sched- problem at the moment is the lack of a nary design review for the HV-911 on uled to begin in September 2007. The selection of the Bell to place more emphasis on Coast settled. The TR918 USCG cutters will begin to be de. The Coast ing stable hover while at the Bell test 50 ground control stations. pected to acquire the Global Hawk for air vehicle was about three-quarters ployed around 2006. Global Hawk acquisition February 2004. lect the Global Hawk for its endur. of 69. ments. has completed deleted funding for quirement was a major boost for this The Deepwater UAV program ap. which has been offered for pears to be in trouble as well due to these circumstances. the USCG se. and the forecast presumes that any significant program management by the ICGS FAA has yet to issue guidance on is. The eventual requirement ing for the UAV program in the FY07 will probably total about four-eight Coast Guard Budget is $4. acquisition will be delayed until the rather than the Coast Guard itself. The Deepwater program space access issue. This was used to fund the trials of a FAA certification for testing in De- lected the Bell Textron HV-911 Eagle General Atomics Mariner (Predator B cember 2005. and as entered the system design phase on 4 expected to be reached by April 2008 a result. In 2004. water UAV program proceed as cant turmoil in the program over the the Coast Guard may be forced to planned. and it is unclear what at a rate of 5-8 annually.Page 50 The US Market take-off and landing UAV (VUAV) Land-Based Demonstration leased in February 2007 as part of the and a high altitude endurance UAV. UAV acquisition in FY08-12. including three production VUAVs probably won’t occur until 2016 at view for the HV-911 was scheduled and two ground control stations. the 5-year AC&I budget re- Teal Group Analysis Should the Coast Guard Deep. the USCG for November 2004 but slipped to 19 Recent Coast Guard statements in- has spoken about paying for data January 2005. The USCG conducted prelimi.9 million. This is likely to lead to some signifi. fund the Global Hawk to date. the USCG received a $10 FY08 budget cycle has removed all million budget plus-up to examine the UAV funding after FY07. the Coast Guard over a decade to the Navy and other the slow pace of FAA action on the air is likely to use the Eagle Eyes ac- services.

restricted airspace access. These issues fer of UAVs to the Air Guard for (CoA) issued through mid-2006 to are being examined by a variety of or- operations from commercial airfields. The single largest sessment of the dynamics of civil lish type certification of HALE hurdle to the growth of the civil UAV UAV market growth. and basic aircraft standards. for such issues as UAV embedded teamed with NASA dubbed Access 5 der Protection. market is the issue of UAV operations cess to national airspace is available. certificates and standards was in the process of attempting to sued in 2006 and most of the for UAV pilots. parameters for UAV operation in the of 2007 this was up to 130 of which 13 The RTCA (Radio Technical Com- US. This is already an is. Until regular ac- UAVs. ganizations in the US. or to obtain an FAA vehicles and the capability for Border Patrol to operate surveillance waiver. but Over the past few years. cut-off-point to divide fully certifi- name “Access-5” was a reminder of A mid -term g o al w ill b e cated UAVs from small UAVs which the group’s ambition to create UAV “sense-and-avoid”. UAV op. UAVs by various federal agencies The issue of access to national air- outside the Department of Defense • Step 2 would allow routine opera- space is absolutely critical to any as- tions above 18. there are a number the goal was to have this in place craft/helicopters over Iraq through of exploratory programs to examine by September 2006. The basic issue will be control and and control systems. a are settled. Indeed. the FAA permitted the ment test ranges. civil use of UAVs until these issues Textron Eagle Eye tilt rotor which is Besides the FAA access issues. ance of experimental certificates to tion organizations to begin a cam- companiment by chase aircraft. RTCA is help elucidate the pattern that may control stations to be integrated into also working on developing a emerge over the next few years. UAV operators. NOAA. certain US military bases and govern. mission for Aeronautics) with FAA was cut in 2006. and ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . airworthiness certificates for air In 2005-06. permit UAV operations at the expense moment to contemplate widespread The first was issued to the Bell of general aviation. requires exten. emergency recovery via restricted UAVs along the Mexican border. and UAV its objectives are worth detailing to communications to permit the ground sense-and-avoid systems. the rest to government agen. civil UAV operations will be rare and Aviation Administration) standards worthiness certification of the limited to research applications or to are only beginning to emerge for rou. FAA (Federal • Step 3 would require special air.000 feet as well as intro. tasks such as coast guard patrol or In lieu of routine access to national air ductio n o f sense-and-avoid border patrol in limited areas where space. The privately has likewise been constrained by the dustry. Deepwater requirement. pressure.The US Market Page 51 US Civil UAVs At the moment. UAV and routine operations particularly important governmental tine UAV operations in US airspace. for example the trans. the FAA finally set up an operations above 40. an would be more lightly regulated in access to national airspace within five organic ability of the UAV to sense terms of sense-and-avoid sensors. • Step 1 would permit experimental there have been at least two air-to-air Due to industry and Congressional certification of UAVs and routine collisions involving UAVs and air. concern in formulating new rules. These specific types of UAVs which permit paign to counter-act any attempt to existing rules are too restrictive at the them to fly under “file and fly” rules. A total of 55 were is. in other words. UAVs must either operate in technology. a consortium of US firms Forest Service and Customs and Bor. A part of the first step was the issu. etc. FAA certificates of authorization trial standards for UAVs. in controlled airspace. This was envisioned as the presence of another aircraft and but which would also have more a four step process. UAV command Although this program has ended. ending the effort and The FAA is expected to concen. In addition. Of the 100 main to be resolved involving indus- itary airspace. by this example has led general avia- sive planning and in some cases ac. the summer of 2005. By the summer dards. there is little interference with regular restricted airspace such as those over • Step 4 would introduce standard aviation. The the existing air traffic control system.000 feet. (MASPS) for UAVs. backing is developing minimum avia- shifting the responsibility back to the trate on at least two major areas of tion system performance standards FAA. eral aviation which caused its own set UAVs from military airbases through of problems. software.000 feet and estab- and Coast Guard. sense-and-avoid stan- work with the FAA on establishing remainder in 2004-05. the precedent set civilian air corridors. avoid collision. above 18. the oping a variety of industrial standards In 2005. years (2010). only five were to in. airspace to a designated dual-use to do so they restricted access to gen- erations such as transit of military UAV/manned aircraft airport. funded ASTM International is devel- absence of final guidelines. The goal is sue in the military environment as to establish this guideline by 2010. even military oriented towards the US Coast Guard variety of other technical issues re- employment outside of restricted mil. cies such as NASA. NASA funding for this program were to industry.

significant. not other air vehicles. FAA. underway with industrial partners in. small UAVs for operations up to formance standards might be avail. it will increase the work will track national airspace by ting system of some sort such as a cost of the UAV. There is currently were conducted of a surrogate HALE system). Two approaches are possible. especially if the requirement remains minimal passive system and an active SARA Inc.Page 52 The US Market Unmanned Program Office in July of TCAS transponder system which alert system (PANCAS) for use on 2006. the most elementary level. lightly regulated UAVs In September 2006. large UAVs. the size. would provide limited sense-and. conventional radar or laser-radar. the US Army’s RQ-7 aircraft via data-link. one of the not be obliged to have a full SAA gram is expected to last for five years French mini-UAVs has an active package. it will pre-empt the craft. Bihrle Applied Research. and weight hurdles for depends on interaction with the other eral Atomics is planning its own tests civil UAVs which will dampen the aircraft’s transponders. The US airspace such as administrative con- be integrated into the future Auto. junction with Scaled Composites hence more affordable) UAVs. nificant impact on civil UAVs in sev- nationwide by 2013. pounds with more than 30 seats have against a cooperative transport with The bottom line however is that been obliged to be fitted with TCAS II TCAS and a non-cooperative general the “sense-and-avoid” requirement is (Traffic Collision Avoidance System) aviation target. The pro. rapid proliferation of smaller (and fic control network and the aircraft. vehicle in half. namely the ability to and DRA in conjunction with the ing blade if the system uses active RF sense a nearby aircraft with or with. and power demands would limit it to demands of such a system could be clude sense-and-avoid (SAA) re. Hemispheric coverage im- no system available to accomplish UAV fitted with an optical DAA (De. First. a integrated into the UAV’s flight con. optical ranging mated to a collision s ig n if ic a n t is s u e f o r p r o p e r Commercial transports over 33. matic dependent surveillance broad. tween small. certain range and then take predeter. a Predator. the power The FAA rules are expected to in. Amphitech high frequency radar sys. has developed a small. plies other design issues since the an- this though a variety of systems are tect and Avoid) sensor using passive tenna/emitter location will be a under development or consideration.000 feet. 10. the type of system finally selected and definitive detect-sense-avoid perfor. mined steps to avoid a collision. will have to have full hemispheric icant impact on the proliferation of cluding Northrop Grumman. as mance standard may not be available the presence of another air vehicle at a well as the effect that a delineation be- until 2011 or after. It could have a dispropor- quirements. if the early monitoring GPS data from the air. process this for both the air traf.000 avoidance algorithm. though they might differ The US Air Force Research Lab tionate effect on fixed wing versus from the certificated UAVs and the (AFRL) has an active SAA program vertical wing UAVs since the sensor small UAVs. 2003 with the Proteus aircraft to ex. It seems likely that plan for introducing UAVs into the systems have been demonstrated. and certificated UAVs may have on lected Lockheed-Martin to develop a Some very limited sense-and-avoid SAA regulations. and tested functioning. Although this technology has kg. the first tests emission (rather than a purely optical out a transponder. By and provide this data to the ATC and conducted a series of test flights in way of example. Army was working on a compact trols on altitude and regional use. system weighs even a modest 10-15 tem. but perhaps a more limited (mid-2011) acoustic sensor though this is aimed passive system akin to the SARA At the moment. trols which enables the UAV to sense the associated costs and weights. ably. frequency The other approach would be a The impact of SAA requirements assignments in 2010 and rule estab. At the lightly regulated small UAVs will national air space system. The ADS-B net. If the “sense-and-avoid” system. Presum. eral respects. This could have a signif. weight. ambiguous over the next several system. cost. avoid capability. logical. In addition. This sensor will have to enable Lockheed Martin. more active sensor system for VFR on civil UAVs will be dependent upon lishment in 2010-2011. In early FY07. it could cut the payload of the air Sense and Avoid Technology proven successful. Minimum sense and avoid per. of optical-based SAA devices on the market in the mid-term (2011-2014). The first would be some form passive acoustic non-cooperative years. Further flight tests are likely to add yet another set of techno- since 1993 by the FAA but this system expected in FY08 and beyond. sensors are heavy. it is also unclear to primarily at avoiding collisions with PANCAS tied to restricted access to what extent civil UAVs will have to walls. sense-and-avoid system for the The size and cost of an eventual cast (ADS-B) network which is OAV-II tactical UAV which could SAA sensor package will have a sig- expected to be ready around 2010 and help establish a benchmark. able as early as 2009. the FAA se. coverage and an emitter located on UAVs. In August 2007. General the fuselage of a helicopter UAV may a UAV to operate under visual flight Dynamics. Shadow tactical UAV has a payload the FAA chose ITT to develop this amin e th e ap p licab ility o f an of 25 kg. Boeing. it could require an active emit. Calspan. Gen. Secondly. NASA Dryden Research in con. Given the complexity of this World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . However. have blind spots caused by the rotat- rules conditions.

NASA and borrowed a US Army Hunter to opposed to the current rate of illegal acquired a Predator B in 2007. tions if the first trials are successful. copter UAV to sit over a fire to pro- tion to be based out of Grand Forks. As hand. the Mexican border is a politically fire-fighting and weather forecasting. The applications would be which deployed in November 2006. the CPB budget for the acquisition of ment. with the Helios very ling endurance The main thrust of the USFS effort at sources. Their studies conclude that op- constitute a significant market if the NASA has been involved in UAV erating such UAVs is likely to be Border Patrol were to decide that this research for over a decade. vide weather data. mitted to any large scale purchases of government agencies. The Hermes logged 590 hours of ceive the benefits of a low-cost labor tude scientific missions. immigration while elements of the dubbed Ikhana which will be used for der as a possible tool for border pa. CPB leased an Israeli Elbit Hermes touchy issue with some Americans To build up its capabilities. the FAA gave the Air also plans to examine other roles for CPB effort is being controlled out of Force the green light to use Predators UAVs including their use as a com- an integrated Air and Marine Opera. UAVs through the forecast period rently being examined under a pilot gram proved successful enough that (2012-2015). where UAVs might fit in to their fire remote desert areas and in rugged ter. The immigration. high alti- trol. NASA has control mission.The US Market Page 53 task. duct short range tests including the panded demonstration efforts with a cost-effective. Th is d e mo n s tr a tio n position in American society. The followed by later and larger acquisi. the Homeland Security perform this mission does not ensure NASA UAVs have been the backbone Congressional support for UAV that the Border Patrol will be able to of scientific research for other federal technology prompted US Customs commit sufficient resources to such agencies to examine the application and Border Protection (CPB) to add an approach. a mission which is North Dakota in the autumn of 2007 Civil Use of Military UAV As. Forest Protection which began operations in October ernment to hermetically seal the Another potential surveillance 2005 from Sierra Vista municipal air. such as more expensive than manned aircraft. and the tions. to provide this capability in the wake The USFS has already conducted ing to be the ground-breaker for UAV of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. video. substitute ground based repeaters in which facilitates coordination with cue. internal studies of UAV costs versus airspace access issues and so could sions were cancelled due to national manned aircraft and so far is not com- facilitate further UAV use by other airspace restrictions. The USFS has begun to use a NASA erations at about $10 million per year. over the United States during disaster munication relay which could be a tions Center in Riverside. larger UAVs in the Predator-size This requirement could eventually NASA Research UAVs range. more remote areas or to act as a for a variety of different platforms. cost-cutting substitute for existing pa. It is possible that the those of the US Forest Service Predator crashed on 24 April 2006 Border Patrol will continue to acquire (USFS). a variety of long-endurance. However. The USFS Florida in the spring of 2007. California relief operations for search and res. currently impossible with manned and a joint CPB/Coast Guard effort in sets aircraft due to the danger. Although the Air force was ready remote areas. NASA has flight over four months and the force willing to work for sub-standard also been negotiating with the US Air Hunter a further 329 hours over three wages due to their ambiguous Force to acquire two of their ACTD mo n th s . Should they prove an ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . ogy (ERAST) program. capability. In 2004. the FAA. use of a NASA Yamaha RMAX heli- Canadian border patrol demonstra. business community is happy to re. are not a viable option. is an important mission worth the re. US-Mexican border against illegal market would be fire patrols such as port along the Mexican border. it is hard to see how a reliable rain where other options such a been operating a high altitude deriva- SAA device will be ready any sooner ground patrol or fixed CCTV cameras tive of the General Atomics Predator than 2012. UAVs are attractive in this UAV as part of its Environmental Re. ported. and politically sup. trols. the technical ability of UAVs to noted in the sections below. On the other called Altair for several years. The USFS also plans to con- additional UAVs will lead to ex. this is more likely to General Atomics Altair (Predator de- Congress funded two more Predators consist of a rolling series of acquisi. the mis. testing UAVs in small numbers. the moment appears to be to examine mission since they can operate over search Aircraft and Sensor technol. The aim would be to program that is expected to last sev- Congress funded another Predator cover gaps in existing coverage over eral years. there does not seem to be a a General Atomics Predator B in 2005 strong consensus in the federal gov. Illegal immigration over o f U AV s to mis s io n s s u c h a s UAVs to its aviation force. The In May 2006. rivative) for monitoring a remote in the FY06 supplemental. The CPB program is prov. Global Hawks to provide further prompted a Congressional addition to The bottom line is that at the mo. conduct trials along the Mexican bor. CPB now has plans to fund UAV op. The US requirement is cur- due to apparent pilot error but the pro. wildfire and providing real-time FY07 budget funded two more.

bat environment and the willingness were conducted both with and with. sponse attempted to use UAVs to help Helicopters announced plans to initi- tific research. Until this dramatically. It would not be surprising to monitoring. Arc. For ex- UAV services. fisheries ample. This would probably be grounded. research such as detecting and track. It seems likely that UAVs will UAV services such as the USFS re- rine Sanctuary. is intended to support a multi-national theless. These UAVs would use remote UAVs are a proven technology with MALE UAV in this role. At the moment. able track record to determine costs. rather than acquire and ering hurricane monitoring. these ap- US Forest Service used a NASA been promoting the idea of using en. The Altair is sensing as well as dropsondes. Other federal law en. marine sanctuaries. to national air space is the most seri- concerns. Evergreen some of this effort is devoted to scien. It has also operated eventually penetrate other Federal quirement for seasonal wildfire Silver Fox UAVs for other scientific agencies. the lack of access under the current miasma of security would substantially change Washing. The flights (GOES) and Polar-orbiting Opera. if there cant level of UAV deployment to deal issue is resolved. this could include drug en- operate the UAVs themselves much assessment. the high rate of attrition of environmental monitoring effort military UAVs serves as another NOAA Weather Research called Global Earth Observing impediment to UAV proliferation into The National Oceanographic and System of Systems. this At the moment. gun to employ UAVs to help carry out Emergency Rescue its missions and is pushing for federal The non-profit Alliance for Robot Initial Commercial Interest funding of an endurance UAV. For example. Conoco and Shell are ing humpback whales. see the FBI acquire a modest number In Alaska. agencies are more likely to wait until evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a craft. ance UAVs which would circle the air vehicle reliability or other factors. During Sep. wind conditions. processing and data transmission. Aerosonde UAVs. an established record of operational fitted with a special multi-wavelength Among the applications proposed costs. The FY08 budget has $3 million customers once the cost of UAV oper- gestions that the USFS would look to for a NOAA UAS Project which will ations becomes competitive to private contractors to provide the conduct several demonstrations cov. but were frustrated by high which is acquiring an Insitu Insight regular conduct of NOAA missions. tional Environmental Satellites of the military to operate UAVs in out the new sensor pod.Page 54 The US Market appropriate tool. NOAA employed the NASA green is involved in the aircraft ser- Altair to conduct a demonstration Other Federal Agencies vice business and sees a market for program over the Channel Island Ma. The Esperanza fires in southern Cali. Chukchi seas. acquisitions will be was an incident where some form of with remote areas. risky situations where a civil UAV were conducted again in the summer tional Environmental Satellites. other segments of the federal Atmospheric Administration has be. there is no reli- AMS-Wildfire sensor for real time by NOAA is a network of ten endur. Never- of 2007. these wide-area surveillance of wildfires to currently patrolled by manned air. In the summer of 2007. and Washington’s attitude ton’s attitude towards border patrol ous barrier to UAV proliferation into towards border security could change and would probably lead to a signifi. NOAA is beginning to locate climbers lost on Mount Hood ate an Unmanned Systems division examine the need for UAVs for the in 2006. of UAVs in the long-term to assist in beginning to study the potential use of tember 2005’s Tropical Storm surveillance operations. tic ice melt and Central Pacific atmo. At the moment. the spheric water transport. NOAA conducted weather be both optical and communications gerous areas in the Barents and surveys from NASA Wallops using surveillance. forcement activity such as as is done with fire-fighting aircraft. on a small scale and be focused WMD was smuggled over the border mainly on demonstrations rather than World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . While Assisted Crisis Assessment and Re. plications seem more distant and on a Altair (Predator) flying from the durance UAVs to push the detection smaller scale than other federal appli- Ames Research Center and one of the and tracking of hurricanes further out cations noted above. the civil market in the US. NOAA has cultivation. system with six air vehicles. globe once every 72 hours to collect US military costs have significant fornia were a particular focus of at. government. Since the re- General Atomic fields to conduct into the Atlantic beyond the range quirements seem less pressing. manned aircraft operations. This could UAVs for oil exploration over dan- Ophelia. forcement agencies are also potential Teal Group Analysis This market is potentially volatile and unleashed in a major US city. atmospheric data to supplement that weaknesses due to their use in a com- tention in October 2006 and missions collected by Geostationary Opera. surveillance of terrain for marijuana In August-September 2006. Ever- In 2005. there have been sug.

The US Market Page 55

regular use. At the moment, it seems tio n s r e g a r d in g o p e r a tio n s in The forecast below is predicated
that most of these regulations will not crowded air corridors. Should this be on the assumption that FAA rules do
crystallize until around 2011-12. Fur- the case, this would tend to warp the not emerge until 2012 or later and that
ther clouding any forecast is the tech- civil/commercial market in favor of the initial market is largely confined
n o lo g ic a l c h a llen g e o f a mini-UAVs and endurance UAVs and to US government agencies. A small
sense-and-avoid system, and the rip- cut off the TUAV category from the commercial sector is likely to begin
ple effects this will have on the civil civil market. The mid-range would be appearing, gearing mainly towards
market. One plausible scenario would forced to carry too large and expen- leased services to the US government
be for the FAA to promulgate rules sive a SAA suite, and so would be and some business applications such
around 2011-12 which would break priced out of the market and burdened as survey in remote areas. As FAA
the UAV sector into small UAVs un- with a sensor too large for their pay- regulations may favor a bifurcated
der about 35 pounds and everything load. This is certainly not the only market of small lightly regulated and
else. The mid-large UAVs would be plausible scenario, nor is it necessar- fully regulated by expensive UAVs,
obliged to comply with the full pano- ily the most likely. But it does suggest the commercial market is likely to be-
ply of ATC rules including a SAA sys- that the growth of a civil UAV market gin by the use of small UAVs, a cate-
tem; the small UAVs would operate in in the opening years of 2012-17 are gory of which will depend to some
an altitude constrained environment, going to be heavily shaped by the e x ten t o n f o r th c o min g RS TA
and probably have additional restric- regulatory environment. definitions.
Production Forecast
User (Variant) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total
USG (Large UAV) 2 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 38
US Commercial (Small UAV) 5 5 5 5 30 60 60 75 100 150 495

©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

Page 56 The US Market

World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation

European UAV Market

European UAV Forecast
(Production, Air Vehicles) (Expenditures, $ Millions)
100 $800

80
$600

60
$400
40

$200
20

0 $0
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Mini (x10) Tactical MALE HALE Naval
UCAV Small Civil Civil MALE Expenditures

Market Overview
Current European Programs
The pattern of UAV deployment in guish “reconnaissance” from “sur- have joined together to develop and
Europe has been markedly different veillance” UAVs, the former type be- manufacture common UAV systems
than in the US, with widespread de- ing high-speed penetrating drones since the requirements are so similar.
ployment of new tactical UAV sys- designed to move through dangerous The opposite has been the case, with a
tems over the past few decade, but areas defended by advanced air de- dearth of joint programs and a pleth-
few strategic long-endurance systems fense systems, as opposed to surveil- ora of separate UAV efforts.
comparable to Predator or Global lance drones which loiter for France has been trying to lead a
H a w k . Th e d e p lo ymen t o f persistent surveillance in air spaces joint-European program, but this has
mini-UAVs has picked up steam in re- which are relatively free of air de- not been enthusiastically received by
cent years, led by a very active Ger- fenses. The US pattern over the past other major players such as Germany
man program, and recently followed decade has favored surveillance over and the UK. In the German case, the
by France. In general, France and reconnaissance, while the Europeans French pull-out from the Brevel tacti-
Germany have set the pace for UAV are continuing to make the distinction cal UAV program in the 1990s lead
deployment in Europe, with Britain in their programs. some Germans aerospace firms to
absent from its usual pioneering role The acquisition pattern of UAVs in view recent French initiatives very
in the wake of its troubled Phoenix Europe has also provided a curious skeptically. Although France has
tactical UAV program. barometer of the progress of Euro- talked a great game as the center of
Another difference between the pean defense integration. In spite of European UAV development, its ac-
US and European pattern is a dissimi- all the consolidation of the European tual track record of UAV develop-
lar viewpoint on UAVs fostered by aerospace industries over the past de- ment and production has not been
past deployments. Several of the Eu- cade, participation in multi-national impressive. In addition, this potential
ropean countries operated the CL-89 programs has actually diminished if area of cooperation had been poi-
and then the CL-289 jet powered re- UAVs are any indication of the trends. soned by the Airbus management
connaissance drone. This has led In view of the novelty of the technol- controversies. The way around this
some of the European countries, espe- ogy, it might have been expected that dilemma would be to hand over the
cially France and Germany, to distin- the European armed forces would major programs to a multi-national

©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

Page 58 European UAV Market

organization such as the European UAV programs should naturally flow craft for its AGS strategic surveil-
Defense Agency (EDA), a move that to them, in spite of the fact that it has lance program. EADS-Germany has
France supports. However, with Brit- been smaller electronics houses like also been developing its own UCAV
ain eyeing a Predator acquisition as SAGEM in France, General Atomics demonstrator, the Barrakuda which
well as its Watchkeeper effort, and in the US and other non-aviation was unveiled in 2006 which also
Germany already committed to firms who have tended to push the forms the core of its proposed
E u r o H a w k , th e n e e d f o r a tactical UAV technology forward. pan-European Agile/Advanced UAV
French-dominated MALE UAV ef- The most successful European effort.
fort is not attractive to Berlin and UAV to date has been the French The Italian army had a standing re-
London. Italy already operates Preda- SAGEM Crécerelle/Sperwer, a quirement for UAVs since the late
tor, and few other countries have a stop-gap tactical UAV originally 1980s, but serial production was con-
pressing need for an endurance sys- combining the British Banshee air ve- tinually delayed due to a lack of fund-
tem. In August 2005, EDA attempted hicle with a new French ground con- ing. The Kosovo air campaign finally
to jump start a common European trol system. Having pulled out of the convinced the Italian armed forces of
UAV effort by announcing plans to Franco-German Brevel tactical UAV the need for such systems, and eight
solicit bids from five firms to conduct program, Sperwer has become the systems each of the Mirach 26 and
technology demonstrations of be- French system by default. The French Mirach 150 are now on order. The
yond-line-of-sight data links for army is deploying an upgraded ver- Kosovo experience also convinced
UAVs and potential sense-and-avoid sion of the system for its SDTI (Sys- the Italian air force of the need for a
technologies but this has done little to tem de drones tactiques inter- long-range surveillance system, and
address the continuing fragmentation mediaires) program based on the Italy has begun acquiring the RQ-1
of European UAV efforts. Sperwer export version. An upgraded Predator for this mission, including a
In June 2004, the two main French Crécerelle derivative using the new recent August 2004 order for five
aerospace firms EADS and Dassault Sperwer air vehicle has been sold to more air vehicles. Italy has an excep-
belatedly announced plans to join Canada, Netherlands, Denmark and tionally active UAV effort at the mo-
their efforts on two UAV efforts, an Sweden. France is also beginning to ment including a UCAV demonstrator
endurance UAV and a UCAV pro- explore micro-UAVs as part of its a n d b o th MA L E an d H A L E
gram. The deal is based on the fact Felin future combat soldier program. prototypes.
that EADS had been selected by the France has initiated a medium endur- Britain has finally begun to catch
French DGA to head the EuroMALE ance UAV under its Eagle program, up in UAV development over the past
endurance UAV effort, and Dassault and is attempting to entice European few years after a decade of problems.
the UCAV effort. So nominally, both participation in a more elaborate en- In July 2004, the MoD selected
firms will cooperate on both pro- durance program, EuroMALE as Th ales to d ev elo p its n ew
grams. At the same time, both firms mentioned above. France has also Watchkeeper UAV system, and Brit-
appear to be pursuing a wide range of initiated a multi-national UCAV ish units have been operating loaned
other UAV ventures separately, in- effort, now being called Neuron. Predators prior to the purchase of this
cluding tactical UAVs, maritime sur- Germany has continued to fund the endurance UAV. BAE Systems has
veillance UAVs, and a wide range of Brevel program even after the French recently unveiled a number of UAV
mini- and micro-UAVs. Dassault has pull-out, and is in the process of pro- demonstrators that had previously
been attempting to assert its position curing the local derivative called been under wraps.
as the number one French UAV firm Tucan. Germany also has a range of Russia has a very extensive UAV
in spite of the fact that it has not yet experimental tactical UAV programs program, but has had little success in
fielded a single UAV and Dassault underway including a naval helicop- exporting its tactical UAVs in recent
representatives have complained ter UAV, and is in the forefront of years, or in funding its new endurance
when the French government showed mini-UAV deployment in Europe UAV efforts. Sweden has extensive
interest in the EADS-Germany AG- with its Luna and Aladin mini-UAVs. research efforts underway on UAVs,
ILE/Advanced UAV concept as a Germany is also planning to acquire but few actual deployable systems
more suitable venue than the French the Global Hawk for its signals intelli- have yet emerged. Many of the
copy of an Israeli MALE UAV. It has gence missions as EuroHawk, and smaller European armies have tactical
been a common assumption among Global Hawk has been selected by UAV programs as well.
many major aircraft companies that NATO as the adjunct to manned air-

Civil UAV Development in Europe
In Europe, the European Aviation in early 2006 for the formation of a use of UAVs in Europe. The aim is to
Safety Agency (EASA) issued a call new organization to co-ordinate the permit “normalized” UAV flights in

World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation

European UAV Market Page 59

non-segregated airspace by 2009. commercial UAVs around 2012, Eu-
EASA was expected to begin a pro- r o p e a n a n a lys ts s u g g e s t th a t
cess for UAV type certification in civil/government UAV acquisition
2007. EASA granted the Schiebel will begin somewhere around
Camcopter a “Permit-to-Fly” in June 2011-12 if these time lines take place,
2007, one of the first. while civil/commercial acquisition
Eurocontrol is leading a UAV Op- might begin around 2014-2015.
erational Air Traffic Task force to ad- In 2006, the European defense
dress ATC issues. In addition, efforts Agency launched its own attempt to
are underway to unify European stan- address UAV access to airspace with a EADS Police Mini-UAV
dards with other standards such as budget of about Euro 500,000. The
those being developed in the US by aim is to coordinate the efforts of Eu- mo n ito r cu s to ms v io la tio n s ,
RTCA and ASTM, with EUROCAE ropean military organization with environmental issues, and illegal
(European Organization for Civilian their civilian counterparts to develop immigration.
Aviation Equipment) considering the common guidelines. A variety of civil applications for
development of mirror standards with In June 2006, the British press re- UAVs have already been explored in
FAA cooperation. There are also ef- ported that that several European Europe. For example, the French de-
forts in the individual countries, for government are discussing a common fense research organization ONERA
example, Britain’s Autonomous Sys- civil UAV program for border secu- teamed with SAGEM in 2005 to ex-
tems Technology Related Airborne rity applications that could eventually amine the use of UAVs for forest fire
Evaluation and Assessment program. total about one billion pounds ($1.8 patrol. The initial trials were con-
At the moment, UAVs are treated billion). The initiative is based in part ducted using Busard and Sperwer
as experimental aircraft and are al- on recent Belgian experiments with UAVs. In the summer of 2006, the
lowed to fly in segregated airspace, military UAVs to patrol off the Bel- Basque provincial government in
with flights within non-segregated gian coast for customs violations and Spain decided to fund the demonstra-
airspace expected to be possible by to catch ships dumping oil. The pri- tion of the Aerovision Fulmar UAV to
2008. Type certification is expected mary application for the multi-na- conduct fisheries protection missions
around 2010 for civil UAVs operated tional UAV force at the moment off the coast as part of an 18 month
by national organizations, and for would seem to be coastal patrol to experiment.

Country Profiles
Austria
Austria has had a modest, govern-
ment funded UAV effort since the
mid-1990s, and has partially funded
the small Camcopter program by
S c h ie b e l Ro b o tics /Camco p te r
GmbH. There has been a standing re-
quirement since the mid-1990s for an
off-the-shelf UAV system, and the
Italian Mirach 26 and Kentron Seeker
were among the systems studied in a
1997 demonstration effort. The Aus-
trian Army tentatively selected the
Seeker, but the government refused to
award a contract, citing the need to
acquire the system from a European
candidate.
Schiebel opened a plant for the
Camcopter in 2006 with an annual ca-
pacity for 100-150 Camcopters. This Schiebel Camcopter
appears to be geared mainly to the ex-

©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

Page 60 European UAV Market

port market, Notably Schiebel's deal
with the UAE.

Teal Group Analysis
Austria is a likely candidate for a observer on the European ECAP en- quire such a system in the forecast
tactical UAV system later in the fore- durance UAV study group, but it period.
cast period, probably consisting of seems unlikely that Austria will ac-
two-three systems. Austria is also an
Austria 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total
Tactical UAV — — — 12 — — — — — — 12

Belgium
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, sional level UAV system with an ponent/80 UAV Squadron. The 80
the Belgian army purchased two pla- objective of three-four systems each UAV Squadron was deployed to the
toons (40 air vehicles) of the MBLE with four to eight air vehicles. The Democratic Republic of Congo in
Defense (now Thomson-CSF Elec- RFP was scheduled for release in July 2006, losing a Hunter to ground
tronics-Belgium) Epervier system for 1998. By 1998, the requirement had fire on its first flight. A second was
tactical reconnaissance, completing been further refined to three divi- lost due to engine failure on 3 October
the buy in 1978. The system used a sional-level systems. As part of its 2006 which crashed into a neighbor-
conventional wet film camera system, 1997-99 defense plan, Belgium ing house killing a civilian. This is be-
though a real-time data system using a planned commit BFr 2.4 billion for lieved to have been the first civilian
low light level TV and IR linescanner the program. The Israeli Hunter was killed in a UAV related accident.
were tested. selected with three systems ordered,
In 1997, the Belgian army formu- each with six air vehicles. Delivery
lated a requirement for a new divi- began in February 2001 to Air Com-

Teal Group Analysis
With the acquisition of the Hunter further tactical UAV acquisitions are small number of mini-UAVs later in
complete, and the Belgian procure- unlikely for the foreseeable future. It the forecast period for peace-keeping
ment budget so low at the moment, is possible that Belgium will acquire a operations.
Belgium 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total
Mini-UAV — — — — 20 — — — — — 20

Bulgaria
The Kintex defense export firm garian UAV effort. The Bulgarian 2006, the Italian Galileo firm demon-
displayed its NITI small UAV at the government has been attempting to strated its Falco tactical UAV to a Bul-
IDEX 07 convention in the UAV in establish a joint civil/military require- garian government delegation at the
February 2007, the first known Bul- ment for a UAV system. In May-June airport of Chesnegirovo.
Teal Group Analysis
Bulgaria has a very modest de- is not especially clear. A modest tacti- port or whether Bulgaria will use this
fense procurement budget and the ex- cal UAV acquisition seems possible, as an opportunity to support the local
tent of its interest in UAV operations but it is not clear if this will be an im- industry.
Bulgaria 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total
Tactical UAV — — — — 6 — — — — — 6

Croatia
Croatia’s Ministry of Defense dis- UAV systems, one tactical and one Croatia developed its own UAV at
closed a UAV requirement in May operational. the time of the 1991 civil war, under
1998. The plan was to acquire two the designation MAH01. Their first

World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation

By the early 1990s. the government began a low-cost pro- gram to examine small mini-UAVs patterned after the early Israeli drones under the name Sojka. and this would NATO standardization effort. and its current defense or two. ground control stations. the latest of which. exercises with the Sojka III being modular payload system to permit the garian Military Technical Institute in used mainly to test the air defense use of multiple sensor types. the Sojka III was considered ready for production in 1993. budget is barely adequate to under. this had resulted in a series of test air vehicles. Sojka gram. with the Czech Air Force Re- search Institute in Prague being least one system was operational dur- responsible for the Sojka air vehicle. Croatia 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — 15 — — — — — — — — 6 Tactical UAV — — — — — 6 — — — — 6 Czech Republic The former Czechoslovak air force operated Soviet VR-3 Reys UAV systems since the 1980s. and the Czechs recently an- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems .European UAV Market Page 61 UAV codenamed “Bird” used film were used for reconnaissance gather- cameras and first flew in 1992. the Czech air force re- number of air vehicles and GCS were search institute began an effort to up- manufactured in the mid-1990s and at grade the Sojka III. After the dissolu- tion of the Warsaw Pact. One of the main Teal Group Analysis The Czech Republic is likely to ac. UAVs Teal Group Analysis Croatia has a very small defense gram seems rather low on the list of universities or development agencies procurement budget and has substan. ing the 1996 Duha air defense aims of the program is to develop a payload and launcher. By ing and on at least one occasion were 1993. A UAV pro. E-O system. mestic manufacturers. priorities. Hungary joined the Czech Republic on the pro. In the early 1980s. Development was managed by the VTUL a PVO (Air Force and Air Defense Force) Technical Institute. and the Hun. will be to fund one of the Croatian enous tactical UAV designs. and a more likely course to continue the development of indig- tial modernization needs. The Czech army is might include another Sojka system quite small. A limited In 2004. Budapest being responsible for the network. nounced a modernized version that quire any UAV it purchases from do. These are a large. During the Operation Storm offensive in July 1995. vehicle-launched drone which provide wet film imagery or re- corded TV data. take higher priority efforts such as the may be the basis for such an order. they had developed a real-time used to deliver propaganda leaflets. most likely be an additional batch of A new UAV acquisition program Sojka systems.

EADS Advanced UAV monizing European UAV efforts. good example of a new technology engineering development efforts. Austria. the policy has been contradic. at the mo- ment of greatest European aerospace industry consolidation. It would also decided to sell them off. and Canada decided to Command in November 1996 with (Kestrel). Denmark finally pointed with the performance of the ing day and night sensors. EDA does EDA budget. A German UAV working group. Th e co llap s e o f th e Franco-German Eurodrone Brevel program in the mid-1990s has put a damper on cooperative UAV efforts. system was intended for use along. so acquisition of an some mini-UAVs late in the forecast the problems with Sperwer. and has cast period seems likely. On the other hand. joint UAV ef- forts have fallen afoul of past difficul- ties. the Danish for information was released by the air vehicles and probably two sys. lery Regiment in May 2001 and the side the Danish MLRS batteries as an full package completed delivery in Teal Group Analysis Denmark has been very critical of UAV system. EDA venture but. two systems each with two GCS and try of Defense was extremely disap- get acquisition UAV capable of carry. and at the moment. as of August 2005. The first system became purchase the equipment to reinforce responses due in February 1997. even off-the-shelf solution later in the fore. tactical UAV ef- forts in France and Germany are largely separate. and the award in 1998. government decided to dispose of the Royal Danish Air Force Air Material tems. UAV EuroMALE on EDA as and attempt to from Germany. field where it will be able to wield France has been attempting to foist UAV Dach including 11 companies some influence. especially Franco-German cooperation. rivative of the French Crécerelle sys. that seem to view UAVs as a particularly has been reluctant to take on specific had not occurred. The current issue is the extent to which the European Development Agency (EDA) will play a role in har. The request tem. in early 2006. The Danish Minis- for a short-range surveillance and tar. more so than the Canadians. erated in the hot temperatures of Iraq. period. The operational with the Queen’s Artil. Sperwer system. Ironically. The Danish be possible that Denmark will acquire Army still sees a need for a tactical Denmark 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — — — — 30 30 — — 60 Tactical UAV — — — — 4 4 — — — — 8 European Union/NATO Europe has had a significant tradi- tion of cooperation in UAV acquisi- tion. The RFP selected the SAGEM Sperwer. six UAVs/payloads. On the one hand. The objective was September 2002.Page 62 European UAV Market Czech Republic 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — — 10 20 20 — — — 50 Tactical UAV 6 — — — — — — — — — 6 Denmark Denmark had an army requirement artillery spotter. Switzerland. study programs are already in the establish this program as a European tory. especially when op- for the system was expected in 1996. To date. Denmark acquired 10 Sperwer As a result. World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . As a result. a de. their own Sperwer units. locally called the Taarnfalken systems.

the Netherlands. France. A preliminary study by the many.European UAV Market Page 63 and the Netherlands has established a ber 1998 to July 1999. (ECAP) aimed at covering serious de- graded. Matra and MBB Missions). Target In July 1976 Germany signed a MoU real-time electro-optical surveillance Acquisition and Reconnaissance with Canada for the development of capability. the quirements. AGS UAV vember 1990 and the French army re. Ger. are covered below in the respective as pollution control. dropped. French and German UAVs will be up. Total losses in the Brevel effort under their local venture to develop a maritime surveil. UK and Sweden. During operations Brevel procurement had been tained but the Airbus platforms over Kosovo in April 1999 the Ger. agreement under the STANAG sys- tripartite development contract for called Brevel. the fighting included five German name of Tucan. and fisheries package for the CL-289 called protection. the program was re. The Brevel program sponsoring a multi-national study fielding 14 systems and 235 air vehi. 1986. The European Union has been vember 1987 with an aim towards men and Velizy. cities where the firms are based. Unlike the CL-289 ropeans needed about 20 CL-89 suffered from a short range. started again after Germany agreed to The NATO Alliance Ground Sur- ceived their first set in early 1991 for bear the burden of RDT&E funding veillance (AGS) program reached a trials. the RQ-4B Global Hawk as the sup- air vehicles and eleven ground station ment of the Brevel. build. Under initial plans. the CL-89. with over 40 flights an additional contract increment to program ran into more funding tur- through the summer of 1996. and tems. There have 500th mission with the French and five year defense plan was released been suggestions that to trim costs. monitoring eco. It- venture into RPVs. nomic exclusion zones. awarded a FFr 1. Having been surveillance and artillery spotting re.5 Transatlantic Cooperative AGS Ra- hicles and two ground station sys. Spain. while Germany procured 188 Ministry of Defense for the develop. ing over 500 CL-89 drones have been erative Franco-German effort to field with Austria and Belgium present as built for the armies of France. aly. Production for the French and for Brevel for two years. the CL-289 funding until 1997. Surveillance. working group concluded that the Eu- designed as a divisional asset. ECAP UAV at defining the technical requirements ware and a modified computer. funding for the Global Hawk portion would be re- duction in 1992. The first system was turned of budget problems in 1991-92. in the Yugoslav Civil war. even though the porting system. milestone in 2004 with the selection German armies was completed in v e mb e r 1 9 9 2 . The members of this Canadair was successful in its first Brevel effort are Germany. The new system. France procured 55 air ve. French ministry of defense indicated NATO would acquire seven Global During the European intervention that they would have to defer major Hawks and five Airbus AGS.2 8 9 b y consolidated their research work on In October 2002. covering 1997-2002. fense technology gaps in Europe. In 1983. a reconnaissance UAV for divisional observers. German armed forces since its intro.r a n g e d CL . France subsequently pro. sets. EADS has managed an upgrade country sections. begin the second phase of Brevel de. million) contract from the French dar (TCAR) as the base platform. program. the European de- of the system as well as addressing the first of the upgraded systems was fense ministers decided to support the substantial issues of airspace access turned over in May 2003 and 160 European Capability Action Plan and air vehicle certification. th e lo n g e r. endurance) UAVs for the ISTAR (In- its maximum range was only 140 km. moil in 2007 with Netherlands back- gust 1996. no- CL-289 Piver tably UAVs. E u r o d r o n e w a s of the Airbus A321 equipped with the June 1993. October 1992. the new UAV was designed to provide telligence. The In October 2002. Britain and Italy. for potential civilian use of UAVs by Germany and France in January with Germany being the main source within a decade.4 billion ($264. eliminated. which relied on conventional IR MALE/HALE (medium/high altitude even with an extended range fuel tank linescanners and wet film systems. while Germany continued ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . In 2006. Both these programs lance UAV for civil operations such and two French CL-289. man army had 21 UAVs in operation ceeded on its own with the Crécerelle and flew 237 missions from Decem. The Mostar airport. In February 1994. The Eurodrone Brevel was a coop. On 13 No. The production MoU was signed French and German defense budgets. In Au. When the next French ing off its commitment. forming consortium called concluded a UAV interoperability by France in March 1977. the plans were revised downward due was deployed with the 7th Artillery the French and German governments to budget pressure with the objective Regiment of the French army near provided the Eurodrone partners with now being five Global Hawk. Bre. In over to the German army on 29 No. was named after the tem. NATO nations Canadair and Dornier and was joined UAVs. $410 ($C) million was signed in No. The Eurodrone in 1989. suffered from a lack of harmony in the program called UAVNET to prepare cles. The program will first aim AOLOS-289 with new flight soft. the CL-289 marked its velopment.

In all likelihood. Britain. The ECAP effort may foster a efforts in the short-term. Eventually. each with five air vehicles and associated E-O packages. pan-European tactical UAV program In the immediate future. that joint NATO efforts will be fo- likely as France. velop a tactical UAV system to re. already committed to tactical UAV Hawks. Oerlikon Ranger. two systems were Patria UAV acquired. be satisfied by the new Patria design. Four systems were short-listed for the program: Alliant Outrider. but it is un. Germany. It tested the Israeli Scout for both the maritime patrol and artillery spotting roles. Patria un- studying other applications for ministry of defense has established a veiled its Mini-UAV Modular Air- UAVs. Patria already has a modest see a need for a medium endurance forecast period. acquired in the 2010-2015 time tablished an industrial consortium to frame. In the summer of 2004. Spain and other are in the midst since so many European countries are the associated acquisition of Global of acquiring their own tactical UAVs. which is likely to mini-UAV system. The Finnish system. prefer to acquire an off-the-shelf sys. expectation that the system would be due to inevitable landing damage. Patria es. the electronics requirement for a joint army/air force borne Sensor System. Purchases were put off in the early 1990s due to the high cost of the F/A-18 program. This uses an air firm Vaisala has studied the use of a reconnaissance system and has bud. The Ranger was tested in early 1998. Finland had a requirement for a UAV system to make up for shortfalls in aircraft re- connaissance. For example. a common Euro. program underway. Sagem Sperwer and Matra Tucan. NATO 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total HALE UAV — — — — — 1 1 1 1 1 5 Finland During the 1990s. likely to have any immediate impact cused on the AGS requirement and Italy. MASS Mini-UAV Finnish firms have been active in place the existing Ranger system. In August 1999. The In the summer of 2006. with the front elements that can be replaced a dropsonde delivered by a UAV. vehicle with light-weight Styrofoam weather reconnaissance system using get Euro 100 million for it. late in this forecast period. examine domestic capabilities to de- Teal Group Analysis The Finnish armed forces after the armed forces have a requirement for a either another tactical UAV system or experience with the Ranger would Mini-UAV system. the future UAV tem than develop one their own. Finland an- nounced that it was acquiring one Ranger system with six air vehicles at a cost of FMk 110 million ($20 mil- lion). but it has lower priority than Finland 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — 30 30 50 — — — — — — 110 Tactical UAV — — — — — 6 6 6 — — 18 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . it appears pean tactical UAV program seems un.Page 64 European UAV Market Teal Group Analysis At the moment. Finnish officers have stated that they system will be acquired late in the However.

which a n o ff .600 fo rt w ith its n ew n et-cen tric Although nominally committed to manufactured to date for about 23 war-fighting program called BOA. Spewer-B falls. When the Ministry of Defense tem. waiting in the wings. th e Banshee (Spectre) drone as the air ve. the MCMM rent French tactical UAV program. a number of French French forces during Operation exported to Sweden. the first time with French forces in for the disenchanted Germans. In re. The Banshee is a TUAV effort and the SIDM-MALE. lost in combat during operations in re-starts. The tests and use of Greece. and the Netherlands and pro- sued their own UAV efforts. France outlined a broad range of UAV initiatives in its current 2003-09 defense budget plans. the programs are in a shambles deployed on trials in 1993. tem and a fully equipped system was Macedonia in 1999 with the 61st Ar- ality. and has attempted to Groupe SAGEM for the ATAOS (Au.European UAV Market Page 65 France France has the most ambitious UAV plans of any country in Europe. a few privately developed ALTEC formed the basis for the Sperwer sys- Mart mini-drone system in 1988 and tem which uses a new and more capa- Early Tactical UAV Efforts four systems were deployed with ble air vehicle. the French army is tems. extended range Crécerelle with an skirt around the budget problems by tonomous Tactical Attack and Obser. tract in 1993 for RDT&E of this sys. the army’s Section Tech. and these two systems helped defined the duction to date of this UAV family has France on occasion purchased these French requirement which emerged been about 18 systems and 100+ air in small numbers for trials. and utilized flight control ele. In the tactical UAV arena. Desert Storm. The after- taste of this and similar missile fias- coes such as Polyphem and TriGAT has led to a continuing estrangement between France and Germany over future developments and a noticeable German reluctance to participate in current French-led UAV efforts. but its plans have traditionally run aground over budget limitations. This was used to current three hours. system based around Sperwer-A air ments developed earlier under the vehicle. As detailed below. To speed the devel. firms such as Sagem and Altec pur. endurance of 5. ATAOS program. along The Crécerelle was deployed for other European partners as substitutes with an associated flight control sys. it was in- volved in the joint Franco-German Brevel effort. with about 1. As a short-term solution. the French army At the moment. A total of three were due to the frequent cancellations and same time. The Crécerelle system priorities. tems with the new SDTI (System de in the mid-1990s. and production of two complete supplanting the first Crécerelle sys- decided to pull out of the Brevel effort systems for trials. So during as the Crécerelle (Kestrel) in 1993. In 1994. Spain is expected to become Operation Desert Storm. 1988. Crécerelle/Sperwer tured by TTL Corp. but these were scuttled in the summer of 2004 due to budget short. but bailed out in the late 1990s in favor of an off-the-shelf buy of the SAGEM Crécerelle. Denmark.s h e lf d e s ig n . ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . the Franco-German Brevel effort. widely used target drone manufac- ostensibly to better coordinate the ef. and hicle. France is nomi. At the tillery Regiment. awarded SAGEM a FFr50 million ($9 nally committed to a broad range of ate DGA provided initial funding to million) study contract to explore an UAV efforts. SAGEM used the British drones tactiques interimaires). the French armament director. Sagem already had opment. in countries. ventures in the hopes of rounding up develop the Marula mini-UAV. The French DGA put off two of this has formed the basis for the cur- its keystone programs. as well as confusion over nique de l’Armée de Terre purchased Kosovo. the French Groupe SAGEM was provided a con.5 hours versus the proclaiming these to be European vation System). is an upgraded SAGEM Crécerelle Crécerelle. At the moment. army employed four Altec Mart sys. vehicles. This system has been In the 1980s.th e . a client in 2004.

with a Rafael Spike anti-tank missile field a tactical UAV with a higher Aerospatiale Matra offered the CAC as a possible option to test an armed speed than systems such as Sperwer. SAGEM joined a Rafael NT Spike missile at the 2005 and nine air vehicles). CL-289 as well. plus a gle/EuroMALE programs. and there have been ment SDTI cell includes 23 troops bid on this system. and the remaining 40 by was accepted into service by the 61st 2010. deep-penetration missions where an armed UAV. SAGEM began flight tests of an The MCMM was conceived of as a lands army. So at Paris-05. EADS has from the Neuron effort. The SDTI/Sperwer-A army use. SAGEM showed a Sperwer fitted Carapace for this role. In 2006. evolve their Mirach 100/5 into the original requirement for 15 systems. trying to incorporate some MCMM teamed with Galileo Avionica to World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . or 2. systems and about 80 air vehicles reserve of five air vehicles. in 2003. DGA is greater speed is needed. tential hunter-killer UAV for French through the end of the current budget als in 2004. This uses a turbo-jet pow. plan by 2009. the more ambitious package than SDTI row offered an undisclosed UAV. the STRIX. planning to acquire a new tactical needs based on experiences with the ates two batteries of CL-289 Piver drone called MCMM (Multi Charges new Sperwer SDTI. SDTI The SDTI (System de drone Eagle 1 MALE UAV tactique intermediare) is a medium endurance UAV for the army with an features into the SDTI. SDTT 2004. the regiment oper. SAGEM unveiled earlier hints at an armed UAV as a pre- and can conduct 1-2 missions daily. The French DGA conduct up to three missions daily. the BONUS. System SAGEM was awarded a contract to with a program cost of 450 million. Crécerelle developed for the Nether. The standard sys. A its Sperwer HV at the June 2001 Paris cursor to the delayed MCMM full strength cell is 64 troops and con air show. In April 2002. SAGEM showed a Sperwer fitted with a Rafael Spike anti-tank missile as a possible option to test an armed UAV. and two low rate production the Israeli NT/Spike ATGM as a po.75 inch tem consists of a ground control sys. separate and distinct As a short-term solution. provided a development contract in System retirement is currently isting piston-powered Sperwer for 2006 to SAGEM to begin the study of scheduled for 2011. It also displayed a Sperwer-B thereby providing better response ment. The Sperwer-B in June 2006 at the which would include a reconnais- DGA selected SAGEM for the SDTI Kemijarvi UAV test range in Finland. ered air vehicle to complement the ex. However. SAGEM is attempting to in- terest the French government in Sperwer-B as a “mini-MALE” to sat- isfy the requirements of the long-de- layed Eagle/EuroMALE programs. the DGA announced that it was based near Chaumont in eastern Under the current 2003-2009 bud. putting off the program for an undis- France and replaced the worn-out get program. multi-role UAV. longer-range Sperwer. “mini-MALE” to satisfy the require. SAGEM began flight tests of an upgraded. Systems Ranger for the SDTI require. sance UAV as well as a hunter-killer requirement using the Sperwer-A. with weapons at the 2006 Eurosatory time. SAGEM dis- and two SDTI/Sperwer-A batteries Multi Mission) and a new endurance played a Crécerelle UAV armed with (each battery includes two systems drone. The aim was to since reduced to four systems. in the summer of Artillery Regiment in April 2006. and suitable for replacing the an upgraded version of the existing show. rockets. The requirement was for 15 tem and three air vehicles. with Dassault to form a consortium to Paris air show. trials were conducted at CEV-Sitres demonstrate Sperwer-B armed with Under the 2003-2009 budget plans. 40 air vehicles would be acquired systems were delivered for troop tri.Page 66 European UAV Market DGA is trying to incorporate some MCMM features into the SDTI. upgraded. SAGEM is attempting to interest the UAV capable of carrying various The requirement was four systems French government in Sperwer-B as a types of guided submunitions such as and 18 air vehicles. The Israeli firm Silver Ar. So at Paris-05. ments of the long-delayed Ea. A rapid deploy. SAGEM offered the Sperwer. the French DGA was closed duration to better evaluate its Crécerelle UAVs. longer-range Sperwer. the Sperwer-B in June 2006 at the Kemijarvi UAV test range in Finland. UAV.

Germany is actively quirement has been renamed as SDTT not had time to develop these sys. This will permit fur- was conducted in 1998. The army is cur. altogether. The second approach is to In July 2001. operation in the Ivory Coast. definitive EuroMALE is ready. France would was awarded a contract to demon. with US/NATO. has already acquired Predator.European UAV Market Page 67 In recent years. operations in Iraq and has its own the 20011 period. or ant of the Busard which suggests that near Paris. Initial June 2006. SAGEM is proposing a 1500 and SAGEM offered the US hicles. The Eagle was first dem. in operational costs. The SIDM effort cost However. the MCMM re. In the spring of The French government is consider. to the European Defense Agency 2006. As a scheduled for 2007. the idea that a MALE UAV is not what 2000. for the fense plan for the 2003-2008 time MALE UAV is excessive in perfor- MALE requirement. The current French five year de. The Heron had EuroMALE in 2008. EADS re. strongly criticized the program as requirements. A report VTOL UAV as a possible candidate clusive intellectual property rights for from the French Senate in 2006 for both French army and navy the Eagle airframe from IAI Malat. which was unveiled at Eurosatory in under the name Horus-SD.000 km from the base Eagle such as the proposed Eagle 2. On the one ance UAV. EADS offered the Eagle. a total of 10 flights had been E A D S to d e v e lo p a c o mmo n tions as well as military endurance conducted including two of over 20 EuroMALE endurance UAV. The Ea. DGA announced that deployment would begin in 2009. the French DGA released an ing ordering a small number of the French armed forces need. with the acqui. In 2005. like to limit its financial stake in strate the Bell Textron Eagle Eye nounced that it was acquiring the ex. there is no great enthusiasm to rently studying a VTOL solution for ported that it was planning to use the sponsor a program aimed mainly at the program. It longue endurance) for the air force immed iate cap ab ility u n til a has argued that in typical peacekeep- with a stated requirement for five sys. In June 2005. offer an alternative to the long-de- it would acquire a few Eagle-1 as a The program cost. Through June Dassault subsequently teamed with ther research on civil UAV applica- 1999. an uprated engine. a de. The Eagle one MALE system will c o n f u s e d a n d w a s t e f u l an d constitute EuroMALE Block 0. in a slightly more refined form. EuroMALE to about 25%. France acquired a single US sign took place from the Istres test SAGEM has been trying kill the Hunter system in 1995 to test out its base in September 2006.1 billion. stations and payloads as EADS has with success. To further confuse matters. the French defense minister an. Busard (Buzzard). In- Silver Arrow offered the Hermes five systems and 16-24 MALE air ve. but RFP for the MALE (Moyen altitude additional air vehicles to provide rather an improved tactical UAV. the Sperwer-B General Atomics Predator UAV be funded under the current program. with a IAI TAMAM electro-optical twin-headed program. hand. EADS is working on a further in its EuroHawk configuration. The program is moment to permit studies of UAV the French version of the air vehicle pegged at about Euro 300 million and subcomponents. Britain system is intended to replace both the pean payloads. the DGA visited with Thales in gle-1 system employs Israeli ground (EDA). but to date. The Stemme sailplane can be oper- its first flight on 18 October 1993. DGA post. and the remainder afterwards. SAGEM views the Busard as a poten- onstrated at the 1999 Paris air show The French DGA has been trying tial MALE UAV alternative to the Ea- and was shown again at Paris 2003 in to shift responsibility for EuroMALE gle. SAGEM data-link technology developed for French requirements. and the system was de. gram with the government research system is ready. A demonstration is cations package more compatible Watchkeeper program in place. stead. the Brevel/KZO. of which 12 air vehicles would longer-range Sperwer. was gle/EuroMALE. In 2004. including support layed D assau lt/EA D S Ea- SIDM-MALE (Systeme Interimaire and maintenance for 15 years. a wholly new design. ated in controlled civil airspace that velopment of the Eagle began at IAI n o u n c e d th e la u n c h o f th e would be off-limits for UAVs at the in the mid-1990s and the first flight of EuroMALE program. planning to acquire the Global Hawk (Systeme de drone tactique terrestre: tems. and has leased and purchased Predator for CL-289 Piver and SDTI/Sperwer in a flight control station and communi. This package called Eagle 2 with Euro. ing missions such as the recent French tems. This is a joint pro- UAV System) until a fully developed sition costs estimated as 591 million. It is fitted current MALE UAV program with a requirements for a medium endur. organization Onera using a German about 90 million consisting of 54 poned the MALE program for a dem. and in 2006. Stemme powered sailplane as surro- million for the UAVs and 36 million onstration program aimed at testing a gate for endurance UAV research. in June 2004. SAGEM has been promoting ployed in Kosovo. SAGEM has publicly dis- hour duration and including at least could be a further elaboration of the played a model of a purely UAV vari- one mission 4. The Israeli firm frame envisioned the acquisition of mance and insufficient in number. result. De. sensor and an Elta EL/M-2055 SAR. The recommended dumping the program MALE Endurance UAV first flight of the definitive SIDM de. that a rivative of the IAI Heron. This programs. namely its own de Drones MALE: Interim MALE pegged at 1. Italy Army tactical drone system). this has not met the UK to receive a briefing on the ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . EADS an.

ment out to competitive bid. The program is the closer to Predator A in size rather than larger design on the drawing board. tion is an interesting innovation and is envisioned as a multi-configuration itary Intelligence Directorate would prompted by the widely recognized design. On 10 January DGA. but suggested UAV”. systems. These German and Spanish officials about a ogy as the core for a MALE UAV tests helped the French army establish joint MALE program. Alenia and Saab have been discussing mini-UAVs for trials and used them gan another round of discussions with an alternative using Neuron technol. HALE as well using an unconven. conditions. own conceptions of an ultimate and a small met station to survey wind sign. promoted by EADS at the 2007 Paris 2005. Using modular components like to deploy a HALE for strategic vulnerability of mini-UAVs to wind. ONERA has been promoting stud- ies of a HALE UAV as a high-altitude communications relay during crises or during events such as the Olympics w h ere ex istin g s atellites are overwhelmed. tems. and would be in the class of the plan was to place the DRAC require- ropean requirements than current US Global Hawk. pushing for a MALE UAV own MALE demonstrator and has a telligence UAV). Alenia has already begun to fly its renseignment au contact: Contact In- gram. The UAV used for the initial trials in AGILE could be configured as a tacti. this is envisioned as an orbiting. How. EADS the DRAC (Drones de renseignment requirement at 30% the cost. au contact: Contact Intelligence ever. offering to use their EADS HALE (Haute Altitude longue endur. responsibility of the ETAS section of the larger Predator B size preferred by D C E ( Direction d es Centres the original French EuroMALE re. with World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . 2003 was the EADS Tracker. Aérospatiale has also system is designed to be man-portable pushed for a greater role in the pro. that it might be satisfactory for a In response. This configuration was origi. The cal UAV/UCAV more suitable for Eu. The pro. Francois Lureau ruled out ac. EADS received a contract for quiring the Watchkeeper for the air show under the name “Advanced about 30 million for 160 Tracker MALE requirement. The UAV quirement. in June 2006. As the name implies. HALE d’Expertise et d’Essais). EADS DRAC Tracker DRAC Mini UAV EADS has been selected to supply Watchkeeper. dled via a touch-screen laptop con- Barrakuda UCAV demonstrator as the ance) UAV called the Fregate and nected to a portable ground control core of the program to save cost and to SAROHALE. Neuron UCAV including Dassault.Page 68 European UAV Market The DGA in late 2006 solicited French industry to embark on the new Mirador program (Moyen infrarouge a e ro p o r te p o u r la d e te c tio n d’observation rapide anti-missile: Mid-Infrared Airborne for anti-mis- sile detection/rapid observation). In addition. Some French officials prop designs. finally conceded to the German pres. based around a common fuselage. operationally in 2004 in Haiti. shown illustrations of a possible by a crew of two. Dassault has shown its station with a radio-link to the UAV offer an alternative jet-powered de. the head of the su re an d th is altern ativ e w as UAV) requirement. long endurance platform that could be used for cueing anti-TBM systems as is being pro- posed for the SAMP-T air defense system. n a ted as D RA C ( D ro n e s d e in joining the existing French pro. the partners on the The French army acquired four future tactical UAV requirement. The French Mil. The Germans (even though there is no apparent core a requirement for a mini-UAV desig- made it clear that they had no interest technology ready at the moment). with the UAV han- gram. the reconnaissance by 2012. the Germans In the past. The meteorological sta- nally dubbed AGILE and was tional configuration. curement objective would be five sys. French officials be. while it could also be the French army with its first have argued that the Watchkeeper configured with sail-plane type wings mass-produced mini-UAV as part of will satisfy 70% of the French MALE to provide MALE capability. AeroVironment FQM-151 Pointer In late 2006.

km) and a one hour endurance. The Tracker is a small. Th e f irm also CPX4 manufactures a smaller UAV called ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . French army at Mourmelon in March EADS Tracker for the requirement The DGA has funded The Institut 2006. Endurance is effective payload of 90 g which con. and other types of battery powered propulsion. mini-UAV called Hovereye which However. The US firm AeroVironment hopes to deploy the first systems in hour. The small Coccinelle (ladybird) mini-UAV has already been tested by the French army which is considering the incorporation of mini. The CPX4 weighs less pected to transition to direction of the twin-boom sail-plane configuration than half a kilogram. Polytechnique in Grenoble teamed DGA has also participated in a tem consists of two air vehicles. tended for missions in terrain and is Hovereye leased. to maximize endurance and is pow. hand-launched mini-UAVs using both solar power. It uses a Eurosatory 06. for scouting at the company. four sets of propellers for better sta. but lit. These are small. It is designed to operate at a operated via two touch-screen range of a few kilometers for about an laptops. platoon The Merlin UAV is a light UAV and perhaps squad level. the Hovereye is intended Future French Micro-/Mini-UAV for mechanized infantry due to its DRAC is intended to serve as a greater weight and size. expected to be used with the Felin in- fantry suite. and an endurance of DGA is also participating with the ered by a small electric motor located 25 minutes on battery power. the aim being to small programs. The baseline with somewhat greater range (seven UAV was the Odin mini-UAV. and some velopment of a larger helicopter were apparently sold to the UAE.The core program is sometimes has been to fund a large number of called Hovereye. the DGA selected the environment. T h e mi c r o . has an effective European Defense Agency in 2006. The air vehicle and e r a .and mini-UAVs intended a VAB infantry vehicle as well as in for the Felin future infantry system.and mi- cro-UAVs into its Felin future infan- try s ystem. Each sys. university microdrone program initi- two hours and the sensor is a sists of a CMOS color daylight cam. Norway and one GCS. It was on dis- forerunner to a more extensive family play in the SAGEM area mounted on of micro. The French firm Tecknisolar-Seni has received some modest funding from the DGA to examine solar-pow- ered mini-UAVs.U AV s s u itab le f o r Tracker air vehicle can be considered avoid obstructions such as walls. The first 25 DRAC systems were scheduled for delivery in 2007. It has an French research agency ONERA in a in a pod over the wing. In contrast to the CPX4 which is EADS Tracker. two with Novadem to develop the CPX4 multi-national effort codenamed laptops for image exploitation and min-UAV. ated in September 2005 to encourage day/night camera. Spain which will see flight demon- hand-launched mini-UAV operated b ility an d w as d isp layed at strations in 2007-08 and which is ex- by a two-person team. and is optimized for the urban demonstrated its RQ-11 Raven to the 2006.and micro-UAVs micro-UAV. expendable for some high-value missions. the DGA decided to go for a was developed by Bertin Technolo- more conventional approach with the gies. and ordered 160 systems. It is in- tle detail on this system has been re. In 2005.European UAV Market Page 69 Bourdon (bumblebee) which also The DGA has also funded the de- uses electric propulsion. This helicopter UAV uses MAVDEM with Italy. range of one km. Felin is expected to field a small h elicopter type incorporate mini. DGA’s technology innovation dis- DGA’s approach to this requirement play.U AV a l s o the development of new approaches camera are cheap enough that the incorporates an acoustic sensor to to mic r o . operations in an urban environment.

and they can be French Naval Requirements called for the beginning of advanced stowed in a 6. The other aircraft carriers or amphibious assault tary/police forces. ESM/ECM. Both oper- Marvel).6x8. intended as an “entry-level” UAV World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . Thales kg and 38 kg respectively. In late May transmitting real-time imagery. dustry for a VTOL UAV called of the EADS helicopter pair. The usual con- figuration would be to deploy two erations from frigates. particular needs of seaborne launch speed. One was demonstrator which can be switched Scorpio-6 and two hours for the Scor- expected to be a small helicopter de. There gram has been continually reorga. trying to interest a broader range of which would be operated from sign will be used primarily from shore customers in the Scorpio systems. to have a deployable system by 2008. The specifications call for a take-off and flight control packages but the ity of ship-based UAVs by sponsoring weight of 700 kg. a payload of 150 kg. Th eir time UAVs for its DMT (Drone Mari. and an RFP was released to industry 2005. Take off weight is 13 Tilt-Body for trials (locally known as teamed with Elbit from Israel. eight hour endurance and a dated by the DGA into a joint helicop.2 m rotor and a maximum take-off weight of 680 kg of which 180 kg is payload. but there is no evidence that EADS has actually demonstrated Orka-1200 this feature at sea yet. the pro. The aim is smaller Scorpio-6 and larger Scor- requirements. ite airframe light aircraft. to employ a manned aircraft as the endurance is rated at one hour for the time Tactique) requirement. The idea is tial an d G P S p latfo r m. the DGA released an RFP to in. Besides being offered for the sign converted into a reconnaissance development of the concept. However. tonomous and relies on both an iner- ONERA to study two possible mari. The program was radio data link. and recovery. deployment in 2012. Flight control is au- restarted this effort by funding based on an Ameur Aviation compos.Page 70 European UAV Market The EADS Orka-1200 is intended for the larger maritime UAV require- ment while the smaller Scorpio is in- tended for the small naval UAV requirement. “Devil” which could be employed in are two configurations available. 1. The Scorpio is the smaller member in early June 2005. and French Defense Ministry’s CERT/ France on a hybrid maritime surveil. The Orka-1200 has also been offered to the German navy as a r e p l a c e me n t f o r t h e G e r man SAEMOS program which has col- lapsed after over a decade of funding. The Orka-1200 has a 7. The system is based on a manned heli- copter developed by Helicopter Guimbal. The landing system is automatic. Both types are In the summer of 1995. the DGA DGA contract.7m blade and Scorpio-30 having a Defense to supply a Scorpion In recent years. lance UAV demonstrator based on a 10 km which is limited mainly by the In the autumn of 2002. Recent plans Orka-1200s per ship. to remote control operation to speed pio-30. have an effective operating range of ONERA research laboratory. followed by an initial 1 8 5 d a ta. the DGA consolidate both navy designs as well based on large remote control model awarded a contract to a team of as possible army applications into a helicopters with Scorpio-6 having a Freewing Aerial Robotics and Matra single VTOL UAV. The Scorpio is was a small rotary wing UAV for op.lin k r a n g e w h e n ter UAV requirement called Devil. ships with aviation decks. French navy requirement. in- French aircraft carriers and the new bases or large flat deck ships such as cluding both military and paramili- Batiment de Projection. SAR or others. This may be an effort to package up to 15 kg. Dassault has two meter blade. EADS is UAV akin to the US Navy Fire Scout ture of the airframe means that the de. This was conducted with the from France and Ameur Aviation in ate at altitudes of about 2000m.5 ship hanger. pio-30. The na. of 14 hours. The payload is the usual modular type and can include E-O/IR. the nized as the French navy rethinks its either army or navy roles. Both share common sensor The French navy explored the util. The The French navy’s interest in a development in 2006 focusing on the Orka-1200 has a 195 kph maximum vertical-take-off UAV was consoli. Scorpio-6 is limited to a six kg pay- a technology demonstration program a speed of 90 km/h and an endurance load while the Scorpio-30 can carry a with the Canadian CL-227 Sentinel.

In April 2002. SAGEM was awarded a contract to demonstrate the Eagle Eye as a potential solution for joint army/navy VTOL UAV require- ments. The long term plan is to build a initial development funding for Neu- Teal Group Analysis Although France would like to see Airbus. Six countries are participating on ments. tion. Ruag the could be used for either reconnais. and Thales the data relay Dassault and SAGEM announced Greece committed to about €20 and command-control interface. program. ogy. Bell Helicopter has teamed with SAGEM in France and Rheinmetall in Ger- many to market the Eagle Eye tilt-ro- tor in Europe for naval requirements. the program: France. and launcher. million. to France’s €300 million pledge. gium is still debating participation cluding a UCAV dubbed the “Moyen The Swedish decision in favor of with possible involvement in the Duc” (Medium Horned Owl) based supporting the Neuron program in satellite up-link feature. pledged about €40-70 million. Switzerland. Bel- plans to team on UAV ventures in. Italy wind tunnel testing and weapons sance or tactical strike. the collapse of UAV ventures that leave French com. While France ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . the French defense minister 2006 to build and test the demonstra- France began to study UCAV require. Duc”. France’s ambitious $1. and a few dozen its UAV programs over the past five panies with a disproportionate share DRAC mini-UAVs. Sweden was the first major on the wing. the Petit Duc gram and invited the other major Spain. In June 2005. EADS CASA European aerospace consortium firms join. data link and ground sta- EADS undertook preliminary studies partner in the Neuron program. The collapse of the own way on mini-UAVs. At Paris 2003. Sperwer systems. Italy. has gone its France has tried to position itself as development. All that resulted from the plan was a itself as a driving force in European tensely skeptical about “European” single Eagle one demonstrator. four aerospace technology. and Greece. grams well underway. In December 2006. com. Early French UCAV Efforts Neuron France initially participated with the US in examining flight control full scale demonstrator.5 most of its neighbors such as the UK route of co-operative ventures. Eurocopter teamed with Guimbal to form a new VTOL UAV business called Vertivision. Germany opted out of Neu. models of player in the Neuron program. shadow of the original scheme. rejected EuroMALE. a very emaciated years has deflated these pretensions of the pie. and in billion UAV program in the original and Germany which have active pro- combination with the turmoil at 2003-2008 budget plan has collapsed. During the 2003 Paris 2003 Air $486 million contract on 9 February Before the turn of the century. has made the Germans in. January 2006 paved the way for the tor. and is Dassault will lead the industrial team. in one of the most dynamic areas of ron. ment-to-government management tal demonstration air-vehicle) starting France has been the principal agency on the program while in July 2000. Hellenic Aerospace the rear fu- of a UCAV called the URAV which mitting about €75 million compared selage and integration rig. or “Grand ron with DGA awarding Dassault a systems for UCAVs in the late 1990s. both the Petit Duc and Petit Duc C expected to maintain a majority of the The work-share includes Alenia’s demonstrators were displayed. DGA re- leased an RFP to evaluate the suitability of VTOL UAVs to meet the joint army/navy requirements. and Dassault built and flew a commit €300 million to a UCAV pro. Show. and is buy. Sweden. The work even if additional European work on the avionics. but instead has fallen behind 1990s has soured the most obvious ments. with Dassault in the lead. on the earlier “Petit Duc” demonstra. sub-scale demonstrator. the European leader in UAV technol- Brevel program with Germany in the ing American for its HALE require. Michele Alliot-Marie pledged to tor.European UAV Market Page 71 with useful features but a low purchase and operating cost. (Little Horned Owl) AVE (aeronef de European countries to join the D G A w ill a c t a s th e g o v e r n- validation experimental: experimen. In November 2006.

F o llo w in g th e F r e n c h Germany was the co-developer of 2001. In production MoU Germany was to KZO Tucan Tactical UAV August 1998. quired to replace the CL-289 Piver. Germany de- EADS-Germany has begun flight the fighting included five German cided to proceed with acquisition of tests of the Barrakuda UCAV demon. over Kosovo in April 1999 the Ger. CL-289s. called KWS-289. has a requirement for a naval UAV would enable the drone to cover The Eurodrone Brevel was a coop. velop an extended range version of grams underway to acquire UAVs ing proposed as the core of a joint Eu. but to date it does not appear to withdrawal from the program. cost of $1 million from Meggitt Tar- Germany has also acquired vember 1990 and production for the get Systems for use as a low-cost. the Brevel. The first system was turned single unit of six Phantom UAVs at a in 2005. ering the adoption of the Global man army had 21 UAVs in operation Following the French decision in Hawk under the name Euro Hawk as and flew 237 missions from Decem. HALE UAVs at the moment them. three in 1991 and the final four summer of 1996. There is still no UAV. the Bundeswehr placed have received one battery set in each Due to the delays in fielding the a DM500 million ($280 million) or. which ranging from mini-UAVs through ropean MALE UAV. abstain from grandiose schemes and of technology demonstration. At the high end During the peacekeeping operations participant with France in the devel- of the UAV scale. France. 1997 to pull out of the production a n e n d u r a n c e U AV s ys tem. Under the original quisition of the Tucan variant. The first system was delivered in 1992. As mentioned above on the Euro- Aladin and has a standing require. like to convince the government to seem destined to remain in the limbo A comprehensive French UAV ef. Germany was a ment for mini-UAVs. 300 square kilometers possible with a tactical UAV for divisional surveil. CL-289 Piver made to the German BWB in early men ts . SAGEM would solved.Page 72 European UAV Market debates and talks about UAVs. ber 1998 to July 1999. some talk now of consolidating the Eagle SIDM UAVs to provide an im- army and navy requirements in a mediate MALE capability until the France 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV 140 150 150 — — — 150 300 300 — 1. 1990. A proposal was lance and artillery spotting require.500 square miles of territory vs. This tactical UAVs. place the Sperwer-A. many has decided to proceed with ac. Germany acquired a tems. in the der with STN Atlas for six Tucan sys.1 4 b u d g e t p lan . strations related to forest fire observa- more mini-UAVs and even mi. Total losses in phase of the program. the CL-289. UAV” design or an Eagle Eye VTOL are likely to be endurance UAVs used servation regiment. and later. other common air vehicle such as a French EuroMALE follow-on program is re- countries have actually been building version of Eagle Eye. Dornier has proposed to de. fort will have to await the next simply buy more Sperwer UAVs to France has also been very slow in 2 0 0 9 . It is likely that France will follow cro-UAVS to complement the Felin and more capable system being ac. strator and this air vehicle is also be. the CL-289 drone along with Canada have been approved. Germany procured 188 air ve. system in the wake of the failure of its 1. the general pattern of using govern- program late in the forecast period. f o r f ir e p a tr o l an d b o r d e r consensus about future needs. of 1988 and 1989. What may emerge is addressing civil applications for mini-UAV area. I n th e satisfy its needs. Penzburg such as the Luna and 1993. the current version. German is consid. in- smaller mini-UAVs from EMT in German army was completed in June terim brigade intelligence system. under its original German World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . Ger. Germany also would carry additional fuel. hicles and eleven ground station sets. opment of the Brevel tactical UAV. and these with only a single army artillery ob. pean Union section.230 SDTT — — — 5 15 20 20 10 — — 70 MALE UAV 1 1 — — — 1 1 1 1 1 8 Naval VTUAV — — — — 3 6 6 6 6 6 33 Civil UAV — — 1 — — — — 2 2 2 7 UCAV — — — — 1 — — 2 — 1 4 Germany Germany has a number of pro. with France may acquire a handful of surveillance. over to the German army on 29 No. mental requirements to help pave the France’s tactical UAV fleet is puny perhaps from the EADS “Advanced way for civil use of UAVs. with some UAVs aside from some minor demon- DRAC underway. the erative Franco-German effort to field own SEAMOS program. France already has a mixed configuration. followed by two in Brevel tactical UAV system. and some faster tion. but may acquire Sperwer-B’s being acquired to re.

and also the Mucke for jamming battlefield com- munications.2 bil- lion. lion ($535 million). real-time data link relay missions for extended range mis- sions. Due to the cut-backs in the 1997 defense budget. the Bundeswehr placed development of the army Taifun UAV. In 2006. However. The der with STN Atlas. Taifun ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Each system includes two German parliament that the Taifun’s In 2005. Taifun/Tares Attack UAV The German armed forces have been studying the possible use of the Brevel system as the basis for the Taifun anti-radar drone for air de- fense suppression. If accepted for service in 2008. systems. TARES is fitted with an was handed over to the army in De- cember 2005. Rheinmetall unveiled its ground control stations (GCS) and 10 operational requirement was open to TARES which is a reconfigured air vehicles for a program total of 12 question and that its long range raised Taifun. by the time that the ($280 million) and a procurement Although Rheinmetall described the Bundestag approved the procurement phase in 2005-2011 of DM940 mil. Tucan In May 2004. cost in 1997-2004 of DM452 million some form of undisclosed munition.000 air vehicles with a development ing the radar. In early 2003. may in fact be an alternative to this tive had been trimmed to six Tucan eral Audit Office reported to the troubled and long-delayed program. production could begin in 2009. concept as a “follow-on” to Taifun. The original Taifun requirement serve in the anti-radar role. Other potential applica- tions include minefield detection and surveillance. The first system conflicts between army and air force dar mission. More recent plans have been to conduct demonstrations through 2006 and user trials in 2007. It recommended a recon- sideration of the program in light of current German out-of-area require- ments. but would attack it with ing of 16 GCS and 80 air vehicles. it project in December 2001. the Fed. 3.Zielortung). In place of a dedicated anti-ra- GCS and 60 UAV. The original plan called for 20 launcher systems and UCAV would not be lost after engag- was to acquire eight systems consist. Program cost estimates had grown from the original 372 million to about 1. UCAV based on a tactical UAV to a DM500 million ($280 million) or. In a postponement in the decision on the edged that it was looking at a small August 1998. Rheinmetall’s De- d e s ig n a tio n o f Tu c a n K Z O defense minister Volker Ruhe ordered fense Electronic division acknowl- (Kleinflugger-zur. In 1997.European UAV Market Page 73 targeting. the first system was prepared for deployment with German peacekeeping forces in Afghanistan. STN Atlas has also been work- ing on an electronic support measures d e r iv a tiv e o f Tu c a n c a lled Fledermaus (Bat). the objec. real time long range naval tar- g et lo catio n . an d civ ilian environmental research. it was reported that the defense ministry procurement agency recommended the termination of the Tucan program due to lingering technical shortcom- ings and escalating costs.

only 500 m and an endurance of 15 requirement for a close-range minutes. The initial contract is for six sys. than the previous EMT UAVs. The X-13 UAV is an several micro-UAVs including the EMT X-2000 Luna systems on an ex. and it has an effective range of The Bundeswehr has a standing vehicles. The take-off weight of in g co mmercially o ffered b y or lower. with a persistent loitering missile than a quirement in 1995 for a mini-UAV for portion of the order compromising an UCAV. In June 2002. mechanized reconnaissance units. requirement. been working on a small VTUAV also manufactured by EMT and was German MALE Requirement called Fancopter for this requirement.or mini-UAV. This mentioned above. EMT is also o ff erin g th e the feasibility of micro-UAVs. which are a into the close-range UAV/tactical sion called Carolo XL. vertical tion. tems starting in early 2005. demic and industry effort to examine quirement included various procure. Rheinmetall also acquiring 202 Fennek. Diehl/BGT is offering its Dutch armies. These April 2003. due to the failure of the earlier Dornier has been working on their gade in Macedonia. rolling. mini-UAV requirement. with the International Security Assis. considerably more Rheinmetall in its P50 variant. The German micro. A contract for 115 Aladins was The German BWB development vited to participate in the bidding with awarded to EMT in April 2005 at a agency has been supporting an aca. Fancopter DO-MAV weighing less than 500 consists of a GCS. The design from EMT in Penzburg kado with a weight of only half a kilo- systeme of the Technische Universitat was selected for trials deployment. so acquire and track small targets such as World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . The sensor Air Robot/Skyeye. system with 24 hour endurance and to copter UAV with four blades around tems each consisting of a GCS and air operate without restrictions in th e p e r ip h e r y b a s e d o n th e vehicle. ducted 174 sorties as part of the with an extended endurance of six ing on a helicopter mini-UAV with KFOR operation. vehicles conducted a further 139 sor. minutes. mini-UAV deployed at brigade level UAV arena. three hours and operating range of 200km. the Bundeswehr began flight tended for use with armored and and Fancopter is aimed at this trials of five contenders for this re. use with forward ground troops with upgraded Aladin based on lessons an effective operating radius of about from their employment in Afghani- Micro-UAV 10 km. name implies is a small. is intended for special forces units. EMT has The Aladin is smaller than the Luna. The plan notes the requirement for a SensoCopter which is a small heli. The acquisition objective for TARES to attack a wider range of tar. it is more of a Nahaufklarungs-ausstattung) re. is a different approach to the grams and a 500 gram helicopter mi. Bundeswehr a micro-UAV called Mi- Insitut fur Luft. four air vehicles and associated sup. and intended for deployment non-segregated airspace. The Ger. EMT displayed two new UAVs Braunschweig has been developing August 1996. A basic system SEAMOS helicopter UAV. launch catapult. The ment options from 50 to 300 systems. The German army plans to deploy 13 take-off design using an electric mo- Luna scout units. This is intended was delivered to the Bundeswehr in army currently has a requirement for a mainly for special forces uses. EADS. originally developed to be compatible The BWB development agency The Fancopter has an operating range with the Fennek scout vehicle now concluded a study in 2004 over its re- of 500 meters and an endurance of 15 being acquired by the German and quirements for an endurance UAV. IR and SAR with data fusion at Security & Electronics is offering the man army is currently committed to the ground control station. The BWB Microdrones GmbH MD4-200. LUNA (Luftgestutze Unbemannte Aladin is currently pegged at 115 sys- gets. It is being considered as an VTUAV capable of operating indoors Aladin Mini-UAV infantry small-unit scout due to its which is believed to be focused on a The first Aladin mini-UAV system very limited capabilities. and Braunscheweig has also been work. The Dutch array needs to be detailed enough to offered the Kolibri 60. the Aladin is in. quirement in June 2006. Carolo is be. port equipment and can fit in a C-130. pable of being operated indoors. In gram. SIM tance Force in Afghanistan. army is acquiring over 400 Fennek. proposals due in April 1997. Kosovo in March 2000 and con. In contrast to the Luna close-range vertical take-off UAV ca- could involve some of the designs which serves with artillery reconnais. the capability to automatically follow systems including six GCS and 28 air The system is designed primarily to a target such as a moving vehicle. Eight manufacturers were in. the BWB acquired two at Eurosatory 04. stan. To start the ball sance battalions.und Raumfahrt. attempt to enlarge the EMT UAVs 390 gram Carolo and a scaled-up ver. each with four tor. The re. perimental basis. ties in support of the multilateral bri.Page 74 European UAV Market optical sensor and a data-link which Luna Mini-UAV there could be an export market as would allow an operator to direct the The German army initiated its well. address a German navy requirement On the industry side. and as the cro-UAV called MAV VTOL-Solu. E-O. cost of Euro 25 million ($32 million). In this respect. The take-off weight is under one Special Forces VTUAV ground control systems and twelve air kg. These were first deployed in the X-13 is 130 kg. wants a mixed sensor array including MBDA is offering a tail-sitter.

plans were for the delivery of the first operative venture with France. The EuroHawk is envisioned as conduct SIGINT operations in place with a fuselage core to which would a maritime surveillance version of the of the old Breguet Atlantiques now in be added either sailplane wings for an Global Hawk which substitutes an service. In the autumn of ments to carry out deep reconnais. more demanding air defense environ. This modular payloads. Barrakuda effort. a possible candidate for this require. Instead. and the combined response was deliv- man requirements. examined the RQ-4A Global Hawk as is to deliver a single system by 2010 named as Advanced UAV.European UAV Market Page 75 mitment of the aircraft to combat op- erations in 2003. An MoU was finally signed in with longer wings for endurance endurance UAV for strategic recon. A Plans to conduct trials of a Global EADS has also offered a proposal competing team from the Neuron Hawk fitted with an EADS sensor to the Bundesmarine to equip the U CAV c o n s o r tiu m in c lu d in g package were delayed due to the com. The plan now called Agile UAV. NBC rent US concepts. endurance UAV for shorter wings for ELINT package for the current elec. Grumman in September 2004 to bid and Rheinmetall Electronics to offer near-supersonic. least Euro 350 million ($450 million) technology developed for the for the first five systems. and other alternatives. tive is to acquire four-six Global canopy. ered in late March 2005. EuroHawk in 2007. The trials concluded after about 30 hours a hostile infantry platoon. penetrating UAV for for five EuroHawk HALE systems the Predator to satisfy various Ger. The the original EuroMALE scheme. this reconnaissance. This is based in part on past experi. The German partner for has noted that the requirement fol. Al- though the original plans were to test a synthetic aperture radar. The finalizing their arrangements for with a synthetic aperture radar for im- system would also be supported with work-shares on this and related aging intelligence missions. However. Germany is also considering a fol- a tactical UAV/UCAV. May 2006. for a loitering system such as Predator Dornier. The concept was E u r o p e a n M A L E / H A L E U AV would take place after the ELINT publicly displayed by EADS at the efforts. BWB wants a modular pay. The short term objec- to track such targets through a forest expected to offer a competitor. BWB tw e e n r e c o n n a is s a n c e an d ments. surveillance program value is expected to be at Germany would like to exploit the fashion. to provide interim capability to cept is to develop a modular UAV ment. low-on buy of up to six more UAV would have a different nose EADS and Northrop Grumman were EuroHawks which would be fitted with a satellite uplink antenna. However. The Germans see a need Northrop-Grumman is EADS- lows current NATO Staff Require. sance missions in a timely fashion. EuroHawk with a new phased-array ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . and the second in though substantially different than ence with the CL-289 which is used in 2008-09 but these have changed. surveillance. Germany began to discuss a co. a restricted RFP to EADS/Northrop has teamed with Diehl BGT Defense they also see the need for a fast. broader range of surveillance require- recon. and use the core EuroHawk funding shortfalls have delayed this systems as the basis for a MALE UAV Germany has a requirement for an effort. The endurance tro-optical sensor package. vs. and be able Dassault. The dual configuration also ad. Hawks to replace four Atlantic load option with plug and play which dresses a German perception of the E L I N T a ir c r a f t. th o u g h th e would permit support of other mis. but in 2007 was re. The Luftwaffe consid- ered other platforms for this mission as well including the Predator and Sensocopter Airbus A320 but rejected them. a distinction be. A Global Hawk and was finally deployed to Germany on 15 October 2003 for a series of six test flights from Nordholz naval air base near Cuxhaven in Germany. the pro- gram shifted to the trials of an ELINT sensor instead due to shifts in German requirements. EuroHawk could also be used for a sions such as electronic warfare. the sensor was test fit to Global Hawks at Ed- wards AFB. J u n e 2 0 0 7 P a r is air s h o w. In 2005. The con. UAV field that differs from the cur. Alenia and Saab are of flight time. The German BWB released ment approaches. General Atomics for persistent surveillance. version. This effort was originally naissance and maritime patrol and has risk-reduction contract. the first step towards a flight. The program 2006.

and has also examined the US twin-engine version is also being con. by EADS-France for a joint MALE RQ-8 Fire Scout. In 1986. though original re. yet role. and this ment to the Fennek mechanized scout tremely useful in recent peacekeeping could result in a re-tasking of the units. The requirement is to begin de. Germany at the moment is the Luna system in Kosovo. Germany has been in the forefront quire some mini-UAVs. E a g le Eye. EADS-Germany has been pushing to cellation in 2003. this sched. now part of EADS. Spain and Switzerland have been in. renamed SEAMOS. special forces are also likely to ac- one of the less relevant since it is pri. EADS has indicated that a sec- teamed with SAGEM in France and not formally described the program. K-130 planned.5 0 D a s a te s t b e d f o r a Bundeswehr requirement under the two UAVs per each K-130 corvette mary role for the Barrakuda is to serve GEAMOS (Gefechtsfeld Aufklar. The German the larger efforts at the moment. ational research is expected to begin ploying the SEAMOS on a scale of by 2008. A navalized EuroHawk would presumably re- place these if accepted. This could have some spin-off operations. Bell Helicopter has sidered. Barrakuda as an alternative to the Britain and the US. However. as a replacement for Germany’s Tor- ungsmittel und Ortungssystem) pro. The German Navy recently announced plans to retire its fleet of Atlantic mar- itime patrol aircraft. requirement. The Bundesmarine volved in the program. several possible contenders for this contract in 1992 to design a naval de. man officials have stated that they see Dornier was awarded a development quirements called for 15. program was monitored by other taxi trials were conducted near the Germany has been promoting NATO navies including France. and the Barrakuda. quirements are for both MALE and nection to recent peacekeeping mis. plant’s Machning site in early 2006. for immediate requirements. there are five nado reconnaissance aircraft. It is suggested that the pri- Teal Group Analysis Germany has been stepping up its considering a reorganization of its Bundeswehr is now planning to UAV efforts over the past several UAV assets to make them more useful acquire the smaller Aladin for assign- years as UAVs have proved to be ex. The Tucan KZO is one of Tucan KZO system to a general ISR into the export market. Barrakuda as an alternative to the EADS ORCA-1200 naval helicopter ada JT15D-5C turbo-fan and a EuroMALE configuration proposed UAV.Page 76 European UAV Market surveillance radar to satisfy the mari- time patrol aircraft requirement. the maritime UAV for operation from its World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . an d connaissance. SEAMOS Naval UAV Dornier. ond prototype will be built but proba- Rheinmetall in Germany to market though it is widely reported that the bly not in the Barrakuda UCAV the Eagle Eye tilt-rotor in Europe for first flight was scheduled for 2005 but configuration but rather as a fast naval requirements. After demonstration flights. has been working on VTOL UAVs since the 1960s. marily oriented towards an artillery in the use of mini-UAVs in Europe. reconnaissance system. A series of a high-speed 2006 during flight trials. In addition. and as an interim solution to purchase surplus Dutch P-3C Orion aircraft. since the radar has not yet been developed. and there have been reports that both French Neuron effort. Barrakuda P r e d a to r B. the firm began to work on a derivative of the Gyrodyne AGILE Q H . including Barrakuda. Italy. delayed until May 2006 and that oper. The German government has UAV. The Barrakuda proto- The phase one development contract by the German BWB to develop a type was lost during landing at San followed in December 1995. beginning in 2006-2008. low-observables UCAV named the Javier AFB in Spain on 23 September board trials began in 2002. Ship. rivative for use from frigates for re. primarily the EMT mini-UAVs. ing already demonstrated the value of HALE endurance systems and for a sions. Germany’s remaining large re- fire support role which has little con. The aircraft is use the core technology developed for has subsequently begun to look at the powered by a Pratt & Whitney Can. Hav. EADS-Germany has been funded EuroMALE. prob. lems with the SEAMOS led to its can. Ger- gram. ule has slipped. To date.

It is moment. but a ators to provide immediate capability. EuroHawk will be acquired initially will acquire a modest number of Pred. a consensus will be reached to merge for the strategic ELINT role. In the summer of with the Technical University of In August 2001. Germany (MALE UAV) — — 1 2 2 — — — — 2 7 Germany (Recon UAV) — — — — — — 1 1 2 2 6 Germany (Naval UAV) — — — 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 15 Germany (Mini/Micro UAV) — 5 40 50 50 50 50 — — — 245 Greece The Greek firm HAI has adver. A second system was deliv- a number of government initiatives September 1997 with clarifications. the demonstration programs prior to later maritime patrol version is a real followed by a domestic program commitment to a dedicated engineer- possibility. opt for a US system replace the aged CL-289. tised a small mini-UAV called Pega. using the Barrakuda technology to version will be acquired within the ested in a naval UAV. versity of Athens with funding from ceed with the manufacture of a ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . In the sum. Most likely. The Nearchos pro. EADS sug. Typical fed- reluctant to join a French-dominated reinforce its flagging defense aero. durance UAV seems like a likely ac. seems very restrained. Germany proposed us. such as Eagle Eye or Fire Scout. At the to buy time until a consensus can be pear to be going their own way. the air force wanted a more ro- About 10 were built in 1990 for eval. test-bed for a collision avoidance sys. date beyond a modest risk-reduction but aside from Spain and Switzerland. particularly once the US based on the AGILE UAV program ing development effort. time. cies. Germany seems committed to quirement. ported that the air force would pro. systems with an operational radius of end of 2004 and became operational gram was subsequently supported by 100 km. It is possible that Germany possible that over the next few years. but no agreement has been reached to nership with the French on Neuron. suggests that this procurement effort have much resonance. This program was sponsored by The air vehicle has been used as a Greek air force development agen- the chief of the Greek Air Force. The Greek system. One system was delivered at the the mid-1990s. A strategic en. or Germany so far has shown very lit- ment for a MALE UAV but has been begin a national effort as a method to tle interest in civil UAVs. UCAV demonstrator are poor. e r a l r e q u ir e men ts s u c h as EuroMALE consortium. 2006. the Greek 2002. systems. It is possible ing the core technologies of its will slide to late in the forecast period. ered in early 2006. under the Ministry of Development. tem and also a remote fire detection bust and capable system. Greece ordered a further two Crete and the National Technical Uni. for EU border security. quisition and one of the main issues is contract which is simply another way the other major aerospace players ap- what roles will finally emerge. the Greek press re. the ELINT The Bundesmarine is fairly inter. it would appear that reached. In the mean- Navy settles down on its BAMS re. that Germany might participate in Barrakuda demonstrator as the basis The prospects for the Barrakuda some European civil UAV program for a European MALE UAV program.European UAV Market Page 77 new K-130 corvettes. Germany has a standing require. but its approach satisfy its immediate MALE require- time frame of this forecast. selected the SAGEM Sperwer in firm EADS-Sigma developed a In December 1995. While this may have pleased the sus. Germany 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total EMT Germany (Luna) 30 — — — — — — — — — 30 Germany (Aladin) 110 110 — — — — — — — — 220 Northrop Grumman Germany (EuroHawk) — — 1 — 1 1 1 1 — — 5 Undetermined Mfg. the General Secretariat of Research squadron of the Pegasus UAVs. They uation by the Greek Army. Ger. Lack of a clear approach fire-fighting and border patrol do not mer of 2006. It ment as well as a fast jet-powered tac- maritime patrol UAV would be most could opt to join a European venture tical reconnaissance UAV as well to likely late in this forecast period. many has been trying to tempt other mestic requirement at the moment gested that this was being finalized European countries away from part. ordering a total of three sys- close-range UAV called Nearchos in army released a tender for four UAV tems. The tender was reissued in in 2005. later in the forecast period. with the French. while the to this requirement is not yet clear. space sector. but the do- and in November 2006.

by the Italian firm International Avia. government decided to acquire two Teal Group Analysis Hungary has not been very active years. sic configurations. Italian navy as the Pelican. Meteor SpA Italy is currently experimenting variants with autopilot enhancements has developed two systems for this re. The Italian Aerosystems as the Heron 26. Greece 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini UAV — — — — 10 10 30 30 — — 80 Tactical UAV 5 — — — — — — — — — 5 Naval UAV — — — — — 1 3 2 2 — 8 Hungary Hungary has shown little interest tion Supply based in Brindisi. need for such systems. system could play a role in monitor- tical UAV programs over the past few Hungary 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV 6 — — — — — — — — 6 12 Tactical UAV — — — — — — — — 4 4 8 Italy The Italian Army has a standing 2000 with deliveries concluding in in 1987-88 for the Italian army under requirement for UAVs as part of its 2002. Logistics and air vehicles. Yugoslavia. Warsaw Pact states in the central Eu. and a turbojet Italian Army in 1988. Re. Ver- range UAV. World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . Other and information system. and the European UAV efforts such as Neu. the Mirach 26 close range hicle for future requirements. with additional pro. The Mirach The Kosovo air campaign finally con. the Hungarian with a Polish ground control system. to permit preprogrammed flight in- quirement. possible. ing. wildfires that plagued Greece in the selection of the Sperwer in 2002 ron. UAVs since the early 1980s in two ba. jor obstacle. 800. Each system includes three fense’s Electronics. This Mirach 150 were ordered in January limited numbers (about 40) beginning was built primarily as a target drone. Quimar Army has ordered one system of each Past UAV Efforts was formerly privately owned. and for the CATRIN corps level communication four RQ-1 Predators for the air force. and in the US by Pacific services in the 1980s.000. but most of the former ment budget has probably been a ma. The Mirach 20 The medium range drone system tems each of the Mirach 26 and short range system was produced in was designated as Mirach 100. Meteor SpA has been developing 1988.Page 78 European UAV Market Teal Group Analysis The Greek armed forces have not Greece is likely to participate in joint The large scale destruction of the been a technology innovator. These are based on the designs running the gamut from tacti. ing the border area with the former in this field. and a small purchase of a summer of 2007 may encourage a probably represents the only tactical mini-UAV system and a naval UAV more active program to examine a UAV system that the Greek air force system late in the forecast period is civil UAV program for fire monitor- will acquire in this forecast period. the Hungarian Ministry of De. The Sofar is a derivative Administration office has helped to Sofar Mini-UAV of the Israeli Top-I-Vision Casper 250 fund a private venture UAV effort run In December 2005. by Quimar. was acquired by the Argentin- curement delayed for several years. Hungary’s limited procure. but a tactical UAV ropean region have embarked on tac. development. In addition. medium range system. a pusher-propeller 20 became operational with the vinced the Italian armed forces of the short-range system. may indicate interest in tactical UAV Electronics in Poland at a cost of cently. Italy has acquired the codename Condor. Alenia cluded the Raven reconnaissance UAV and the Meteor 150 medium is developing a number of new UAV UAV and Parrot data relay UAV. ean ministry of defense. This Sofar mini-UAV systems from WB in UAV development to date. with the Sky-X UCAV concept air ve. sions of the Mirach 20 were produced earlier Mirach 20 and Mirach 100 that cal UAVs such as Falco through in Argentina as the MQ-4 Agilucho had been ordered by the Italian armed HALE UAVs such as Molynx. and eight sys. but in for evaluation.

to open up Italian airspace to the Pred- lected the Mirach 20 and Mirach 100 Predator MALE UAV Acquisi. The Kosovo air campaign finally tors. The sur- veillance version is usually fitted with a BAE MIRLA IR linescanner. its requirement in competition with home base. dubbed Mirach 150 were ordered in January dertaken by Galileo Avionica. sons learned” during the Kosovo air CIRA Program c o mman d u p g r a d e s a n d o th e r campaign. The Mirach 100 has been license pro- duced in Argentina since 1985 as the MQ-2-2 Bigua by Quimar. In June 2004. Four Predators are effort. operated by the 32 Stormo. a unit SORAO. An extended range version of the Mirach 100 developed in con- junction with Pacific Aerosystems was submitted for the US JPO’s UAV-MR program but was not selected. floundered due to budget problems. A long term the scope of this order. dubbed CR/X3 will be an en- Mirach 26 is currently being of. Cirrus will develop a tactical UAV a “launch order” for the Mirach 26. Predator assembly in Italy is un- and acquisition system. In 1995. UAVs with payload and two without CIRA aerospace research facility an- The Italian army ordered one with delivery beginning in late 2001 nounced plans to invest about $65 Mirach 26 system and one Mirach and ending in 2002 and Meteor will million in a seven year program to de- 150 system for further evaluation for serve as the Italian prime contractor. Gruppo Velivoli Teleguidata “Le four days with a 250 kg sensor pack- It has been offered to Netherlands for Streghe” which deployed from its age. and sensor improvements. It is expected to fly in 2008. Italy’s modifications took place. and eight more to fill out the original order for quirement for a target surveillance systems each of the Mirach 26 and six. Italy announced corps communications and informa. Foggia. the Italian army began development of its CATRIN strated to Finland. and included a re. The Argentinean version was launched from a Pucara tactical strike aircraft in 1988 under a program called South- ern Hawk. Alenia se.000 flight its useful life. Australia and In August 2004. with an operating radius of 200 km but no details have been released on tional capability was reached in De. plans to acquire another five Preda- tion system. one attrition spare and one of Meteor SpA. The main element of the 2000 with deliveries to conclude in of Finmeccanica. About 150 had been produced up to 1987. 28 durance design capable of flying for fered to several potential customers. cember 2004. in- cluding export to both Libya and Iraq. Not surprisingly. Amendola AFB near Crécerelle and several other drones. With the Canadair CL-289 ending Crécerelle. ator UAV for operations. graded to include a GPS navigation Predator systems as a result of “les- feature. The UAV group reached 1. dubbed Alenia announced that it had received air vehicles was lost during training. It has also been demon. the SORAO requirement was a family of 2002. velop UAVs for military and civil ap- their SORAO requirement. in May 2000. The first project. to Tallil AFB near An New UAVs in 1 9 9 5 it lo s t to th e F r e n c h Nasiriyah in Iraq in January 2005. only five were delivered. have been teaming to offer replace- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Italian parliament passed legislation UAVs.European UAV Market Page 79 with about 75% of the 600 manufac- tured serving in this role. the parent company convinced the Italian armed forces of to two. the Italian air with the plans now shifted to the 2007 tems of both were substantially up. 150 respectively. Italian and French firms hours by early 2006. The navigation sys. CATRIN Requirement Sky-X UCAV In the late 1980s. force announced plans to acquire six budget. Opera. paign. reducing the force to four. Plans to ac- for f u r th e r d e v e lo p me n t. One of the plications. but to date this has been limited oped by Alenia. and 10 hours endurance. the need for such systems. tion quire two more Predators in 2005 redesignated Mirach 26 and Mirach As a result of the Kosovo cam. Austria. The contract included four In the summer of 2001. This system was devel.

Alenia has been discussing the such as the French-led Neuron pro. Both Sky-Y and Molynx made whether to pursue this as a do. Flight sentatives indicated that Sky-Y is in. under the codename Black Lynx 2016. venture with other European firms. first production would take place of Italian UAV ventures debuting at 16 Falco for an undisclosed customer. Meteor (now Alenia) showed another version of Mirach 100 de- rived UAV at Eurosatory 2002. Alenia renamed the UAV such as the firm’s Falco. Paris 2003 was a large jet-powered MALP widely reported to be Pakistan. though it was noted that it a type of parasite UAV. A total of 20 flights were before the arrival of the main UAV.Page 80 European UAV Market ments. No mini-UAV called MALP (Multi-pur- Endurance UAVs sensor package was displayed on the pose Air-Launched Payload) which is In October 2006. At a presentation in 2006. It is small illustrations of its new HALE UAV could carry a 300 kg modular pay. of a small number of AeroVironment are intended primarily for civil appli. quirement. Italian Sky-X UCAV Yak-130 jet trainer. an endurance of 25-30 ITV as Sky-X. Alenia announced that the The most impressive of the new Proryv (Breakthrough). Repre. UCAV demonstrator. In 2007 plans. testing is expected to continue Mini-UAV tended to act as a precursor to full through 2013. took place on 20 June 2007. The first test flight of the Sky-Y by 2007-08. spin-offs of the Sky-Y and Molynx ries production possible as early as ber 2003. This is as a tactical Sky-Y MALE UAV to bridge the capabilities gap be- tween the Predator and smaller Alenia is also examining military early as 2007 which would make se- UAVs. the Nibbio (Kite). the first set of test flights were including a reconnaissance role. enough to be carried on a tactical called Molynx designed for a range of load. This is intended as a high-speed UAV which does not pro- vide real-time intelligence. but at the Paris air show. rep. and Falco is firm on a UCAV derived from the aimed mainly at this requirement. a full-scale UACV could begin as Avionica) displayed a small tail-sitter World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . a r my ordered a dozen possibility of teaming with Dassault gram. AeroVironment RQ-11A Raven and Saab to offer a counter-proposal resentatives from Alenia indicated mini-UAVs for delivery in 2007. mestic venture such as the Alenia Pointers to study this mission. the Italian lion. but is re- covered and then its sensor package is processed. and fully also a potential strike role against en- its Sky-Y MALE UAV for the first autonomous flights will be achieved emy air defense to eliminate threats time. to the EADS team bidding on the that full scale system development of Selex Sensors (part of Galileo EuroMALE follow-on program. As of early 2004. the Alenia ITV Galileo Avionica is developing a (Integrated Technology Vehicle). designated as In 2007. conducted through May 2005. surveillance. Falco Tactical UAV Meteor (now Alenia) displayed its new Falco UAV for the first time at Eurosatory 2002. In 2004. In late 2006. The 3. erating with the Russian Yakovlev the Mirach 26 system. The Falco first flew in Decem. The Italian army has a re. The Italian air force would like to for a mini-UAV for company level with the Molynx starting to fly in be able to deploy a UCAV by 2020. quirement for a tactical UAV for which would be oriented towards the Alenia is also reported to be coop- operation at brigade level to replace hunter-killer mission. Alenia released design. The development program is Sky-X program. Under new program MALP is designed for multiple roles hours and a 800 kg payload. EADS showed the Cara- pace UAV at Paris 2003 for the first time. which is another reconnaissance derivative of the Meteor Mirach 100 target drone offered to replace the CL-289 but with real-time data link capability. The Italian army has a requirement HALE capability as a demonstrator.700 km. as a multi-national Italian Marines have a similar re- expected to cost about $500-600 mil. Alenia displayed conducted in 2004-2005. the 2009 ready for production by but a firm decision has not yet been Army had approved of the purchase 2010-2011. The cations.

Mini-UAV requirement cused mainly bio-mimic flying types. presumably for moni. French program for naval UAVs as the Italian armed forces to acquire a tion effort in the long term. The system would replace recon ver- next closest competitor. issues. erations. in December 2006 when Sperwers ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . deploying them in MALE UAV. A number of Dutch firms and uni- having earlier hoped to acquire a tac. The acquisition included five capable of 30 hours endurance at MoD spokesman indicated that the GCS and 10 air vehicles. vehicles were lost during these called DelFly based on the Delft Uni- fense plan earmarked 120 million operations in early 2007. Swiss Ranger and Meteor to support peace-keeping operations The Royal Dutch Air Force has Mirach 26.4 million) contract. the MoD funded a Dutch consulting firm to as- nounced that SAGEM was being acquired five Aladin systems from sist in formulating plans for the awarded a 134. the from the US in the short-term. reconnaissance vehicle which is oper. UCAV pur- UAV late in the forecast period ori.and medium-range UAVs. After a decade of delay. Mini-UAV acquisition is already elsewhere in Europe such as the to buy Italian where and when possi. ble. to join the French-led Neuron pro- Italy will probably buy a new tactical toring the sea lanes off Malta and in gram. The system tem was designed specifically to in. The Dutch 2006. Italy is both countries have been jointly de- new generation tactical UAV. the turmoil in the Balkans has effort into a common European pro. this is likely to follow similar efforts UAV effort. the Adriatic to interdict illegal immi. to support NATO peace-keeping op. The 1994-98 de. The Crécerelle was considered for the The Dutch Army had a short-term requirement along with the British requirement for a mini-UAV system MALE Requirement Phoenix. In either event. surveillance rather than the corps long-term ELINT requirement but Italy 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV 15 — — — — 30 45 45 — — 185 Tactical UAV — — 5 10 10 15 — — — — 40 MALE UAV — — — — — 1 1 1 1 1 5 Civil MALE UAV — — — — — — 1 1 1 1 4 Naval UAV — — — — — — 3 3 3 3 12 Netherlands The Netherlands delayed its acqui. chase by the Italian air force is not ented towards battalion or regimental gration. sions of the F-16 fighter and could be that was finally acquired was actually teract w ith th e F en n ek used to replace the P-3C in some per- based on the Sperwer export variant. and has had a state policy tem. The program has fo- of long. Swiss Ranger was considered the followed by more Aladins as the sys. continue its own Sky-X program in- number of Predators for the strategic q u ir in g a MA L E f o r c iv il dependently or whether it will decide reconnaissance/maritime patrol role. versity of technology to development guilders ($66. The Dutch The plan was to acquire eight MALE began in 2002 and a total of four sys. remains unclear whether Italy will prompted Italy to acquire a modest gram. In 2007. the Dutch govern- tems each with three air vehicles was Skylark mini-UAVs in 2006 to pro. applications. The aim was a system ($87. It tion. In addi.European UAV Market Page 81 VTOL mini-UAV in 2007 called Asio. also bought a small number of Elbit UAVs. sistent maritime surveillance roles. likely to try to blend its MALE UAV veloping their frigates/corvettes. The Italian air force has a likely until after the forecast period. were flown in southern Afghanistan Micro-UAV sition of UAVs for the Army to 1995.000 feet with a 500 kg payload.7 m) for the acquisition micro-UAVs. At least two Sperwer air versities have teamed on a program tical system in 1993. Teal Group Analysis Italy has a very active indigenous level approach of the CATRIN sys. This may be 25. in Afghanistan. an off-the-shelf purchase German EuroHawk program. underway. and a Italy is also likely to join any Kosovo air campaign finally forced domestic development and acquisi. In July 1995. As a result. it was an. There is some interest in ac. Delivery of the Sperwer air vehicles ated by the Dutch army. The first operational de.5 million guilder EMT in Germany. vide immediate patrol capability for MALE acquisition due to budget ployment of the Dutch Sperwers was Dutch bases in Afghanistan. ment decided against the planned delivered.

and a cade except for possible attrition than the Netherlands. A Dutch interest in a naval erlands will acquire a modest number complement this system. ment based around the French MALE lands is a partner with Germany in the gram with Germany. MALE UAV purchase in the near gram. force. The series of trials have been conducted under the codename Vektor. Another source of funding and ex. The Dutch navy is currently work. ing the NATO Strong Resolve winter Teal Group Analysis Norway does not have a large de. and future tion of a mini-UAV system is also UAV acquisitions will probably be likely. sea-based intelligence capability spares. fire control system as a method for involvement in providing ground sta. Germany is acquiring fewer Fennek commitments to UN operations. the Dutch have had strong are unlikely until the end of the de. The use of Aladin mini-UAVs lands is probably less likely to acquire might be attractive.Mielec Wojsk Lotniczych (Air Force Techni. In any further tactical UAV purchases of the purchase is difficult to foresee. though probably not a high of MALE UAVs late in this forecast possible that the Netherlands will fol. support its operations. perimentation in recent years has jet vs. is possible.Page 82 European UAV Market Teal Group Analysis The Netherlands has recently ac. term. Contenders in- engine and turbojet respectively. tions and avionics. modest. ing on a multi-national frigate pro. addition. so ical peacekeeping missions. the Polish army’s Grom has discussed powerplants with cal Institute) which has been examin. The scale fire spotting would be attractive. low suit. tested the German Tucan KZO tacti. pursue the endurance UAV require- tial. interest in a naval UAV. The issue of turbo. Should there be program. It is quite UAV. and so applications such as gun quired a tactical UAV for the army. special forces branch announced a re- Gobler-Hirthmotoren in Germany ing mini-UAVs along with the quirement for a mini-UAV system to and Microturbo in France for a piston electronics firm Radwar. artillery spotting. probability. standing tactical UAV requirement. but in 2007 backed off a Fennek reconnaissance vehicle pro. The Nether. it should ide. tactical UAV systems. Another UAV program in 1994 at PZL-Mielec would provide real-time imagery. as the system would make lands has traditionally had a marine Netherlands 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — 15 25 25 40 40 — — 145 Naval VTUAV — — — — — — 2 2 2 2 8 MALE UAV — — — — — — — — 1 1 2 Norway The Norwegian Army examined exercise in March 2002. period. ally be linked with this frigate pro. World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . Some acquisi- fense procurement budget. It is quite possible that the Neth- quiring the Aladin mini-UAV to gram. The they began test-flying prototypes of a cluded the Orbiter from Aeronautics. Norway also cal UAV in late 2003/early 2004 for a the German EMT Luna X-2000 dur. minimal purchase. In 2005. The program was being funded by the by WB electronics with the SOFAR Poles approached the French firm state Committee for Scientific mini-UAV and the TOPAZ artillery SAGEM to discuss possible French Research. In 2005. the Fennek even more valuable in typ. ment with France in October 2002 to to further acquisition beyond the ini. but the Nether. in Afghanistan is likely to spur more as many Aladin per Fennek as the The Netherlands signed an agree- interest in this direction. piston propulsion was not been the Instytut Technicznego Mini-UAV Requirement immediately settled and PZL. The Nether. and may lead Germans. on the order of one or two Norway 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — 15 15 — — — — — — — 30 Tactical UAV 6 6 — — — — — — — — 12 Poland Poland began a reconnaissance payload is intended to be 35-40kg and mini-UAV called HOB-bit. and Germany is currently ac.

for the purchase of the Shadow UAV. have worked with the Spanish to co- Teal Group Analysis Portugal’s program appears to be Crécerelle as planned. The 1998. The six UAVs were of AAI Shadow 600 systems in May Shadow UAV Purchase delivered in the spring of 1998. system. Should Spain buy show some interest in a MALE sys. the ATT-02. once the eign cooperation beyond the Spanish quite small. The cur- Poland 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — 25 50 — — — — — — — 75 Tactical UAV 8 — — — — — — — — — 8 Portugal Portugal has a small scale RDT&E The Armor is designed to operate for ordinate the effort with the SIVA effort for a UAV called the Armor. lion and will be funded through the French TSI Vigilant UAVs in the enous tactical UAV.European UAV Market Page 83 the Raven from AeroVironment.000 and a small number to Hungary and they are being offered two systems (three air vehicles plus a of systems were apparently acquired. is having a great deal of difficulty RDT&E experience in this field funding existing programs. represented by the Pol. The state owned Arsenalul In May 1997. customer for the RQ-7 Shadow. the acquisition would probably be late in the forecast period. rent UAV program is probably in. the Skylark mini-UAV. as well as a small number antee program. tem for maritime patrol of its coastal very modestly funded. Poland’s larg. including rather than any strong requirement. has teamed a purchase of about 30 air vehicles. but this would probably be seem likely that it is interested in for. The Poland would become the first export and eight air vehicles. Portugal may eventually larger European states have acquired ties mentioned. 12 hours for patrol of Portugal’s mari. The program is being undertaken by time exclusion zone. loted target. of four more through 2010. in the US with Romanian forces deployed to have developed a small remotely pi. Portugal 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Total Tactical UAV — — — 4 4 — — — — — 8 MALE UAV — — — — — — — — 1 1 2 Romania Romania purchased a handful of be sued to form the basis for an indig. A the recent F-16 acquisition. similar systems. Romania reached an Shadow 200 UAVs were operated Armatei and Electromecanica Ploesti agreement with AAI Corp. Bumar-Labedy group. Sofar from WB Elctronics and the with Elbit to offer a variety of UAVs The original requirement was for at BridEye 400 from IAI. but ish firm G&R Zintegrowane Systemy firm WB electronics has already sold in early 2006. which could The contract was valued at $23 mil- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . this might en. The Orbiter to the Polish armed forces including least four systems to equip four Polish was selected. small purchase of a locally developed tremely modest. US DoD Defense Export Loan Guar- early 1990s. The Polish brigades plus spares and training. the requirement was Bezpieczenstwa. Iraq in 2005. with Teal Group Analysis Poland’s defense budget is ex. the est defense contractor. spare each) followed by acquisition Several other Polish firms con. but the scale of waters. as well to the Polish armed forces. The Portuguese the state Instituto Superior Tecnio. and it does not tice the Portuguese. The initial tinue to promote mini-UAVs as there Shadow Acquisition deal was signed in the summer of is a presumption that the regular army In early 2005 it was reported that 2006 for the first two RQ-8B systems will eventually acquire systems. The system cost was a modest number of Sofar mini-UAVs pegged at a shot-term acquisition of about $400. and the Polish Army tended more to gain industrial mini-UAV is likely.

The Russian army has deployed a new generation tactical UAV. It was a conventional system for the in 1984. Romania 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Tactical UAV — — — — — 6 — — — — 6 Russia The former Soviet Union had an extensive UAV development effort which like the rest of the aerospace in- dustry. the Schmel. entered development with the ex- of the associated Tupolev Tu-141 saw Pact countries in the early 1980s: tended range Tu-243 UAV. very modest during this period. The system was retired in 1972 as it was uneco- nomical. version of the system. Tupolev Reys connaissance role had been taken by satellites and it had become too vul. and it was first publicly displayed at the 1995 MAKS Moscow air show. Stroy-A World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . The VR-3 was ex. Other customers included naissance system of the Russian Air and infrared line scanners with no real Syria.1 b a s e d a r o u n d th e Lavochkin La-17MM subsonic target drone.Page 84 European UAV Market Teal Group Analysis Romania has a very modest de. period. Air Force UAV Development The first Soviet UAV reconnais- sance system was the Tupolev DBR-1 strategic reconnaissance system based around the large Tupolev Tu-123 Yastreb and 52 air vehicles were built in 1964-72. In 1985. In 1982. by the time production ended in 1989. would probably be on a very small UAV requirements are likely to be place or supplement the small scale. and Iraq. based in part on Israeli experiences in the 1982 war. 1970 and about 152 systems and 950 ported to several of the former War. and it was also exported to rently the standard unmanned recon. Army UAV Development The first Soviet tactical UAV was th e TBR. has suffered a significant de- cline since the end of the Cold War. Development began around time capability. The overall designation for this requirement was Stroy. called Reys-D. an improved Force. but efforts to field new endurance UAVs have languished due to a lack of funding. it fense procurement budget and its the acquisition of a tactical UAV to re. Reys air vehicles were manufactured nerable to air defenses. It was withdrawn from service in 1973. with three Pchela component systems being required: the Stroy-P (Polk: regiment). Czechoslovakia received the system The VR-3 Reys (Voyage) is cur. by this time its strategic re. relying on wet film sensors Romania. While Shadow 200 force is possible. Produc- tion was ready in 1994. the Soviet Ground Forces cited a requirement for recon- naissance UAV systems.

K ysh tym Rad io Plan t called elaborate version of the Stroy-P sys- ating range of 20 km over land and 80 Novik-21st Century debuted their tem called Stroy-PD. The extended range is being been managing the development of were not displayed. The first flight tests of the system took place in the autumn of 1982. a thermal imaging channel. The Pchela system the Iskandr-M tactical ballistic short-range tactical army UAV sys- was refined through the 1980s. only the Pchela reached deployment stage Development of the first Soviet tactical.A b y th e S o k o l D ia te l/ Yakovlev Diatel-2. real-time UAV. and a ELINT UAV Kulon and their partner Vega OAO 1. and missile. based and called Kotleta (Cutlet). and 73 Pchela-1M UAVs were ordered in 1983-84 to Irkut TUAV help the Soviet army develop tactics support deep attack systems such as two U AV systems: the Yula and UAV doctrine. The Sterkh system was ac- Pchela including a Raduga two-chan. and for the army the Sterkh system although there is gree viewing angle. with the ATR-E relay system. In addition. The A s p in . a GOES-630 ball Sukhoi Filin air vehicle or Tupolev a tactical UAV system in 1994. Yulia has an operating range of programs underway at the time of the large model airplane with a puller 400 km vs the 100 km operating range Soviet collapse. In the event. The Filin is in- small scale orders followed in 1992. tended as a replacement for the exist- The system was operationally de- thetic aperture radar. line-scanner operates in the 1. twin-engine Yulia swath over land and a 40km swath G r A N T D P L A ( G r a z h d a n s k iy air vehicle. The control system is laptop Yulia air vehicle as data relays for the in the 1990s. Novik is also de- promoted as a means for Story-PD to ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems .57 micron laser rangefinder. is a standard. little evidence they were delivered.1 and reconnaissance drone used by the Syria placed the first export order for 8-12 micron bands. rangefinder. and has a 120 de. attempting to win for.O s e n s o r. The Raduga in g V R-2 Strizh o p eratio n al ployed during the war in Chechnya. has are also being offered although they UAV. GrANT Civil UAV/Moshkara Upgraded Stroy-P nel. and a RSA M402K3 syn. stabilized. The Stroy-P requirement was to be satisfied by the Yakovlev Pchela. system is aimed at civilian applica- the Yulia can communicate with the ment efforts. there were numer. Part of the range extension limbo. eign sales to underwrite the develop. The GOES-630 Stroy-A requirement as well. commercially available video cam- is made possible by using one or more ous private ventures by Russian firms era. radius of about 70 km. The system. This adds the km over ocean covering a 10km new civil surveillance UAV called propeller-driven. Other UAVs up to 250km with a neighboring Yulia veloper NII Kulon in Moscow. The Yulia adds capability over the ocean. most of which are in prop configuration fitted with a small. Stroy-F) based around the large cepted by the Russian army for use as nel line scanner. codenamed Pchela (Bee) and the associated Stroy-P system was undertaken by the Yakovlev design bureau (UAV) and the NII Kulon (system) forming the Malakhit consortium. tem based around the Moskit propel- the upgraded system is designated as The Yulia air vehicle has a more ler-driven mini-drone and the Sterkh with the Shmel (Bumblebee) extensive range of sensors than the Malak h it-F s ystem (fo rmerly air vehicle. ball mounted sensor package including a TV chan. las e r Korshun air vehicles. tions. and has an effective operating GCS from as far as 300 km away.European UAV Market Page 85 (Armiya: army) and Stroy-F (Front) intended for the three tactical organi- zational levels as the names implied. and the Stroy-F by the Tupolev Korshun. and Russia’s primary UAV systems de. This is basically a tem. of Pchela.o ff co mp a n y o f th e in 2007 began to promote a more M402K3 SAR has an effective oper. aerodinamicheskiy nablyudatel to the system by providing greater en- durance and range and adding to the televizionniy: Television guided civil Future Designs aerodynamic UAV) at the 2003 Mos- variety of sensors added to the sys- Various Russian firms had UAV cow Air Show. and mo u n te d E . the Str o y. Russian air force.

T h e p r o g r a m b e g a n in UAV by Aeronautics UAV Systems Moscow Air Show had three models 1999-2000 and test flights took place Ltd.000 meters. A bro. a joint effort by the Kyshtym Radio pose Unmanned Aerial System) Plant and the Voronezh NII-Svyaz which is a license manufactured de. search-and-rescue and similar para- military roles. Sukhoi UAVs aimed at developing a mobile ELINT rivative of the Israeli Aerostar tactical The Sukhoi booth at the 2003 U AV. unveiling the system at the August 2005 Moscow Air Show.Page 86 European UAV Market chure released by the firm claims that serial manufacture would begin in March-April 2004. The role of the system is to provide an orbiting inter- cept antenna to detect and intercept enemy radio communications. and ground control station vehi- booms tail. of Petah Tikvah. The veloping a somewhat more sophisti. The Irkut Corporation. a data exchange station and related support and maintenance equipment. of endurance UAVs called Zond-1. the Vega Ra- dio engineering corporation and the Luch aviation design bureau from Rybinsk have teamed to develop a new tactical UAV called 9M62 Tipchak Tipchak. The applica- tions described for the system are Sokol Baruk primarily civilian in application World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation .3 kg. Israel. plant. in the winter of 2000. A basic system consists of four air vehicles. T h e Ti p c h a k U AV is a The GrANT program is a spin-off nization based on the Irkutsk aviation conventional pusher propeller type of an earlier. The operating range of the UAVs in this role is 50 km. It is powered by a small electric motor and uses a conventional aircraft configu- ration with puller prop. a ground control station. maintenance vehi- pusher-type configuration with twin Irkut Tactical UAV cle. a Mos- cow firm better known for its radio design. The system is aimed at Russia’s Ministry of Emer- gency Situations for monitoring. Novik is also marketing the small hand-launched Granit-F mini-UAV. army sponsored pro. a new orga. had a tactical UAV on display at weighing 50 kg with a 14. which was advertised. This was developed with Impuls. and they operate at an altitude of 3. Luch/Vega 9M62 Tipchak Tac- tical UAV Two Russian firms. load.5 kg pay- gram codenamed Moshkara that was MAKS-03 called MUAS (Multipur. port vehicles: a launch vehicle. c l e . It is a antenna vehicle. though it could be used for military basic system consists of six air vehi- cated UAV called Otshelnik which surveillance such as the Moshkarets cles and four associated ground sup- was not displayed at MAKS-03 but project mentioned above. aka BRAT (blizniy razvedchik aerodynamicheskiy televizionniy: Short-range TV flying scout). The Granit-F weighs only three kg with a payload of 0.

Propulsion will be core with the basic Al-222 turbojet fitted with pods to dispense munitions a Klimov turbojet based on the RD-33 propulsion system. signs. the Sukhoi bu- of the family. It was not cleared for by the Tupolev. The later is fitted with 12. The Skat and flight control system. typical ball mount. Two released at the show indicated the use pable of carrying two air-to-surface are designed for subsonic surveil. Yakovlev unveiled a new itself. but MiG Yakovlev design bureaus but it now angled panel rather than in the more brought a TV crew to the hanger and appears to be in limbo. craft. tured the Dan target drone as well as distinctly different sensor arrange- tem is intended to have an endurance missiles and helicopters.000km. it has a under the code name Orel. The Zond-3 is the smallest of the three and appears to be an analog to Predator. It has a very large dielectric panel over the upper nose for a satel- lite uplink antenna. and there is a large sensor tray under the fuselage with di- electric panels that suggest a SLAR or other sensor package. lance missions. ment in the nose and was apparently of 24 hours. common sensors against targets encountered during its providing 5. and higher speed. The air vehicle is allowed them to film it for a broadcast also fitted with a small nose-mounted on Moscow television. and could deliver a payload of There was no evidence that these are Baruk Hunter-Killer up to 500 kg. the air from a Su-24 Fencer strike air- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Al- The Russian air force has been with the Sokol aviation plant in though following the configuration of sponsoring a high endurance UAV Kazan and in the past has manufac- the earlier Tu-141 and Tu-243. presum- ably for use in a remote AWACS role. While this is unremarkable by (skate. a large over-fuselage antenna for UCAV SIGINT collection. The program which is intended for tactical recon- a proposed UCAV which was re- was being competitively undertaken naissance. The sys. but with at surveillance mission. the Proryv-U is de. It employs a pusher prop. The Skat Yakovlev Proryv radar. Myasishchev and in the nose of the aircraft behind an exhibit at MAKS-07. the air vehicle has been de- like the Boeing X-45 UCAV though family of UAVs codenamed Proryv.000 kgf thrust. signed from the outset to include the air intake is significantly larger The idea is to use a common central strike features. The brochure is fitted with an internal bomb-bay ca- least three wing configurations. The third member In the mid-1970s. The Sokol plant unveiled its tails about the fate of the design. a maximum altitude of The Dan-Baruk is a pusher-prop intended as a UCAV. and has a ball-shaped stabilized E-O platform under the nose as its primary sensor. ceiling of SIGINT UAV. Zond-3 is es- sentially the same as Zond-2 except that is had a large triangular radar an- tenna mounted on a fairing over the Tupolev Tu-300 centerline of the fuselage. There are very few de- anything more than conceptual de. the Tu-300. The E-O sensor is located vealed in 2007. the Proryv-R recon.000 m.European UAV Market Page 87 Zond-2 and Zond-3. Dan-Baruk hunter-killer UAV at the The newest of the Tupolev UAVs. reau began work on a UCAV code- signed as an attack UAV with swept named Korshun that was controlled in wings. 20. It is turbo-jet powered with a V butter- fly tail. and a take-off weight of driven conventional aircraft design MiG has built a full-scale model of about two metric tons. stingray) is configured much In 2006. Russian equivalent of the USAF The performance parameters are a naissance UAV and the Proryv-RLD SFW. has a dielectric panel on the nose presumably for a satellite uplink antenna. MAKS-07 air show in Moscow. range of up to 4. of the Motiv submunition which is a missiles or two 250 or 500 kg bombs. The Zond-2 is significantly larger and is presumably a Global Hawk analog.000m and a speed of 800 km/h. The air vehicle can be and more vertical. was unveiled at the Orel Strategic UAV Sokol is the design bureau associated MAKS-95 air show in Moscow.

endurance systems that are being offered for have several other UAVs at interna. Even now. the Yugoslav government tactical UAV with a real time Valjevo. the Russian upcoming Olympic winter games in about their programs. Most of the UAV ef. It was offered for export in planned to award a production con- TV/FLIR system called VBL-200. World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . the GCS portion of the program. restart production of advanced aero. with the exception of Shmel has been offered for sale as cluding tactical UAVs. SIVA patrol of Spain’s economic exclusion to fly in December 1995. The military uses are con. Spain Spain has had a modest tactical ventional surveillance tasks. most Rus. applications are expected to include sor package. plications. civil UAVs. The whole panoply of types is likely in. The Russian forts will have to be started from quirements than on military pro- armed forces have been suffering scratch. as well as some coast-guard gram is now being managed by the (Avion Ligero de Observacion) civil. The pro- is the military version of the ALO zone. Russia has some export. There is a and it has only been in the past few around older UAV concepts using standing requirement for a modest years that any significant amount of wet-film recovery systems instead of number of systems for the MVD state information has emerged. veloped a small UAV called Gavran Teal Group Analysis Under current circumstances. decision to classify military UAV pro- since the late 1990s with few or no quirements and technology. Instituto Nacional de Tecnica ian UAV. The final prototype con- cade. military or civil version over the past suitable for both military and civil ap. but there has been little The SIVA program began in 1993 partnership on the program with evidence of any sales of either the as an effort to develop a UAV system Dornier Aerospace. the Yugoslav People’s managed jointly by the JNA R&D In. and is likely to be on a small bia-Montenegro (former Yugoslavia) scale. called the SIVA (Sistema forest fire surveillance. pipeline security and other shrouded in secrecy for many years. tasks. offering real-time intelligence. particularly for border Russia 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Tactical UAV — — — 5 10 10 20 20 20 — 85 Mini-UAV — — 15 — — 45 60 60 60 60 300 MALE UAV — — — — — 1 2 2 2 2 9 HALE UAV — — — — — 1 1 1 1 1 5 Civil/Police UAV 5 — 15 — 35 — 15 — 15 — 85 Serbia Prior to the break-up of the former known. but with little evidence of sales. The program was being (Raven) and conducted flight trials of Yugoslavia. come. The cur. many of the systems were based paramilitary applications. The grams due to their use in the intelli- systems being manufactured. UAVs. and maritime figuration of the SIVA was scheduled Integrado de Vigilancia Aerea). The Spanish firm Ceselsa formed a Aerospacial. which is provid. and UCAVs. Recent Russian air shows have sian UAV programs are either in space systems. th e la te 1 9 9 0 s b y th e S D P R tract for the larger Gavran II for a joint Take off was by a solid-rocket booster government export agency. is not very likely for some years to U AV p r o c u r e men t b y S e r. This is more likely due to a through a “procurement holiday” the most part based on outdated re. tional air shows for the past several genuine requirements in the area of years. Army was funding development of a stitute and the Krusik Company in Initially. ing much of the technical support on decade. the Gavran I starting in May 2000. rent status of the program is un. but it was and recovery by parachute. or barely funded. cancelled due to a lack of funds. shown more of a focus on civil re- limbo. that over the past decade. as the older programs are for grams. police for use in patrolling the there are many unanswered questions In the past few years.Page 88 European UAV Market Teal Group Analysis Russian UAV systems have been Part of the problem has been that patrol. The civil Tadiran of Israel is providing the sen- UAV program going on now for a de. gence role. It would appear government has been attempting to Sochi. Utva Aircraft in Pancevo has de. army/police requirement.

with a thrust of 0. Saab has been working with France on the servable Unmanned Research) effort. Spain acquired a single Searcher system in such as Predator or Global Hawk for has selected a UAV program as one 2007 to support its immediate needs this requirement. Spain has a government. and it tive option since development costs seems likely that a further purchase does not seem likely that the US are relatively modest. This is an attrac. ment requirement. the immigration across the Gibraltar followed by participation in a joint Spanish defense ministry has been straits. the Basque regional gov- e r n me n t u s e d a s ma l l 2 0 k g Aerovision Fulmar UAV to conduct a demonstration of fisheries patrol f r o m A u g u s t to D e c e mb e r. though it may or may would approve this given the strained cal risk is relatively low.European UAV Market Page 89 Searcher II Acquisition In April 2007. SIVA Teal Group Assessment Like many countries aspiring to but this apparently fell through. while it is developing hicle for future UAV requirements by in recent years in UAV technology.5 meters and by pow- confined to technology demonstra. its own tactical UAV under the 2005. wingspan of 2. In recent years. Spain and has been supported by Basque government research centers since its organization in 2003 as part of a local development incentive program. ron and TUMAV effort. and technologi. though there has MALE requirement. two of them being undertaken ceived a contract in 2002 for the formation for TUMAV and also cooperatively with France. assisted in the UCAV effort. The cost was put at about $17 million. Sweden FILUR. discussing a possible acquisition of tion with France on the EuroMALE the Sperwer from SAGEM in France program. measure to the need to monitor illegal number of Predator in the short-term. will occur later. The demonstrator will have a but more often than not this has been TUMAV program. which aimed at testing a stealth air ve. Global Hawk seems aspect of this effort. not be additional Searchers. Spain has discussed participa. Basque Fishery Patrol In 2006. Spain announced plans to acquire a single IAI Malat Searcher II system for deployment with Spanish troops in Afghanistan which will include four air vehicles. A more likely candidate all three services. in peacekeeping operations. search/demo projects. relations with the current Spanish posed to satisfy the requirements of In the mid term.19kN. Two other re. strator provided airframe design in- grams. Aerospace has been promoting its Neuron UCAV and EuroMALE en. NetDefense concept for the Swedish ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Aerovision is based in San Sebastian. SIVA is sup. tied in some would be Predator. Saab re. This demon- currently has three active UAV pro. but has also discussed the Spain 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — 20 — — — — — — 20 Tactical UAV 4 — — — — — 4 4 — — 12 Naval VTUAV — — — — — — 2 2 — — 4 Civil (MALE) UAV — — — — — 2 — — — — 2 Sweden Sweden has generally been active durance UAV. European effort in the long term. Sweden FILUR (Flying Innovative Low-Ob. and it excessive for this requirement. Spain possibility of acquiring a US system create an aerospace business. SHARC and ered by an AMT Olympus engine tion rather than procurement. or perhaps a small been little evidence of a firm procure. are both supporting the Neu.

the Swedish Forsvarets quirements two decades from now. den may opt to develop its own sys- uration UAV for carrying a small TV The contract was for three systems. integrated into a to permit naval use. now being dubbed TUMAV (Tactical Low-Observable Unmanned Re- In 2006. This requirement is for the FILUR (Flying Innovative production. The TUMAV is expected to be ready for production around 2010. possi- bly Israeli or South African. Hermes 1500 and Eagle. The program was called the RPG 1998. of the Skeldar took place in April In 2000. (Remotely Piloted Gyroplane) or Sweden had a standing requirement Stealth UAV Midget.5 copter. nation Ugglan for Swedish army use. The system is capable of or battalion level use with plans to ac. Olympus engine with a thrust of age. The acquisition objective is camera for battlefield surveillance. considered including the Predator. In 1992. jointly with at least one other partner. UAE UAV requirement. However. Saab unveiled its own he. which is aimed at test- licopter UAV. EuroMALE provided small scale funding to Tech. somewhat akin to the practice with Skeldar. in 2007. and it first flew on one Janu. for another UAV system for brigade The Swedish Ministry of Defense ary 1992. This is a small 150 kg tactical FMV plans to develop the UAV meters and by powered by an AMT UAV with a belly-mounted E-O pack. The Linkoping based on their Apid 5 heli. net-centric warfare. Saab indicated that it was seeking a form of cooperative development as it did not want to waste resources developing a new air vehicle. the Swedish armed EuroMALE is ready. cal UAV for operations at battalion or gle as part of a joint European effort copter UAVs in the 1980s for evalua. Four UAVs were command and control network. Saab received a contract in 2002 demonstrator and did not lead to serial past these dates. but Swedish of- nology Management Co. The Apid 5 was developed for a Swedish officials have stated that it 0. agency began examining endurance extensive u se of tactical and main” and would have to be modified UAVs as an aspect of its research on endurance UAVs. brigade level. VTOL UAV T h e S w e d is h a r my h a d a Sweden has not made any firm com- Sweden purchased a small number long-standing requirement for a tacti. So far. the Swedish MoD In late 1997. built in The program aimed at fielding a UAV ing a stealth air vehicle for future c o o p e r a tio n w ith Cyb a e r o o f in the 500 kg class to replace the UAV requirements by 2005.Page 90 European UAV Market would be developed “not with one of Sweden’s traditional partners” which implies that it would involve a non-European/American firm. Saab has indicated that Skeldar MaterielVerk (FMV) development The Saab concept involves the is intended mainly in the “land do. Unmanned Multirole Air Vehicle). or wait until a more definitive tion.19kN. Saab indicated that the time line for the program is to support the EU Rapid Reaction Force Nordic battle Group 11 which would mean an Skeldar initial operating capability in 2009-10 FMI2020 program. mitments whether it will acquire Ea- of British ML Aviation Sprite heli. ficials have also indicated that Swe- to develop a small helicopter-config. forces selected a version of the Sagem could be the Eagle 2. Tactical UAV Altus. and the demonstrator has a wingspan of 2. First flights Endurance UAV fense study of Swedish defense re. has also actively supported an effort carrying only a small payload to about quire the system in the 2002-2004 to develop UAV technology in Swe- 30 kg. Ugglan sometime after 2005. and the remaining two in 1999. but this requirement slid den. Saab announced it was developing a tactical UAV with its own funds. It aims to acquire the rights to an existing air vehicle and to adapt that air vehicle to a new system. The program was a technology time frame. In 2006. The maiden flight of the World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . (TechMent) Crécerelle/Sperwer under the desig. 2006. search) effort. a Ministry of De. tem. the Skeldar 150. The first system was delivered in 2012.

European UAV Market Page 91

Filur was undertaken in October den has no specific requirement for gram, and is expected to be most
2005. such a system until it begins to look heavily involved in the flight control
for a Gripen replacement later in the aspects of the study. The Neuron ef-
UCAV decade. In September 2003, Sweden fort began initially as a Dassault pri-
Sweden was among the first Euro- began negotiating with the DGA in vate venture but is now emerging as a
pean countries to sponsor UCAV de- France about becoming a partner in multi-national effort. Further details
velopment. Saab Aerospace has been the Neuron UCAV effort. Sweden is will be found above in the French
conducting a study program on a expected to absorb about 25-30% of Neuron UCAV section. Sweden
stealthy UCAV dubbed SHARC the development costs, making it the signed up for the Neuron program in
(Swedish Highly Advanced Research largest partner except for France. 2006.
Configuration). The program will in- Sweden has apparently pledged about
clude wind-tunnel models, but Swe- 50 to 70 million to the Neuron pro-

Teal Group Analysis
Sweden has shown a fair amount UAV systems (3-5 air vehicles each) and medium endurance UAV for
of interest in UAVs in terms of stud- but to date has funded only three. The maritime patrol.
ies, but so far, little of this has trans- army is likely to acquire a few more Sweden has generally had an ac-
lated into actual procurement. It during the forecast period, though the tive air reconnaissance effort, and so
would appear that the Swedish MoD original objective is unlikely to be participation in a European endur-
is envisioning the acquisition of met due to cut-backs in the size of the ance UAV effort seems possible if not
larger numbers of UAVs late in the army. likely.
forecast period as part of an effort to A naval UAV may be attractive Sweden‘s interest in UCAV con-
move towards a local netcentric war- since the confined Swedish waters cepts is likely to lead to further fund-
fare doctrine. Saab has been very ac- make some traditional naval sensors ing for SHARC or its follow-ons.
tive in promoting UAVs as it views its (radar and sonar) relatively ineffec- Procurement of a UCAV seems possi-
Gripen fighter as perhaps the last tive in coastal missions. This is more ble, but it would probably not begin
manned fighter Sweden will acquire. likely to be a combination of short until after the forecast period here.
During the 1990s, the Swedish range ship-based UAVs like Skeldar
army had a requirement for 10 tactical

Sweden 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total
Mini-UAV — — 5 20 20 40 — — — — 85
Tactical UAV — — 5 10 10 — — — — — 25
Naval VTUAV — — — 2 2 2 — — — — 6
MALE UAV — — — — 2 2 — — — — 4

Switzerland
Switzerland had an active tactical Swiss government agreed to a joint The first full system was delivered
UAV program in the mid-1990s development program between in mid 1998 and deliveries continued
which resulted in the ADS 95 Ranger. IAI/Malat and Contraves-Oerlikon. through 2000. Deployment of the
It does not have a known long-term Developmental systems built for the Ranger was delayed in 1999 due to
requirement for additional UAVs. trials were introduced into Swiss ser- system software problems and an un-
vice in 1993 on an interim basis. In expected complication with the sys-
ADS 95 Ranger April 1995, Oerlikon Contraves was tem data-link. The data link operates
In 1985, the Swiss army acquired finally awarded a major procurement on frequencies that are used with
an IAI/Malat Scout UAV system with contract for Ranger after several de- Switzerland’s new Universal Mobile
four air vehicles for trials to help de- lays. The total contract value is stated Telecommunications System for mo-
fine their own UAV requirements. to be SFr 280 million ($240 million) bile phones. An upgrade shifted the
The Scout had several performance with delivery in 1998-00. The con- frequency band.
shortfalls; the Swiss required a higher tract was for 28 air vehicles, and an
operational ceiling, greater payload, undisclosed number of systems. Pre- Super Ranger
less noisy engine, better all-weather vious statements have indicated that The Swiss Army XXI plan envi-
capability, and an emergency para- five systems were sought. sions the acquisition of more Rangers
chute retrieval system. In 1986, the as well as a new medium endurance

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Page 92 European UAV Market

UAV at a total cost of SFr 1.1 billion
($810 million). Ruag Aerospace un-
veiled its Super Ranger at the June
2007 Paris Air Show which is aimed
at this requirement. This is an en-
larged version of the Ranger with the
wingspan increasing from 5.7 to 9.5
m, payload from 45 kg to 150 kg, and
endurance from nine hours to 20
hours. Two prototypes began con-
struction in 2007 with an aim to begin
flight testing in 2008.

Teal Group Analysis
Switzerland is likely to acquire an-
other batch of Ranger in the forecast
period. Switzerland might be a candi- Ranger
date for a micro/mini UAVs later in
the decade.
Switzerland 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total
Mini-UAV — — — — 20 40 — — — — 60
Tactical UAV — — 15 15 — — — — — — 30

Turkey
Turkey has had a standing require-
ment for a significant number of tacti-
cal UAVs for more than a decade.
Like many Turkish defense pro-
grams, these ambitious objectives
have declined in the face of severe de-
fense budget shortfalls.

Past UAV Acquisition
Turkey was provided with some
older CL-89 reconnaissance drones
from Germany in 1991. In late 1992,
the Turkish ministry of defense ac-
quired test batches of General
Atomics Gnat-700, AAI Falcon 600
and IAI Searcher UAVs for a local re-
quirement. The two American com-
panies received contracts for $30
million each for a ground control sta-
tion and six air vehicles each. How- Turna
ever, Turkey ran into serious funding
difficulties after the first three were (TAI)/TUSAS Turkye Havacilik ve developed and tested in 1989-92 but
delivered. In the end, Turkey received Uzay Sanayii AS called UAV-X1 there was no large scale production.
two ground control stations and six Witness. TUSAS was established in Work on the UAV-XI served as the ba-
Gnat 750 air vehicles in 1994 and or- 1987 to manage the Turkish co-pro- sis for the Turna and Keklik target
dered two more air vehicles as duction of 160 F-16C/D Peace Onyx drones which were developed starting
attrition spares in 1998. fighters. It is jointly owned by Turk- in August 1995. The Turna is a con-
Turkey has had an indigenous ish companies (51%) and General ventional design using a pusher prop
UAV program being undertaken by Dynamics/GE (now Lockheed-Mar- and has been offered both as a target
Tu r k is h A e r o s p a c e I n d u s tr ies tin: 49%). The main facility is located drone and as a potential reconnais-
at Murted air base. The UAV-X1 was

World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation

European UAV Market Page 93

sance UAV. TAI worked on at least UAVs used to train UAV pilots. The
two other UAV programs, the Baykus flew in 2003, but no orders
UAV-X2 Baykus tactical UAV and have been noted.
the Pelikan and Marti semi-scale
Changes in Turkish UAV Requirements
(UAV Systems) 1998 1999 2001 2002 2004
Short-range 14 n/a — — —
Medium-range 8 n/a 5 5 6
Endurance 5 n/a 6 2 3
Total Systems 27 19 11 7 9
Total UAVs 162 114 54 40 28

Turkey announced an interna-
tional UAV requirement in 1998 with
an aim to team a foreign firm with a
Turkish firm. The objective was
about 10 systems, each with six air
vehicles and one GCS. There was
some debate over the mix of systems,
whether they would be medium en-
durance to complement the Gnat 750
or all close-range tactical UAVs. The
requirement was redefined in 1998 to
14 short-range, eight medium-range,
and five endurance UAV systems
with a likely program cost of
$350-700 million. Each system was
expected to include at least one GCS
and six air vehicles. The 1998
shortlist of competitors for the re-
quirement included an Israeli consor-
tium of Elbit/Silver Arrow/IAI; TAI MALE
General Atomics, and China’s
CATIC. However, budget realities UAV program was again cancelled in Turkish Tactical UAV Develop-
caused this program to be chopped May 2004, and then resurrected in ment
back in early 1999 to 19 systems. By October 2004. Under the October In February 2005, Turkey an-
the time the requirement was reissued 2004 program, Turkey would pur- nounced that it would sponsor a pro-
in 2001, the program had been chase three off-the-shelf MALE UAV gram to develop a new tactical UAV
chopped back to nine systems and 54 systems for the army, air force and to meet the requirement for six sys-
air vehicles consisting four long- and navy (4+4+2 air vehicles) as well as tems and 18 aircraft. Under the pro-
short-range systems for the Army, six TUAV systems from the Turkish gram, TUSAS would develop one
three long-range for the Navy, and TUSAS firm. system and build three air vehicles
two long-range for the air force. In ad- TUSAS has been developing a under a $30 million contract, with the
dition, the reissued RFP opened up MALE UAV called Tiha (Turk first flight in 39 months and delivery
the competition yet again. Five re- Insansiz Hava Araci: Turkish UAV) completion in 51 months. Following
sponses were received from local since 2004 with plans to build three this, a further five systems and 15 air-
firms which will be teamed with inter- prototypes. The configuration is a 17 craft would be delivered by 2010.
national firms. The foreign bidders meter wing with pusher propeller. Aselsan has been contracted for the
included General Atomics, the Israeli TUSAS/Turkish Aerospace Industry sensors on board the Israeli Heron,
UAV Partnership (IUP) of IAI and displayed illustrations of this MALE and presumably they would develop
Elbit. The requirement was trimmed at the 2007 Paris Air Show. The Pred- the sensors for the Turkish UAV as
back yet again and by 2002 was ator and IAI Heron were competitors well. Recent Turkish statements sug-
pegged at 28 tactical and 12 strategic for the MALE requirement and in gest that the new UAV would be a me-
air vehicles, the 28 TUAV going to the April 2005, Turkey selected the d iu m e n d u r a n c e typ e , n o t a
army and navy, and the 12 strategic Heron with a $183 million contract short-range tactical UAV. However,
UAVs going to the air force. The 2002 going to IAI Malat for 10 systems. in July 2006, Turkey announced plans

©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

Page 94 European UAV Market

to jointly acquire tactical UAVs with
Pakistan. This will involve the use of
Pakistani airframes and Turkish elec-
tronics. The initial acquisition is
stated to be 6-7 systems.

Mini-UAV Requirement
In August 2005, the Turkish De-
fense Industries Undersecretariat re-
leased an RFP to Turkish firms for the
acquisition of 19 mini UAVs. The
bidding is apparently limited to Turk-
ish firms. A joint venture called
Kalebaykar was formed in response,
a n d d e v e l o p e d th e B a y r a k t a r
mini-UAV. Development started
around 2003 and in first flew in Octo-
ber 2005. The Turkish MoD awarded
a contract for 19 systems in 2006 for
delivery in 2007. Kalebaykar
The Turkish firm Vestel Defense
Industry had the first display of their with a 2.5 hour endurance, and 15 km a mission radius of one km with a
new tactical UAVs outside Turkey at operating radius. The smaller of the half-pound sensor pack.
IDEX-07. The larger of the two is the two is the Ari hand-launched UAV
EFE, an electric powered mini-UAV which has a 30-minute endurance and

Teal Group Analysis
Turkey‘s defense budget has had a tion. A total of 32 major defense likely to acquire the Heron UAVs in
roller-coaster ride of economic boom programs worth about $19.5 billion the forecast period, the pace of its in-
and economic bust over the past de- have been delayed or suspended. Fur- digenous UAV program is likely to be
cade, not helped by the 1999 earth- thermore, the IMF has conditioned much more prolonged than the cur-
quake. The most recent economic further loan guarantees on defense rent, ambitious schedule, particularly
crisis of early 2001 has thrown its am- cutbacks. if the program aims at deploying a
bitious defense procurement program In this environment, Turkey‘s MALE UAV.
into a tail-spin with many recent pro- UAV program has been continually
curement decisions now under ques- cut back and delayed. While Turkey is
Turkey 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total
Mini-UAV 30 30 — — — — — — 30 30 120
Tactical UAV — — — — — — — 6 12 — 18
Tiha MALE UAV 1 — 1 — 1 — — — 1 2 6
Heron MALE UAV 4 10 10 — — — — — — — 24

Ukraine
Ukraine does not appear to have an tactical UAV called Albatros-4. The
active UAV program, but Ukrainian Remez-3 is a small, catapult launched
firms have begun to display tactical UAV weighing 12 kg with a range of
UAVs at various international exhibi- five km. The configuration is a canard
tions, oriented primarily to the export style with pusher prop. The Albatross
market. is also catapult launched and uses a
pusher prop. The basic system is two
Ukrainian UAV Programs air vehicles, a ground control station
The Vzlet Design Bureau in Kiev and associated launch and handling
has offered two UAVs since 2005, a equipment.
mini-UAV designated Remez-3 and a Strelets

World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation

European UAV Market Page 95

Two other families of tactical payload and four hour endurance and an endurance of two to four
UAVs have also been offered by other when using a 4.5 hp engine to 15 kg hours.
firms. The R-400 is a conventional payload and seven hour endurance in
tactical UAV with a twin boom con- the 14 hp version. A smaller design
figuration and pusher props. It comes using a conventional puller prop con-
in three variants distinguished by dif- figuration was also displayed, the
ferent power-plants. These options R-100 with four engine options rang-
result in various weight and endur- ing from three to 14 hp. This provides
ance differences ranging from a 6kg a payload ranging from three to 10 kg
Teal Group Analysis
At the moment, the prospects for still operate older Soviet era UAVs tem late in the forecast period, in part
Ukrainian government support of the such as the Strizh. It is possible that to bolster the local UAV industry.
budding Ukrainian industry seem the armed forces will begin to acquire
slim due to perennial shortages of mini-UAVs and a tactical UAV sys-
funds. The Ukrainian armed forces
Ukraine 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total
Mini-UAV — 10 40 50 — — — — — — 100
Tactical UAV — — — — — — — 6 6 6 18

United Kingdom
The British MoD selected a UAV
package from Thales UK as the win-
ner of its Watchkeeper UAV program
in July 2004. The Watchkeeper em-
ploys the Elbit/Silver Arrow Hermes
450 UAV, redesignated as the WK450
in the British version.
Britain has several long term UAV
requirements which are likely to in-
clude a mini-UAV, an endurance UAV
and one or more naval UAV systems.

Phoenix Tactical UAV
Phoenix is the first British de-
signed UAV artillery reconnaissance
system to enter Army service and is
intended to provide the Royal Artil-
lery with a deep target spotting capa-
bility. Development began in 1982 to
supersede the canceled 1970’s Watchkeeper
Westland Supervisor program and to
replace the Canadair CL-89 Midge GEC-Marconi was given a warning to a requirement for additional spares
under the Army Endorsed Staff Tar- and a one year’s reprieve to get the for the system. The losses included
get—GSR 3846 effort. Program program back on track or face cancel- two lost to enemy air action and three
plans slipped eight years and limited lation. A contract was signed in Octo- lost during training. The Phoenix
production did not begin until 1994. ber 1996 under which GEC-Marconi continued to be plagued with prob-
The program objective was believed was committed to maintaining an ac- lems with 23 air vehicles destroyed
to be about 10 systems and over 100 ceptable level of airframe availability. and 13 more damaged but repairable
air vehicles. Due to long delays and (Marconi merged with BAE Systems during 138 sorties in the 2003 Opera-
serious technical shortcomings, the in 1999.) Service entry took place in tion Telic in Iraq of which only about
program was subjected to intense December 1998. 15% were due to combat action. The
scrutiny by the British MoD in 1995, The Phoenix was first deployed in Iraq operations also showed other
and came near to being canceled. combat over Kosovo in 1999, losing problems, particularly its poor hot
H o w e v e r, in A p r il 1 9 9 5 , 12 of the 27 UAVs deployed. This led weather performance which rendered

©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

Page 96 European UAV Market

the system almost useless in May and 2006 and see the full system in the plans to add 55 million pounds to field
afterwards when the temperatures field by 2007. The Comprehensive a small number of Hermes 450 UAVs
rose. Nevertheless, the use of Phoenix Spending Review in 2002 recom- to provide immediate capability even
over Iraq convinced the British Army mended pushing up the initial capa- if n o t in fu ll Watch k eep er
of the need for a durable tactical UAV bility date to 2005. These objectives configuration.
system beyond the narrow artillery have slipped considerably. The latest announced plan was to
observation requirement of the Phoe- The MoD down-selected to two begin fielding the Watchkeeper in
nix. Phoenix operations in Iraq have competing teams in the January 2003 2009 with Battery 1, followed by Bat-
been very troubled due to poor perfor- for the System Integration Assurance tery 2 in 2010 and Battery 3 in 20011.
mance in the hot temperatures. In ad- Phase (SIAP). The teams were: The full scope of the program has not
dition, the system has proven to be Northrop Grumman teamed with yet been disclosed.
very vulnerable to radio interference General Dynamics, BAE Systems,
problems with its command data-link. Ultra Electro n ics, Detica an d Naval UAV
STASYS based around the Fire Scout The Royal Navy has already
Watchkeeper Tactical UAV UAV and the Swiss Ranger, and the signed an agreement with the US
Program second team headed by Thales-UK Navy to examine the tactical control
Problems with the Phoenix led the including Aerosystems Int’l, Elbit, system being developed for the
British MoD to begin funding a new and QinetiQ offering the Israeli Her- navy’s program, with the effort being
generation UAV effort in the late mes 180 and Hermes 450 UAVs. On undertaken by DERA Malvern.
1990s. In 1998, the MoD’s DERA or- 20 July 2004 the MoD announced that In August 2002, the UK Defence
ganization at Farnborough displayed Thales-UK had been selected as the Procurement Agency asked industry
its new Observer short-range UAV preferred bidder, initiating the con- to consider novel solutions such as
based on the Cranfield Aerospace tract negotiation phase. The full sale the use of UAVs to satisfy the Mari-
XRAE1 drone as a test-bed for future development contract was finally time Airborne Surveillance and Con-
requirements. The first flight took awarded on 4 August 2005. The pro- trol (MASC) requirement.
place in late 1998 and was intended to gram had an In-Service-Date of 2007, The Royal Navy has continued to
serve as a demonstrator for a future but in 2005, the date was pushed back study its requirements under the cur-
British Army system. Eventually, two to 2010. The UK MoD estimates the rent JUEP (Joint UAV Experimenta-
requirements were drawn up, one for total program cost on the order of tion Program). The MoD has leased
a unit UAV called Sender which £800 million ($1.4 billion). Elbit offi- some Boeing ScanEagles for these
would have a range of 30 km and re- cials stated that they expected a con- trials which were conducted in
port to battalion and other small unit tract valued at about 300 million 2004-05.
commanders, and a 150km formation pounds later in 2005. There have been Expectations of a Royal Navy re-
UAV called Spectator which would some discussions about the purchase quirement for a VTOL UAV led to a
report to division and higher forma- of a small number of Predator B July 2007 deal between Thales UK
tions. The industry was briefed on the UAVs as a stop gap, as well as service and Schiebel for a partnership in of-
Sender requirement in June 1999 and life extensions of the Phoenix TUAV. fering the Schiebel S-100 Camcopter
several companies bid. The MoD nar- In March 2005, the MoD an- as a contender in any such program.
rowed down the group to four teams: nounced that the Watchkeeper would
BAE Systems, Lockheed Martin UK be limited to a single type of UAV, the Global Hawk Demonstration
Government Systems, Northrop WK450, rather than both the WK180 The UK approached the Pentagon
Grumman, and Racal Defence who and WK450; this led to a cost savings in early 2004 for a demonstration of
were awarded £10 million contracts of about 100 million pounds. The the Global Hawk in the UK as a possi-
for a 12 month study effort. WK450 air vehicle has almost twice ble replacement for the RAF’s Can-
In late 1999, the four contractor the endurance of the WK180 (17 berra PR9 aircraft under the new
teams were notified that the Sender hours), but carries multiple payloads L o n g Ran g e - L o n g E n d u r a n c e
requirement could be merged with the including a SAR/GMTI radar. The Requirement.
Spectator requirement, which would WK450 is capable of fully autono-
significantly change the range and en- mous ramp or runway launch and is Predator Acquisition
durance requirements for the pro- also C130 deployable. Predator was one of the systems
gram. This did in fact occur in 2000, An initial test flight of the Hermes originally offered to satisfy the Brit-
with the overall program then being 450 was conducted in UK controlled ish Watchkeeper requirement but not
renamed as Watchkeeper. air space in September 2005. Due to part of the final bid package. In early
The MoD planned to select the th e lo n g d elay in f ield in g 2004, British officials began discus-
winner in 2004, provide some limited Watchkeeper compared to the initial sions with the US about borrowing or
capability in the British Army by plans, in 2007, the MoD announced leasing Predators for use by British

World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation

stated air vehicles (UCAV) and second gen. uninhabited combat BAE Systems. maritime pa. program. manned aircraft. 2015/2020. vehicles with associated GCS and nado aircraft in their ground strike decided against the development of a support equipment at a cost of about and long range penetration missions strike aircraft to replace the Tornado. and a development agreement by the On 27 September 2006. secondary air space interdiction mis. sug.65 million contract to support and air defense missions. and manned aircraft. The RAF es. This was ex- Iraq. The program has not been formally the Taranis program and this is cov. This emerged in 2006 as support and air defense missions. began a major study of its FOAS (Fu. BAE is de. BAE’s Warton design team including border patrol. In connaissance. uninhabited combat tors had been involved in at least six w e r e d e p lo ye d f o r u s e in air vehicles (UCAV) and second gen- strike missions in Afghanistan and Afghanistan. 1998. preliminary discussions about be. and tactical re- operated in Iraq over Basra and other British peace-keeping missions. ered in detail in the European UCAV combining the use of conventional At Farnborough 04. UCAV technology is not far enough Policy (DIP). come of the international aspects of quirement to replace the Canberra British Taranis UCAV this effort. strikes to suppress would meet British defense needs. The UK also conducted a series In October 2006. The missions assigned to 15th Recon Squadron in Nevada for FOAS were offensive air operations. training on the Predator. This is intended to be a fu. to fund the UCAV effort as one of six tonomous flight in UK controlled the British Ministry of Defence began planned Technology Validation airspace in August 2005. This was intended to be a future air strator codenamed Replica that could gesting a largely civil orientation due attack system to replace Tornado air. In 2002. spon- a MALE UAV under the codename Command. stead. place in 2000. along to replace the Tornado. and conducted the first au. Programmes (TVP) of the Aerospace veloping the Herti as a multi-purpose coming a potential partner with the I n n o v a tio n an d G r o w th Te a m system for a variety of applications US on the engineering manufacturing (AIGT). The RAF formed the for the Watchkeeper military UAV range penetration missions by 1115 Flight in 2004 near the USAF program. British officials in April 2006 Desert Hawk III configuration which combining the use of conventional indicated that British operator Preda. the US Army lent pected to be a cooperative program of trials dubbed Falcon Prowl in early the British forces in Iraq a total of involving about fifteen partners on 2005 using a Predator B fitted with a three RQ-11 Raven mini-UAV sys. So far. Geoff Hoon. nothing has Range Long Endurance (LRLE) re. stated that he thought that sored by Britain’s Defence Industrial Herti. In February 2001. Another objective is a other strike alternatives. Another objective is a areas. The missions assigned Although he did not rule out the pos- for delivery in 2007 to 39 Squadron at to FOAS are offensive air operations. and tactical re. the defense secretary. In November UCAV development as a means to BAE as part of its previously clas. anti-sur- requirement in 2004 for the lease of Desert Hawk mini-UAV systems face naval warfare. commander of RAF Strike opment capabilities at BAe. nation of the Eurofighter and JSF British UCAV face naval warfare. late 1990s. Air Chief Marshal Sir John preserve aerospace design and devel- sified UAV work has been developing Alison. Turner expects Britain figuration. upgrade the Desert Hawk into the FOAS will cover all these missions by craft. the program would focus on began a major study of its FOAS (Fu. The late 2004 using one of the leased air. PR9 photo recon aircraft some time The British Ministry of Defence An evaluation system efficiency after 2006. especially ture Offensive Air) requirement in the capability to perform close-up air cruise missiles and UCAVs. anti-sur. eration cruise missiles. posed sale of two MQ-9 Reaper air ture air attack system to replace Tor. Although a British UCAV ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . be used to form the basis for the to the selection of the Thales Hermes craft in their ground strike and long UCAV. the UK acquired four sions above the battlefield. February 2006. FOAS will cover all these missions by initiated to date. $77 million. Lockheed Martin was capability to perform close-up air ator was involved in an air strike in awarded a $2. connaissance. This is a pusher-propeller con. Desert Hawk Mini-UAV secondary air space interdiction mis- tablished a 3-year urgent operational In 2004. were delivered in March 2006. the US ture Offensive Air) requirement in the British Ministry of Defence took Congress was notified of the pro. sibility of eventually pursuing such a RAF Waddington. strikes to suppress several Predator Bs which have been from Lockheed Martin to support air defense systems. A British operated MQ-1 Pred. In- The British Ministry of Defence air defense systems. the CEO of section of this report. Mike Turner.European UAV Market Page 97 units in Iraq. The first was scheduled by 2015/2020. each side of the Atlantic with an esti- Goodrich DB-110 recon system as a tems due to problems encountered in mated cost at almost FFr100 billion possible candidate for the RAF Long the use of Desert Hawk 1+ in Iraq. The late 1990s. development of the A-45 UCAV. he indicated that the combi- sions above the battlefield. that Britain may opt to go it alone on BAE Herti eration cruise missiles. was responsible for a stealth demon- trol and pipeline surveillance. ($16 billion).

on Watchkeeper and delays in issuing satisfy some of these needs. The Unmanned Air Vehicles Experiment) through 2009 and will primarily in. the program became open with an. Microdrone MD4-400 UAV to and Raven. of the earlier statements were merely even if not in the current plans. the UK marily on unmanned platforms in. and extension of the tor called Rave. Rolls-Royce and Teal Group Analysis Britain’s UAV program has been fairly surprising that this has taken a tional maritime interests. and it is rine connection and Britain’s tradi- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . simulation center at Wright-Patterson ities and procedures to allow UAVs to gram codenamed SUAVE (Strategic AFB. for taxi tests in 2009 and first flight in program. systems. Britain has surrogate BAC-111 test-bed. is continuing under the QinetiQ. nology Laboratory. for this requirement. Turner stated that current Qinetic has been examining autono. In 2006. the UK statements suggest that the MoD was J-UCAS effort. part of the UK’s In the summer of 2007. ($240 million) contract to BAe to de. pegged at 32 million pounds. future strike requirements and could to rule out much in the way of other sition to provide to provide a basis for eventually involve the acquisition of UAV acquisition until at least 2015 endurance recce requirements and UCAVs stemming from the Taranis due to a high level of uncertainty over hunter-killer requirements. This effort. requirements. a variety of classified mini-UAVs in small numbers. UAVs cannot op- program. it is likely The SUAVE program is a long the development contract. However. As the name implies. In 2005. the ef- UCAV technologies under the code. The prin. designated CORAX (the Celtic god of thunder). announced plans to join the US erate in British airspace except under ment has been made and Turner’s DARPA effort to participate in the restricted conditions. both for routine pa- earlier Testbed/Replica demonstra. Civil UAV considered joining the US UCAS.Page 98 European UAV Market could be fostered under the existing Rolls-Royce. In Febru. BAe has apparently MoD was surreptitiously developing o n s tr a te U AV s f o r p o lice been contracted to examine stealth a UCAV program in conjunction with applications. and cific interest in civil UAV efforts. that the RAF will expanded the Pred. including a stealth demonstra. d is c u s s io n s a r e f o c u s e d o n a mous UCAV flight control using a stand-alone UCAV effort. The program is expected to run operate routinely in UK air space. The current schedule calls FOAS (Future Offensive Air Strike) UK’s Defence Industrial Strategy. tiative includes a $40 million invest. facil- cancelled and in its place. In December 2006. fort is aimed at exploring possible name Nightjar. In March 2005. volve the Defense Science and Tech. but so far no firm commit. 2010. The UK-DARPA ini. tion program of the 1990s. Britain has shown little spe- confusion. BAE. the new study program is focused pri. Astraea Project which is aimed at de- In 2005. mainly UCAV demonstrators in Iraq and Afghanistan are likely to age the development of a domestic which raise the issue of whether some lead to some mini-UAV acquisitions emergency response UAV capability. Home Office began a program to ex- cluding both UCAV and cruise In spite of the public debate. In the short term. velop a UCVA designated Taranis lands emergency services using a tors all along. the amine a nationwide program to dem- missile options. roles for UAVs. the British MoD At the moment. UAV efforts were revealed in early continued peace-keeping operations though the 2007 floods might encour- 2006. in conjunction cipal partners in the program are demonstrate UAV activities. Smiths Aerospace and Smiths Aerospace. a new pro. nouncement of a 124 million pound A trials program was started by the BAE revealed that it had been work. with Qinetic. government began funding the leaning the other way. DERA. To further add to the Br itain h a s alr e a d y b o u g h t So far. surprising that Britain has shown so to continued delays and backpedaling While Watchkeeper will eventually little interest in a naval UAV to date. term effort by the UK to address its ary 2005. initial funding for the effort was was introduced. the FOAS program was ment in the real-time distributed veloping technologies. senior MoD officials seem ator B beyond the current small acqui. British naval UAV activity is also that the UK will use its military assets Britain has traditionally had a likely due to the traditional navy/ma. Merseyside police and West Mid- ing on sub-scale UCAV demonstra. the greater likelihood is cover for black programs. It is in turmoil over the past few years due back seat to the tactical requirements. program. trolling and for emergency services. strong ISR commitment.

European UAV Market Page 99 United Kingdom 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — 20 35 35 35 35 — — 160 Watchkeeper 2 2 1 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 135 Naval VTUAV — — — — — 5 5 5 5 5 25 MALE UAV — — — — — — 4 4 — — 8 HALE UAV — — — — — — — — 1 1 2 Taranis UCAV — — 1 — — 1 — — — — 2 Small Civil UAV — — — — — — — — 12 12 24 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems .

Page 100 European UAV Market World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation .

there is the pos- In the Pacific. isting force structures. the Pacific such as Japan.200 600 $1. in endurance UAVs due to the sheer countries have already bought tactical forts. This latter for the army or navy. which was the pioneer for Australia has shown special interest pore. South Korea. Singa- Israel.000 500 $800 400 $600 300 $400 200 100 $200 0 $0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Mini Tactical MALE HALE Naval Civil Expenditures RoW=World less US and Europe Market Overview International UAV Programs a more conventional tactical UAV. and decided to what extent such systems have neighbors have also adopted UAVs to buy some off-the-shelf Israeli been deployed in the army. as imported Chinese UAVs along the ogy that does not readily fit within ex. for their armed forces until UAVs are a quick appreciation for the value of cally advanced armed forces. though there is little evidence pioneer of this technology. from the former Soviet Union). Australia is considering the dia). ularly well known for tactical innova- tries in the Mid East and Asia in. However.Rest of the World UAV Market RoW UAV Forecast (Production. time frontier. paramilitary problems. China has displayed a advanced military technology has ogy ties. The nous programs to mature. Pakistan is Likely Export Customers Gulf States have traditionally been a employing indigenous UAVs as well Tactical UAVs are a new technol. and its cult terrain of Kashmir. which is part of a broader effort to trouble spots along its northern mari. and Syria operates Russian countries. Thailand. Many of these ance UAV. Iran has begun to include its most likely candidates are the NATO US armed forces. Israel was the reconnaissance capability in the diffi. Syria and Iraq UAVs rather than wait for its indige. has continued to be a major scale of its zone of strategic interest. India. India is interested in a robust variety of UAVs at international trade been the Middle East. and select advanced armed near-term market for tactical UAVs UAVs. The well established in European and the UAVs. shows. (Egypt from the US. $ Millions) 700 $1. While the Gulf own UAVs in wargames along the countries. these armies are not partic- troubled frontier with India. new technologies such as these tend tion and are unlikely to acquire UAVs volved in recent conflicts have shown to be adopted by the more technologi. portant sales in recent years was to In. major purchaser of US technology. Australia. and In- around the globe. Japan. Air Vehicles) (Expenditures. One of its most im. and Taiwan. rope and the Pacific for the export of interest India in joint military technol. a VTOL tactical UAV and ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . forces around the world. Japan has an active category would include countries in sibility that UAVs might be applied to UAV program. UAVs (Thailand) and others have ac- player in UAV sales to armed forces With conditions in Indonesia being so tive programs (Korea. Some of these many of the current tactical UAV ef. Global Hawk as a means to monitor The other main area outside Eu- dia. including an endur. the former Warsaw Pact States may not be a significant Gulf. In general. unsettled. Coun.

an army electronic mies to have shown interest in UAVs. wretchedly poor with few exceptions gram to undertake environmental sur- wait are known to have requirements (Nigeria. Egypt has keeping the Skyeye and Scarab in ser- has an operational tempo of about one had a requirement for at least two vice rather than replacing them. and is a possible Bahrain 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Total Tactical UAV — — 6 — — — — — — — 6 Coast Guard MALE UAV — — — — — — — 2 — — 2 Egypt Egypt is one of the few Arab ar. and it dustries. low-risk alternative for bor. Both Saudi Arabia and Ku. but endurance UAVs. and Aerosystems Exdrones for internal small number of Teledyne Ryan later a c q u ir e d s o me BA I security missions. known exception. the use of satellites. In April 1997. warfare UAV and a new air force re- probably inspired by Israeli successes ported that it was on the verge of connaissance UAV. Egypt purchased 20 De. Egypt medium range reconnaissance re. completed in 2002. in this field. approached BAE and Northrop Skyeye (now BAE Systems). grams to build up their aerospace in. cal UAV system in the next decade for possible coast guard applications for maritime surveillance and patrol. being involved in eas for high technology military sys. World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . UAV systems. an abortive RPV program in the late Middle East Bahrain Bahrain apparently purchased a Scarab UAVs in the late 1980s. its requirement is likely to be modest customer for a MALE or HALE sys- tion of a medium endurance or tacti. the that it could use UAVs in some roles. The Scarab apparently Since the mid-1990s. In the case of of other potential uses of UAVs. Chile and Brazil) lance of the drug crop. a UAV row). In 2007. However. Egypt re. support as well) would be surveil- oil pipelines. drug crop fields by helicopters has be- UAVs. Egypt also acquired 56 Camcopter helicopter UAVs for naval of one new squadron. such systems might US State Department has discouraged The second potential role of UAVs be applicable to other state needs in US arms sales into the region with (that might receive US government remote areas. Although for UAVs that seem to be more closely and have difficulty maintaining even the program is now oriented towards oriented towards patrol duties than modest armed forces. these efforts have is conceivable that the US govern- Unlikely UAV Customers focused on more traditional areas of ment would support an effort to de- Neither sub-Saharan Africa nor development. South America raises the issue UAVs might be attractive as a such as South Africa). and Kenya) veys of the Amazon basin. In n u mb e r o f A u s tr ian S c h ieb e l Skyeyes. South America has been lucrative ar. manufacturing its own reconnais. Surveillance of UAE are all said to be interested in have embarked on important pro. in scope. Teal Group Analysis Bahrain may consider the acquisi. flight per month to maintain crew pro. the sub-Saharan countries are Brazil has an active government pro- der patrol. continued negotiations with an aim to quirements. Qatar. such as patrolling along some exceptions. In the case of South America. but was appar- Teledyne Ryan 324 Scarabs for its surveillance. In addition. Africa. Brazil is the sole velop a UAV to fulfill this mission. Several of the coun. low-cost. South Africa. the Egyptian government velopmental Sciences’ R4E-50 sance UAV called the Saham-1 (Ar. come increasingly dangerous. BAE proposed the addition 1988. Grumman about modernizing its two that had been developed for the US The Egyptian navy ordered a small UAV squadrons of Scarabs and Army’s 1987 IEW-UAV program. it is conceivable traditional military surveillance mis. In 2005. sions. and the tries (Argentina. ficiency.Page 102 Rest of the World UAV Market states have border problems and tems (with certain limited exceptions 1980s. Oman. Bahrain has been discussing tem for this role. and deliveries were ently turned down.

the Teledyne Ryan companies. In March 2007. both function. operations. d e e d . Some further ac. The new Silver Arrow Heron Israeli Defense Force used two types spite of its extensive array of UAV 450 purchased in 2000 permitted the of US RPVs. using two Heron (Mahatz). and specifically the Skyeye and Scarab are relatively the great utility of photographic re. modest.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 103 Teal Group Analysis Egypt was the first Arab country to current program is focused on keep. the Silver Arrow is now part of Elbit. the offered for export by the Iran Aircraft Hezbollah in Lebanon which has used UAV was used as a crude cruise mis. cated. the wars with Israel. ment to contract out UAV work for se. several other firms have devel. makes any estimate extremely specu- procurement funding. On this last occasion. being u sed in r ecent flight on 11 April 2005. The second was a Hadramawt area. UAV operations in January 2006. Its indigenous quisition of tactical UAVs over the lative. not actually by Iran. The forecast here MiG-25s during the 1973 war. was first offered for sale in 1999. The more than about 30 UAVs (at least ac. In AFB. though a lack strung by its pariah status and its lim. the Yemeni gov- UAV effort and one or more of these but apparently a standard Iranian ernment reported shooting down an tactical UAV systems have reached Mohajer-1 of the type built by Qods I r a n i a n A b a b i l U AV in th e the procurement and deployment Aviation Industries. In. There is some sus- s tage. Iran has provided small August 2006 during the 2006 Leba. Manufacturing Industries in Dubai in them to harass Israeli positions across sile. forecast period is likely. The third was picion that the UAV was operated by war-games. programs are relatively unsophisti. but point to a genuine interest of information on these programs i t e d h a r d cu r r e n c y d e f e n s e in this technology. The Israeli army also has mini-RPVs with the Scout and Mas. years. Some UAVs were used to an Ababil UAV shot down by Israeli the pro-Iranian al-Houthi group in the trail the US Navy in the Gulf in 1997. Israeli domestic UAV re. The first use was on 7 November Teal Group Analysis Iran‘s acquisition of UAVs is ham. though in recent capabilities led the Israeli govern. and UAVs and is based at Palmachim During the 1973 Mid-East war. This ing its older systems in service. The Ababil I tactical UAV was first n u mb e r s o f Mis r a d U AV s to non war. Israeli order of battle from one to dustry dominated early UAV devel. armed with about 100 pounds of 1997 and the Ababil II tactical UAV the border on at least three occasions. new MALE UAV will be acquired show much interest in UAVs. which has increased the Malat division of Israel Aircraft In. fielding a small unit in conjunction oped privately funded UAVs. explosive. th e s h o r tf a ll in U AV three squadrons. Silver Arrow with the publicly owned The Israeli air force 200 Squadron IAI Malat plant were frustrated in flies the Malat Scout and Searcher Early Israeli RPV Development 1997 by an IAI worker’s strike. Iran 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Tactical UAV — — — 10 30 30 30 — — — 100 MALE UAV — — 6 6 6 — — — — 6 24 Israel Israel pioneered the tactical use of quirements to date have been very squadron. creation of a second Air Force UAV Model 124I for strategic reconnais- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . curity patrols over Gaza and the West with the IAF for coastal surveillance tempts to merge the privately owned Bank. aircraft over the Mediterranean on 8 area. In addition. At. While late in the forecast period for this was probably due to experiences in this may be possible for a time. The Navy joined in opment in Israel. old and at some point will require out- connaissance missions by Soviet right replacement. The presumes that a new tactical UAV and Egypt 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — 20 20 20 20 — — — 80 Tactical UAV — — — — — — 6 6 6 6 24 MALE UAV — — — — — — — — 3 3 6 Iran Iran has a significant domestic 2004 using a UAV dubbed Mirsad-1. with Israel seldom operating formed a UAV squadron for tactical tiff programs of the early 1980s. cording to public information).

A second proto- type of the Owl using an inexpensive Sony video camera was demonstrated to Tadiran in February 1974. tirely to Tadiran. His in 1981 and some developmental experiences convinced him that models may have been used in the New IAI Tactical UAVs high-speed RPVs like the Firebee 1982 war. and with a colleague at IAI. The Israeli air force formed its first UAV squadron in 1971 at Palmachim AFB and began using it for real-time observations in 1980 with the acquisition of the Mas. present at trials of a Firebee recon. four air vehicles). Details of the scope of production vision began work on a third genera- vation at low altitude. and the Chukar target drone as Mastiff 3 UAVs in service during the date their efforts. and the new subsidiary was renamed naissance version using video cam. the Searcher. Tadiran. Ellis was embark on an RPV program. The Tadiran mini-RPV was code named Mastiff and the first prototype was demonstrated in 1975. This led to the for- a SAM decoy. Elbit Hermes 1500 tiff. and that a of early Israeli UAVs are sparse. There were a small number of World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . who had worked on au. Israel Aircraft Industries ac- Firebee series in the 1960s. and several other countries in- cluding Singapore (operated by 128 Squadron). the IAI Malat Systems di- were unsuitable for real-time obser. Ellis returned to Is- rael in 1967.Page 104 Rest of the World UAV Market Mastiff was sold to the Israeli Army. primarily at the Israeli Air Force. with IAI providing the air vehicle and of Alvin Ellis. Jehuda Manor. This is smaller and slower mini-RPV would be more suitable. aeronautical research by Tadiran and IAI at the Haifa Institute of Technology convinced the Israeli government that the two separate de- velopment efforts were too similar IAI Searcher and wasteful. The Scout UAV system was sold to the Israeli Army. Through 1979. the ground control system. The Israeli government instructed IAI and Tadiran to consoli- sance. The tion UAV. South Africa and Switzer- land (one system. During development of the Mastiff and Scout. leading to a development contract. mation of the Mazlat joint company. interest in the Mastiff was minimal with only two sold. in 1976 Israeli Air. and this system was employed in combat over Mozambique in 1983 where at least one was shot down. first Israeli RPVs was the brainchild Unwilling to leave the market en. In 1988. began the private development of a mini-RPV called the Owl. aimed quired the Tadiran share of Mazlat. eras for real-time surveillance. Their Scout 2 RPV was first displayed Malat Systems. topilot design for the Teledyne Ryan craft Industries (IAI) decided to In 1989. Development of the 1982 Lebanon war. but was turned down. The South African firm Armscor was involved in licensed production of the Scout. the US Navy and Taiwan (two sys- tems). Israeli Air Force. Ellis proposed commercial development of a mini-RPV to IAI.

Heron has been exported to sev. The contract announced in May 90 km and endurance of 10 hours. Israeli sources indicate it is being offered “for several programs. that the Israeli air force was planning UAVs at the 1995 Paris Air Show. IAI announced that it is planning to fit the Heron with the Elta EL/M-2022U surveillance radar for naval surveillance roles. with a 50-km radius. but smaller was to India. The -450 designation indicates the maximum take-off weight of the air vehicle. The Heron has formed the Elbit Hermes 450 basis for the Eagle 1 being developed ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . order for the Searcher came in Febru. it unveiled the Sniper close the Searcher can be fitted with nuclear eral countries with Turkey ordering range UAV. the Hermes 1500. 1997. It was first rolled out in the and is significantly larger than the quirement. Elbit unveiled the Hermes 450 endurance UAV at the Paris Air Show. Silver Arrow has also demonstrated a long endurance drone. earlier Scout and Mastiff.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 105 jointly owned by the Israeli electron- ics firm Elbit and Israeli defense optronics firm El-Op which pur- chased the remaining 50% stock in May 1998. lance drone with a combat radius of Singapore in January 1990. The first sale of the Heron spring of 1998. In 1995. a small drone intended to pleted in November 1991. be used for UAV crew training. and by the Israeli Defense Force was com. Besides air vehicles and the associated GCS. a small battlefield surveil- the first prototype was displayed in replace the existing Searcher inven. a newcomer to the UAV called Hermes 180. which has a mission radius of 200 km and an en- durance of over 40 hours with a IAI Heron 400-kg payload. Testing tory. 10 systems in 2005. Silver Arrow first deliveries to the air force were Elbit/Silver Arrow Hermes has also developed another tactical made in July 1992. IAI announced it was working on a high-altitude UAV patterned on the Heron. IAI Heron IAI’s latest design is the Heron (Mahatz in Hebrew). monitoring equipment. The first foreign Silver Arrow. In conventional electro-optical sensors. and it has an 8. and the Indian 6-hour endurance and 20-kg sensor Searcher production started in Navy ordering four in 2004. This UAV is pow- ered by a pair of Rotax 914 100 hp en- intended as a long-endurance UAV. package using the Hermes type 1992 to replace the Mastiff and the ground control station.” It had its first flight on 18 October 1993. designed for long endurance roles. Silver Ar- row has also developed the heavier Hermes 750 design. In 1994. In 2005. Re- cent orders include Singapore.5-meter wingspan with a wet wing design. IAI announced Silver Arrow showed two new than the BQM-155 Hunter. in Europe for France‘s endurance re. The airframe is partly composite. the tem was first announced in 1989 and to acquire “several dozen” Herons to Darter. gines. Israeli UAV market in the 1990s is ary 1992 of one ground station and four air vehicles at a cost of about $10 million for the Royal Thai Army. 2005 was for $60-80 million for eight the Colibri. In June 1995. The sys.

over a team headed by Northrop instructions based on other intelli. with the UAV being developed by IAI’s Malat division. IAI also noted that missile. the to China in 1994 and this caused a ma. The system was man-portable details of the scope of the sales have the Python 4 AAM mated to a new and designed for short-range. The layout is conventional with a by British forces overseas. the Israel Defense Force that South Korea is purchasing 100 of tive efforts between the US and Israel established a requirement for a the drones at a cost of 40 billion won to examine the use of a boost-phase mini-UAV for support of army pla- ($45 million) with deliveries through interceptor (BPI) type weapon.000-4. operations. range and endurance is Grumman. A contract for serial junction with General Dynamics production was slated for late in 2005 Convair in 1988 was unsuccessful. toons and companies. but which uses seeker technology from nition. Israeli officials Requirement public. It has re. “V” butterfly tail and a front mounted Watchkeeper program was acceler. datalink to allow army units to direct tralian TUAV requirement and was the Harpy against specific targets. 120kg and a payload of only 25 kg. I-View was offered in a teaming ar- They were first operationally de. Harpy Anti-Radar Drone In 1997. The program formally portedly been in production since scribed as being powered by a 22 hp started in 2004 when the Elbit Sky- 1988 for the IDF. A joint venture to engine with a take-off weight of only lark was selected for a technology interest the US in the system in con. Current plans call for a UAV with a 3. The UAV has a con- ated in 2007 by directly acquiring was disclosed that Israel was also pro. the British MoD announced launch several harpies into a target While the Searcher has a 100 kg pay- that this team was the preferred bidder area. fitted with a passive radar UCAV called Stalker. In June 1997. In at the Paris Air Show in 2003 was the Watchkeeper UAV program. Rafael is currently examining such a most UAVs in this category. it was de- quire a further 46. Once out of its launch tube. ventional wheeled undercarriage. demonstration. selected in late 2005. jor row with the US in 2005 when it puller propeller. Moav). which suggests that production One of the new IAI UAVs shown Th ales-U K in th e British will total about 450 air vehicles. The up. The program was revived in 2001. viding China with updates. Turkey acquired 108 Harpies launched from a high altitude UAV. signed to be tube launched like a mu- the drone has been sold to India. it high-speed booster that gives it a 2m/s short-endurance for small tactical was reported that sales of the Harpy to speed and a range of 80-100 km. for a mini-UAV for army and other seeker and a small warhead. Due to immediate needs gence sources. The Harpy is an IAI-MBT Di. Moab BMD UAV but has been continually delayed as reportedly after GD became disturbed The US Ballistic Missile Defense additional companies have entered by IAI approaches to Hughes. the first details of Harpy Stalker UCAV New Israeli Skyrider Mini-UAV anti-radar drone sales were made In February 2002. In April 1997.a. I-View I-View Close-Range TUAV Elbit w as a p artner with lion. In 2002. indicated that development work had The Israeli Defense Forces have vision derivative of the Dornier DAR begun on a “sensor-to-shooter” had a program underway since 2002 air vehicle. called Moab (a. Hermes 450 systems from Israel. and receive periodic updates and load. the date have totaled more than $200 mil. it was announced in the FY96 budget to fund collabora.k.000 kg take-off weight and a wingspan of about 20 m. Rafael for the Moab mis- sile and Wales for system integration. the I-View has a 30 kg payload. pears to be a demonstrator as it is de. 2004. offering late 2000. the Israeli government awarded UAV wings fold into position and the World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . Rafael’s entry 1999. grade was supposed to include a rangement with Boeing for the Aus- ployed in September 2007. not been revealed. In July Harpy which would allow a user to for requirements under the Searcher. The system ap.Page 106 Rest of the World UAV Market a development contract for the associated HA-10 UAV to IAI for the air vehicle. Organization had about $15 million the competition. in the competition was different from for the air force. In units. This program was cancelled in May 1999. This is a close-range tactical its Hermes 180 and -450 under the developed a datalink system for UAV which is intended to fill the gap names WK-180 and WK-450. and has plans to ac. Likewise. Israel also sold Harpy less. IAI announced that it had I-View. 1994.

14m wing. but in view of its 1:15 glide ra- payload in the nose like the IAI Sky. back-pack. The configuration is altitude is 70-250 meters and it flies at conventional with a rear mounted 15-45 knots. tio. now dubbed SkyLite.5 kg. Elbit has subsequently pulsion. It is small and light (5. The IDF finally selected Aerostar is offering their Orbiter Rafael SkyLite the Elbit design for its Skylark tech. The airframe is a light- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . One somewhat different from other UAVs Skylark is powered by a conventional of these was lost in action when it in the class in being significantly pusher prop. The usual tactical orga.5 kg. Unlike the Sky. It also uses electric pro- each carrying one UAV and launcher ary 2006. This is a relatively heavy UAV for the mini-UAV category. This is The Elbit/Silver Arrow Seagull is typical of this class of UAV with elec- another Elbit mini-UAV using a fly. it could presumably be powered lark. the Mini-UAV field. The usual operating Luna program. 2. It uses inflatable bladders to into an area and coast back to con- cushion the landing rather than a serve power. TOPiVision. demonstrated an enlarged version.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 107 w eig h t sailp lan e w ith g r eater Skylark II with a larger payload and wing-span and lift than the Rafael de. At Paris-05. crashed while supporting a special larger while still being portable in a nization would be a two man team forces unit near Nablus on 20 Febru. The Elbit Skylark has its E-O In the intervening period. Rafael displayed a reconfigured a re- named version of this mini-UAV. but is about three times the an a mission control unit. this system uses a bungee ball structure to permit a wide angle launcher similar to that of the German of camera swivel. coming in at six kg. The Skylark was used opera. the weight of the Casper 200 at 6. tionally by the IDF in the August based in Holon. weighing 2. The air vehicle is configuration. debuted their Cas- 2006 Lebanon fighting. It is controlled from a ma n . but the new launch tube has a square rather than round cross-sec- tion. the fuselage nose with a swiveling larks. greater endurance. sign. and more on actual performance of the UAV. This retains the ba- sic configuration of the earlier Sky- lark. The UAV can be hand launched or launched using a bungee Rafael Skylark I sling-shot. Rafael delivered a number of Skylite B UAVs to the IDF for use in the August 2006 fighting in Leba- non. several sensor suspended in a pod under the other Israeli firms have been entering wing. tric propulsion and a model sailplane ing wing design. for the mini-UAV requirement. The single back-pack and the GCS is a EMIT Sparrow-N Mini-UAV was the small control station similar in size to third Israeli mini-UAV to debut at the a lap-top. In contrast to the unconventional Rafael design. The endurance was not pusher prop.3 kg. designed to be entirely portable in a span) with a four hour endurance. It is nology demonstration in 2004. The air vehicle has a E-O given. The Elbit Skylark entry was a more conventional design with a launch weight of 5. parachute. per-200 mini-UAV at Paris-05. The camera is mounted in Paris 2003 air show.5 kg and a two hour endurance. the Elbit design places less fo- cus on transportability of the system.p o r tab le G CS w ith a line-of-sight range of 5-10 km.

They contend that quirement is stated to be eight air potential armed UCAV to deal with most of the smaller mini-UAVs are vehicles along with associated distant objectives such as Iran. tions under consideration. two mini-UAVs. The sensor in the Orbiter is a Hunter-Killer UAV counts that Eitan would be employed Controp D-Stamp stabilized CCD There have been repeated press ac. Israeli press accounts indicated sary to provide an adequate stabilized tions to replace the Searcher. Israel is al- hicle weighs only half a kilogram. In May 2005. Air Show in June 2007. but little public discussion of ing version. During the August 2006 concept has already emerged as a con- but is a smaller air vehicle with a more fighting in Lebanon. ployed. as its next TUAV with inten. A similar Eye 100. ation of a maritime patrol version of ground control station is a hardened The first reported case was the attack the Gulfstream Aerospace G550 laptop.3 kg.200 hp turboprop and is intended for long range reconnais- sance. is the main airframe used in these op. it was reported that the IDF was purchasing an undisclosed number of Hermes 450S UAVs but other accounts suggest that this did not occur until February 2002. The re. Hellfire missiles have been em. UAVs. variously called Mahatz 1 and over crucial targets such as Iran. Reports suggest that the Heron replacement for the IAI 1124 Seascan ing on a micro-UAV dubbed Mos. The pro- gram is called Eitan (Strength) and two prototypes began flying around 2005. there were nu.1 kg. Malat is also work. In the larger weight and size are neces. for long-range naval patrol. ready contracted to acquire four G550 IMI entered the contest in early 2006 with a small electric powered mini-UAV called Rainbow. tender for the US Navy BAMS UAV conventional aircraft configuration merous reports of the use of armed effort. 2006. IDF Acquires New UAVs In 1997. 5. and a quito which can operate using the erations. stabilization or adequate fields of There have also been press ac- view. Malat is also offering the Bird on Sheikh Ahmed Yassin of Hamas in bizjet converted into a UAV. The constrained by their small size which ground control equipment and sen. The BirdEye 400 is a their configuration or operations. and 50 hour endurance.Page 108 Rest of the World UAV Market Eitan/Heron 2 HALE UAV IAI’s Malat division has been working for some time on a long en- durance UAV about three times the size of the current Heron-1.000 kg take-off weight. at a cost of about $50 million. The Hamas operatives in the Gaza strip. counts of the Israeli use of armed is also contemplating an aerial refuel- IAI’s Malat division is offering UAVs. and that both Spike NT and robotized Gulfstream is one of the op- same Bird Eye system but the air ve. The air vehicle has a 26 meter wingspan. Presumably it is intended to supplement the Ofeq spy satellite pro- gram which has encountered launch Rafael Skylark II difficulties in recent years. They have apparently been used on Maritime Patrol UAV sign with electric propulsion and an several occasions for strikes against The Israeli MoD began consider- overall take-off weight of 4. It is powered by a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-67 1. which uses the same system March 2004. that Eitan is also being viewed as a sensor package. and Israel camera. Eitan was first unveiled at the Paris invariably means cameras which lack sors. it was reported that IAI was selected to supply the Israeli IAI Bird Eye air force with a version of the IAI World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . Shoval. maritime patrol aircraft. Israel is planning to acquire a weighing 1. back-back contained flying wing de. especially Aerostar representatives argued that Heron.

if for no other had a string of successes in recent UAV and is likely to field a squadron reason than to spur export sales. The demonstration was widely of the Elbit Skylark and Rafale regarded as successful due to the rela- Lebanon Air Campaign Skylite B mini-UAVs. currently Such a project is expensive. Hezbollah in Lebanon in August Civil UAV 2006. In 2005. UAVs have proved enthusiastic about funding such a raeli firms have developed mini. and the development of a building up to three squadrons (two the US has proved to be only mildly dedicated strike UAV is possible. In the interim. significantly involved in any known begin local development and manu. Is- IAF. Jordan facture of UAVs under the name Jor. most of these are proba- intifada and the 2006 Lebanon war. Elbit/Silver Arrow sions. one Army). this is of less significance likely. and so far platforms. better approach. but development of a Watchkeeper in the UK. with the UAVs probably being not be surprising to see Israeli firms since the overall size of the market in controlled by the border police. X-45/X-47 is probably outside Is- S h a d o w 2 0 0 in th e U S . Besides duct a demonstration of the use of began operating two Herons with IAF the tactical UAVs.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 109 aircraft under a $473 million contract 13. manned aircraft. UAVs in police highway patrol mis- support starting in early 2006. rael’s budget. The Silent Eye is a small. with an operating radius of about 10 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Israel 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV 100 — — — — 100 100 100 100 — 500 Army UAV — — 15 15 — — — — — — 30 Strike UAV — — — 5 5 5 5 — — — 20 Police TUAV — — 10 10 10 5 — — — — 35 Heron-1 UAV 8 — — — — — — — — — 8 HALE UAV 2 2 — — — — — — — 2 6 HALE/BMD UAV — — — — — 1 2 — — — 3 Jordan Until recently. government has leased Aerostar with Gulfstream. ance UAV to serve as a platform for a hunter-killer strike UAV has already The Israeli armed forces have a boost-phase anti-missile system. and the IAI Malat Eitan is being mar y U AV s in u s e w e r e th e Bank. to a small tactical UAV. Jordan has not been Bureau) weapons organization to ary 2005.000 hours were intelligence mis.000 Israel has conducted a number of hours of UAV operations of which demonstrations of civil UAVs. it would 1990s. the Hermes 450S “Zik” patrol leased Aerostar UAVs to con- well. ceived low-rate production versions sions. the Israeli Highway considered for maritime patrol as Searcher-2. The Teal Group Analysis The maturation of Israeli tactical and this is likely to lead to a stream of fund this indigenously. venture due to the conviction that the micro-UAVs. hand-launched was teaming with the KADDB (King consortium debuted a family of UAVs mini-UAV operating at about 300 feet Abdullah II Design and Development at the IDEX-05 in the UAE in Febru. In 2006. the I-View sale to Australia. and complexity implies that it may be strated utility in recent conflicts will Should Israel continue with its plans a decade before such a system is ready help Israel garner new export orders. but the cost UAV systems as well as their demon. The Hermes 450S was credited UAVs from Aeronautics Defense has unveiled a version of its Hermes with 15. taken place using existing TUAVs as very modest UAV force. Israel push ahead in many of the new areas UAVs is expanding. The booth had three UAVs. to build a security fence along the for deployment. Israel may decide to bly intended for the export market. The Jordan Aerospace Industries announced it dan Advanced Remote Systems. Israeli firms have has been acquiring the Heron MALE of UAV development. Israel has shown considerable in. small orders as attrition spares. Although Israel’s share of the world frontier with Palestine. an expansion Given Israel’s traditional role as a market has dropped compared to the of the UAV force for border patrol is pioneer in this technology. an d terest in the development of an endur. the IDF also re. the Israeli navy and the Heron-1 “Shoval”. The pri.000 hours of flight time with Systems to conduct police surveil- 1500 MALE UAV for this role as three lost during operations. A years including some significant sales of the new Eitan HALE UAV. the IDF conducted 16. but aside from the Sky- ing operations during the Palestinian US Air Force Airborne Laser is a lark program. tively low operating costs of the UAV D u rin g th e f ig h tin g w ith vs.and to be very useful in recent peacekeep. UCAV effort comparable to the US to India. ranging from a back-pack mini-UAV UAV operations. lance over the Gaza strip and West well.

but General Atomics could be used to patrol its border with Gnat. ment. Kentron’s Seeker and the Flight der security system called the Saudi 20. and caserns for about 750. The program tion on it. to be modest. Qatar 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Tactical UAV — — — — — 6 — — — — 6 Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia has had a formal re. Teal Group Analysis Jordan’s indigenous UAV effort gion. frontier posts with associated com- have included General Atomics Gnat CSF) since the 1990s for a major bor. The Jordan Ar- tical UAV using catapult launch and row is similar in size to the Jordan parachute recovery. Kuwait 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total MALE UAV — — 2 2 — — — — — — 4 Qatar Qatar had a requirement for a tacti- cal UAV system in its 1999 defense plan. and border patrol. lacking.Page 110 Rest of the World UAV Market km. Teal Group Analysis Qatar may finally procure a tacti. and it is likely that this was pri. It is believed that the gen. desert border areas and its maritime of the Interior Kingdom. a number of ance of 4-6 hours. though it remains to be seen Jordan 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV 20 — — — — — — — — — 20 Tactical UAV — 6 — — — — — — — — 6 Kuwait Kuwait has a formal requirement mary orientation of its current re. The Jordanian armed forces are whether JAI’s ambitions will be appears to be aimed both at domestic likely to acquire modest numbers of matched to successful technology. Falcon but is intended to be a con- ance of four hours and has a payload trolled aerial target rather than a re- of six kg with a nose mounted color connaissance UAV. The Jordan Falcon is a small tac. about 20 sur- a range of 100-200 km and an endur. though more commonly called quirement for a surveillance UAV for tential applications in patrolling both MIKSA. frontier. No details are known mid 1990s. It has a endur. region giving demonstrations in the for a surveillance UAV. but details are quirement. but the size of the acquisition is likely cal UAV system over the next decade. 400 border been demonstrated are believed to with Thales (formerly Thomson. MIKSA veillance helicopters. fueling Raven teams toured the Gulf Teal Group Analysis Kuwait is a possible candidate for primarily for maritime surveillance a medium endurance UAV system. also examined several UAVs for po. TV or infrared sensor. Systems that have Saudi Arabia has been negotiating surveillance cameras. Kuwait has traditionally had whether it has already studied exist- interest in surveillance systems that ing systems.000 border guards. requirements as well as at addressing the two new UAVs under develop- a modest market for UAVs in the re. The value of Refueling Raven. Saudi Arabia has Border Guard Development program. is supposed to involve 225 border sur- eral details of the requirement call for veillance radar stations. This never materialized. Kentron Seekers and Flight Re- Iraq. munications. the project has been pegged at 7 bil- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . the acronym for the Ministry nearly a decade but has taken little ac.

Rest of the World UAV Market Page 111 lion ($8. The RemoEye 015 small tactical UAV ples of both the GCS and re-supply UAE Armed forces first contracted The Center is also working with vehicle were shown at IDEX-05 and Ucon in August 2004 to develop a the Austrian Schiebel firm which again at IDEX-07. but so far. Called the firm had two displays. program is likely to vary from pro- pected to last 12 years. UAVs on dis. A total of five Seekers were delivered in 2003. A UAE based aircraft maintenance firm is teaming with Korean. This is primar. the extent to which UAVs UAVs is for a system suitable for con. petition is expected to include BAE posal to proposal. one in the with a new mobile launcher system. At the IDEX-07 in Abu Dhabi. guard approach than a naval one. will play a part is not at all clear. Nimr 6x6 tactical vehicle. The RFI were due Although France had expected to Systems. The first 30 were deliv- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . ducting border patrols in the desert gling but might be expanded to Saudi Arabia has also discussed wastes under the Miksa program. the UAE UAV program. Finmecannica. EADS. open to international bidding. possible maritime patrol require- These missions are now performed by lance such as pipeline patrol. ily a policing role to prevent smug. sponse to the RFP in late December March 2006 visit of President Chirac The program is expected to incor. There have been reports that the UAE pur- chased 60 Bourdon solar powered mini-UAVs from the French company Technisolar in 2002. Full-scale exam- their mini and tactical UAVs. include commercial oriented surveil. the UAV Research and Technology Korean area. packages the Schiebel Camcopter for 20 more. The UAE placed GCS for UAVs.7 billion). though it is unclear if this was systems or air vehicles. A holding company in the UAE. and in August 2006 with a formal re- win a sole source contract. The program is ex. during the Raytheon. the French were informed porate UAVs for some of its surveil- that the competition would be thrown lance needs. while the firm is team with the South Korean play included the RemoEye 002 and GCS and resupply vehicles are based Ucon System based in Taejon to offer RemoEye 006 mini-UAVs and the on the HMMWV. and another with the The basic launch vehicle is a UAE Center and based in Abu Dhabi. has been offering small tac- tical UAVs based on Italian designs such as the Nibbio and Falco. Their an order with Schiebel for 60 S-100 with the UAV R&T center in April joint effort is the Al Saber UAV which helicopter UAVs in 2006 with options 2005. and signed a MoU manufactures helicopter UAVs. though this is more of a coast mounted ground units and to some could be a very substantial program. though the scope of the Teal Group Analysis Saudi Arabia’s main interest in extent by helicopters. Saudi Arabia 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — 60 120 300 — — — — — — 480 Tactical UAV — — 18 18 18 — — — — — 54 MALE UAV — — — — 6 6 6 — — — 18 Navy MALE UAV — — — — — 2 2 2 — — 6 United Arab Emirates The UAE tested a South African Seeker UAV system in the late 1990s and there were reports that the emirates would acquire a small num- ber of these systems. Swed. 2006. but details are lacking. Austrian and other foreign firms to establish a UAV business. to Riyadh. This ments. Yabhon ish. Com. AES Ltd.

now called compared to the other two designs GAMCO on their target drones and “Advanced Target Systems”. There have chases. that the program is in limbo due to the the name Yabhon-M. The which are in the 30kg range. Algeria 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Tactical UAV 6 — — — — — — — — — 6 Angola There have been reports that An. This is part of The UAE has generally been fairly tive. Teal Group Analysis Angola is a possible candidate for the foreseeable future. It is also tactical UAVs. region. Since the ployed with UAE peacekeeping use of the Camcopter. but the scale of such a program national industrial policy. cal UAVs to other Arab states in the Gulf. but in likely that UAV activity will be pri. UAE 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Tactical UAV (Al Saber) 20 20 20 — — — — — — — 60 MALE UAV — — — — 3 3 — — — 6 12 Africa Algeria In 1997. Seeker would go into operational ser- mit from the South African govern. would likely be modest. Angola 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Tactical UAV — 5 5 — — — — — — — 10 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . and this is believed to be Algeria. the sembly is expected in the UAE. Much of the icated on the idea that the UAE could sitions. a small helicopter UAV and with vision since 1992. with a stated covered at the IDEX-05 show but not mostly target drones except for one performance of 42 hours. South ent. it is more vately funded for security applica- coast-guard type patrol UAVs. larged design with a 60 kg payload 55. repeated in 2007. gram to monitor Iranian activity on gional export market of other Arab some of the contested islands in the countries. and is pred. ATS had added two troops in Afghanistan. According to company offi. c e e d e d b e y o n d p r e l i mi n a r y vice with an undisclosed export cli- ment for the sale of Seeker UAVs to discussions. s p o n s o r e d b y th e U A E b a s e d Yabhon-R and the Yabhon-RX. adventurous in its own defense acqui. which may indicate reconfigured as a tactical UAV under Teal Group Analysis The UAE government has been ac. In October 2000. African officials indicated that the Kentron was granted a marketing per. the potential sale had not pro. and it has a long standing pro. The The Center has also teamed with ADCOM Group which has been op. cials. A tactical or endurance UAV tively supporting local firms to de. from Israeli firms for patrolling been no known military UAV pur- gola has contracted UAV services off-shore oil terminals. These efforts were systems on display at IDEX-05 were a long endurance design. IDEX-05 show. system would mesh with this objec- velop UAV capabilities. and two were de. other activity may be aimed at the re- become a significant exporter of tacti. A second UAV venture is being more UAVs to their inventory. Some local as. Teal Group Analysis Algeria is a likely client for a tacti- cal UAV system based on the lessons of its recent civil war. Yabhon-RX is a significantly en- Cybaero from Sweden on their Apid erating an advanced target system di.Page 112 Rest of the World UAV Market ered in late 2006. tions. the South African firm Algeria.

ment about the sale. but forces since the arms embargo was replace old weapons in service. The company Teal Group Analysis Libya is currently rebuilding its acquisition of conventional arms to mini-UAVs in the forecast period. port its military operations against the systems may have ended. but in 2005-2006. but in the far as is known. Nigeria depends regularly determined ways to open up ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Polisario movement in the wastes of Morocco may acquire another tactical Morocco 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Tactical UAV — — — — — — — 5 5 5 15 Nigeria Nigeria has not operated UAVs as need for UAVs as a possible response on its oil and gas revenues. its possible that Libya will acquire a ously erratic and larger sales might plans seem to be focused mainly on modest number of tactical UAVs and occur. the to the growing problems of illicit production areas. rica. war over. With this border UAV system late in the forecast pe- numbers of UAVs. probably to sup. swana acquired a “small numbers” of Elbit’s Silver Arrow branch in 2001.UAV — — — 10 35 — — — — — 45 Tactical UAV — — — — — — 5 15 — — 20 Morocco Morocco has purchased an undis- closed number of Developmental Sci- ences R4E-50 UAVs in the 1980s. its short-term needs for such riod to replace it.000 which suggests that the sale UAVs from Integrated Dynamics in five clients at a value of about to Libya was fairly small. It is Libyan arms acquisition is notori- lifted in 2003. Libya Libya acquired Border Eagle has sold about 15-20 air vehicles to $300.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 113 Botswana Botswana acquired three short The plan was to deploy them for pa. asking them to closed number of tactical UAVs from keeping forces during the fighting enforce the arms ban. ment protested to the Israeli govern- Teal Group Analysis The Ivory Coast is probably un- likely to purchase any UAVs for the foreseeable future. Ivory Coast Ivory Coast acquired an undis. Libya 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini. the Israeli firm Aeronautics Defense and destroyed. local civilians have government began to examine the “bunkering” of fuel. At the moment. Teal Group Analysis Morocco has purchased small the Western Sahara. However. The French govern- Systems in 2005 during the civil war. Namibia and Zimbabwe. reports have also stated that Bot- range UAVs or UAV systems from trolling the borders with South Af. Recent Hermes-450 UAVs from Elbit. They were found by French peace. Teal Group Analysis Botswana is unlikely to acquire initial purchase in 2001 for another any more tactical UAVs beyond its decade. Pakistan in late 2006.

Dissatisfied with the Scout.Page 114 Rest of the World UAV Market pipelines and steal gas and oil. have fallen ever. (SANDF) contract for a small system contracted Kentron to operate the sys. that can be launched without a run- tem when necessary to cut down on ducted in November 1984. tactical UAV systems plus three The aim would be to use the UAVs to Seastar systems for maritime patrol. this was apparently about like those encountered during the neering Co. SADF requirement. or to lease such ser- on hard times in recent years and have to the nation’s wealth may force Nige. It was first pub. 1980s as an air defense suppression UAOS banded in 1991 and its assets put in drone to combat air defense radars Advanced Technologies & Engi- storage. saw combat service during the fight. In recent years. How. sources claim two clients). The Lark was developed in the late ing in Angola. men t in 1 9 9 5 . it is not yet clear The Seeker was deployed with the if there remains an actual procure- 10 Squadron at Potchefstroom and Lark ment objective. largely through collaborative efforts with Is- rael. The first flight tests were con. gram. and the Scout was employed in combat over Mozambique in 1983. South Africa has struck out on its own in this field. ria to either acquire and operate its of Africa’s most modern. the South Kentron Seeker African air force commissioned Kentron to develop a local derivative costs. (UAOS) on the basis of a South Afri- 16 UAVs for the SAAF. built for undisclosed clients (some reached the final stage of develop- The Seeker UAV is heavily influ. the importance of oil production own UAV force. Denel began to advertise test-launched from ships as well as tered service in 1986 and was an upgraded version of Seeker called ground stations. patrol the pipeline to spot these activi- Teal Group Analysis Nigeria’s armed forces. Nigeria had contracted Aeronautics plosions which have killed dozens of Defense Systems from Israel three people and wrecked the pipelines. It first en. In ties. but private compa- nies such as ATE have also become involved. Total fighting in Angola. and it way to support self-propelled artillery World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . Two Seeker systems have been that entered development in 1982. (ATE) developed the Un- three systems and ten UAVs. there were reports that some cases. Nigeria 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — — — 10 — — — 10 20 Tactical UAV 24 — — — — — — — — — 24 South Africa South Africa has had a well-estab- lished surveillance and target UAV program since the 1980s. The squadron was dis. ignation ARW-10. vices. Seeker Tactical UAV The South African government ac- quired two Israeli Scout UAV systems in 1980. Lark appears to be can National Defence Force The South African Air Force later connected to the Israeli Harpy pro. this has led to massive ex. manned Aerial Observation System production is believed to have been licly revealed in 1991 under the des. Although based on a publicly revealed in 1988 Seeker 2. In 2004. once one acquired little new equipment. I t h a s b e e n enced by Israeli designs. The most significant manufacturer of these sys- tems is the state-controlled Kentron Division of Denel. In 2006. and has been making serious efforts to be- gin exporting its systems.

amine tactical UAV requirements. short-range UAVs to the Australian Project 129 for air surveillance. cles. (ASTA) had manufactured the Mutthana Task Group in southern cently. This is an outgrowth of the ear. UAVs belong to the Defense Science a n d Te c h n o lo g y O rg a n iz a tio n Mini-UAV Tactical UAV (DSTO) which has been operating The Australian firm Codarra Ad. Bateleur. presumably the new The Vulture UAOS is a new system rent circumstances. Seraph Stealth UAV a Mokopa anti-tank missile. This is part of a broader pro. Although a clever concept. In November 2005. Jindivik target drone since the 1950s. These in 1995. A more likely av. Lockheed Martin an. This air vehicle has an en- for their artillery spotting role. lected the Elbit Skylark mini-UAV to of reconnaissance UAVs except for space Technologies of Australia provide support for the army’s Al demonstration purposes until re. acquisition was delayed until been asserting a regional power pro- UAV field are another sign of this. the ADF se- not operated any significant number The government-owned Aero. South Africa has also its relatively extensive efforts in the effort. closed. this policy. the ADF sees a and used them to conduct reconnais. and bitious Army artillery modernization forecast period. UAOS was scheduled for 2000. recently. Kentron unveiled its Seraph stealth Bateleur MALE UAV In 1997. and has been built in modest for the Lark anti-radiation UAV that strategic reconnaissance would fit numbers for an air force requirement. ently went to the Australian Special with plans to acquire systems ranging n o u n c e d a p a r tn e r s h ip w ith Air Services to explore their utility in from mini-UAVs to HALE UAVs. from Aerosonde Ltd of Melbourne the ASTA Systems Division was In the longer term. the Aus. In 1997. the Australian MoD be- five Aerosonde UAVs to test sensor vanced Systems sold at least five gan Project Warrendi. So far. These appar- gun a fairly robust UAV program. In government in 2000. ing radius of 750 km. Australia has be. Denel began advertising its new South African National Defense lier Flowchart program. sider the upgraded Super Vulture for low-observables technology. part of Joint payloads for future UAVs and to ex. In 2005. A UK order for 18 Mk 4A need for a mini-UAV force of about sance in the Solomon islands during Jindiviks led ASTA to reopen the line 88 systems. The Australian armed forces have market. will be a hunter-killer UAV later in the shaped by its contacts with Israel. and may until 2006. The program appears to be based has shown a preliminary mock-up of ture for the UAOS requirement. Denel improved version of the original Vul. it jection policy. scheduled to begin in 1997. would justify procurement under cur. and the eventual acqui- The Seeker is a fairly conventional is hard to see a domestic requirement sition of an endurance UAV for design. May 2005. and has also operated the RQ-11 tralian Army operated four UAVs but production was halted in 1993 and Raven. Aerosonde to exploit the mini-UAV special operations. capable of speeds of up to Mach 0. South Africa 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — — — 20 20 20 — — 60 Tactical UAV — — — — — — — — — 6 6 MALE UAV — — 1 1 1 1 — — — — 4 Asia-Pacific Australia In recent years.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 115 units. This is an with an endurance of about 100 min. A on export potential rather than a the design. Company spokes. e a r lier in v e s tmen ts in an integrated artillery C3I system. but be an attempt by Kentron to recoup gram called AS2000 aimed at fielding was put off due to the decision to con. each with four air vehi- peacekeeping operations there. In September 2003. Teal Group Analysis South Africa has had its defense with somewhat more limited range enue for South African development development programs heavily and payload capability tied to an am. but it is not expected to fly production decision on the Vulture South African requirement. and government funding began aph II UCAV configuration launching that year as well.85 durance of 18-24 hours and an operat- dubbed the Super Vulture. utes. The ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . and is aimed Bateleur MALE endurance UAV in Forces are examining a new design at deploying a reconnaissance UAV late 2004. men state that procurement was At its 2002 aerospace show. Denel ads showed the Seraph in a Ser- 1995. ATE announced that the UAV. Iraq. The air vehicle first flew in March the requirement.

Australia for the integration of the ment phase of the effort is expected to ally submitted bids in November L-3 Systems tactical data-link. missions. and as a result.Page 116 Rest of the World UAV Market aim was to study the possible use of UAVs to enhance the ADF’s ability to detect. In the event. The operations began clude system upgrades for the UAVs. The BAAS requirement was dropped in 2002. the Australian gov- Fox-T and/or Eagle 1 (Australian the delays have meant that the sys. The Aus. FAAS encompasses tactical UAV re- quirements while BAAS is aimed at medium-endurance UAV require- ments. handle a ship-board TUAV require. • ing Australia in December 2006. The contract value was stration program aimed at developing teamed with Aeronautics of Israel) placed at A$103 million ($80. locate. In December 2005. The program cost is expected sition of one or two ScanEagle UAV tual goal of up to five systems. source selection • Night Intruder 300 (Korean lion) of which about A$74. The plan is to form a new TUAV regi- ment. 2001. The procurement objective for FAAS was for 15 TUAVs. a national UAV technology demon- • Aerostar (Point Trading Co til late 2009. Under the current JP 129 plan. The Australian firm Sonacom and ding on the requirement included: teries. but In May 2004. The pro- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . each to be A$100 million ($75 million) for to support operations in Afghanistan with multiple air vehicles. only three firms actu. lected the IAI I-View-250 at a cost of in November 2006 and lasted about and also to expand the program to A$145 million (US$110 million). the ADF se. the tonomous Navigation and Sensing • Shadow 200 (BAE Systems Aus- team of ADI/Elbit offering the Her. July 2006 the ADF began negotiating level. The UAVs simultaneously on surveillance with IAI’s Malat Division) contract was finally signed with Boe.7 million.5 million in July 2005 and first system handed Aerospace) goes to IAI and the rest to Boeing over by August 2007. a 100-150 kg air vehicle. The UAV is 2004: ADI/Elbit. University of Sydney’s Australian (Tenix Defence teamed with culties over the terms of the support Centre for Field Robotics have been SAGEM and Saab Systems he for the system being managed by funded to examine the ANSER (Au- Boeing-Australia. The program later was defined into two principal categories: (Broad Area Aerial Surveillance) and FAAS (focal area aerial surveillance). and To provide interim capability in expected to be deployed at brigade Boeing/IAI. manage the operation of multiple • I-View (Boeing Australia teamed were asked to re-submit its bid. Enoggera. The plan is ment of Aeronautical Engineering de- Elbit Systems/Silver Arrow) to activate the units in 2008 at veloped the Mirli UAV in 2000-2001 Gallipoli Barracks. $12. Acquisition Regiment with two bat. ernment announced plans to conduct Aerospace teamed with EADS) tems will not become operational un. The selection was sched. evaluation com- pleted in April 2005. ment. an effort to tralia teamed with AAI) mes 450. for naval applications as part of the • Hermes 450 (ADI Ltd /Thales and Queensland. target & UAV Study Efforts Some of the identified teams bid. the second-placed bidder. identify and monitor incursions into Australian territory and territorial waters. six months. the program calls for tender submissions I-View by November 2004.3 mil. cost A$100-150 million. A six-month contract was tralian MoD has also stated that the JP GCS and four air vehicles. signed for ScanEagle lease at a cost of 129 program could be extended to in. slipped. Experimental Research). two systems each consisting of two and Iraq. leaving only the FAAS portion. each battery including two the University of Sydney’s Depart- • Hermes 180 (ADI Ltd /Thales and GCS and four air vehicles. and the objective is for an initial uled for June/July 2005 but this has with Boeing over the possible acqui- order of three systems with an even. slated to provide support for the sys- ond separate bid) BAE Systems Australia and the tems. the 20th Surveillance. The contract for the program • Sperwer and Aerosonde UAV was delayed in July 2006 due to diffi. Flight trials began in Elbit Systems/Silver Arrow: sec. Boeing-Australia is BAAS effort. BAE/AAI. The procure.

the government awarded Gen. General is to replace the existing AP-3C mari. and did become scope of purchase. reconnaissance and fire Global Hawk and Mariner from Lear. or the individual signed a $1 billion (US$740 million) for 2004-2005. Since 1994. borne early warning radar aircraft. no Global viewed as a civil program. Australia examined several potential RAAF Base Edinburgh. The port subsidiary of Surveillance Aus- Hawk in 2003 by at least two years to proposed partners are Australia. The Surveillance Australia single aircraft. Australia would like to acquire 4-6 funded with the UAVs providing re. ine new technological approaches to of UAVs to the requirement. Northrop announced its Aus. This base has hosted about is pegged at about A$70 million limbo with Project Air 7000 largely 10 transit flights of Global Hawk (US$46 million). starting in late August 2006. General Atomics is offering Phase 2 of PA 7000 is a later manned Hawk regional force to be based on the Mariner (Predator C) UAV for this maritime patrol aircraft. tralian team at the 2005 Paris air show part of the BAMS effort. crop with an aim to deploy them in gun to discuss the need for a larger en- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . L-3 Communica. The fleet could be jointly requirement. Maritime Surveillance 2005/CMS 04 support for the land forces under pro. this army is also known to have aerial sur. 2009-2011 instead of 2007. IAI. Predator B/Mariner for this require- element of the Joint Project 129 strations transmitting imagery to the ment. The PA 7000 requirement is expected Coastwatch Border Protection HALE UAV to have a price-tag of A$1 billion UAV The Australian air force has stud. A Global Hawk transited from civil maritime patrol. The US Air Force has made a pro. Qatar to Adelaide in February 2006 requirement was satisfied by a con- veillance on its list of priorities since for a demonstration in the region in. civil/government roles for UAVs in- aircraft in FY06/07 instead of FY04 Australian officials have also be. Program plans called 2006. Australia deferred its countries could field their own Global contract with the National Air Sup- planned acquisition of the Global Hawks but operate them jointly. but the program went into Adelaide. and This effort was subsequently re. fixed wing aircraft for the Coastwatch ployed in Australia for trials in 2001. the government in April 2004. Navy decision which is supposed to ogy to begin to examine future The aim recently was to fund the take place in the final quarter of 2007. The Australian government has re- for an RFP in 1996 and a contract eral Atomics a $2. tive. In May ing Bombardier Dash 8 turboprops. The Australian government aircraft and a decision was scheduled gional surveillance. Australian government began to dis. This program is named as Phase 1 Project Air 7000 operational commitments. UAV. Ja.6 million contract cently shown more interest in shifting award in 1998 which did not occur. Australia planned The Australian government has ied its requirements for aerial surveil. bid included the use of the Mariner cided to open the bid and consider cuss the possibility of tying its acqui. Guam. for a six-month demonstration from at least in part to UAVs for this role. the to 2020. distinct New Maritime Patrol and Response Hawks were available so a simulation from the Joint Project 129 effort. This has had The federal government has also which includes Tenix Defense. from forward bases in Qatar back to has teamed with the Australian based Australia joined the US RQ-4A US bases in California. Center in San Diego for 10 days in Atomics has teamed with National time patrol aircraft force of about 13 October 2007. A Global Hawk was de. north of and the annual budget for the program candidates. In 2004. tract with Surveillance Australia us- the 1993 Defense review as part of cluding Singapore and Japan.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 117 gram is being funded by the Depart. decision since it will be tied to the US Queensland University of Technol- tions-Melbourne. Other bidders are expected to Broad Area Airborne Surveillance. A General National Air Support firm to offer the Global Hawk program as a potential Atomics Mariner was used in demon. Due to Northrop Grumman. Tourism and has also been considering the long active electronically scanned array Resources as part of the Aerospace term potential for the HALE UAV in radar (AESA) as a long-term objec- Industry Action Agenda released by conjunction with the Wedgetail air. to conduct a series of trials of the established a new Coastwatch/Civil lance. flying about 75 hours be Aerosonde. with the contract running from 2008 time surveillance requirements into a During the summer of 2006. Australia durance UAV capable of lofting an ment of Industry. Saab the effect of pushing back any final s p o n s o r e d w o r k s h o p s a t th e Systems-Australia. General Atomics taking its place. cluding wildfire detection. pan and Singapore. maritime UAV effort. was conducted from the Northrop Request for Tender was scheduled for sion Aerial System) and the main goal Grumman Cyber Warfare Integration the 2004-05 time frame. A Capability (now MUAS: Multi-Mis. The scale of the purchase so far General Atomics Predator C/Mariner sition to the US Navy BAMS is unclear in terms of time-frame or as well. (US$770 million). posal for a multi-national Global program. Project Ninox. month over the northwest coastal border protection program to exam- ject AIR 87 including the applications shelf in 2005 to help make this deci. Air Support which currently provides aircraft. The sion. Australia de. EADS. tralia for Civil Maritime Surveillance consider merging its land and mari. HMAS Pirie.

twin booms. ture F-35 JSF fighter acquisition from for three of the ships with the first en- connaissance and Interdiction). It is not at all clear why forced Australia to reassess its de. absorbed many of the Chinese firms ance of 4-8 hours and an operating gram was a reverse engineering of the working on UAVs. should prove useful in extreme ter. ment and probably beyond the current Australia is looking at Global Hawk tional mini-UAVs seems likely. now one of the more serious tactical UAV tained from Vietnam in the late 1960s. The payload is a stabilized playing an increasing number of There have been a large number of sensor platform with a CCD camera UAVs at international trade shows in Chinese UAVs displayed at various or several other options including recent years. more structured program with addi. AVIC Tactical UAVs 222 kg. Aisheng Technol. given their similarities. but these seem immigration concerns in the event of mini-UAVs on a crash basis and a a fairly distant requirement at the mo- further turmoil. and a collaborative effort UCAV between BAE and the University of Naval UAV The Defence Science and Technol. past track record on schedules. In recent years. and has been 2006 began to discuss cutting the fu. border surveillance and program is expected to include a money to be diverted to a UCAV in- other applications data-fusion effort by BAE Systems stead. The ASN-206 has an endur- Chinese earliest known UAV pro. and been supported by the Beijing Uni. This program has 1990s. ner. The study program is being capabilities of UAVs.Page 118 Rest of the World UAV Market spraying. World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . pected to include the capability to conducted in conjunction with BAE Australian air force officials in carry up to three vertical take-off na- Systems Australia. frame camera. RATO and has a take-off weight of nese aerospace firms have been dis. China has offered a ASN-206 tactical UAV system at sev- gram since the mid-1990s. This is a conventional Tactical duction is nearly non-existent. LLLTV. UAVs for coastal patrol also seems a UCAVs for its future strike require- The Australian army is also likely possibility. or Mariner to fulfill its endurance The application of endurance Australia is considering the use of UAV requirement. Australia 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — 40 80 80 100 — — — 300 Tactical UAV 12 12 — — — — — — — — 24 Navy VTUAV — — — — — — — 3 3 3 9 HALE UAV — — — — 1 1 1 — — — 3 Coastwatch MALE UAV — — — — — — — — 1 1 2 China China has had an active UAV pro. but 2018 is cited as the earliest to support the JP 129 tactical UAV ef. this possible date for use. government has begun studies of fu- due to security concerns. so is outside the fort after its experiences in East will probably slip to late in the fore. part of AVIC-1. Chi. ogy Corporation (ASN) in Xian. The overall requirement is dubbed FURI (Future UAV for Re. modernized version configured for eral international shows since the late data on the actual extent of UAV pro. So program have not been integrated northern frontier towards Indonesia far. air shows and exhibits from several Color/B-W TV. In the short-term. val UAVs. reconnaissance. quirement late in the forecast period program in 2004 to begin exploring ages on UAVs in conjunction with associated with its Sea 4000 Air War- swarming UCAVs for future defense data-fusion to demonstrate targeting fare Destroyer. It is launched from the curement objectives of the Peoples tics. The program is ex- needs. forecast period. This appears to be Northrop BQM-34 Firebee drone ob. Teal Group Analysis The troubles in Indonesia have Timor and the Solomons where UAVs cast period. rear of a truck using a zero-length Liberation Army or Air Force. IR line-scan- different plants and in recent years. The federal has assumed a high priority. panoramic camera Early Chinese UAV Programs the AVIC-1 aviation consortium has or others. The 100 to 65-70 with the remaining tering service in 2013. Australia. Reconnaissance of the rains for peacekeeping missions. this is a fairly modest program in. versity of Astronautics and Aeronau. Sydney using the Brumby UAV and Australia is expected to have a re- ogy Organization (DSTO) launched a Aerosonde UAV to test ELINT pack. but potential Australia has also begun to acquire ture UAV applications. time frame of this forecast. has displayed its efforts for the PLA. though given Australia’s ments. not only volving about two dozen air vehicles. However. range of 150 km. the Coastwatch and endurance UAV fense policy. UAV in pusher-configuration with there is no information on the pro.

CPMEIC displayed two new tacti- cal UAVs at the MAKS-07 air show near Moscow in August 2007. The stan. The configu. TV/IR in. prototype only. Endurance is one hour and a conventional GCS mounted in a formerly marketed by CATIC. standard sensor packages include two SH-1 UAVs simultaneously marginally smaller than the ASN-206 CCD camera with real-time video with a take-off weight of 170kg. These are both fairly conventional tactical UAVs. but this appears to be a The system configuration is a bit receiver. uses a zero-length RATO launch as to whether these are merely con. The SH-1 system was described AVIC-1 is also marketing the launch and either belly landing or in more detail and the brochure shows ASN-105B. The The Chinese CPMEIC missile ex- system can use either hand or rail port agency has displayed their PW-1 Teal Group Analysis Any assessment of Chinese acqui. The SH-3 uses a twin boom design AVIC HALE with an inverted V tail and a pusher prop. These included the Green Dove-03 method. Other Chinese UAV Programs air vehicle apparently shares a sensor dard configuration is a system with The Guizhou Aircraft Plant dis- package with the ASM-206. The SH-1 is the larger of the two and a fly- ing wing design with a pusher prop. The air vehicle has an operating altitude of 1. micro-UAV. The downlink or a film camera. This is actu. The Nanjing Univer- bile GCS. The Anjian (Dark Yujinling helicopter mini-UAV. and a ground con. Sword) is a large.5 kg. the ASN-105B China. The system ap. abreast with international develop- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . the SH-1 and SH-2. another tactical UAV parachute. most of which appear to be stu- around a single air vehicle per system. or perhaps for dent design studies rather than In contract the ASN-105B has six air man-portable use. Propul- sion is a small model airplane motor CPMEIC Tactical UAVs with puller prop configuration. This is the operating range is 10 km. The shelter on a truck which can control a conventional puller-prop design. (CAC) is also offering an endurance for manufacture and were intended ration is conventional using a sail. Chinese universities more typical of contemporary UAVs monitor and display. programs at the university. UCAV and an endurance UAV. AVIC displayed models of two opment efforts.000 to 3. on a small vehicle. but there is little information its designs at international air shows. had been shown at previous shows in engineering efforts and has displayed Like the ASN-206. None of ally in the mini-UAV category with a Chengdu Aircraft Corporation these designs appear to be intended launch weight of 6. video UAV in 2000. played a stealthy WZ-2000 tactical most of the same features on offer. seriously funded engineering devel- vehicles per system along with a mo. an operating radius of 100 km and a six-hour endurance. stealthy UCAV. with three air vehicles. This is a conventional tactical UAV design using twin boom tails and a rear pusher prop configuration. These appears to be a major center for AUV terpretation shelter and a launcher. have also displayed many UAV de- than is the ASN-206 which is based pears to be small enough to be carried signs. Skylark-01 micro-UAV. The UAV weighs 130 kg with a 20 kg payload.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 119 tactical UAV at aerospace shows in 2005. The UAV uses a RATO zero-launch system. A third tactical UAV on offer from ment programs. an exotic sity of Aeronautics and Astronautics photo-processing shelter. ceptual schemes or actual develop. trol station with a transmitter. suspended under the wing. Goldfinch-06 micro-UAV. UAV patterned roughly on Global more to demonstrate the academic plane air frame with the fuselage Hawk.000 m. video cassette recorder. new UAVs at Paris-07. and AVIC-1 is the ASN-15. “main” (stationary?) GCS. being launched from a 6x6 truck. extremely speculative given the lack China has shown an interest in keep sition of military UAVs is bound to be of data on the Chinese programs.

and eight service in 2007. have been developing UAVs. but they may also be de- since at the same time Indian officials capability. been operating these over the UAVs at a cost of $3. it has re. Israeli UAV Import the Army. In 2003. ployed with other naval commands in indicated that continued UAV pur. This apparently refers to the IAF dian account places the total pur- in 2003. are both likely as well.Page 120 Rest of the World UAV Market ments in military technology. being deployed two UAV squadrons using import of UAVs primarily from Israel managed by the Indian Defense Re. and probably within the domestic since they are addressing similar mar- ance UAV and strike UAV program market as well. effort. the Indian tion. fort with another reconnaissance Israeli UAVs. rangement with Israel offering Andaman sea from Kochi near the This appears to be intended to support off-the-shelf systems to give the In. The Fal. The stated nous drone programs. but this could in Kashmir. 32 into the limbo of perpetual schedule concluded a deal with IAI for the pur. but this never progressed South African UAV. Other estimates vary Bangalore and Hindustan Aeronau. Heron UAVs from Israel for army. DRDO built several Kashmir border in 2002. Israeli UAVs during Operation to provide immediate capability. Although India has an ac. associated with the missile industry China 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — 15 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 415 Tactical UAV 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 50 MALE UAV 2 — — 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 30 HALE UAV — — — — — — — — 1 2 3 India Indian UAV Programs In the 1980s. headquarters of Southern Naval the indigenous development effort dian armed forces some immediate Command. tion (DRDO). At the time. The Indian-Israeli deal was navy and air force use. as separate firms under the aviation 2001-02 and in Iraq in 2003 has no ized w ith sev eral d ifferen t ministry. India Navy for a total of 12 Search 1. requirement. but like many Indian for the purchase of the Seeker UAV in Searcher 2 and four Herons for the missile programs. has also claimed that India operates a UAV program largely due to experi. rons to five UAV squadrons. An In- quirement. ADE developed the requirement for 60 systems. have similar technical parameters over the next decade. Final tests were conducted lion.5 million each. and the Chinese aerospace industry in re. chases in 1999 to 2005 as 12 Searcher ducted into Indian service in late 1. Searcher 2. ADE and HAL are also work. and it was scheduled to be in. In 2004. India announced considerably: one sources indicated tics Inc. The navy has army decided to acquire 12 Nishant based on a broader cooperative ar. uled to start in 1994 in cooperation Indian officials have admitted that Pakistan estimated that India oper- between the state Aeronautical De. also be a misidentification of similar tive indigenous program. India had a stated World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . UAVs at a program cost of $87 mil. Parakam. eight Searcher 2 and 16 Herons for 2003. plans for a tactical UAV program that India acquired a total of about ing on a reconnaissance UAV called aimed at acquiring 16 short-range 100 UAVs of various Israeli types Nishant based on an Indian Army re. changes with deployment always chase of 12 Searcher UAVs followed India also acquired the larger seeming to arrive a year or two further by a further order in 2000 due to attri. and an endur. Pakistan India has attempted to step up its experimental Kapothaka reconnais. down the road. the Nishant could not fulfill all Indian ated 30-40 UAVs in the recent Kash- v e lo p me n t Es ta b lis h me n t in requirements so that some import was mir dispute. budget plan of about Rs 657 crore. con was first test flown in early 1995. the forward deployment on India has had at least two indige. while offering to assist In. China is likely to organization structures competing fusion as multiple Chinese UAVs will deploy some number of tactical UAVs with one another in the export market. dia on its long delayed Falcon UAV the future. In early 1997. The Indian Air Force cently turned its attention to the drone program called Falcon. 16 Search 2 and eight Her- cate that Nishant will be inducted into India began negotiating with Israel ons for the Air Force. More recent statements indi. as well US use of UAVs in Afghanistan in cent years has become less central. other sources claim up to 150. firms ket niches. probably the ences along the frontier with Pakistan beyond a test-bed so far as is known. This sometimes causes con- doubt been noticed. chases from Israel were likely. requirement was to increase the Air PTA (Pilotless Target Aircraft) is a fore settling on a 120 kg air vehicle force order of battle from two squad- turbojet powered target drone and for the Falcon requirement. This appears to be a competitive ef. The Lakshya test airframes in the early 1990s be. Nishant may fall the mid-1990s. Kentron RPV-2 Seeker. search and Development Organiza. with a limited series production was sched. and 28 Herons. sance UAV. likely. So for example.

5 year In February 2007 at the Aero India In the wake of continued problems effort with four prototypes flying by show. both India and Paki. A local four air vehicles and a GCS. planning to place an order with IAI short-range UAV. duction by firms in Singapore. and the construction of four proto. the with four prototypes being con- reports in January 2004 that India was Gagan Tactical UAV and the Pawan structed. PT Wesco Aero. aquire small helicopter-type UAVs cials have also stated that continued types. though these domestic aerospace industry and the quire a modest number of tactical may end up being Israeli systems. donesian armed forces made plans to AT2-MLCS tactical UAVs consisting space. and Harpy anti-radar MALE requirement and the develop. ments. though it is not (Pesawat Terbang Tanpa Awak). flight trials in September 2004. are usually in favor of import of key likely to get involved in acquisition of ment policy is frequently torn be. Navy chief drones at a cost of $300 million.6 billion program to UAV program. in the Pawan program. Eye-View with a range of about 150 Recent Indian MoD procurement lishment in Bangalore announced km. from the current two UAV squadrons the difficulties of the terrain in the ment have a habit of going on for de. ports that Indonesia acquired some system is also known as the PTTA In November 2006. plans to initiate a new program under. with government support with first effort to stamp out a secessionist There have also been unconfirmed re. the combat arms squadrons.5 million for quired a single system of EADS (for. has developed the SS-5 UAV deploy the JSS-5 to Aceh as part of an of one GCS and four air vehicles. aimed at divisional level require- plans have advocated a substantial in. or license production. and the Air Force are outdated by the time they enter ance UAVs for at least one of the currently has two UAV squadrons. As a result. tem. technologies. expected to cost $6. $5. UAVs. purchases from Israel are likely. shoot of the existing Nishant program with a 250km operating range and UCAV Program New Indian UAV Program cost about $55 million for a 3. Pawan is ex. The In- mer ly CA CA S ys tems ) F o x Indonesian firm. In December 2006. for ship-borne use. short-range tactical UAVs as outlined tween the desire to build up the India is likely to continue to ac. The defense projects managed by dian Air Force would like to expand stan have made use of UAVs due to the Indian defense research establish. The In- past few years. The Indian army is also However. EMIT in Israel. UAVs: the Rustam medium-altitude expected to be completed in two years tive of about 500 UAVs. The plan is to use Israeli elec- crease in tactical UAV acquisition. or from license pro. The movement in the province. India now plans a $100 million for a four year program that the Indian Navy planned to domestic initiative. ties. Indian defense procure.UAV — 20 20 — — — — 30 50 150 270 Army Tactical UAV — 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 90 AF Tactical UAV 10 10 10 10 — — — — 10 10 60 Navy UAV — — — 12 — — — — 6 12 30 MALE UAV — — — — — — 10 10 — — 20 Indonesia The Indonesian Army’s BAIS clear if these came directly from firm is expecting an order for the sys- Strategic Intelligence Agency ac. This has convinced India of the cades and resulting in products which to include the acquisition of endur- utility of UAVs. The program to be 200-250 tactical UAVs at a cost The program will encompass three cost is pegged at $35 million and is of $300 million and a long term objec. to five squadrons. the DRDO announced plans to with its existing domestic Nishant the autumn of 2008. service. The program is ex- for a package of Searcher 2 UAVs. pected to start with the Rustam Naval UAV Heron UAVs. The air force announced plans to acquire ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . taken with assistance from Israel’s tro-optics and a foreign powerplant to The short term requirement is stated IAI Malat division. but Indian offi. Teal Group Analysis During the Kashmir crisis over the need for immediate military capabili. This effort is likely area. As ment effort is expect to cost about Admiral Sureesh Mehta announced mentioned below. India 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 121 Tactical UAV Requirement Aeronautical Development Estab. accelerate the program. Gagan is expected to be an off. in 2005 the Indian pected to be similar to the Israeli design and build 100 strike UCAVs. the Indonesian Blue Horizon UAVs. probably from Israel. start a 15 year. There were lone endurance (MALE) UAV.

The system controlled air space without special The system has a range of 30 miles subsequently evolved into the current clearances. develop a “stealth” television recon. The system relies on GPS. Subaru has been developing an au- gram is officially called the Flying ble a mini-Space Shuttle. The system re- guard or other police activities. tries through the late 1990s. press reported that the Defense dence of any extensive production of Compact Multi-role UAV Agency had begun a multi-year pro- these designs for the Japanese In late 1988. Mitsubishi TJM-3 turbojet. ing a small jet-powered multi-role erations. and a the first system was scheduled for de. This permitted extensive and flies at an altitude of about 2. FABOT (Fuji Aerial Robot) was early 1994. to develop UAV capability since there donesia has been criticized for its has been some reluctance of Euro- Indonesia 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Tactical UAV 4 — — — — — — — 4 — 8 Japan Japan has had an active indigenous the TRDI. However. tactical UAV system by 2009. Pro. The aim is to field a The Japanese Ground Self-De.6 million contract to be. sions including reconnaissance. ¥9 billion ($80 million) over five trol technology developed for the years with an initial allotment of ¥300 Army FFOS UAV J/AQM-1 target drone. insurgents in the disputes. and UAV developed by Fuji Heavy Indus. The sale was crit- Teal Group Analysis Indonesia has shown modest inter. Fuji was pro.Page 122 Rest of the World UAV Market four IAI Searcher 2 UAVs via the icized in parliament as the country has Kital Philippines trading company at no formal diplomatic ties with Israel. from ground stations. gyro and other air data sensors. surveying. and possibly as a command output and actuator com- toring. three main flight control functions: uses include agricultural crop spray. the Japanese 1980s. has been tested for launch from a air vehicle controls by means of addi- Fuji advertised a civil version of this F-4EJ from Gifu AFB. quires a small station at the landing Fuji is also working on a vectored ers into reconnaissance UAVs. Self-Defense Force (JSDF) until re. A in conjunction with other elements of tered trials in 1993. chaff navigation data generation. 1993. naissance drone that would use con. The system provides UAV as the RPH2.000 “Multi-Role UAV” program. A total of six high-performance television camera its parent Fuji Heavy Industries. vided a $10. In. but these are technology demonstration effort for considerably less extensive than the World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . cepted for service by the JSDF. The pro. In 1997. corridor dispensing. and searching for the coast target drone. Propulsion tonomous take-off and landing sys- Forward Observation System. the conversion of surplus F-104 fight. The airframe was FABOT for use in artillery spotting. there is little evi. a cost of $6 million. TRDI is also sponsoring mand generation. The system would be capable plane as a practical method around the ence system and NEC the day sensor of being air launched. Hitachi a terrain refer. all-composite and was said to resem. strip including a GPS receiver and a thrust “tail-sitter” UAV. more attention to this capability. fense Force contracted Fuji in 1991 to gin the engineering development of begin a program for a helicopter UAV the program. which luctance of Indonesian agencies to ses in the outlying islands has led to probably accounts for the local efforts acquire Israeli systems. million in 2004. environmental moni. The program is expected to cost about cently. The experimentation without the constric- feet. is an improved version of the tem for potential use on small UAVs types were completed in 1992 and en. The system is tional actuators. the JASDF decided to gram to develop a new tactical UAV. but its current cri. Ja- prototypes were completed by TRDI and long-range transmission system pan’s premier UAV developer. not linked to any specific New Japanese UAV Program UAV development effort since the operational requirement. or launched usual problems of operating a UAV in and optical processing equipment. The system was ac. Flight testing lasted through the TRDI research institute has been test. Proto. The UAV flight control computer linked to the livery to the army in 2004. conduct of military operations against pean firms to sell to Indonesia. tions currently in place over UAV op- summer of 1995. and re- est in UAVs to date. Fujitsu provided the FLIR totype drones were completed during mounted in a manned powered sail- for the system. In September 2003. guidance ing. The in 1993. with flight trials beginning in was under development by Fuji. but this is a laptop for monitoring. Potential civilian apparently intended for several mis.

system to act as a cheap alternative to ally be carried by manned or Fuji Heavy Industries began man- ILS on light civilian aircraft. Serial pro- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Japan’s Ministry of Agri. unmanned aircraft.77 million hect. helicopters were VTUAV to 150 meters. By 2 0 0 2 . Yamaha and other firms are at- Other Japanese press accounts ares. relatively expensive. Yamaha components. the Japanese government has requirement for this class of UAVs is quirement. the Global Hawk in June 2005. Japan. the US C-in-C PAC and In 1983. motorcycle engines which were the and inspection of bridges. The continuing Japan began development of an in. Accord. the annual production the RQ-4 Global Hawk for this re. surveillance of di- types of an endurance UAV with an Yamaha was selected for this ven. but production Endurance UAV Agricultural Helicopter UAV through 2003 was only 17 air vehi- In 2003. raises only about 40% of its crops do. There are con. reached production in 1991. Sensor System for trials on a UP-3C such as the Fuji Heavy Industries cations: flight control of highly au. Other high cross-winds. first. It is possible that both accounts are most likely basis for the propulsion of correct as it is not unusual for Japan to an economical VTUAV. ufacturing their own VTUAV. counting for 337k hectares in 200 and million) through 2005. This is a commercial derivative Japanese Joint Staff Office initiated a culture.000 to develop a long-range surveillance ment has had a long standing program Japanese agricultural VTUAV in ser- capability to reach out as far as 3. manpower where ever possible. farm labor. The study will ex.600 of the 2. and also air vehicles for other applications in- receive funding to build two proto. long-endurance UAV ment efforts. crop-dusting about 0. The Japanese govern. Japan re. was to address the issue of declining dusting of 777k hectares in 2000 and counts indicate that the Japanese De. crop-dusting of the rice industry licensed pilots for these VTUAV in ing to these accounts.800 counting VTUAV sold under Malacca to support a variety of mis. space restrictions has been to restrict the first system by FY07. RPH-2. Rice was selected increase in VTUAV cut into manned digenous endurance UAV in FY03. Agency since 2001 for volcano obser- in the sea of Japan. cost of 22 billion yen ($200 million). funding would was accomplished using helicopters. graphic conditions. This program was part used by the Japanese Meteorological for conducting maritime surveillance of a broader government effort to sup. other brand names but built using sions including anti-piracy patrols. ing to Yamaha. cluding surveying.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 123 equipment traditionally need for in. but the Yamaha designs have tonomous UAVs and a flight control cision over whether it would eventu. The system is red Ballistic Missile Observation companies also tried to enter this field viewed as having two primary appli. One of the significant problems in 649k hectares in 2004 compared to tradictory reports about the current maintaining rice production in Japan the decline in manned helicopter crop progress of the program. Accord- fense Agency has decided to go with nese remain in the rural farm commu. There are about 6. Yamah a RMA X Japanese Coast Guard started in 2000 nese needs. Forestry and Fisheries of their military FFOS VTUAV. Some ac. as a matter of national interest due to crop-dusting with VTUAV’s ac- spending about 2. saster/high risk environments such as aim to begin testing them by 2012 at a ture in part due to its experience with volcanoes and nuclear power-plants. cles. dovetails with an earlier effort by the supplies about 95% of internal Japa.000 velopments in North Korea. So bilateral study dubbed NSP (Notional awarded a contract to Yamaha to de. citing an immediate need attempted to substitute technology for about 300 units with a value of about to have the capability to monitor de. This work is hazardous due to tempting to increase the use of these claim that the TRDI is continuing to the presence of power lines. The method used to avoid air- begin in FY06 with an aim to deploy The Japanese rice industry encom. dominated the market. VTUAVs totaled 1. emergency services with the system high-altitude.4 billion yen ($23 its traditional role in Japanese society. but there has been no firm de. and the vehicle was substan- The FABOT system was tested under to encourage its defense industries. duction of the R-50 VTUAV began in strumented landing systems (ILS). At $100 million.7 million hectares of the operating altitude of these ceived formal permission to acquire land and by 2000. only 347k hectares by 2004. buy US systems but continue to de.500 underway to subsidize the industry as vice though in fact the figure is closer miles from Japan to the Strait of a matter of national policy as Japan to 1. mestically due to its constricted geo. The program port the Japanese rice industry which vation. nities. one of the primary application for Sensor Platform). velop indigenous analogs as a method 1987. tially redesigned as the RMAX which normal conditions as well as under Japan has been developing an Infra. passes about 1. velop a crop-dusting UAV helicopter the RPH-2 has been government amine the possible applications of a based on the firms previous develop. the RPH-2 in 1998. As fewer and fewer Japa. aircraft. far.

Korean analysts be. quirement called Bijo (a. there is usually a significant quisition of an endurance UAV for given Japan’s long term commitment pool of funds available. defense effort. Daewoo Heavy Industries in truder 300 has a twin boom configu- In December 1995. The Night In- military until recently. ber 2001 with first deliveries in No- rea had signed a $50 million contract the program was intended mainly to vember 2003. it was reported South Korea began at least three UAV ration.Page 124 Rest of the World UAV Market Teal Group Analysis Japan has traditionally supported a tion in certain aspects of the Japanese Japan is the only country with a vigorous defense RDT&E effort. espe. and some experi- The recent crisis in neighboring men tatio n w ith micro an d North Korea has led to an accelera. Sacheon plant in 2005 after the engi- lieve that a significant civilian market which emerged in 1999 as the Night neering staff fell from about 70 to 20. nology. The Korean naissance program. It has a payload of 45 kg and an tems as part of a $32. This program cause of the 1% of GDP allotted to de. is likely to emerge by then. ricultural requirements. mini-UAV carrying a very small TV lage. the program was consolidated into the market by 2012. fixed undercarriage and rear that South Korea was on the verge of programs in the early 1990s. The UAVs would Development started in 1988 for a MoD awarded a production contract be acquired in 1997-2000. The mounted pusher prop with the E-O signing a contract with Israel for the TRPV-1 Doyosae (Snipe) is a payload suspended under the fuse- acquisition of unspecified UAV sys. Japan‘s first spy satellite. it was reported that South Ko. but little of this has Joint Project 129 UAV requirement. robotics. In view commercial areas as there are no pres- dustries. the VTUAVs used in agriculture have ment efforts as part of state industrial tion of tactical UAVs for army mod. It is less clear that is directed towards domestic procure. Japan 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — 15 60 75 100 100 100 100 — — 550 FFOS VTUAV 20 — — — — — — — — — 20 Tactical UAV 5 5 5 15 15 15 15 — — — 75 Naval VTUAV — — — — 3 6 12 12 12 12 57 MALE UAV — — — 1 3 3 3 3 2 2 17 HALE UAV — — 1 — 1 1 1 1 3 2 10 Coast Guard MALE UAV — — — — — — 1 2 2 2 7 Commercial VTUAV 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 3. In August Korean Air Force reconnaissance re. endurance of six hours. The first flight was 1993. nology (MOST) in 2002. 300 was offered to Australia for its over a decade. It is somewhat surpris. Korean Korean Air Lines Aerospace dis- Aerospace Industry is now the lead on played a small tactical UAV in Sep- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . Much of this maritime surveillance would be the to the rice industry. and the Night Intruder active UAV development effort for that direction. camera for real-time surveillance. it would not be surprising to space beyond the current 150 meter ing that Japan has shown such modest see a technology demonstration effort altitude limit. Development (ADD) sponsored early ated GCS and support equipment. but some acquisi. especially in aerospace and of Japan‘s traditional enthusiasm for ent guidelines for their access to air shipbuilding. much chance of diffusing into other policy to bolster Japan‘s high tech in. ended in late 2005. including the launch of significant civil UAV industry. Be. Each system con- A UAV program was established men t ’s A g e n c y f o r D e f e n s e sists of six air vehicles plus the associ- by the Ministry of Science and Tech. most likely avenue. were delivered when the program to begin in early 1998. By 1994. quirement. translated into actual hardware for the Tactical UAV Programs but missed the final bid. and Korea Intruder 300 tactical UAV. mini-UAVs.k.a. cially those that could prove useful in has been bolstered by government fense and the relatively small size of monitoring events in Korea. ernization also seems likely.000 Korea (ROK) The Republic of Korea has had an would like to tailor its requirements in the program. This has mainly oriented towards domestic ag- nese defense industrial policy. interest in UAVs over the past decade. The ac. lead to greater interest in UAVs. support and seems likely to continue the JSDF. A total of five systems for the Searcher UAV with deliveries gain some experience in UAV tech.5 million recon. Beejoe). for the Night Intruder 300 in Septem- 1997. but about 5% of the international UAV dustries working on a new UAV re. The Korean tactical UAV development with The Night Intruder program had been industrial plan is to attempt to secure Daewoo and Korean Aerospace In. the Korean govern. in the UCAV field. based in KAI’s Changwon plant. This is in part due to traditional Japa.

An air vehicle is expected to fly in 2008. the Korean Agency for Defense Development ap- tember 2007 which it states is aimed A potential competitor in this field proached the US Navy about formal primarily at the civil UAV market. expected to be a local development level surveillance system for opera. followed by a 50 meter also reported to be working on its own Smart UAV VIA-50 prototype that first flew in ARCH contender which flew in 1992.000 feet. UAV for the civil market that can op. with the timeline being a start in 2006 and a 10 year development cycle. duct flight demonstrations. with at developing and testing a 200 meter The South Korean firm Ucon is the initial phase 1 costing about $22 long airship powered by solar panels planning to market the Durami million.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 125 In November 2005. it was an- nounced that Korea Aerospace Indus- tries would undertake work on a MALE UAV with government spon- sorship. This mini-UAV is Hawks in mid-2005. The program is quirement for a platoon and company prohibited due to MTCR concerns. Airship UAV UAV. tions along the DMZ. The final 2 0 0 7 f o r a s in g le s ys tem o f ment funding for the program is stated phase beginning in late 2007 is aimed short-range UAVs. ter (ARCH) involving agricultural Batwing UAV. The firm already markets a smaller air Endurance UAV vehicle called the Remo Air 06 which South Korea formally asked the UCAV Program is roughly comparable to the US US for the sale of four RQ-4 Global KARI and MOST are expected to Pointer mini-UAV. The sale was denied in 2006. ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . and so effort. involved in the program. This is based remaining on station for 72 hours at Mini-UAVs around the Eagle Eye Tilt rotor UAV 65. to be $120 million through 2012. This firm is work. scheduled to begin and regenerative fuel cells with an en- mini-UAV developed by the Korean in 2005. million will come from Korean firms national manufacturers in February erate in controlled airspace. Ucon is also as. The gov- ernment also expects to spend about $210 million on a HALE UAV devel- opment effort starting in 2008. Phase 2. The R&D program is ex- pected to cost $440 million. work on micro-UAVs include the Institute (KARI) has been working on cultural Remote Controlled Helicop. the Russian Kamov helicopter firm small UAV is aimed at both civilian for work on the helicopter-type Ka-37 and military applications. The US re. involves the design of a local durance of up to one month at an alti- Aerospace Research Institute under tilt-rotor UAV and Phase 3. This is a long 2009 will deploy prototypes and con. The Korean Aerospace Research September 2003. The program began with a 10 meter work (crop spraying). UAV program with an aim towards VTOL Tactical UAV ing with German and Russian acquiring such a system when it be- Daewoo provided some funding to partners on the program. the system is seen as being civilian endurance meteorological UAV simi. This work was stated to be for a KARI has also been sponsoring The Korean Aerospace Research civilian requirement called the Agri. cation relay roles. and a powered airship UAV since 2000. sponse to date is that the sale may be gram starting in 2005. and the comes available. Korea may request other US systems s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e U A E U AV such as the Predator or take a look at programs. Govern. Daewoo was long pilot. Phase 2 of the pro- Daewoo has estimated that the market Institute (KARI) teamed with Bell gram began in December 2003 and for ARCH is about 500 air vehicles. earth observation and telecommuni- lar in concept to the Saab/Aerosonde.000 feet. Naval Endurance UAV Remo Eye 002 In late 2005. Konkuk University Spot MAV. participation in the BAMS HALE spector mini-UAV. other alternatives. begin funding a Korean UCAV pro- aimed at a South Korean Army re. Helicopter in July 2002 to launch its aims at displaying a system capable of Smart UAV program. The main role for the name Remo Air 015. starting in tude of 65. This phase is expected to The ROK Army released a request and is aimed at developing a reliable cost $34 million of which about $9 for information to domestic and inter. is Y4K Telecom’s NMAS/Sky In.

the Malaysian termine their suitability to the mari. and this is likely to absorb Korea. The interest in surveillance to locate especially big ticket items like endur- KAI UAV programs are probably be. ber 2005. $7.4 million contract for further de- nificantly larger number. augur well for a medium endurance usual approach of funding a UAV de. CTRM. The aim was to velopment work on what is now successful flight of the UAV was con. ance UAVs. The sys. with the emphasis at team. veillance and security. also a probable candidate for small space industry. UAV system would have applications troubles at the turn of the century vanced RDT&E efforts. hicle with eight foot wingspan for a strator with a new design weighing tures the aircraft. UAV for surveillance. the Army decided to $8.000). UAVs. aim is to design a system within a Besides army interest. BAE Systems received a Other accounts indicate that at least In late 2005. pushed back several high priority de- p r o b a b ly r e g a r d e d as a g o o d North Korea has periodically fense programs such as the F-15K foot-in-the-door for a country like staged small raids along the coast. North Korean multiple rocket launch. the MoD awarded the firms a expressed interest in acquiring a sig. If the program ($500. price-tag of about RM 1. The market manned Developmental Research tem is “ready for production when is stated to be oil and gas companies Aircraft) demand requires”. there has in Africa and South American for sur- been no actual procurement funding. UAV around the Eagle SR2 demon- Malaysia (CTRM) which manufac. and a possible export product has often infiltrated agents into South the defense procurement funding for in the region. the next several years. one has been sold to the Royal Malay. Army. The three converted Malaysian Customs requirement. cal or based on an actual requirement. will probably occur later ing supported by the government as ers and missile sites. A persistent en. Korea (ROK) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV 10 — — — — 30 30 30 30 100 230 Tactical UAV — — — 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 45 Naval VTUAV — — — 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 21 MALE UAV — — — — 2 2 2 2 2 2 12 HALE UAV — — — — — — 1 1 1 1 4 Malaysia In 2001. Malaysia is velopment to bolster the local aero.5 million per system. develop a system with a unit cost of dubbed the ALUDRA (Allianced Un- ducted in September 2001.Page 126 Rest of the World UAV Market Teal Group Analysis Korea was one of the first Asian There are several obvious tactical durance UAV for surveillance could countries to show strong interest in applications for UAVs by the ROK help address this problem. and a tactical in the forecast period as the economic part of its general policy to bolster ad. UAVs are to this mission. their resources to form a new UAV in conjunction with the local firm of velop UAVs. Ikramatic and Sys- package to convert the two-seat Eagle Exxcelnet Sdn Bht.5 kg air ve. the Malaysian MoD has in 2003. (partner with tems Consultancy Services pooled 150 aircraft into a surveillance UAV CTRM) has begun an effort to de. Korea by small boat. foster a UAV program and in Decem- sian Ministry of Defense to develop a sian Air Force. In May is successful. a 6. The about 200 kg with a 25-50 kg payload. cated civilian UAV requirement.5 million contract from the Malay. Excelnet has begun work on 2007. It is not clear if the lems along the coast would seem to numbers of tactical UAVs. that is. aircraft were intended for trials to de. and purchase. and to actually have a dedi. The first be available in 2005. Teal Group Analysis Malaysia seems to be trying the Eagle UAV program is entirely practi. The plan is to base the new Composite Research Technology first on its Mini-UAV.8 million navy has stated potential interest in time surveillance role. a tactical UAV which was expected to $1. Malaysia 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — — 30 40 — — — — 70 Tactical UAV — — — 10 10 — — — — — 20 MALE UAV — — — — — — — 2 2 — 4 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . There has been long-standing Much of Korea’s UAV acquisition. Malaysia‘s traditional security prob. The Mini-UAV first flew the system for coastal patrol.

These include the Vector Mk 2. The fuel capacity is 25 liters. Integrated Dynamics UAVs kg. and a real time video UAVs in its recent border disputes small. Libya. Pakistan has recently but the main issue is where these African programs are problematic. The tomers in Spain. and an endurance of with India since 2000. range of 20 km. payload is a real time daylight cam- (AWC) manufactures the Bravo and era. but its own experience in this for additional tactical UAV systems. camera. It is powered Luna mini-UAV from Germany has sold about 15-20 UAVs to cus- by a 22 hp two-cylinder engine.5 hours. The air vehicle has a wingspan of 7. Australia.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 127 Pakistan Pakistan has had a modest UAV development effort since the 1990s aimed at providing small tactical UAVs for border surveillance in the troubled Kashmir region. The system has an operating Teal Group Analysis Pakistan has a clear requirement sible choice given Pakistan‘s politics. The Pakistan government has and radar. directed by Pakistan‘s National Engineering and Scientific Commis- sion. The Hornet appar- 2001. plier. Israel is an impos. South Ko- payload capacity is 12 kg and typi- TUAV Import rea. The flight con. been turning to Europe and the US.87 meters. ported some UAVs from China. placed an official request with the US The Hornet is a short-range ad- sion of the Meggitt Banshee 400 in government for potential purchase of junct to the Vector. but apparently other packages are Vision tactical UAVs for the Pakistan Predator Requirement available including acoustic sensors army. It is powered by a 25 hp twin cylinder gas- oline engine. The Vector is a conventional de- sign using a twin book configuration and pusher prop propulsion. It can carry a 25 kg pay- load. manu- factured by Integrated Defense Sys- tems ( I D S ) . closed number of the recon UAV ver. The normal T h e A ir We a p o n s Co mp lex tems. Pakistan an. nounced that it would acquire Galileo to the ground control station is a Falco tactical UAVs from Italy. The air vehicles are infra-red flares. The datalink back as used on the vector. China is Pakistan‘s traditional sup. Th e s e h a v e b e e n displayed at international trade shows for potential export. and Israeli clones such as the South field is limited. The ID-TM6 telemetry module which in- AWC UAVs size of the initial purchase is four sys- cludes a GPS system. digital gyro autopilot with heading trol and telemetry system is the same In March 2006. and the US through the cally includes four smoke flares or six Pakistan has repeatedly used end of 2006. These have been designed by firms associated with the National Development Com- plex. the chief of the air force sug- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . a takeoff weight of 46 kg.000. It has a wingspan of 3. 2003. costing about $20. an unloaded weight of 30 Mini-UAV Import In march 2006. and has im- Flight control consists of an ID-AP4 one hour 35 minutes. In could be obtained.09 meters and an empty weight of 66 kg. Pakistan has bought an undis. Nishan Mk 2 and Hornet Mk 6. aerial targets. the I-Gnat and/or RQ-1A Predator for ently stems from earlier work on use as a strategic ISR asset. It has an operating range of AWC Vision 1 about 150 km and an endurance of 4. and a nounced plans to acquire the EMT Pakistan’s Integrated Dynamics fuel capacity of 15 liters. Pakistan an- and height control.

3 kg on date. scribed as being “up to one hour”. tion for surveillance. protection of the maritime economic tion Consultancy for a small number Maritime Aerial Reconnais. president signed an executive order to pines Army has its own UAV devel. though propeller to permit it to take off verti- ment over the problems. and there is some possi- three dozen Predators. the Singapore Air Force usual types of sensors such as day- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . displayed the Blue Horizon tactical revert back to a vertical hover posi- rectorate. the Philippine civil authorities. zone. ing a small fleet of UAVs for 2001 with the Israeli firm EMIT Avia. Camp which will be responsible for ment ated by 128 Squadron at Murai Camp the 119 and 128 Squadrons equipped Singapore Technologies Dynam- Singapore purchased about 40 with Searcher UAVs and the new 116 ics displayed a VTOL Mini-UAV at Searcher air vehicles from IAI in the Squadron equipped with the recently the 2002 Eurosatory show. The aimed at the potential export market. tem to support counter-insurgency a long list of urgent defense require- operations. sion of the Israeli EMIT Blue Horizon takeoff. In addition. but few details of the gram. internal se- of Sting I. The called Fantail. now mid-1990s as a replacement for the purchased Hermes-450 UAVs. and has an endurance de- forts have been commercial ventures UAV and part of a $14 million tech. payloads are described as being the In May 2006. the There have been reports that a fine models of various configurations of VTOL Mini-UAV uses a mid-body was levied by the Singapore govern.Page 128 Rest of the World UAV Market gested that Pakistan needed two or seems a bit far-fetched due to cost and time frame. The tactical UAV requirement date for a modern tactical UAV sys. tactical UAVs over the years. initiate a maritime surveillance pro- Teal Group Analysis The Philippines is a likely candi. It can then Defense set up a Future Systems Di. new command is tri-service. most of the Singapore UAV ef. counter-terrorism. Autonomous Systems LLC. technology concerns. and then transition to horizontal In 2003. the supply of the Predator Pakistan would probably like to ops such as system. These have been used (MARS) UAV Program suitable for use by both military and for the base at Basilan to support in January 2006. will be funding as the Philippines has is likely to be met first. weighing only 2. Sting II and Blue Horizon sance and Surveillance curity. undertaken in cooperation with Micro but refused to accept further deliver. In 2000. At the mo. anti-guerilla operations. acquire an endurance UAV in this Pakistan 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV 20 20 20 — — — — — — — 60 Tactical UAV 12 — — — — 6 6 — — — 24 MALE UAV — — — — 1 1 1 — — — 3 Philippines The Philippines is reported to have opment effort. This project is being Scout under a $90 million contract. bility this could occur if China devel- ment. a requirement ments without the means to fund probably has recently emerge for a Philippines 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — 20 40 — — — — — — — 60 Tactical UAV — — — — 6 6 — — — — 12 Singapore Singapore acquired the Israeli set up a UAV Command at Murai Singapore Mini-UAV Develop- Scout UAV system which was oper. To This is a license manufactured ver. The system is amine future UAV requirements. Singapore Dynamics has shown using conventional flight profiles. quite small. The program is aimed at field- spent about $1 million in September program have been revealed. nology transfer deal in 1998. and one of its tasks is to ex. and disaster assistance and be tactical UAVs. The Philip. it flight for high speed dash. there has been little evidence that any cally. The main issue them. While ies after the first batch of systems Initial Development Efforts most micro UAVs are winged designs failed to live up to requirements. the Singapore Ministry of have gone into production. UAV at the Asian Aerospace show. maritime patrol UAV.

battery powered for this role. the Skyblade III which uses number of Hermes-450 UAVs. Cradance Service of aircraft with AEW and SIGINT pack- these sensors. The Aero) unveiled its MAV-1 (Miniature During 2004. Air Vehicle-1) jet powered tactical began discussions with neighbors cludes three air vehicles and one UAV in 2004. this for a number of years. Singapore re. jet repair and maintenance firm. firm has stated that it has the capabil. The Singapore de. date late in the forecast period here. Two systems gine. However. terchangeable sensor payload and ity to develop a UCAV based on the The idea is that this could open up the other changes requested by the Singa. traffic control officials with their use. Skyblade IV which is rail-launched ceived a formal briefing on the Global and has its endurance extended to six Hawk. Singapore officials cost is $200. patrol. shipboard operations. EMIT Sparrow called the Sparrow-N terest in an endurance UAV for The Singapore Army has expressed at the 2005 arms show in Bankok. Singapore will probably acquire not beyond. and UAVs probably purchase locally to support would probably push the acquisition would seem to be an excellent en. Singapore announced for a demonstration in the region in- flight testing of the Fantail began in plans to award a contract to Rutan cluding Singapore and Japan. Japan has also been demonstrated in Austra. the Singa. Singapore an- purchase to 20 systems by 2008. towards the use of Gulfstream G550 ent dome at the front of the vehicle for ously enough. an operation that cur- pore MoD announced plans to buy rently runs afoul of international seven Skyblade II mini-UAV systems Hermes-450 Purchase aircraft lanes. lia. posed partners are Australia. uncooled IR hours. The Singapore Defense Force MAV-1 placed an order for the Skyblade in Singapore Technologies Aero (ST Maritime Operations late 2004 for delivery in 2005.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 129 light or low-light video. nounced that a contract had been Maritime Requirement A third version was demonstrated signed with Elbit for an undisclosed The Singapore Navy has a stand- in 2006. In late 2005. The UAV force to be based on Guam.000 per system which in. This UAV is expected over the operations of UAVs over the GCS. fense forces probably will have a an endurance UAV. A Global Hawk transited from ban operations. The pro- UAV with a two meter wingspan. though presumably Singapore unveiled a version of the ages. It to focus on a local initiative. veillance for Singapore warships. or the individual countries Skyblade. a more conventional they may examine the Global Hawk could field their own Global Hawks hand-launched. but for the moment plan but operate them jointly. Air Force has made a proposal for a will demonstrate the transition from ment of the LALEE (low altitude long multi-national Global Hawk regional vertical to horizontal flight in 2007. Singapore is currently exam- Teal Group Analysis Singapore has been attempting to requirement to replace some Searcher the course of indigenous develop- break into the defense export market UAVs later in this decade and will ment as is currently planned. ST Aero is best known as a region to wider use of UAVs for mari- pore MoD. and the South China Sea to familiarize air Skyblade II which introduces an in. The fleet The plan is to transition to production is intended to provide long range sur. and France reportedly LALEE Endurance UAV Qatar to Adelaide in February 2006 is examining the system as well. ST Aero is also developing a Global Hawk under consideration are the MQ-8 somewhat larger version called In September 2005. ing requirement for a Navy UAV for an electric rather than gasoline en. MAV-1. and Singapore. ST Aero unveiled to enter flight trials in 2004. but if it follows Singapore 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV 15 15 — — — — — — — — 30 Tactical UAV — — — — — — — 10 10 — 20 Naval VTUAV — — — 6 — — — — — — 6 MALE UAV — — — — — — — 1 1 — 2 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . if try-level niche. UAVs providing regional surveil- Also under development is the Singapore officials have stated that lance. There is a small transpar. could be jointly funded with the in late 2007. persistent surveillance and maritime interest in the design for potential ur. or other types EMIT Sparrow and may be a license ments and at the moment is leaning of sensors. It appears to be similar to the ining future surveillance require- cameras. Fire Scout and the Boeing ScanEagle. time patrol. produced version or derivative. microphones. in 2006 and to gradually increase the In June 2007. the industry. In 2005. Curi. The In 2001. there is long-term in- they could be rear mounted as well. The US May 2005 with the expectation that it Aviation to assist in the local develop. enduring endurance) UAV.

19 wargames. system cost of about $1 million. crashed or rendered otherwise inop- training. These have been described at have been unconfirmed reports that veloped UAV called Superstar has Super Scouts in other accounts. and there erative by 2006. but after losing all three in against the Tamil Tigers in coun. fourth UAV was lost in May 1997 on quired a small number of IAI and one crashed in March 2006 near an operational sortie. According to the Vanni air base. mum by the civil war with the Tamil Sri Lanka 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Tactical UAV 6 — — — — — — — — — 6 Taiwan (ROC) though less detail has been released about this program. In 2005. The Sri Lanka subsequently tested or ac. in 1996. The Hummingbird stems from Kestrel II a proof-of-concept study using the Eagle 600 two-seat helicopter. locally de- hicles. a payload of 2-10 kg and a The Chung Shan Institute of Sci. system to the Taiwanese defense tional tactical UAV with eight hours force. Taiwan has developed tactical a government funded program to UAVs in recent years including the study autopilots. The contract Searcher tactical UAVs. CSIST also built a a UAV effort in 1994 as an offshoot to larger UAV. The Kestrel II is a fairly conven. possible. the Chung Hsiang. ence and Technology (CSIST) began tional air shows. The Fire Ant has a wingspan of CSIST UAV Programs endurance and a 30 kg payload. VTUAV CSIST has developed a helicopter UAV known as Hummingbird and has attempted to interest the Taiwanese army. partnered with AIDC to market the 2005-2010 time-frame. has been offered for export at interna. The UAVs Ceylonese accounts. ter-insurgency operations. the Kestrel II with some six built since dubbed Fire Ant and has recently quire three battalions of UAVs in the 1998. The first UAV was Fireant Mini-UAV CSIST Kestrel tactical UAV and the the Kestrel I with a 20 kg payload. CSIST is also developing an armed UAV equipped with the AGM-114 Hellfire or similar missiles. and it eight feet. The Taiwanese firm Pegasus Avia- larger Chung Hsiang. World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . also been put into air force service. Teal Group Analysis Sri Lanka‘s budget is very small Tigers. useful in this conflict for surveillance.6 million. Tactical UAVs have proven and some modest future purchase is and has been stretched to the maxi. most or all Is- Superhawk UAV systems from Israel were very successful in operations raeli UAVs had been shot down. Another locally developed tactical UAV dubbed Thunder Tiger was un- veiled at the Taipei Aerospace Tech- nologies Exhibition in 2003. As of early 2003. based on the 2005 requirement. acquired another two air ve.Page 130 Rest of the World UAV Market Sri Lanka S r i La n k a a c q u i r e d th r e e cost about $7. A small. both types were only in prototype stage and were first used in the May 2003 Hankuang No. the Two were built and were followed by tion has developed a mini-UAV government announced plans to ac.

forts by its aerospace industry. small tactical UAV in late 2006. lance UAV might prove a useful effort grams since the late 1990s. and in February government auditors over the issue of million baht ($2 million) for a devel- 1 9 9 2 s e le c te d th e I s r a e li I A I whether the system was actually in opment effort in 2004-07. have trimmed earlier ambitions. Thailand examined a the program came under fire from Research Fund have committed 84 number of systems. mini-UAVs are certainly possible in Argentina 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — 25 — — — — — — — — 25 Tactical UAV — — 4 4 — — — — — — 8 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Tactical UAVs have some distinct CSIST has been trying to interest the limitations given Taiwan‘s strategic Taiwan 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — — 30 90 — — — — 120 Tactical UAV 10 10 25 — — — — 20 20 — 85 Naval UAV — — — 6 6 6 — — — — 18 MALE UAV — — — 2 2 2 — — — — 6 Thailand In 1982. Army and Coast Guard in these pro- portive of advanced technology ef. but a coastal surveil. These air vehi. both for the industry and the navy. durance UAV system for coastal sur- in UAVs. ordering one ground station production. predicament. The De- cles were in need for replacement by UAV. fense announced that it had begun building six for an undisclosed cus- small scale manufacture of its Yarara tomer in the US. entry point for the industry.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 131 Teal Group Analysis Taiwan has generally been sup. Thailand acquired a and four air vehicles at a cost of about been used for anti-drug operations squadron of six R4E-30 SkyEye $12 million for the Royal Thai Army. along the Burmese frontier. naissance in remote regions where within this forecast period. The Search. Thailand there are problems with drug smug. might also consider the use of an en- Thailand 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — — 20 20 — — — — 40 Tactical UAV — 6 — — — — — — — — 6 MALE UAV — — — — — 1 1 — — — 2 The Americas Argentina The Argentine firm Nostromo De. However. Chile’s recent ac- aerospace industry for many years. with the lo- Searcher. shortly afterwards fense Ministry and the Thailand the early 1990s. The Searcher system has cal TUAV being called Puksin. ers will probably need replacement veillance. Teal Group Analysis Argentina has had an active local UAVs may prove to be an attractive the forecast period. mainly to perform recon. Teal Group Analysis Thailand has had a modest interest gling and local warlords. ($12. Thailand announced of the four systems has led the Thai for use by the Royal Thai Air Force plans to spend 300 million baht government to consider a local initia- for surveillance work. and small quisition of mini-UAVs will probably but funding difficulties and cut-backs scale purchases of both tactical and encourage an Argentine purchase.1 million) on the Shadow 600 tive to manufacture UAVs. Attrition UAVs from Developmental Sciences In 1995.

surveillance. SIVAM is now intended to help the ment its SIVAM effort. since the mid-1990s called UASTAS 500 were manufactured for the Brit. The firm is also working Acaua UAV program was among is designed to survey plantations. It was ini. the CL-289. the Brazilian agricultural and pest infestations. identify crop distribution. Sperwer acquisition effort. this eventually emerged as the terpretation des Vols d’Engins de Re- velopment effort over the past two de. by Canadair. soil flow UAV. The CL-289 is a turbo. 1993. by a joint Canadian/German program. program matures. now part of it is a follow-on to the earlier divi- Bombardier. while Germany procured 188 air ve- for a new generation UAV system duction began in 1967 and more than hicles and eleven ground stations sets. requirements was completed in June tion system). and control centers in the Amazon ba- 1980s when Iraq defaulted on pay. requirement for a UAV to comple. The air vehicle weighs for land observation. on a mini-UAV and on a helicopter those efforts that were cancelled. test equipment. below. factored in the cost rose to about $85 lion. aimed primarily at monitoring the might be considered for this role if the try. were tions. opment in 1961 as a joint Canadair/ and two ground station systems. and a real-time data cently. in the summer of 1999. SIVAM is an government track deforestation. Neither the Canadian CL-89 Midge sion-level CL-89 (AN/USD-501) Army nor the Canadian navy have The first Canadian tactical UAV with longer range. Production for French and German (unmanned airborne target acquisi. more sophisticated shown deep interest in UAVs until re. Pro. In 2007. French and Italian ar. mentation. a complex network of satellite. cades. lution. connaissance). most of which appear to have 35 pounds and has a small CCD cam.Page 132 Rest of the World UAV Market Brazil Brazil embarked on a number of to develop a small agricultural UAV cheap enough for landowners to use missile and aerospace programs in the called Arara. As mentioned tion Piver 289 (Programmation et In- and government-sponsored UAV de. Eireye airborne radar aircraft but it is and a mini-UAV program may be borne and ground-based sensors conceivable that an endurance UAV started to encourage the local indus. Solutions unveiled its Watchdog tac- a lack of government interest. military early warning and civil ATC the appropriate government agency. The plan was to release the RFP jet-powered reconnaissance also million per battery. A tactical UAV program will be program. ground equipment and about 17 air dius of 50-150km. tially conceived as a combined sin. The data Brazil 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 207 Total Mini-UAV — — — 15 35 — — — — — 50 Tactical UAV — — — — 4 4 — — — — 8 MALE UAV — — — — — — — 1 1 — 2 Canada Canada had very active. The ages to the control station. Battery sets (comprising tactical UAV with an operational ra. but budget known by its NATO designation problems forced the government to AN/USD-502 and its French designa- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . and when docu- troop with two ground control sta. link. air. The Arara tical UAV. was th e CL-89 Mid g e guidance system. A corps-level system. France procured 55 air vehicles support of peacekeeping missions. The requirement CL-289 vehicles) had a hardware unit cost of had been pegged at one operational The CL-89 was followed in 1976 DM 89. postpone the program. Brazil might eventually develop a threatened local environment. the Brazilian firm Flight been canceled or simply ended due to era that can download real-time im. 1980s. then process and transferred to ments for Brazilian military equip. and a budget of about C$60 mil. German. ment. subsequently evolving into Brazil is currently using five Ericsson most likely late in the forecast period. ish.9 million. mainly connected with the (AN/USD-501) which began devel. illicit mineral extraction and and air traffic control (Sistema de illegal narcotics cultivation. etc. corporate. Canada had a standing requirement Canadian government program. The teamed with the Sao Paulo University aim is to develop a civil UAV that is Teal Group Analysis Brazil‘s defense industries have Vigilancia da Arnazorsia) for moni. will be collected at four evaluation been in a shambles since the late toring the Amazon region. A total of six research corporation Embrapa prototypes were built for trials. This is a close-range mies. pol- integrated air defense. In 2003.

The endurance program is Sea Sentinel in its maritime version) Canadian officials have stated that pegged at about C$250 million ($183 for the MAVUS I (Maritime VTOL they expect to acquire about five ad. short-term requirement for its Un. It was first demon.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 133 CL-227 Sentinel from a French corvette.000 on 5 April 2004 with battery. Ger. mini-UAVs for the mini-UAV mis. ghanistan. their remaining assets to bolster the in August 2004. take-off and landing system.. maritime patrol. and awarded Thales a contract deployed in September 2006 with E strator program using the Sentinel in a for C$649. The French mini-UAV. This is expected to in. (UASTAS) program to support its ance UAV in 2002 with demonstra- struments FLIR sensor to the US peacekeeping force in Operation tions of an Eagle 1/Heron from IAI Army at Ft. program was extended through Au. ond system. one each for Atlantic. The Army The Canadian army acquired five turbo-shaft engine into the Sentinel. The Cana. Canada bought a single CND is expected to release a tender in strated to the US armed forces in Sperwer system to fulfill an urgent the second half of 2006 for five September 1989 at Point Mugu. France and Canadian fleet. Centre (CFEC) to oversee a new UAV tions. The program began in delivery in July 2004. Canadair UAVs. NATO Comparative Testing includ. The acquisition effort called Omnibus and Arctic operations and a fifth sys- FY94 program for the maritime UAV Land Force Intelligence Surveillance tem for training. In the longer term. Sperwer Afghanistan. vices. replace the Sperwer. In June ance UAV capability and to help de- 1993. teamed with General Atomics to offer program of the CARS automated lished requirements for three types of Predator-B for this requirement. Canada acquired Elbit Skylark 2 tical take-off type. CA. The contract was to Thales WTS-34. In Athena in Afghanistan. Forces awarded General Atomics a contract. ment.5 million for the MALE development funding on the program rescue and electronic warfare. CDND has also nego- May 1990. The contract UAV program office aligned with the mid-2007 with an objective to acquire covered the demonstration of the Si. the CL-227 Sentinel/MAVUS ISTAR Omnibus UAV Program fine the endurance requirement. tillery near Kandahar. the UAV JPO awarded four air vehicles crashed and the other tiated for the tests of the Altair version Canadair a demonstration contract for two were found to have stress cracks of Predator for the endurance require- trials of the CL-227 Sentinel (called which prevented further operations. role of the system was for drug inte. the Canadian Department Current objectives are to prepare ten- gust 1994 with the award of a $10 mil. the Navy conducted opera. with an option for five more in June proved version of the Williams lery Regiment’s counter-battery unit 2006 to support operations in Af- WTS-117 gas turbine) for the in 2005-2006. Targ et A cq u isitio n S ystem CDND began studies of an endur- ing demonstration with a Texas In. trials. This demonstration and C$800. The Silver Fox mini-UAV The Canadair CL-227 Sentinel en. Elbit’s partner on the program. Denmark’s decision to contract in February 2004 to deploy tional demonstration of the CL-227 shed its troublesome Sperwers has led an Altair UAV in support of the Atlan- aboard the USS Doyle with participa. In February 2006. They were March 1994 and tests were conducted r e a d y ex a min e d th e P o in ter grounded in November 2006 due to ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . plans to form a UAV detachment of Elbit Skylark I mini-UAV systems substituting the WTS-125 (an im. In June 2006. Funding in the FY04-05 budget dian government agreed to share final gration. a tactical UAV to Canadair received a $6. UAVs: a mini-UAV. In 2003. The fort between CFEC and the three ser- private corporate venture. of the Canadian forces with endur- the demonstrations in FY92. Skylark Acquisition tract to integrate an improved dium-endurance UAV. the val applications. requirement included the MAVUS Target Acquisition and Reconnais. p r ime o n th e p r o g r a m w a s program is a collaborative study ef- tered development around 1976 as a Thomson-CSF (now Thales). mini-UAV system each with 6-10 air It was subsequently involved in manned Airborne Surveillance and vehicles for service by 2008. In 1994. Canada has al. General Dynamics-Canada has II/Canadair Sentinel demonstration sance Project. million US) which is expected to total UAV System) demonstration. ditional Sperwer air vehicles to make four to eight air vehicles. sion. the 1st Royal Canadian Horse Artil. In 2004. the Netherlands. primarily though mini-UAVs for immediate needs in not exclusively oriented towards na. of National Defense set up a joint der documentation for release in lion Navy contract.8 million con.000 for the in May 1985. further acquaint the various branches the United Kingdom and completed clude three GCS and 10 air vehicles. The aim is to help many. Unlike the earlier program did not proceed beyond the mini-UAV program. Canada tested three Silver Fox Canada which has been acting as Separate from the US program. Huachuca in 1990. 2 Royal Canadian Horse Ar- naval role. Common Auto. to a recent Canadian plan to acquire tic Littoral ISR Experiment (ALIX) tion of the navies of Canada. Pacific matic Landing System (CARS). Canadian Forces Experimentation five systems: one for off-shore opera- erra Nevada Corp. search and was C$2. Two of the off Vancouver. and a me. Canadian Under the initial demonstration up the losses and may acquire a sec. The CND has estab. the CL-227 is a ver. They France funded a technology demon.

Canadian procurement policies tend the requirements. A short-term acquisition is delays in JAIC could lead to an even- Afghanistan has sparked Canadian possible. and the navy responsible for coastal the Mexican Air Force and Navy in tems. tual merger or attempt to coordinate interest in further systems. aim is to provide capability in the In the longer term. systems is border surveillance with tem was first publicly revealed at the It is a tactical UAV with the mission the air force undertaking surveillance 2007 Paris Air Show. (Joint Unmanned Surveillance and The plan was to award a contract in target Acquisition System) which is Endurance Requirements 2007. next decade is possible atively modern air force. though the aim of the program was to in Afghanistan have sparked new in. The ob- der the program name of Joint Air. have been reports that a small number nent. quisition of a MALE UAV instead. the CDND pro. thread being provided by General Dy. but there was the Atlantic and Pacific Coast with plans to acquire up to 8-9 systems un. a long term objective called JUSTAS top GCS screen. and a small Chile 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV 15 — — — — — — — — 45 60 Tactical UAV — — — 4 6 — — — — — 10 Mexico Mexico’s Hydra Technologies be. based on quirement for a MALE UAV with eral Atomics Predator. The primary aim of the tasked with operating the system due UAV force. designing and building a system is paramilitary surveillance. jective borne ISR Capability (JAIC). The primary mission for the patrol missions. tion of additional mini-UAVs may oc. Teal Group Analysis Chile is one of the few South scale acquisition of UAVs over the American countries to maintain a rel. to this approach. missions along the southern frontier. but there have been indi. In March 2007. some opposition ion the government about three air vehicles each. of missions. gan manufacture of the S4 Ehecatl for namics Advanced Information Sys. Elbit conducted a number of are being acquired. to the recognition that they are better World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . The Teal Group Analysis Canadian experiences with UAVs led some army officers to promote ac. consisting of two systems. short term and the system will be ori. but from past experience. to lead to prolonged programs. Combat use of UAVs in capability. expected to be a MALE or HALE The CDND has established a re. Acquisi. Al- Canada 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — — 30 30 — — — — 60 MALE UAV (JAIC) — 2 3 — — — — — — — 5 MALE UAV (JUSTAS) — — — — — — 5 — — — 5 Chile Chile has not yet begun any major flight demonstrations of its Skylark UAV effort. field JAIC immediately and then ac- terest in the use of UAVs for a variety preferably with some armed attack quire JUSTAS about five years later. Teal Group Analysis Mexico has quietly become the new system with modest US technical and the air force and navy have been first country in Latin America with a assistance. It is cur to deal with the problems unclear whether the army JAIC re- encountered with the Skylark. ented mainly towards army needs. The quirement will be merged with the air use of the Sperwer in Afghanistan has force JUSTAS requirement.Page 134 Rest of the World UAV Market operational malfunctions and prob. posed going sole-source for the Gen. mini-UAV in Chile in 2006 and there cations that a UAV program is immi. and it went operational in 2007. The new UAV sys- 2006. the air force has lems with the viewability of the lap.

but to cific plans to extend its use to the Mexico 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Mini-UAV — — — — — — 35 — — — 35 Tactical UAV 6 6 6 6 — — — — — — 24 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . there are no spe. cies. though this is possible. no acquisition details have been than would be federal police agen. Contin.Rest of the World UAV Market Page 135 situated to operating such systems army. over the next few years is likely. date. ued acquisition of a few more systems released. At the moment.

Page 136 Rest of the World UAV Market World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation .

surveillance “shooter” forces: fighters. control. intelligence. bombers. sur- dustry. and periodic not to say that UAVs will totally re. ban fighting. to put UAV funding in States will spend about $385 million million in FY16 – including all perspective. and is smaller. So we will spend double on 1960s. This is that after recent combat action. although the United for UAV E-O/IR in FY07 and $662 RDT&E and procurement funding – ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . tied to the general trend to. to about one-fifth of our bud- Christopher Bowie said: “In the projected to grow to half. have proven their utility. years).” He also get…. key element in the intelligence. UAVs are a growth sectors of the aerospace in. ICBMs and so on. nating in Afghanistan and Iraq. UAVs.” computers. communications. and they (E-O/IR) system spending available growth of interest in UAVs by the US are expanding into other missions as to US manufacturers will grow from military. and reconnaissance) and airlift] rep. The Market Upside UAVs are one of the most dynamic in FY15 (a 77% increase in eight work-centric systems. UAVs bouts of media hype. Deputy Direc. well with the advent of hunter-killer $438 million in FY07 to $774 million wards information warfare and net. for recon. spending [for C4ISR (com. UAVs have (unmanned aerial vehicle) market is naissance or any other mission. but also recently proven effective in ur- finally showing real growth. claimed the Air Force is now only ISR and mobility what we spend on mand. resented about a third of our effort. spending 25 percent of its budget on shooters. culmi. Reality Check However. Teal Group estimates that The most significant catalyst to veillance. and reconnaissance (ISR) U AV electro -o p tical/in frared this market has been the enormous portion of this revolution. the US UAV place manned platforms. with plans calling The UAV Market After years of talk.Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors UAV E-O/IR Funding Forecast RDT&E+Procurement Available to the US (FY07 $ Millions) 800 600 400 200 0 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 Global Hawk BAMS Predator/Warrior UCAV Tactical Mini/Micro Other US International Market Overview The Demand for ISR In February 2005. It for this segment “to shrink even tor of Air Force Strategic Planning now stands at about 45 percent.

which puts UAV kets. est-growing. 70 missile transporters. lion in FY06 and will be about $2. plier effect is one of the strongest lected data on 55% of all air de- come a buzz-word for supporters of arguments for endurance UAV recon. 300 canisters. E-O/IR in perspective. Typ- Endurance (HALE) UAVs (e. growth for already-mature manned largely for Sniper. fly at about 30.832 US Airborne Hyperspectral E-O/IR Technology RDT&E+Procurement (also for non-UAVs) RDT&E+Proc. reportedly located at least 13 sur- Hawk and Predator.000 kg or more. UAV E-O/IR market. agery-collection sorties and only 5% 300 tanks. as a substan.. Looking at the overall ment of the market. While manned Due to this persistence. High Altitude Hawk. Thus. (FY07$ Millions) FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 Total SPIRITT & USAF Hyperspectral (speculative) 35 44 50 58 64 62 80 80 80 86 639 USN & Army Hyperspectral (speculative) 28 32 42 54 68 66 86 98 115 145 734 Total 63 76 92 112 132 128 166 178 195 231 1. Sensor Payloads Typical Medium Altitude Endur. and relatively long endurance (about 6 2003 flew only 3% of all aircraft im.g. several UAVs can stay air. UAV sensor E-O/IR will be one of the fast- manned systems was about $2. never be the biggest market.350 kg for the RQ-4B).000 feet for 24 hours or loads weighing up to 1. with sensor payloads weighing more (900 kg for the RQ-4A Global between 250-400 kg.Page 138 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors it spent about $800 million FY06 just billion in FY15. compared with little or no for manned fighter targeting systems. the single face-to-air missile (SAM) batteries.g. Predator) for 24 hours or more. of high-altitude missions. It also imaged hours). ical tactical UAVs weigh between Funding Forecast US UAV E-O/IR RDT&E RDT&E (FY07$ Millions) FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 Total Global Hawk E-O/IR 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 300 BAMS E-O/IR 7 12 13 22 20 16 8 8 11 9 126 Predator & Warrior ER/MP E-O/IR 16 19 17 11 9 9 7 9 9 9 114 UCAV E-O/IR 8 10 14 18 14 16 20 20 18 14 152 Naval UAV E-O/IR 10 11 9 8 6 11 10 8 7 6 86 Tactical UAV E-O/IR 13 15 19 20 24 30 30 33 34 34 252 Mini/Micro-UAV E-O/IR 16 25 23 23 22 28 29 32 32 31 261 Other UAV E-O/IR 45 43 47 51 45 59 62 58 66 65 541 Total 145 165 172 183 170 199 196 198 207 198 1.373 US UAV E-O/IR Procurement Procurement (FY07$ Millions) FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 Total Global Hawk E-O/IR 39 79 94 90 92 80 57 41 45 49 685 BAMS E-O/IR — — — — — 12 14 26 28 22 102 Predator & Warrior ER/MP E-O/IR 48 58 72 83 140 106 103 83 82 72 847 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . platforms such as P-3C Orions have a Global Hawk operational in Iraq in 50 SAM launchers. It endurance UAVs such as Global naissance and surveillance. 1. fense-related time-sensitive targets.. ATFLIR and tial but by no means dominant seg. weighing between 20-100 kg. system growth rates will exceed al.1 ready mature manned system mar- Persistent Surveillance and Endurance UAVs Persistent surveillance has be. although it will Litening pods.2 bil. with sensor payloads ance (MALE) UAVs (e. This multi. US spending on On the other hand. but col.000 feet 150-500 kg. with sensor pay. system markets. Global Hawk) fly at up to 60. 38% of Iraq’s total known borne for a day or more. armor force.

Northrop Grumman claimed costs (6/06): Block 10 RQ-4A with sen- sor – $31.145 Commercial UAV E-O/IR 2 2 2 2 2 14 26 26 34 44 154 Other UAV E-O/IR 34 40 50 55 65 65 70 70 75 80 604 Total 240 312 372 366 435 384 380 391 450 464 3. Ground station – $14 million (GAO estimated cost. Block 20 RQ-4B with sensor –$45. EISS – $12 million (without HISAR) (according to Northrop Grumman.811 International UAV E-O/IR Procurement Procurement (FY07$ Millions) FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 Total HALE UAV — — — 8 6 9 6 8 5 11 51 MALE UAV 7 8 6 9 8 15 17 23 16 9 117 UCAV — — — 17 — 31 34 — 32 — 113 Naval UAV — — — — 7 5 7 9 10 11 49 Tactical UAV 18 17 11 18 20 20 18 17 17 15 171 Mini/Micro-UAV 8 10 11 13 14 12 17 18 17 12 131 Civil UAV 19 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 218 Total 53 56 50 87 77 114 121 96 117 80 851 UAV E-O/IR Funding Share RDT&E+Procurement Available to the US 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 Global Hawk BAMS Predator/Warrior UCAV Tactical Mini/Micro Other US International Endurance UAV E-O/IR Sensors Global Hawk Basic and Enhanced Integrated Sensor Suite Status: In Production Manufacturer: Raytheon Network Centric Systems.2 million (we suspect these are low-end accounting estimates) ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Block 30 RQ-4B with sensor – $54. El Segundo.9 million. 7/06).Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Page 139 UCAV E-O/IR — — — — — — — — 16 20 36 Naval UAV E-O/IR — 1 5 5 6 6 7 8 8 8 54 Tactical UAV E-O/IR 19 14 25 3 16 13 13 17 32 34 184 Mini/Micro-UAV E-O/IR 98 118 124 128 114 88 90 120 130 135 1.6 million. 4/06): RQ-4A with sensor – $82 million (up from original estimate of $60 million). CA Unit Cost: ISS – $8 million (without HISAR).2 million. Block 40 without sensor [MP-RTIP] – $39.

which of the RQ-4B’s additional power for improvements over the YRQ-4A. vehicles delivered. The RQ-4B has a 3. and a limited sig. where it is in use ity on the aircraft. Global Hawk ISS Too Expen- B. with 26 penses. the Block 20 and per Global Hawk. veloped the 400 kg Global Hawk In. Six of these aircraft are to Global Hawk crashed over Afghani- 1998. The Air built through 1999. followed by 26 Block 30 stan due to engine problems. ligence (IMINT) orbits in FY09. It reportedly has a 50% (believed to be Al Dhafra in the UAE) The 15 Block 40s will carry only the greater range than the Basic ISS. sive armed. lized into blocks. time Demonstration (GHMD) pro. The SAR has an in- ing aircraft have been delivered to the Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) crease in transmitted power and a US Navy for the Global Hawk Mari. larger antenna. the Block 10 aircraft are ex. and IR sensors. and will serve entirely as a re. Series production the RQ-4A. Block 20 will have an open wise. E-O/IR im- delivered to Beale Air Force Base the weight. with Global Hawks stabi. $48 million. from 10 KVA to 25 KVA available for Unlike the Predator and Predator sensors. from $13 million in early 2002). MP-RTIP is ready. CA) de. which will require almost all both E-O/IR and SAR. and a peting sensors or building U-2s for a series of evolutionary upgrades sensor management system rigor. pected to be able to maintain a single Target Indication). four IMINT orbits and two multi-in. capability. Force has asked Raytheon for accel- pre-series aircraft procured with payload capacity versus 2. The Block 20 EISS will use most gram. with two more aircraft. By FY12. and 40. World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . The Block 10 has minor tegrated Sensor Suite (ISS). but are not expected to Block 30 variants will be supporting $12 million in mid-2002 (a decrease see much more operational use. the Air Force suggested re-com- In mid-2005. borne Signals Intelligence Payload meet its 2002 projected in-service Those blocks will primarily refer to (ASIP) SIGINT package. A total of five prototypes were be delivered. provements include an improved tele- (AFB) in late 2004. Global Hawk costs as of May 2002 in the air vehicle. and cited this as a reason scheme. RQ-4B. Other- U-2. was first funded in the FY02 budget. instead. focus control. Block 24-hour orbit over the Middle East. along with the third Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Th e in itial v ersio n o f th e ISS. with the The Enhanced ISS is an upgraded have been accepted operationally: Multi-Platform – Radar Technology sensor suite developed for the larger two at a forward operating location Insertion Program (MP-RTIP) radar. with power MP-RTIP. similar to the n als in tellig en ce (SIG IN T) Raytheon to lower ISS costs. scope with better optics and real-time as a maintenance trainer. th e U S A F as k e d connaissance platform.Page 140 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Overview quirement. The E-O/IR system 30 will replace this with the ASIP The Air Force will apparently procure pairs a Raytheon third-generation SIGINT suite. The USAF took delivery of the last telligence orbits with SIGINT. Four of these air. for and a third has not flown since it was radar. However. and local area network connections for continuing the ISS as is. FLIR with a Kodak digital CCD visible light camera. power and cooling capac. Global Hawks and ISSs before 10. Global Hawk is to remain un. the Air Force’s plan systems architecture (OSA). the first of AV #5 crashed. (according Air Force sources) were: The initial Global Hawks pro. and a power increase after each loss. Raytheon claimed only 9 called “spirals” was shifted back to a ously separated from the vehicle man. The first full ISS was lost when conducted its first flight in February larger-winged RQ-4B. for erated completion of additional ISSs FY01 EMD funds. an interim “clip-in” signals intelli- FY07. The remain. hanced ISS (EISS). Three of these will be the Block 40. The Block 20 will mount the En. Hyperwide. in April 2002. more Block 10s to fill out its LRIP re. Raytheon (El Segundo. In combines the HISAR Synthetic Aper. which will not aircraft will be Block 20. 30. the total reaches $70 million YRQ-4A Block 0. The older “A” mod. ture Radar (SAR) with MTI (Moving gence (SIGINT) sensor. The final version of Global Hawk Enhanced ISS craft in June 2006. I n 2 0 0 2 .000 lb. The second ISS was 1998. and a second Global Hawk which is due to fly in 2006. pected to be supporting imagery intel. The ISS cost about craft survive. Global Hawk+ISS+ground station duced under the advanced concept including the first Global Hawk units had grown from $18-20 million to technology demonstration (ACTD) to be deployed to the Pacific and Eu. until the larger RQ-4B is Air Vehicle (AV) #6 was delivered The USAF’s Global Hawk High ready. while the larger payload RQ-4B The Block 30 will add the Air. along with E-O developed by BAE Systems. for changing out or upgrading Teal Group forecasts many more els are now designated Block 0 and sensors. date of 2008. changes in payloads and not changes The Block 20/30 versions are ex.000 lbs. with non-recurring ex- and a follow-on contract are known as ropean commands. of seven initial RQ-4A Block 10 air. is the lost in July 2002 when the second made its maiden flight in November Block 20. more ISSs were planned before mo r e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o c u r e men t agement system (VMS).

much technical detail cles.000 pixel width. The PA7000 EISS both use the same Recon-Opti- contract to provide for long lead requirement is expected to be worth cal. and can be compressed to has reportedly been interested in us- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems .7 million Broad Area Airborne Surveillance. which re. including RQ-4B air ve.000 lb (455 kg) on a station on each troduction of a real-time precise focus mation Architecture (AIA) was being wing. from Raytheon’s AN/AAQ-16/29. two RQ-4B air vehi. funding will come from the Air Force years to consider merging its land and The Block 20 RQ-4B has un- Aircraft Procurement (APF) account maritime surveillance requirements changed power requirements for the (F33657-03-C-4310/PZ02). The E-O system uses a Lot 4 items.7 million warning radar aircraft.000 km/day in wide-area accelerated. Inc.58 kW pleted by October 2005. Contract Global Hawk in 2003 by at least two of 28V DC power. EISS. 1. needed >6. Both systems use a added to the Global Hawk. and is to be com. that can roll +/-80 degrees or move MapQuest. Northrop Grumman unveiled ence between the ISS and EISS is in external sensor pods for the RQ-4B. peak power output of more than Lot 4 LRIP Advance Procure.75m focal length reflecting tele- nancing will come from the Air Force posed scope with a beam splitter and Aircraft Procurement (APF) account In June 2005. ing the long term potential for the 3. global warming and cooling. Global Hawk program as a potential the Earth to measure patterns of Wright-Patterson AFB. and support equipment and vehicles and a decision was sched. ferred its planned acquisition of the 100 kg and requires just over 0.5kW. Lot 3. and support E-O and IR sensors are fed by a fixed equipment and spares. and can cover up a n d p r o c u r e men t h a s b e e n always included hard-points on the to 104. This Long-Endurance Systems Enter. In mid-2006.5kW and launch recovery element. one basic Australia wanted to acquire 4-6 air weighs 290 kg. Contract fi. CA. but Australia de. with an increased power ment RQ-4A Global Hawk in conjunction transmitter. Clip-in Sensor (Hyperwide). DC power. The pods could carry sensors system uses a gimbal mount derived download data directly from Global to complement the Raytheon ISS. the Global hawk de. micron indium antimonide FPA. 1. commercial. Walby search mode. according to Ed Walby. and requires 4.7 kW ISS. It is came from recent military operations on a scale-model Global Hawk. dak digital silicon charge coupled de- Clip-in Sensors (Hyperwide). NASA 400Mb/s. accurately. back-scan mirror. Show.024 x 1. E-O camera and a Raytheon parts/advance procurement for LRIP A$1 billion (US$770 million) IR sensor. 1. Global Hawk Sensor Pods Pro. AIA was an idea that liminary wind-tunnel testing of a pod +/-15 degrees in pitch and yaw.Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Page 141 Enhanced ISS LRIP Australian Global Hawk ing Global Hawk to deploy pods with In October 2004. to include one Global Hawk trol and Response Capability. one manned maritime patrol aircraft. director capability. A Global Hawk regarding Global Hawks sensors was vehicle with one Enhanced ISS and was deployed in Australia for trials in released. and the in- In mid-2005. Such Northrop Grumman a $207. which can New Data Architecture which could carry a pod holding up to be more precisely focused. but the upgraded HISAR has a Australia has also been consider. into a single platform. and a Raytheon 640 x 480 3-5 mission control element (MCE).3kW of 28V spares. one with the system entering service in vice. While the Global Hawk design has “standard” 20mrad. subsequently renamed as Phase 1 of hurricanes and typhoons more ification to fund Global Hawk LRIP Project Air 7000. OH. AP-3C maritime patrol aircraft force In July 2006. The differ- (FA8620-04-C-3410). to provide the server that can connect to radio. the material of the mirror. similar to Northrop Grumman conducted pre. the ASC issued with its Wedgetail airborne early The Block 10 ISS and Block 20 Northrop Grumman a $50. the Air Force Australia joined the US RQ-4A temperature-sensing devices above Aeronautical Systems Center (ASC). stabilized to 3mrad.024 pixel Ko- hicles with Enhanced ISSs and cision date was set for 2007-2008. Hawk onto a PDA. measurements would help to predict firm-fixed-price (FFP) contract mod. The RQ-4A production air vehicle with main goal is to replace the existing Sensor Details one basic ISS. o f b u s in e s s d e v e lo p me n t f o r step-stare scanning telescope and places the mission recorder with a Northrop Grumman’s High Altitude. 2001. peak power output of 3. Phase 2 of PA7000 is a later The Block 10 RQ-4A HISAR has a sion Control Element (MCE). In March 2004. one 2009-2011. of 400Hz power and 1. The entire allows individuals on the ground to prises. Data throughput for said there has been no requirement for b o th Blo c k 1 0 I S S is ar o u n d pods so far from the USAF. The Block 10 ISS weighs San Diego. the Advanced Infor. The work is to be conducted in uled for 2004-2005. rather than the where Global Hawk was deployed. wings to accommodate pods. one Global Hawk production air of about 13 aircraft. Both launch recovery element. at the Paris Air 254mm reflecting mirror. New Maritime Pa. awarded element of its Joint Project 129. one Mis.

one in aircraft. grades may continue. The last U-2s to be retired will be vious E-O levels. the U-2 SYERS 2 was reported to have a has seen a 30% increase in sustained “National Imagery Interpretability operations tempo. with two tion Allied Force over Kosovo. (including four two-cockpit trainers) 3. in the Middle East. under adds a 7-band multispectral capabil. much more for a complete system Overview from typical U-2 altitudes. It also $113 million contract option to will be retired between FY08 and adds stabilization. Teal Group Analysis U-2s are still the most important and post-strike. as well as timony to the HASC in April 2007. support for U-2 sensors and data ule. and not provided by other resources. Imagery is then Force plans are to retire the U-2 early. means ports. CA. As of 2001. as will improve by 20 percent. and to tie retirements to July 2000 for a major upgrade which Raytheon Global Hawk stand-up events. Rating Scale” (NIIRS) of 7 in 2006. SYERS data was flown more than 3.Page 142 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors a b o u t 4 0 Mb /s u s in g JPEG techniques. ladders. Since September 2001. decided to delay U-2 retirement by Flight testing was completed in Sensor Support Contract to about a year. and 2 ER-2s (NASA) in service.900 hours supporting the “war on US Air Force’s U-2 reconnaissance (MOBSTR) image compression terror”. routed via satellite for processing at U-2/Global Hawk Schedule from FY08 to FY13. SYERS now allows preci. Reports of the Dragon Lady’s those with a SIGINT capability. to provide continued field FY13. electro-optical/infrared long-rang fittings on a grounded fighter aircraft. and vents are staff for Air Force ISR. but recent Air not video images. Heavy Use Since 9-11 sion-guided munitions targeting. 100 miles”. Dragon Ladies had oblique photographic (LOROP) re. porting the “war on terror”. and E-O resolution links. been planned—until 2020 or 2025 at World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . aboard two ground stations. U-2s Since September 2001. SYERS can down. erations tempo. the Pacific and one in the Middle UK RAF Canberras. in 2001. CA Unit Cost: $5 million for SYERS Multispectral Upgrade. The 33 remaining U-2s real time data transmission. the Air Force had sion to the Global Hawk. SYERS 2 up. but East. and. since 1997. in written tes- tical Reconnaissance System) is an visible on electronics vans. In Opera. with two aircraft lost. if Global Hawk stays on sched- tion.700 missions and 32. seen a 30% increase in sustained op. with about 35 U-2Ss Dragon Ladies had flown more than reconnaissance/surveillance plat.900 hours sup- forms in the US inventory. according to Lt. according to US sources including Global Hawk. By April 2007. In November 2006. This Gen. Beale AFB. Raytheon. one in the Pacific and one collected 80 percent of the total imag. IR resolution will now reach pre. El Segundo. deputy chief of SYERS (Senior Year Electro-Op. David Deptula. By April 2007. By April 2007. the US Air a High-Altitude Transformation ity (but only 3 at any one time) and Force snuck in a fairly substantial Flight Plan. to improve resolu. and shift its mis. load still frames in near-real time. and imaged all targets both pre.700 missions and connaissance system carried on the routed through Mobile Stretch 32. Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total ISS USAF (Block 0 RQ-4A) 4 — — — — — — — — — — 4 USAF (Block 10 RQ-4A) 5 2 — — — — — — — — — 7 EISS USAF (Block 20 RQ-4B) — 1 3 2 — — — — — — — 6 USAF (Block 30 RQ-4B) — — 2 4 5 5 4 3 2 2 2 29 Total 9 3 5 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 2 46 Global Hawk SYERS (Senior Year E-O Reconnaissance System) Status: Upgrade & Support Manufacturer: Raytheon. A long future had ery. SYERS d e a t h h a v e ap p a r e n t l y b e e n this is both in greatest demand today cameras have a slant range of “around exaggerated…. the U-2 has aircraft lost.

RAMPS. first tested in a “tactical environ- connaissance. of FY07. Identification and Reconnaissance (CNIR). termine features not visible to the aperture. lion savings from retiring the U-2.from multispectral. such that a complete development for the US Air Force. with Phase 2 flight tests in criminate hyper. with ultra-violet very ment is no longer scheduled. carried aboard been present. ule. and SPIRITT is a tures. and SPIRITT (still in those with a SIGINT capability. But we have abbrevi- (doubling or tripling. It is worth realizing. with 100+ slices The second SPIRITT Phase I ATD plans have been made public (Phase 2 layered like a piece of cake. Hyperspectral imagers measure a Proteus aircraft at altitudes up to pioneer program. a n d a f u n c tio n a l S P I RI T T human eye. SPIRITT was multispectral and hyperspectral re. under spectral bands at one time for SYERS funding after FY06. however. this is both in greatest demand today Detection of camouflaged targets is However. Though in five years Global Hawk will likely recognition will be possible by Global Hawk payload is less than the cost at least as much as the U-2 for comparing several bands of data. Global Hawk. also bands). all SYERS 2 QDR). SPIRITT integrated four BAE Systems won the SPIRITT many different spectral bands. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI). ated our forecast as it is now impossi- and it is still not proven for all pecially considering the U-2 airframe ble to predict when the Air Force will missions. 100 spectral bands is earlier planned to run from 3QFY04 the number commonly quoted to dis. hyperspectral imager was test flown The result is often represented as SPIRITT Program Schedule in late 2005. (or above and below) contain charac. and many see multispectral and Flight Plan. but was hyperspectral system development. these reflectance characteristics in 50. increasing resolution. in Mojave. Communication. to FY07. that liage. possible. ment”. although delays have teristic or diagnostic absorption fea. in most cases). As By April 2007. refers to multispectral SYERS (Senior Year ATD (Advanced Technology Devel. Global Hawk’s support. reflectance spectrum is obtained. is good to fly through 2025….Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Page 143 least—with four major U-2 sen. to de. but the Air coverage usually spans the visible for 3QFY06. automatic target naissance away from the U-2. Phase 2 ATD develop- Fo rce w ill certain ly co n tin u e and infrared. U-2’s. or IR or radar sensors. cut U-2 RDT&E funding for good. SYERS 2 upgrades may continue money might be saved by retiring the pabilities will be added and some will at least for a couple more years. Some ca. contiguous spec. but $100 million a piece (with along with ASARS-2. analyzing and pleted: ASARS-2A AIP. On the other hand. different sensors through one development contract in April 2001. tro-optical reconnaissance system in tral bands. FY13. Instead of simply sor/avionics upgrades recently com. and not provided by other resources. NY Unit Cost: Undetermined Overview Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) than dual-band E-O/IR (two spectral The Spectral Infrared Remote Im. rarely included. jects (mines) and targets under fo- responsibility for high altitude recon.000 feet. as is detection of buried ob- ers have lobbied for an early shift of including Global Hawk. and to tie retirements to naissance systems (up to three basis. with no pre-programmed Global Hawk stand-up events. Spectrum demonstration flight test is planned is no longer scheduled). the Air Force had SYERS is one of the first opera. number of discrete. Global all sensors). 2007. es. endurance is longer. and handling the same missions. Greenlawn. CA. development). programs will be awarded on a yearly about a year. Navigation. the $5 billion for 50 new upgrade technology is transferrable to Hawk costs have consistently grown Global Hawks will dwarf the $1 bil. Multispectral sensors measure more ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . will be retired between FY08 and wave of the future. as bands allows many new capabilities. U-2 ($1 billion was suggested in the be lost. In the future. Flight Tests We s e e a g r o w i n g f u t u r e f o r Most materials on the earth’s surface In December 2005. a High-Altitude Transformation 2). funding for all U-2 C4ISR decided to delay U-2 retirement by tional military multispectral recon. The last U-2s to be retired will be comparing several different spectral SYERS.o p tic Re c o n n a is s a n c e opment) is a hyperspectral elec. since. System) measures 7 bands. No onward development an image “cube”. The 33 remaining U-2s hyperspectral reconnaissance as the Global Hawk SPIRITT & USAF Hyperspectral Systems Status: New Development Manufacturer: BAE Systems. the imaging of a scene over a large E le c tr o . The U-2’s recently upgraded aging Transition Testbed (SPIRITT) called imaging spectroscopy. if Global Hawk stays on sched.

as BAE capabilities. the lution. by the amount of CO 2 between development advances. Until resolution from a single sensor. Detection of camou. Our forecast includes both spaceborne reconnaissance have al. in certain bands is strongly modified quickly as we forecast a couple of classified system). in 2004.g. (Synthetic Aperture Radar). If FSI breaks in. Fi. preceded SPIRITT. of bandwidth to transmit 50-100 scheduled for retirement from FY08 liage/Ground Penetration). more years. In 2000. Perhaps we just expected too nally. as so far Raytheon The Australian government is also BAMS Mariner E-O/IR has supplied nearly all E-O/IR pay. This is noteworthy. which is years ago. HI. The spectral signature from current low levels. p r o b le m w ith a d v a n c in g development award in April 2001. our funding ing different spectral data. Although there is not multi. which have classified SPIRIT derivative…. Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) competitor. airborne and by CO2 in the atmosphere. if not as series production (at least not an un. have been a more urgent issue than LASH developer. specific by a standard E-O/IR sensor. analyzing and comparing mul. Honolulu. Indeed. Afghanistan. Mariner will also a retractable E-O/IR sensor ball into ket. too soon. the Mariner UAV (based where FSI would be well-placed to chapter. Addition. compete on price. this has been the major for the U-2. on General Atomics’ Predator B). Single and ment program. hyperspectral imagers – data process- initial planned platform shifted to ter objects (mines) and targets under ing and transmission. the pre-SDD phase. FSI was integrating loads for the lucrative Predator mar. tous. flares (which are getting smarter). SPIRITT was originally planned capabilities. for – such as a black pickup truck.and hyperspectral imaging is funding should continue to increase yet a single hyperspectral system in target ranging. With the U-2 now fo liag e (FO P EN /G PEN : Fo. but development has discrimination versus decoys and new program name (though we are been fairly slow over the past half-de. headed. this would open have an Automatic Identification World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . w ith BA E the need to detect camouflaged and duction plans. These con. an airplane) is modified few more years down the road.Page 144 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Teal Group Analysis The US Air Force’s SPIRITT dual-band E-O/IR sensors and SAR However. Kosovo.. we believe any unclassified ally. cade. Instead of improved de- Navy’s LASH (Littoral Airborne rection of where research was already tection. automatic target recogni. and datalinks and processing ternational (STI). and much. many hyperspectral (Spectral IR Remote Imaging Transi. hidden threats and mines. and ade- production program would only be spectral signatures can be searched quate processing and software have for Global Hawk. tion will be made much easier by been rife in testing. and Iraq re-emphasized back burner. times the data as might be produced to FY13. This shift imager and target. There is a lack Global Hawk. improved data distribution is Sensor/Hyperspectral) sensor. if perhaps under a of the future. The flicts essentially strengthened the di. Instead of simply increasing reso. forecast is highly speculative. The observed signature of but when this shift will occur is now a concentrating solely on high spatial objects (e. ready begun a fundamental shift from amounts. is well underway with the use of Navy BAMS E-O/IR Sensor Status: New Development Manufacturer: In Competition Unit Cost: $2-3 million (speculative) See BAMS program description in Lockheed Martin’s US Navy BAMS more competitions with Raytheon. Multispectral and hyperspectral comparing several bands of data. “quick look” study on Operation Al. threats from false alarms. digital sensors have become ubiqui- acquired Science & Technology In. forecasting Phase 2 development. con. present in essentially constant RDT&E and procurement funding. in “blood hound mode”. but with BAE Systems’ flaged and stealthy targets is possible. in airborne ISR today. the as is detection of buried and underwa. lied Force recommended pursuing dual-band electro-optical data collec- and has now essentially become a f u ll s p e c tr u m r e c o n n a is s a n c e tion has grown hugely as improved BAE Systems program also. On the other hand. another potential benefit of perhaps as a classified program). main in basic development for several velopment award in April 2001. working with Lockheed Martin for In May 2007. But we believe SPIRITT develop- reconnaissance may well be the wave Other HSI advantages include better ment will continue. to us. and look likely to re- Systems winning the Phase 1 ATD de. at least regarding pro- v elo p men t s ystem. tiple spectral bands gives many new hyperspectral sensors. the Joint Staff’s getting much of the increased funding tracted in 1999 for a 5-year develop. programs have now been put on a tion Testbed) is still essentially a de. In not been developed to discern real the U-2 may already be carrying a the future.

awarded to a team led by Lockheed Global Hawk over the US. T h e P r e d a t o r control of the Predator in September accommodate improved types such as stemmed from the earlier Tier 1 and 1996. is to include Global Hawk acquisition probably lent size military sensors. block until 2003 was the lack of FAA tual requirement will probably total 2 0 . The first series production con. Predator AN/AAS-52(V) MTS-A/B (Multi-Spectral Targeting System) Status: In Production Manufacturer: Raytheon Systems.Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Page 145 System (AIS) to identify ships at sea. previ. received Raytheon’s upgraded 750-TE Predator. On the Global Hawks (perhaps leased) or In the interim. and a 4. Nevertheless. for the hunter-killer role. The Tier 1 was summer of 1997. and 60-70 of paying for data from UAVs oper. the Navy’s BAMS sensor other endurance UAVs. and in 1997 Skyball FLIR. and 8 air vehicles was awarded to cember 2001 all new Predators have hicle. ational requirements document in the When armed with Hellfire missiles durance UAV). the first UAV would be Hawk competitor will carry the Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total BAMS E-O/IR Sensor (Undetermined) USN (BAMS) — — — — — — 2 2 4 4 3 15 Coast Guard Deepwater Endurance UAV E-O/IR Sensor Status: New Development Manufacturer: Not yet in Competition Unit Cost: Undetermined Overview A significant Deepwater road. nally. E-O/IR system.y e a r D e e p w a t e r p r o g r a m. Raytheon’s AN/AAS-44(V) FLIR mer Yugoslavia in 1993-94. 1997. ferings business jet proposal will carry a load. delivered to the Navy in 2013. and was operationally deployed approved for procurement in August armed Predator first mounted for surveillance missions over the for. came the first ACTD program to be is designated as the MQ-1B. The ing. the MQ-9A. The upgraded version. geting may not be as crucial. the USCG has spoken other hand. Tier 2 Medium Endurance Unmanned The armed forces reached final Aerial Vehicle (MAE-UAV.350 lbs. but this is being increased to ( M A L E ) U AV. matic Identification System (AIS). would make an obvious choice for Bell Eagle Eye Vertical takeoff and ated from two land bases. as well as the Auto- Mariner’s payload is 1.000 external pay.8 million (Predator B/MTS-B) Overview Predator was first deployed over sors. but this has long since d e r. be DoD operated facilities. with an extra 800 lbs. and Predator be. an un- award in January 1994. It uses tract for two ground control stations with laser designator. These may Deepwater. BAMS SDD. The even- The US Coast Guard’s $25 billion. the RQ-1A developed primarily under CIA fund.n o s e .mo u n te d s e n s o r b a ll was redesignated as the RQ-1A. The ment for 12 systems and 101 air vehi- Force’s first medium endurance US Air Force assumed operational cles. because tar- procurement of 76 UAVs. The US Air Force had a require- The RQ-1A Predator is the US Air Bosnia in the summer of 1995. agreement on the system’s joint oper. Northrop Grumman Night Hunter II and 34 antennas for communications. certification for the operation of about four-eight air vehicles. McKinney. landing UAVs (VUAVs). won the DoD’s Tier Early p roductio n air vehicles AN/AAQ-52(V) Multispectral Tar- 2 competition with a development mounted WESCAM’s Model 14 geting System (MTS-A). but this Deepwater Global Hawk sensors Martin and Northrop Grumman (and was achieved in 2003. The been supplanted by Raytheon sen- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . but since De- the General Atomics Gnat 750 air ve. for future Other BAMS E-O/IR Sensor Of. $1. Boeing’s BAMS 550 unmanned upgrades. TX Unit Cost: $1 million (Predator A/MTS-A). inter. the Gnat General Atomics in August 1997. If Lockheed Martin is awarded Northrop Grumman’s Global Raytheon E-O/IR system. including won’t occur until 2016 at the earliest. could be slightly cheaper than equiva- many other suppliers). followed by IOC in 2014. Armed Predator: MTS-A ously called UAV-E and Tactical En.

million contract in preparation for Italy Buys WESCAM for Preda- cision at the beginning of 2008. craft Procurement (APN) account sued Raytheon an $86. gets. The work is to be completed in August 2008. the ASC awarded AN/AAS-52(V) MTS-B. three W ESCAM three-camera aircraft. TX. Raytheon tested the MTS full-rate production unit cost neously. TX.730 kg MTS-A. Contract MTS-B laser designator bay. borrowing or leasing Predators for contract to General Atomics-Aero. it is desig. three MTS-B pre-production World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . MQ-9 Reaper. awarded full BAMS program description. See Global Hawk above for Predator B: MTS-B (NSWC-CD). and is to funding will come from APF account be used to identify and designate tar. In its hunter-killer version for E-O/IR sensors for its Predator the Air Force. It will be mounted in the series programs. General Atomics a two-year contract Italian Predator Upgrades nated as the MQ-9A Predator B. foliage and porting the Predator and Navy H-60 ducted in McKinney. although a competition MTS-A. to finance the production of Requests acquired by NASA for research pur. The work is to be conducted in 2002 about acquiring Predator for in FY02 (with none in FY03) for test. carrying at least two MTS-A Retrofit for all Preda. In early 2004. General Atomics is apparently funding will come from Navy Air. use by British units in Iraq. the Naval Surface Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) Warfa r e Cent er Cr ane D i v. and will performed in McKinney. TX and is to Italy reportedly bought at least the MQ-1A. MTS-A/MTS-B Contracts the 48.000 feet.4 million of the Predator was announced in (FFP) job order under an earlier con. NSWC-CD also interested in Predator will lead to IOT&E in the second half awarded Raytheon Systems a $11.5 million. eight MTS-B systems for the Predator Pakistan approached the US in poses. to replace T h e P r e d a to r ’s u p g r a d e d missiles with new MTS-A sensors. including 17 turret ator and five MTS-B systems for the capable of penetrating moderate units and associated line items sup. viewing through a mammoth 56 cm 914 UL engine allowing a maximum aperture. in addition to the 1.1 million FFP General Atomics’ AN/APY-8 (N00164-00-G-0007). cluding a higher-performance Rotax systems). It also bought L-3 Ku-band Hellfire missiles and providing tors satellite datalinks in 2005. IN. and is to be com. but external weapons payload on three SeaVue SAR. Raytheon Systems a $26. The to retrofit all 79 extant Predators to In 2006. Mariner UAV. and is essentially a new be completed by June 2006. and is have raised Predator air vehicle cost MTS-B Production Contracts being offered for the US Navy Broad from $2. contract against the ongoing FY06 Lynx Radar is also being integrated BOA to finance the production of 27 on Predator B. pleted by December 2005. program.5 to $4. Work is to be tors Predator B is four times larger than conducted in McKinney. Mariner is derived MTS and associated improvements from the turboprop Predator B. Contract In early 2004.5 million. fits. carried by the Predator B simulta. smoke. and is to be camouflage. MTS-B production.6 million awarded Raytheon a $70. on the General Atomics early units have cost $2.6 of 2007 and a full-rate production de.2 million. in. In September 2007. NSWC-CD awarded In February 2007. the ASC is- managing Foglite’s development. the Air Force funding is expected to come from the gan discussions with the US about awarded a 36 month Predator B SDD Navy Other Procurement (OPN) ac. 54 MTS-A retro- for the production radar is expected. Contract (FA8620-06-G-4041/0002). The stores stations under each wing. It also up- Predator. be completed by June 2006. McKinney. Greece is nautical Systems (GA-ASI). tract to finance the production of 60 tested on the Predator B is Foglite. Three Predator Bs were funded B. British officials be- In May 2004. Crane. to allow surveillance from altitude of 26. a der under an earlier BOA. which In September 2004. the Italian MoD report- Air Force is planning to acquire the the MQ-1L Block 10+ configuration. TX. mounted along with the is hoped for at about $1.4 FFP con- Another new MTS-B sensor to be firm-fixed-price (FFP) purchase or. to finance MTS-AS systems for the MQ-1 Pred- short-wave IR LIDAR claimed to be tasks for MTS. The work is being con- cloud cover. self-targ etin g w ith th e In mid-2004. as L-3 WESCAM Model 14 Skyballs AAS-52(V) MTS-B sensor adds a 56 well as several other upgrades.Page 146 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors incorporating a laser designator and The radar and MTS-B are both MTS-A Tested for BAMS color E-O and IR cameras. the ASC Predator B. A new turboprop-powered version Raytheon Systems a $17. edly upgraded its six Predator UAVs MQ-9A alongside the MQ-1A This will give all air vehicles the abil. In April 2004. count (N00164-00-G-0007). border surveillance. Other International Predator 2000. ing and evaluation.000 maximum altitude of the In July 2004. 19 MTS-B. the Predator B. which was first tract. dust. ity to designate targets for Hellfire graded the E-O/IR systems. (presumably with Raytheon MTS cm diameter folded optics telescope. UAVs. with two Lynx II SARs.

though IAI will also sensor. system. TX. long-range. 2005. with a real-time in-flight data link. equipped opening a much larger potential inter- perimentation Program (JUEP). reportedly with a “dual-nose ments are a color E-O/IR/low light reportedly offer a Heron/Heron TP camera”. pods for their 48 new Block 52 F-16s. ASIP In mid-2007. Predator/Reaper UAV. Poland contracted for 7 on a Predator B UAV prototype. w a s the UK Tornado RAPTOR require. ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . the Joint Un- 0004). which would procure an un. ing the ability to automatically gener. It national market. with IOC Predator-B with the MTS-B. variant. the RAF tested a RAPTOR pod Chelmsford. Joint Airborne ISR Capability off-the-shelf procurement. Production of both of these Hawk. MA Unit Cost: $6-8 Million Overview Raytheon Optical Systems. P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft. Greece reportedly RAPTOR is based on the Good. was Itek Optical Systems). was ment. potentially integrated with a the four-times larger MQ-9A Preda. pecially seems to be a relative price synthetic aperture radar (SAR). lowed by a longer-term UAV program account (FA8620-06-G-4041/Order determined number of MALE UAVs with IOC in 2013-2016. bargain compared to Raytheon’s low off-the-shelf cost. manned Surveillance and Target Ac- stan and elsewhere. and production systems has already expanded to in. Teal Group Analysis The armed MQ-1A Predator has Raytheon. der the Falcon Prowl Joint UAV Ex.Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Page 147 retrofits. planned for June 2009. The MTS Improvements released in early 2008. but has also sold for Japanese From November 2004 to February Hughes. Despite ternational Predators. and associated shop replace. The work is nounced an interim requirement for a JAIC will essentially be an being performed in McKinney. (E-O/IR) long-range oblique photog. un. a laser target designator. MTS-B provides a very large been a great success. Additional ate target coordinates for GPS-guided “rated” requirements are for a bombs. The RFP is to be quisition System (JUSTAS). for a tor B not yet being fully tested. eral MTS-B production contracts more custom-designed Integrated have already been awarded to Sensor Suite (ISS) for the Global Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total AN/AAS-52(V) MTS-A USAF (Predator) 106 24 24 24 24 41 26 27 20 20 20 356 USAF (Predator Retrofit) 48 — — — — — — — — — — 48 Italy (Predator Retrofit) 6 — — — — — — — — — — 6 Undetermined (Undetermined) 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 38 Total (MTS-A) 164 26 28 28 28 45 30 31 24 22 22 448 AN/AAS-52(V) MTS-B USAF (Predator B) 12 2 3 2 9 11 9 10 7 8 8 81 Undetermined (Undetermined) — 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 2 32 Total (MTS-B) 12 4 7 6 11 15 13 14 9 12 10 113 Predator RAPTOR Status: Not in Competition Manufacturer: Goodrich. DB-110 dual-band In June 2004. Chelmsford. Another upgrade was add. was developed as a podded system for provided another order in September r ic h ( w a s BF G o o d r ich . to be fol- Contract funding is coming from APF (JAIC). the Block 15 Preda. raphy (LOROP) system. to serve on deployments in Afghani. capability. Canadian MALE Requirement SAR/GMTI and a weapon delivery able unit (SRU) spares. level system. and a SIGINT package. aperture. We see moderate future sales. obvious systems. Canada an. high-altitude of the MTS-A is in full swing. and Lynx SAR are the most tor was receiving an improved MTS Mandatory JAIC sensor require. all for the In August 2007. sensor. The MTS-B es. sev. 2006. MA.

celerate development of the ER/MP increased horsepower and fuel effi- e r e d d e v e lo p me n t o f a las e r by two years. Heron UAV. hyperspectral sensor. At least one of the I-Gnats was de. the US Army cal Common Data Link (TCDL). the Army and requirements for a much longer duction ER/MPs will have a satellite chose Northrop Grumman and Gen- endurance) will allow a greater diver. the Army will choose Stinger. TX Unit Cost: Undetermined In May 2006. costs and increases service life. TX. The Army bought L-3 eral Atomics for the ER/MP six-week sity of sensors. and will carry a variety sensors. Viper Strike. reconnaissance and communi. including its use of the Tacti- The Army has plans for a new In May 2003. responsible for demonstrating that pleted by May 2009. early 2004. and I-Gnat has General Atomics (“Team War- Precision Kill Weapons System. In late December 2004. Each ER/MP system will com. UAV such as Predator. UAV to replace the Hunter. These I-Gnats are basi. Acknowledging the Predator. been operating since then. datalink). The work is to be conducted in Lockheed Martin in Grand Prairie. but this was de. but keep cided the ER/MP would offer unique the shape and tooling of the Hunter World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . dubbed Hunter II downsized for the Hunter UAV.0 bil. (F33615-01-C-1419/PO10). flight altitude above 25.D ma p p in g . version of Israel Aircraft Industries’ data for detailed mapping. F o llo w in g th e f lig h t of missiles including Hellfire. mon Missile and the Advanced Army requirements. a well. and arm the UAV as ciency. Atomics Lynx SAR radars as test tion. Boeing’s ER/MP entry was elim- cations relay. called the awarded a contract for three General rather than the FCS’s Network Data ER/MP (Extended Range/Multi-Pur. Program Accelerated and is teamed with AAI Corp. a $7. 0 6 0 2 2 0 4 F ) 3-dimensional imaging laser radar formance that meets mission require.000 feet with ment and Support project also cov. $1 million (production sensor) (speculative) Overview I-Gnat Test Vehicles Ordered abilities. The Army plans four different Future Combat System terms of capabilities”. ER/MP will serve for WESCAM E-O turrets and General System Capability flight demonstra- attack. each (FCS) UAVs (the FCS Class IV reportedly include the avionics and with 12 air vehicles. In 2005. and is to be com- TX. 3 . pose) UAV. ployed to Iraq in 2004 to help define one team for SDD in April 2005. which demonstrates a UAV while maintaining sensor per. demonstration. The project is Grand Prairie. quirements. in ated .8 million CPFF modifica. but was delayed while (Hunter itself is an Israeli design). As many lion from FY04-FY09. August 2004. the General Atomics the Army considered whether the Northrop Grumman has referred to Warrior Predator derivative won the ER/MP would duplicate one of the the Hunter II as a “plused-up Heron in ER/MP competition. and with a 200 km range they lack the satellite datalink (pro. based on the Link (NDL). to help define its UAV re- Shadow’s limited payload capacity. Flight Demonstration the bigger ER/MP (also bigger than cally the same as the Predator except Down-select the Hunter. outer mold line of the Heron. pected late in FY03.Page 148 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors [Predator] Imaging Laser Radar Development Contract Status: New Development Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin. Following cancellation of the (Shadow TUAV) and Sparta. the Joint Com. Significant funding in the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter in HFE reportedly enables a maximum Army’s Advanced Payload Develop.8-1. UAV). Hunter II will to acquire 7 or more systems. and also reduces maintenance d e s ig n a to r. But by September they de. Atomics I-Gnat UAVs. the Army decided to ac. slightly larger than the as four LIDAR payloads may also be The ER/MP RFP was expected in RQ-1A Predator. Contract fund- tion to a FY01 CPFF contract to fund such a sensor can be produced in size ing will come from the Air Force tasks for the Predator Imaging Laser and weight that is compatible with a Aerospace Sensors program (PE# Radar program. and a LIDAR prise 12-18 air vehicles and five Northrop Grumman’s Integrated (light detection and ranging) payload ground stations. Grand Prairie.2 million (L-3 WESCAM sensor for I-GNAT). rior”) is offering a version of the Pred- SDD contracts for the SAR and ator with a Heavy Fuel Engine (HFE). ER/MP funding in Systems Sector is offering an armed to generate high-resolution elevation the DoD budget is planned at $1. Army RQ-1C Warrior ER/MP E-O/IR Sensor Status: New Development Manufacturer: In Competition Unit Cost: $0. The layed. E-O/IR payloads were originally ex. the AFRL issued sensor suitable for installation on a ments.

cision. full and open vendor. are also teamed with Aurora Flight logistics. tion will be a 24 month effort for de. qualifications testing and due February 2005. the variable quantity option being developed with three inter- stration (SDD) of a multi-mission for up to 10 units maybe exercised. The acquisi. oping its own E-O/IR system for War- (FFP) and Cost-Plus-Fixed—Fee work-Tactical (WIN-T) communica. a synthetic This will be a best value. At the CECOM announced that it intends to completion of an Operational Assess. In January 2005 (following an ear. communications relay payload. Further be bought if development delays LRIP option being FFP. SOL is W15P7T-05-R-S610. information regarding the ER/MP occur. ments with the Army’s ER/MP rangefinder/designator. VA). Communications-Electronics Com- The payload will be integrated and mand. though the Raytheon MTS could (CPFF) line items for SDD with the tions payload (WCP). changeable threshold payloads (Mis- E-O/IR/Laser Designator payload for The offerors will be required to estab. aperture radar with moving target in- competitive procurement based on The ER/MP E-O/IR/LD payload dication (SAR/MTI). The The contract will be for the SDD the other two being a Synthetic Aper. ER/MP will simultaneously carry and Phase and contain one range quantity ture Radar/Ground Moving Target In. rior. ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Northrop Grumman and IAI associated supportability to include: ment. will be one of three initial payloads. production option. CECOM Acquisition Center - ER/MP E-O/IR/LD Solicitation flight-tested in a contractor furnished DAAB07. The contract will dicator (SAR/GMTI) payload and a In mid-2007. Army into the Army UAV system.Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Page 149 series. Sensor Status issue a request for proposals for the ment and successful Milestone C de. training. test-bed aircraft prior to integration Building 1208. the ER/MP UAV was System Development and Demon. ATTN: AMSEL-AC. the Army was devel- contain a mix of Firm-Fixed-Price War f i g h t e r I n f o r ma t i o n N e t. sion Equipment Packages (MEP)). th e U S A r my’s Ex te n d e d lish Associated Contractor Agree. NJ. lier solicitation in July 2004). Fort Monmouth. including an E-O/IR sensor with laser Range/Multi-Purpose (ER/MP) UAV. In mid-2007. control two different MEPs. system is available in the ER/MP sys- livery of 10 SDD units and their tem technical requirements docu- Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total RQ-1C Warrior ER/MP E-O/IR Sensor (Undetermined) US Army (Warrior ER/MP) — — — 12 12 36 24 12 12 12 10 130 US Civil Endurance UAV E-O/IR Sensors Status: New Development Manufacturer: Not yet in Competition Unit Cost: Undetermined Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total US Civil Endurance UAV E-O/IR Sensor (Undetermined) US Civil (Large UAV) n/a 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 35 SensorCraft ISR UAV E-O/IR Sensors Status: New Development Manufacturer: Not yet in Competition Unit Cost: Undetermined See SensorCraft program descrip- tion in Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) chapter. POP is US Army Sciences (Manassas. and a heavy banded operational requirements.

Planned UCAV sensors orig. nations unable to fight back with tude. was delivered in September 2000 and Northrop Grumman’s UCAV-N made its first flight in May 2002: 14 completed its first taxi test in July J-UCAS Plans minutes.Page 150 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Penetrating High Altitude Endurance (PHARE) UAV E-O/IR Sensors Status: New Development Manufacturer: Not yet in Competition Unit Cost: Undetermined Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works when the U-2 retires. dual-redundant avionics system. This raised 20/30 A-45 could be developed for a Link-16. questions about the necessity for a “pre-emptive” or “reactive” SEAD Raytheon was awarded a contract for “combat” UCAV. planned as a Joint Strike Fighter-like sions. was In 2003. but was more carried out by the F-16CJ). It information warfare (computer and to include the Small Diameter Bomb seems the Navy was tagging along network attack) missions as well as (SDB) and JDAM (the X-45A can with the (Air Force/Army) crowd. that can be employed on strike mis. but relatively conven. tional UAV for the US Air Force be a sitting duck if we ever fight a na. could possi.000 lb. tactical jamming. USAF/DARPA UCAV program. with a 3. and SIGINT. Some even see a di- carry two 7. Fur. The first flight was originally In May 2003. forces began to examine the concept A larger X-45B. Lest we forget. but in 2003 planned a po- 19. The the Air Force’s UCAV programs missions. very similar to the initial operational J-UCAS Joint Program Unlike current UAVs that are in. or carry out “full electronic at- SAR/ELINT development for the UAV. capability. tack” missions. million study contracts to Boeing and The US Air Force had envisioned USAF initial operational evaluation Northrop Grumman in 2000. and funded in tion dominance against developing is reportedly developing a high-alti. PHARE sensors would likely up- under a secret program. Global Hawk is most ef.000 lb. no problems. manned Combat Air System). with one of the first missions of the Block of the first production version was their designs designated the X-46A 10 A-45 UCAV as a lethal Suppres- initially expected in 2007-2008. the Air Force’s UCAV. tential non-lethal electronic attack (sensors and weapons) and a range of UCAV-N was similar in concept to role instead (lethal SEAD is already 650 nm.000 lbs. connaissance capability to be lost fective for achieving total informa- UCAV E-O/IR Sensors US Air Force/Navy UCAV E-O/IR Sensors Status: Cancelled Manufacturer: Undetermined Unit Cost: Undetermined Air Force UCAV in June.500 lb. and X-47A Pegasus respectively. climbing to 2002. JDAMS). In March 1999. Boeing and Northrop Grumman to develop new UCAV designs capable World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . The Block inally included a primary SAR. even larger X-45C was to have a merged into the J-UCAS (Joint Un- hicles (UCAVs) are combat UAVs 4.500 ft. surveillance-oriented. for 32 minutes at speeds up to layed d u e to u p g r a d e s f o r a In the mid-1990s. Unmanned Combat Air Ve. payload. Boeing’s Phan. the Navy’s UCAV-N and tended primarily for reconnaissance planned for its first flight in 2005. sion of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) Boeing’s X-45A UCAV weighs ther Phase IIA $10 Million contracts platform. which was to be of unmanned combat air vehicles. part with planned J-UCAS funding. Weapons were bly take over the UCAV-N mission. A carrier-based role. intended to tion “our own size”. technologically date U-2 capabilities. which would include X-45B in early 2002. without a definite operational rected energy (microwave) attack The Boeing X-45A demonstrator requirement. and electronic surveillance. the US armed 195 knots. but was de. if ever developed. stealthy. DARPA instructed 7. Navy UCAV-N competition between Boeing and a tom Works was selected to proceed The Navy referred to its concept as team of Lockheed Martin and with the demonstration phase of the the UCAV-N. E-O//IR. or militarily. The second flight occurred scheduled for late 2001.. including replace some of the penetrating re. payload were awarded to each in May 2002. The Navy awarded $2 Northrop Grumman. Global Hawk would modern weapons. capability Block 10 UCAV. SAR.

and is to be completed in onstrations of system capabilities. Grand tors. J-UCAS system elements. Air Defenses (SEAD). the DoD or- ing conducted within the emerging (703) 696-2411. MO a $766. low-cost low observability features. and be help achieve its objectives to develop the technical feasibility of their con. Goleta. MA fice at DARPA. velopment program is expected to last term application include automated In October 2004. including enhanced than 1%). herein and extend the state of the art in the contractor is to integrate them opment for J-UCAS. sion control systems and a common N-UCAS in FY18. and include demonstrations of platform technologies. NY. in St. Segundo. Such ideas can range from tention to a classified program.500 pounds with low data fusion. which if enabled would provide com. image registration. fielding the carrier-borne strike tion processing and integration. catapult launches for the naval vari. be. and X-47A. Offerors (2%). (2%). Burnsville. Aerospace Systems program (PE# scheduled to begin in 2007. Buffalo. also fall within the scope September 2009. precision BA A 0 4 . survivability. development. and to conduct op- ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . those that impact vehicle manage. search and development that will sup. CA fort will include 2 X-45As and 1 tions. CA (4%). The Air Force subsystems developments. CA (2%). order to be considered acceptable. arrested landings and other dem. Cincinnati. fax: (703) 696-2208. choosing elec. The Navy effort is aimed at tions. Rockford. geting and other system level func. CA.. ment. three X-47B air vehicles. propulsion. intelligent algorithms and related operating system. Cedar Rapids. Pentagon officials general scope of the topics described mission control elements. with the J-UCAS Common Operating tronic attack.Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Page 151 of a range of 1. FL. The work is to be nologies Solicitation port its Office mission. formance. Spiral 1 will involve the that can improve or enhance system in Costa Mesa. The de. P O C is Ma r k J-UCAS Cancelled strike and other related missions. Lynn. and assessment. sidelining Navy The J-UCAS Office’s goal for this System to meet Air Force and Navy priorities for ISR.7 million 2010 and the Navy system around ogies (eg. IA. Louis. Contract funding is This effort will be followed by a of this solicitation. OH Combat Air Systems (J-UCAS) Of. an. Such efforts performed in St. IL. est to the J-UCAS Office for near 0603285E) (HR0011-04-9-0009). digital wireless communica. and platform per. DARPA awarded seven years with operational deploy. demonstrate and discuss successive Advanced Aerospace Systems bat missions and environments. coming from the DARPA Advanced two year operational assessment Additional ideas of specific inter. two with the Air Force shifting its at- tecture. St. Arlington. Contracting Officer. including networks. three mis. The Spiral 0 ef. MO (80%). dered the J-UCAS program split in global command and control archi. including Rapids.mil. digital avionics. and other tion to fund the design. MI. program (PE# 0603285E) including the Suppression of Enemy velopment and integration with (MDA972-99-9-0003). informa. tar. and then be prepared to financing will come from the DARPA bat capabilities for high-threat com. avionics performance Boeing Integrated Defense Systems ment of the Air Force A-45 around and reliability enhancement technol. Louis. Unmanned air vehicle Irvine. the Joint Unmanned may involve high technical risks. technologies to reduce weight and and fabrication of three full-scale EA Becomes First Priority cost. mensurate high payoffs. surveil. Louis. spray cooling). Proposals should fall within the X-45C J-UCAS air vehicles and two In April 2004. Palmdale. MN. email: mbennington@darpa. MO. CA (each location less ants. conduct an operational experiment J-UCAS Revolutionary Tech. cept or idea. In August 2004. erational experimentation and assess- a payload of 4. CA (70%). and in multiple other locations nounced it is soliciting ideas that will should initially be prepared to support (one percent or less at each). capabilities.300 nautical miles and software for mission management. and other areas (10%). the Navy responsible for the remnants c o mp o n e n t p r o j e c ts to ma j o r tracts to Northrop and Boeing of the UCAV program. VA. Broad Agency Announcement mission capability objectives. El In June 2004. San Diego. Contract and demonstrate unmanned air com. and (BAA) is to solicit revolutionary re. ment. CT (3%). and Torrance. larger X-45C and X-47 demonstra. air refueling. advanced modification to a FY99 other transac- 2015. CA. In addition. DARPA obligated is likely to examine a strategic stealth Enabling system level technology $30 million to Northrop Grumman as strike platform under its New Genera- areas of interest encompass advanced an increment to a $1 billion other tion Long Range Strike (NGLRS) sensors.2 4 . SOL is lance/reconnaissance. flight stability and control. completed in March 2010. phases leading toward technology de. Bennington. chose to prioritize electronics devel. The work is being conducted in observable airframes. and modest hardware and or software J-UCAS Development Con. tel: In December 2005. transaction to design and develop program. East Hartford. Clearwater.

the UCAV funding be cut for UCAVs. Platforms and target designation. The Air its weapons bay. completed building the first three and also extends the range of oping the JSF E-O/IR system for EOTS systems. so on the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter tract from BAE Systems for EOTS a stealthy EOTS fitment for the E-O/IR system. In August 2005. B-2 bomber and F-117 Stealth to begin aboard Northrop Grumman’s tional awareness and missile warning Fighter. The first EOTS production con- shared 65% identical hardware with tract is expected in 2007. Electro-Optical Targeting System until nearly 2010. Lockheed Mar.000 World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . for rangefinding dow blends into the airframe. de- ture between the radome and front livered the first laser system to be in- wheel well. but we believe sen- velopment of E-O/IR sensors which US Navy UCAS-D E-O/IR Sensors Status: New Development Manufacturer: Not yet in Competition Unit Cost: $2-4 million (in full rate production) E-O/IR in Weapons Bay Lockheed Martin’s Sniper pod. which includes work stealthy B-2 seems a natural choice. UCAV). ing full-time operation. Lockheed Martin’s development. Thus. Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total US Navy UCAS-D E-O/IR Sensor (Undetermined) US Navy (UCAS-D) — — — — — 2 — — — 4 5 11 Tactical UAV E-O/IR Sensors US Navy MQ-8B Fire Scout BRITE Star II Status: New Development Manufacturer: FLIR Systems. EOTS of installing EOTS on the F-22A Rap. of all the funds that may strong. business Combined Avionics Test Bed aircraft in the lower hemisphere (DAS might development manager for JSF EOTS. F-35 nose section around 2005. tin discussed the possibility of devel. in June 2006. with the first flight not be necessary on an “expendable” said he did not see a high probability aboard a JSF in 2008.Page 152 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Teal Group Analysis With the arming underway of can be applied to nearly every US sor and C4I funding will remain fairly many UAVs in US service. Crewe Toll. allow. Oddly. The sensor aperture win. EOTS is used In February 2005. a total of ten units will Northrop Grumman’s Distributed other stealthy platforms. It also includes pro- (EOTS). which is also an internal duction options for the first 22 JSF EOTS Testing ventral mount. aircraft. N o r th r o p and repackaged Sniper submodules to Lockheed Martin proposed adding Grumman’s UCAS-D reportedly was be carried in the JSF nose. As of early 2002. UAV. claiming it would entail “a major Planned other 35% involves different software modification”. Lockheed B-1B bombers are currently being fit- This system could be heavily based Martin won a $171 million subcon. platform develop- line will provide for research and de. Lockheed Martin for ground surveillance and targeting. to provide the ability EOTS Development Contract Force’s non-stealthy B-52H and to accommodate alternative sensors. JSF E-O for Other Stealthy tegrated into EOTS. EOTS will be flown in an In February 2005. BAE Systems The F-35 E-OTS has a single aper. Don Bolling. Flight tests were Aperture System (DAS) for situa. from tacti. Unit Cost: $650. cal to endurance. such as the be built for testing. In December 2001. I n A u g u s t 2 0 0 7 . Inc. Edinburgh. ment may suffer. the tor. ted with Litening and Sniper pods. EOTS to the B-2 as part of its current to include E-O/IR imaging sensors in AN/APQ-181 radar upgrade. Avionics.

NY) ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Fire conduct a critical design review of The MQ-8B for the System Devel- Scout payload capacity is 200 lbs. Only cording to plan. ments.3 billion. Ship (LCS). FLIR Systems has shipboard launch and recovery than In August 2002. it is vulnerable to a much wider tested by the Navy and compared with Since the 1980s. FLIR Systems The Navy initiated a VTOL UAV high-speed littoral warships to plan has a reputation for providing inex- program in its FY00 budget. the Pioneer. (UMOSP) developed by Israel Air- cluded an IAI-Tamam stabilized sen. Fire Scout in 1QFY05. 11 Ma. Navy to stick with an all-Israeli sen- The US Navy has sponsored sev. cause of its [slow] speed at low alti. and Navy funding continued for test. sor. full rate production indium antimonide focal plane array three Fire Scout systems were to be would take place starting in 1QFY08. In February 2000.Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Page 153 VTUAV Development rotor also produces a large radar re. The Navy is also considering a C C D . and we are sure Northrop Grumman 1997. tactical UAV. own program in FY06 for a new payload is a bit too small. tem. In the summer of appealed the House authorizors’ pro. Inc. a high-resolution acquired from the original contact. Un. will try their hardest to prevent it. with de. Presumably. to serve as the basis for trials. part of its vulnerability. James. these systems will be German Navy Tests Fire Scout tudes. BRITE Star includes 3-5 micron Global Hawk UAVs instead. to accommodate modular payloads to options for up to 56 systems with a to. and the around the VTUAV as a key mission pensive. conventional UAVs. Navy Grumman awarded FLIR Systems. thermal imaging laser designator sys- Scout program. companies submitting proposals for On the other hand. i n f r a r e d imag e r an d a la s e r Payload. Teal Group did not UAV derived from the US Navy’s expect Northrop Grumman or the 1960s-era Gyrodyne (St. the payload will in- But in late 2001.” The Fire Scout’s MOSP sensors. an FFP contract for three BRITE the Marines envision starting their cember 2001: “My sense is that the Star E-O/IR/LD sensors for Navy Lit. O p tro n ic Stab ilized Paylo ad Initial sensor package plans in. Fire Scout was tested in Test Payloads: BRITE Star tially for 23 systems (12 Navy. duced at least for the Navy LCS Fire Takeoff and landing Tactical UAV Also in August 2002. Three Sensors courage the US Marine Corps to ac- sponding lack of persistence. and be. the Navy asked Scouts. FLIR Systems Inc. the German Navy variety of ground-based defenses Fire Scout’s earlier IAI-Tamam has been developing a rotary-wing than most UAVs. (VTUAV). The requirement was ini. April 2003 aboard a surrogate Littoral The Fire Scout system is designed rine) with four air vehicles each. with one RQ-8 system now UAV market. capable systems for small in- FY01 budget showed $325 million to system. the Navy an. initial operational capability by clude FLIR Systems BRITE Star nounced plans to cancel the Fire 1QFY08 using the LRIP II aircraft. to Provide The Navy has been trying to en- tively short endurance and corre. and endurance are too limited. We developing an operational require. purposes. This LRIP II batch is scheduled for a craft Industries’ Tamam Division s o r b a l l b a s e d o n t h e MO S P contract award in 2QFY04. but Northrop and Tamam are now eral technology demonstration efforts co-developing a MOSP follow-on. the Navy began the process of posal to cut FY03 VTUAV funding. with an E-O/IR sensor and der current plans. to develop a UAV better suited to Fire Scout Reborn for LCS the Raven Eye II. the range toral Combat Ship SDD Fire Scouts. based on the program. thermal imager. Schweizer Aircraft Model 379 light planned for each Littoral Combat helicopter. Proving that persistence can pay could help Fire Scout’s prospects in the Navy selected the Northrop off. requirement. suspect Raven Eye II will be pro- ments document (ORD) for a Vertical ing of existing Fire Scout air vehicles. ternational procurements. and to buy four Assuming the program proceeds ac. the Navy will rangefinder/designator. flection.T V c a me r a an d a la s e r and presumably be used for trials hunter-killer version as the MQ-8 designator/rangefinder. ing. Deliveries are to begin in 2005. with electro-optical sensors including Multi-mission Optronic Stabilized livery from 4QFY05-3QFY07. The RQ-8A air vehicle has The Navy planned to procure 8 been fitted with a UAV Multi-mission Development Payload RQ-8B Fire Scouts using FY04 fund. but under current plans requirements chief explained in De. The aim is to opment and Demonstration (SDD) provide early operational capability phase for the US Navy Littoral Com- VTUAV Cancelled on an initial LCS ship by 1QFY07 and bat Ship (LCS). Seascout. ine its suitability for this future suit evolving operational require- tal program cost of $1. Navy In November 2004. Fire Scout is again a funded Navy the wide open international naval Grumman Fire Scout. Northrop quire Fire Scout as a replacement for Vice Admiral Dennis McGinn. the DoD formally not won a production contract yet. One of the primary reasons for the USMC death of the Fire Scout was its rela. with Combat Ship (USS Denver) to exam. and this be spent by FY05. laser rangefinder/designator.

ing.) maximum take-off weight. such four Phase I 12-month development FLIR and LADAR sensors. Scout. low-flying aircraft. European and Asian navies have re. with de. DARPA fi- asked the Army to speed procurement Grumman. and several other Reconnaissance Helicopter [ARH]). BRITE Star II for LCS Fire quire a rotary-wing UAV (they are not 0009) with Northrop Grumman. and final testing In April 2004. phasis on targeting (as with the the new requirement could specify Japan has also expressed interest Army’s BRITE Star II for the Armed half that. for 15-month Phase II nally cancelled its UCAR program. The SASC believes Fire team. tract in early 2004. and Germany and Analysis (COBRA) Block 1 Sub. to provide ground testing As of mid-2007. Phase I primes. for its Seamos (sea reconnais. In May 2007. In July 2007. the SASC led by Lockheed Martin and Northrop In December 2004. Fire Armed Rotorcraft (UCAR) to Bell dar and ground-based distributed Scout communications are to be Gen. CA. But the Army has already received at helicopter. to continue The Army began considering the ditional engine and sensor testing through the end of FY04. are also being considered. Lockheed Mar- Most of the sensors the FCS Fire Scout tin’s UCAR completed airborne and Scout will carry will be provided by In May 2002.Page 154 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors QH-50. Production was to start in 2005. San Scout b e in g d e s ig n e d f o r a ma n n e d Diego. der an existing BOA (N00019-05-G. cost one-third as much as a Comanche Rotorcraft) program in 2002-2003. the Army least six air vehicles. Unmanned versions of the for LRIP. vehicles were originally planned to UCAR (Unmanned Combat Armed ployment between 2012 and 2014. or about $8 million. Addition- as the General Atomics Lynx 2 Syn. with payload flights in late Eurocopter EC120 Colibri helicopter Other International Interest 2007 and IOC in 2008. in the Fire Scout. However. and opment. the LCS Fire tested a Fire Scout from a frigate in system for Fire Scout. Scout attained Milestone C approval 2003. teamed with Sikorsky. World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . COBRA Testing quirements for ship-launched naval sance and location system) program. tober 2003. Army UCAR: Replaced by Fire In September 2004. the BRITE Star II helicopter). UCAR development. ing the feasibility of millimeter-wave Radio System (JTRS) Cluster 5. NAVAIR announced UAVs in the next few years. and flight demonstration of the sensor was part of the baseline modu- The Seamos QH-50 program has Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance lar mission payload for the LCS Fire now been shelved. DARPA awarded ground demonstrations of potential the FCS Class IV UAV program. Army plans call for ad. but frigate. for it intends to issue a cost type order un- new K130 corvettes. Boeing and SAIC awarded Northrop Scout is essentially ready to go. Raytheon completed airborne ra- thetic Aperture Radar SAR.100 kg (2. Helicopter Textron and Lockheed aperture sensor demonstrations prov- eral Dynamics [GD] Joint Tactical Martin. UCAR air use of Fire Scout as a test-bed for their prior to a 2010 flight test. radar and a wide-angle IR sensor in a air-to-ground communications. connaissance Systems to its UCAR Combat System (FCS) program. contracts for the Unmanned Combat ally. due to today’s Fire Scout em- lbs. Lockheed Martin chose Fire Scout RQ-8B as the basis delays have resulted largely due to de. to provide sensor systems. and Northrop Grumman. Raytheon had been one of the original Grumman a $115 million SDD con. which will re. instead of a simple ISR sensor. DARPA chose two teams. In Oc. added Raytheon Unmanned & Re- for its Class IV UAV for the Future layed FCS network and JTRS devel. Boe. in August 2003.425 Scout as a contender for its F-100 risen. In September 2007.000 (speculative) Overview of Fire Scout. Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total BRITE Star I US Navy (MQ-8B Fire Scout) 3 — — — — — — — — — — 3 BRITE Star II US Navy (MQ-8B Fire Scout) — — 1 6 6 8 8 9 10 10 10 68 US Army MQ-8B FCS Class 4A (Fire Scout) E-O/IR Sensors Status: New Development Manufacturer: In Competition Unit Cost: $500-700. Seamos Spain has begun examining Fire Note that sensor costs have likely was developed with a 1. Raytheon and Sikorsky.

The system is being developed Electronics Command (CECOM). with Moving Target Indicator The E-O/IR/LD package must be (TSAR/MTI). stability and support operations laser seeker. the Army Commu. CA military systems. in E-O mode and multiple fields of Army Landmine Warfare/Barrier ing the Advanced Precision Kill view when in IR mode. Northrop Grumman Viper Both sensor types must be capable ASTAMIDS is a program to pro- Strike is a precision munition which of performing progressive scan video vide the tactical commander and the has GPS guidance and a semi-active to support the formation of image mo. the Army has replaced its search. Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total US Army Fire Scout E-O/IR Sensor (Undetermined) US Army (MQ-8B Fire Scout) 4 2 — — — — 15 15 15 15 15 75 USCG Bell Eagle Eye Star SAFIRE III Status: New Development Manufacturer: FLIR Systems.000 ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . ing conducted in Anaheim. will provide color imagery over the freely. Unit Cost: $600. Herndon. acquisition (RSTA) and laser desig- ner. Candidate turrets are ex.5%). DARPA stated it could km (eight km). a n E . Contract Scout. form the multi-mode payload or moving targets for attack by Army Modular Sensors for the service’s tactical UAV systems air-to-surface weapons employing The FCS Fire Scout will provide (including fixed and rotary-wing plat. N o r th r o p pected to be 25-40 cm in diameter and tional desirable capabilities include Grumman’s COBRA mine detection weigh 18-60 kg. duct autonomous preplanned opera. strip and spot wide-area (62. and a Mine. Identification of such a Grumman Systems in Melbourne. recognize. reco g n itio n an d Tactical Synthetic Aperture Radar synthetic-aperture radars (SARs). Strike. ret that could. VA (26. range of 8 km (threshold) or 16 km gated $5.000 feet at 70 kt and a slant (CECOM). perhaps includ. (DAAB15-03-C-0013). VA. with minimal develop. identification.5 m) from an altitude of nications-Electronics Command training sensor. announced it was seeking sources of b la c k . and is to be UCAR needs with an armed Fire videographic registration. a (3. a Signals size of an armored personnel carrier In April 2005. It E-O/IR/LD Sensor Solicitation command from the MPO. Addi. Communications. The work is be- the next generation of autonomous mission.a n d . ranges of up to 8 km (16 km).3%).O /I R s e n s o r. nose of a Fire Scout UAV. Intelligence (SIGINT) package. Operating modes will in.2%). and Radiological detection. connaissance. a similar request to suppliers of g et cu ein g . The payload will con. measure the ASTAMIDS for Army Fire Tactical Radio System (JTRS) com- range of and designate a target the Scout munications relay package. FL (11. f u ll v is ib le s p e c tr u m an d a for UAV or helicopter application. auto-search and aided tar. However. clude staring. the program man. completed by October 2009. system (based on ASTAMIDS). coverage of at least 200 km2/h in a alerts the commander to locations ager for Robotic and Unmanned Sen. and provide identifies minefield locations and In May 2004. Alexandria. a four-channel Joint able to detect. obli. together with precision Melbourne.w h ite o u tp u t w h e n and will be initially mounted in the an E-O/IR/LD (laser designator) tur. Chemical 10-12. Inc. and Now. The Army systems will have ments include continuous zoom when funding is expected to come from the weapons capability. The E-O sensor where he can or cannot maneuver sors (PMRUS). narrow field of view. DARPA announced it tio n s w ith th e cap ab ility fo r n atio n f u n ctio n ality in to th e “remains committed” to developing instantaneous retasking throughout a ASTAMIDS Block I. lock-on-after-launch mode at all modular mission packages including forms). saics in step-stare mode. to fund the incorporation of re- participate. PM RUS issued a auto-track. Require. surveillance and target not continue without a service part.Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Page 155 following the Army’s decision to not target is required from a distance of 4 FL.5 million to Northrop (objective).5 x 3. The LD will designate stationary ment. selectable by program (PE# 0604808A) Weapon System (APKWS) or Viper the mission payload operator (MPO). The payload (SASO) commander with an airborne will slew through 360 degrees on capability to detect mine threats. selected by the MPO.

and Star SAFIRE Bell Eagle Eye Vertical takeoff and The new USCG cutters were to be. brigades. over the Northrop Grumman RQ-8 In July 2002.y e a r D e e p w a t e r p r o g r a m. balls for Eagle Eye. which has been offered for appreciate the not inconsequential over a decade to the Navy and other technological risks of such a venture. program. These payloads will tended to provide real-time recon. Fire Scout for its vertical take off and tentatively selected FLIR Systems awarded to a team led by Lockheed landing UAV (VUAV) requirement. Should the program succeed. The primary sensor is an in.000 Overview naissance. planned. and 60-70 pacity. the forecast here should water UAV program proceed as whether the air vehicle will prove to be regarded as optimistic. expensive EO/IR suite. FSI Star SAFIRE III E-O/IR sensor other endurance UAVs. thetic aperture radar (SAR)/ground The Army’s TUAV (Tactical quisition information to US Army moving target indicator (GMTI) sen- UAV) program is a UAV system in. it will be the first large scale be robust and reliable enough to oper. Inc.Page 156 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Deepwater Development HV-911 Eagle Eye (now TR911D) FSI for Deepwater UAV+MPA The US Coast Guard’s $25 billion. Guard selected the Bell Textron Teal Group Analysis Should the Coast Guard Deep. and target ac. number of FLIRs for Deepwater many other suppliers). the US Coast has been delayed. In November 2002.000 average) (speculative) Overview loads will vary by UAV size and ap- See platforms chapters for details plication. was to include tion of 69 UAVs and up to 50 ground program. with a syn. including control stations. services. II sensors for CN-235-300 maritime landing UAVs (VUAVs). but this patrol aircraft. Northrop Grumman Unit Cost: $250. surveillance. this civilian use of UAVs in the United a te in th e d e man d in g n a v a l will significantly boost the export po- States. The selection of the Bell environment. (FSI) to provide an undetermined Martin and Northrop Grumman (and The USCG is considering the acquisi. procurement of 76 UAVs. The Coast Guard now plans to buy Global Hawks (perhaps leased) or Eagle Eye has a 200-lb payload ca. of future commercial UAV use. Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total Star SAFIRE III USCG (Eagle Eye UAV) — — — — — — — 2 4 4 6 16 US Commercial UAV E-O/IR Sensors Status: New Development Manufacturer: Undetermined Unit Cost: $250-600. sor also planned. tential of the Eagle Eye and probably Textron Eagle Eye for the VUAV re. gin deployment around 2006. not be fitted to the TUAV simulta- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . What remains to be seen is As a result.000 ($350. Lockheed Martin 2 0 . One need only examine the related make it more attractive for use by the quirement is a major boost for this Osprey tilt-rotor transport program to Department of Defense. Pay- Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total US Commercial UAV E-O/IR Sensors (Undetermined) Undetermined n/a 5 5 5 5 5 30 60 60 75 100 350 US Army Shadow 200 TUAV E-O/IR Sensors Status: In Production Manufacturer: IAI-Tamam.

Respondents must dem. Other UAV capability objectives small businesses. and 1 cubic foot. Com. Raven Eye I/II (for systems quired 24 TUAV systems (with 72 air also plans to arm Shadow. ending in FY07 instead of FY09. large or 150nm. Retaskable: able phibious ships. VA. The 4th Infantry Division did not de- lbs. The Shadow UAV was first used in TUAV air vehicle weight is 300 lbs. produced by Northrop Grumman).000 feet AGL or above. munication/Data Link: able to com- In September 2004. spond to unplanned RSTA missions neously with the sea. In mid-2006. to be retasked while in flight. this will include a new load configuration to permit easy March 2001. the Army had ac. to image the targeted ties – Surveillance and Reconnais. under the Army’s new pears that FLIR Systems. combat in 2003 during Operation with a payload objective (unlikely to The Army has changed its pro. production Shadow 200 payload is 60 the past few years. Responsiveness: able to re. improved sensors. post. an interim Class II tactical MicroSTAR II has flown on the their Shadow 200 UAV. recover by MEU forces operating ability to communicate and display king 2006. ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . The first UAV will be deployed by 2010. Warfighting better than 100m accuracy) tactical sea based command post with no Lab. mission programming. increased payload. but will use a common pay. Likely to be an upgraded RQ-7B as well the on the Camcopter. an advanced warfighting ashore. The missions including the division’s first tries) POP 200 (Plug-in Optronic Army is continuing to fund improve. with five systems opera- tional in Iraq. The divi- earlier Shadow 200 UAVs) to tems. for FCS plans. with a sion was made in September 2002. The Army name. it was reduced again to 39 sys. but saw fighting later in the peace- from Inframetrics’Mk III E-O/IR (for sion. Total leading to the award of a full produc.Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Page 157 neously. were on schedule to install a laser tar- produce POP systems under a new By March 2004. In 2004. announced it is elements of threat forces.000 Sea Viking 2006 Solicitation sance: visual imagery capable of de. Shadow Laser Current plans have Northrop TCS (Tactical Control System) im. FLIR Systems. ered in late 2000. tems up to FY03. Army Shadow plans Grumman teaming with Tamam to provements and other features. a second LRIP con. 2002.’s tract to AAI Defense Systems. Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total IAI-Tamam POP 200 US Army (Shadow 200) 205 60 30 50 5 55 — — — — — 405 US Army TUAV E-O/IR Sensor (Undetermined) US Army (TUAV) — — — — — — — — — 60 60 120 US Marine Corps Shadow 200 MCTUAS E-O/IR Sensors Status: New Development Manufacturer: Not yet in competition Unit Cost: $250. and Sentry HP. MicroSTAR Production Plans II Tested In December 1999. substitution. it ap- awarded the TUAV air vehicle con. keeping operations in Iraq.based command onstrate at a minimum that they can (quick set-up. the United tecting/identifying/locating (with municate and display imagery to the States Marine Corps. Inc. get designator on the UAV. Payload) for the Block I LRIP and ments in the TUAV system including later production air vehicles. Shadow 400 and 600 tactical UAVs. imagery to forces ashore simulta- experiment. and launch process). Range: ground infrastructure. Inc. and a third in March E-O/IR/Laser Designator capability. tract for four systems was awarded in Shadow 200. Combat Deployment fairly small payload capacity. the Army New Sensor Planned Although reports are vague. Launch/Recovery: able to launch and include (but are not limited to) the strating UAV capabilities for Sea Vi. tion contract in December 2002. capable of demon. The Block II curement objective several times over talion of the 4th Infantry Division. A favorable Milestone III deci- The TUAV is a small UAV. Iraqi Freedom with the 104th MI Bat- be achieved) of 100 lbs. Quantico. In the FY05 budget submis. Falco. It was set at 44 sys. to launch and recover from am- provide the following UAV capabili. The E-O/IR payload has changed systems. Block I LRIP air vehicle was deliv. and then raised to 60 ploy during the initial combat phase. seeking potential sources. major operation. Endurance: 6-8 hours. area from 10. a June raid on Tikrit. with procurement funding sion used the Shadow on a number of IAI-Tamam’s (Israel Aircraft Indus. vehicles).

and engines will all be replaced. biological. adding the Tactical (Hunt Valley. but Fire Scout was cancelled The basic sensor is an El-Op Moked in g an E-O /IR s en so r. a laser pointer. 1 September 2005.Page 158 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors and to provide target designation. includ- Pioneer. over the remaining 47 Pioneer air ve. UAV LTA. sensor payloads. Sea-Viking-2006. plans). the Navy’s Fire Scout The payload bay is 0. 2 Sensor Priorities Shadow to Replace Pioneer December 2005. propriate acquisition decisions. least nine systems and slightly over for night and adverse weather The first improvements (con- 100 air vehicles. a further 20 air vehicles in FY94. the Marine Corps In December 2006. This Although reports are vague. and ISR LOE. Control System (TCS). laser (until reborn for the LCS). The Gov.000 Overview War. were to be Congress ordered the Navy to halt fu. II Tested could involve six days of 24-hour op. neer UAVs with a purchase of 6 AAI Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) UAV and a communications relay at the Shadow Unmanned Aerial Systems capable of sea-based operations.1 m3 and is pro. In July 2006. as well the on the Camcopter. launchers. least 2010 or 2011. and nuclear (CBRN) as they are procured. (LOE). The tentative time periods for the 2004. Inc. In the late mounted centrally under the fuselage. The ground control piloted vehicle developed in Israel by existing units operational until a new station. it ap- erations for each of the ISR Limited is not a solicitation announcement for pears that FLIR Systems. In addition. AAI Corp. (also built by AAI). was to award subcon- VTUAV was planned to replace the vided with up to 500 watts of power. SOL is Shadow 400 and 600 tactical UAVs. with E-O/IR. Only requirements. including two in with the Army’s Shadow 200 TUAV ment of the UAV-SR (now BQM-155 combat. which is a common system cal UAV system pending develop. and laser spot tracker. surveillance. Navy began looking at further era. the Navy purchased 12 at. any ground infrastructure. MicroSTAR Participation in Sea Viking 2006 Sources Sought Synopsis to make ap. detection package. $100 Million Pioneer Improve. ducted in spirals). were lost during air operations over remain. Kosovo in 1999. to keep Program (PIP). Follow on payloads would be (compared to the Army’s 83 UAS UAV system must be capable of con. due October 31. designator. The second spiral was ture purchases in FY88 due to the de. laser designator and satellite commu- trition replacements after the Gulf hicles and the Navy agreed to fund a nication data links. the Pioneer has also Mo s t s ys te ms w ill b e b o u g h t Pioneer upgrades. been fitted with a gyrostabilized off-the-shelf to minimize develop- Production to date has included at FLIR such as the El-Op MKD-400. The UAV system will outlined its priorities for Tier II UAV nounced they would replace their Pio- pose as a surrogate for a future Marine sensors. 1990s. Israel) for surveillance UAV system arrives in service. ment work. The fully-up- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . Shadow will replace Pioneer ducting its mission without relying on radiological. LTAs and the LOE are below: UAV LTA. The Marines then Hunter) for use off US Navy ships and The E-O/IR sensor package is planned to operate Pioneer until at by the US Marine Corps. cancelled. The final spiral was to add the However. Inc. and the 200 gyrostabilized daylight TV cam. including a new E-O/IR pay- Tactical UAV (BQM-155 Hunter). SIGINT and a chemical. made by 2003. The US Navy acquired A total of at least four Pioneers the two-year-old avionics system will it in the late 1980s as an interim tacti. tracts for most upgrade work. Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total USMC Shadow 200 MCTUAS E-O/IR Sensor (Undetermined) USMC (Shadow 200) — — 5 25 — — — — 10 — — 40 USMC RQ-2A Pioneer POP 200 Status: Upgrade & Support Manufacturer: IAI-Tamam Unit Cost: $250. the USMC an- March 2006. The top. IAI (Tel Aviv. ment Program (PIP) to include improvements to the air ve- cision to press ahead with a Joint After the Fire Scout UAV was hicle. and Sentry HP. $101 million Pioneer Improvement The RQ-2A Pioneer is a remotely and 15 air vehicles in 1996.’s Technical Assessments (LTAs) and proposals nor will a contract follow as MicroSTAR II has flown on the the Limited Objective Experiment a result of this announcement. with AAI Corp. ernment will use responses from this FLIR Systems. MD) the US prime. Falco. the Marine Corps took load.

950 lbs communications. the production of components con. NY funding. developed by seeking to pinpoint targets with 10 m MQ-5B Hunters for Army Northrop Grumman and IAI-Tamam. MD (25%). and a greater payload (1. MOSP E-O/IR sensor.5 km UAVs. Valley. for the “Marine Shadow” to be divided among facilities in Hunt In early 2004. Requirements included a v eillan ce missio n s o v er th e Army. arma.Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Page 159 graded version was to be ready by engines.000 ft range. At the time. the Army released a trol 2011. NAVAIR also awarded In 2004. the Naval Air Ben Gurion. taken delivery of 18 new MQ-5Bs.2 March 2005. The Hunter’s first combat ment. rity (DHS) announced it will fly sur. Shadow will replace Pioneer DO against the same BOA to finance E-O/IR sensor – the IAI-Tamam POP as they are procured. Places of performance for the ment for Pioneer systems. be modified to MQ-5B standard. to Navy Weapons Procurement (WPN) In December 2006. account (N00019-01-G-0128). solicitation for new sensors for its Following successful testing with As of April 2006. where at [was 1.000 Overview Hunter to Fly DHS Border Con. to instead begin procuring awarded Pioneer Unmanned Aerial (20%). 10 km detection range and 2. The sisting of payloads. developed since 2005 out of Northrop a zoom color TV camera. nounced they would replace their Pio- livery of two replacement ground neer UAVs with a purchase of 6 AAI control stations (GCS) for the Pioneer POP 200 Chosen Shadow Unmanned Aerial Systems UAV system. the Navy was re- UAV program: a Pioneer UAV modi. TUAV control system. called for shifting future Pioneer PIP Systems Command (NAVAIR) ley. The Army was Eye II E-O/IR payload. hours with an additional fuel tank market the MQ-5B for homeland se- [was 11 hours]). ers are not configured for satellite vehicles. with the first operational unit 500-10. UAV. The MQ-5B has curity and international sales. under the Hunter Israeli-built Elbit Systems Ltd. In June Pioneer Upgrade Contracts UAV componentry order included 2004. for the Army’s ER/MP program. and a laser Hunters currently mount IAI’s Grumman’s Hunter-based competitor rangefinder-designator. Texas/Mexico border using Hunter to be deployed to Iraq in 2006. the House and Senate also In February 2004. receiver systems. Israel vamping its overall UAV plan. It Unlike the ER/MP. tal of 40 MQ-5Bs are planned by the ters. 200 (Plug-in Optronic Payload). Vehicle in Hunt Valley. mended a $7 million plus-up for the The work under the first action is Pioneer Retired Early? USMC. procurement is expected to integrate US Army Hunter Raven Eye II Status: In Production Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman & IAI-Tamam Unit Cost: $400-500. in November 2004 and had contracted for 11 RQ-5Bs to ACTD. accuracy. MD (65%). the HASC recom. the requirement. Holon. (15%). and Johnson City. Her. with a completion date of Shadow 200 TUAVs for the Marines. A to- between UAVs and manned helicop. in- tended to fill the gap until the first ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . the Marines Corps chose (compared to the Army’s 83 UAS an $8. MD an $11. IFF transponders. The ACTD looked at teaming the Department of Homeland Secu. aircraft components for the Pioneer Army’s Shadow 200 UAV. The MQ-5B mounts the Raven identification range. Warrior ER/MP unit is fielded in In April 2002. and Patuxent River. Stand-Off Killer Team (HSKT) mes 450 UAVs. the Army had Hunter UAVs. Hunt Val. use was in Kosovo in 1999. and be completed in August new plans called for an early retire- 2005. been called an “interim ER/MP”. the new Hunt- The Army had about 50 Hunter air has a new heavy fuel engine. Israel (55%). Contract financing for million cost reimbursement delivery the two contracts will come from the Shadow to Replace Pioneer order (DO) against a FY01 BOA.5 million cost reimbursement an off-the-shelf solution for the PIP plans). In early 2002. but better than 80 meters is The new MQ-5B Hunter has been It combines a cooled mid-wave FLIR. 360 degree FOV. based fied by AAI with the Army’s Shadow (20%). MD on experience in Iraq. GCS and with sensor purchases for the US 2005.600 lbs]) and endurance (21 Northrop Grumman also plans to least 4 were shot down. the USMC an- provide for the manufacture and de.

The gimbaled SWIR payload will unarmed. Arlington. Mini-UAV E-O/IR Sensors US Army A160 Hummingbird FCS Class II UAV ARGUS Status: New Development Manufacturer: BAE Systems Unit Cost: Undetermined UAV ARGUS-IS Wide FOV Sur. VA. onstration. DARPA. dual field of view lens. Hummingbird for integration and UAS that are available offer persis. components/subsystems. announced it transition this capability to the is soliciting proposals for the Autono. a Gigapixel Boeing Co. an Airborne Pro. POC is Michael Blackstone. email: ste- gies and systems that will enable wide Range/Multiple Purpose (ER/MP). Integration Su rv eillan ce-Imag in g S ystem ing to provide an expanding range of In June 2007. Arlington. SOL is BAA07-23. 07-42. Spectre gunship. Sensor Unlimited (SUI) Unit Cost: Undetermined In December 2006. Con- In February 2007. phen.Page 160 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total Raven Eye II US Army (MQ-5B Hunter) 32 — — — — — — — — — — 32 USAF FINDER UAV E-O/IR Sensors Status: New Development Manufacturer: Goodrich. systems should be compatible with a Imaging System (ARGUS-IS). for DARPA’s Autonomous Real-time the E-O system is limited by the sen. however. the Information Ex- (ARGUS-IS) program under this capabilities enabling wide area per. Tests are to occur in detects reflected rather than transmit- IR (SWIR) payload for the USAF 2007. to provide close-in and laser pointer. veillance Solicitation system that provides a real-time. ploitation Office (IXO). ARGUS-IS program is to develop a lized for these flight experiments. Ex p lo itatio n O ff ice (IX O ) at sistent surveillance capability and email: BAA07-23@darpa. uational awareness to the warfighter. for the pro- high-resolution field of view (FOV). wide area video per. The SWIR sensor nounced it will supply the short-wave targeting support. the Information high-resolution. Integrating the pod and the procurement of an A160 on the utility of the E-O system. FINDER was originally devel. 2007. Huntington Beach. ground personal are armed or for Reconnaissance (FINDER) dem. The objective of the bit per second data link will be uti- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation .c. Ques- ARGUS-IS will advance technolo. ARGUS-IS/A160 Hummingbird mous Real-time Ground Ubiquitous The ARGUS-IS program is seek. due April sistent surveillance. Advanced Systems. announced it intends 2007. ARGUS-IS is Arlington. fax: (703) 741-0081. curement and redesign of an A160 This narrow FOV is a limiting factor cessing Subsystem. DARPA.davis@darpa. variety of UAS including Extended tions shall be submitted to. due August 2. The packaging of the airborne sub.. the effectiveness of the ARGUS-IS Airborne Subsystem. POP is thereby provide greatly enhanced sit. composed of three major technology to award a sole source contract to the Current UAS high-resolution elec. cessing Subsystem and a Ground Pro. cessing Subsystems together forms ground/flight test research activities tence. tro-optics (E-O) offers a narrow Sensor Subsystem. military. and evaluated during a series of flight VA 22203.mil. Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance - sors and available processing.mil. Goodrich an. and A-160 (Hummingbird). ted IR energy. tracting Officer. VA. The Gigapixel Sensor and Airborne Pro. and will ideally allow UAV Battlelab’s AC-130 Spectre oped to be launched from under the the gunship to determine whether Flight Inserted Detector Expendable wing of a Predator UAV. The FINDER UAV will be include a 640x512 Indium Gallium launched from under the wing of a Arsenide FPA. The ARGUS-IS system will be tested 3701 North Fairfax Drive. BAA. CA. These technologies and systems will experiments utilizing a surrogate be transitioned to various partners UAV. It is expected that a 200-mega- and customers. SOL is area persistent surveillance and Aerostat.

The integrated air vehicle and ScanEagle 30 km away. area persistent surveillance.Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Page 161 USAF ARGUS Contract to BAE similar program being conducted at Gigapixel Sensor Subsystem. anomalies. Sniper Detection and Radar New Data Link Tested utes. nose section. previously viewed point. Inc. RMAX. each capable of The FLIR Systems. stationary or moving targets without initiated an assessment study for the tions relay package that made it possi. The payloads are housed in the multiplexing payload control. In 2006. Other development programs are cations relay function especially catio n an d lo catin g mag n etic underway to examine the installation useful. the US Air Force with a Harris SecNet-11 communica. pay- load has been fitted to the Aerosonde. multiple ScanEagles are flying. An upgraded Block D carries either an electro-optical or in. ScanEagle bilized turret. providing return its camera automatically to any from an already good 20 hours. and awarded BAE Systems a $17. The gimbaled camera allows the but not the aircraft. operator to easily track both station. In July 2004. jects Agency (DARPA) called a Ground Processing Subsystem. “point and click”. sniper fire. Plans are underway to which accommodates larger cameras. ScanEagle was tested ret allow the operator to track In January 2007. DC. Inc.9 mil. and In September 2007. camera when the sky goes from dusk tween the Pioneer and Dragon Eye. variant houses a new sensor turret ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . Desert Hawk. Unit Cost: $40. The operators can swap the payloads in the field in a few min. having to re-maneuver the air vehicle.000 Overview frared camera. As standard payload. radar. bility. so that Marines thermal imager module providing units” for use with the First Marine won’t have to recall the UAV to 640 x 480 pixels with a 25 micron Expeditionary Force (one MEF). ScanEagle. fornia. Marine Corps ScanEagle Photon IR Sensor Status: In Production Manufacturer: FLIR Systems. tors and a magnetometer for identifi. The sensor turret can be fitted with a awarded Boeing a contract to provide low the aircraft to carry both cameras DRS E6000 high resolution uncooled two ScanEagle “mobile deployment simultaneously. to dawn. The lion contract for the ARGUS (Ad. trol has two consoles. real-time intelligence to users. 25:1 mechanical zoom and IR capa. Flight and Camera Control and has performed well in the harsh ScanEagle is the first small tactical ScanEagle flight is autonomous. tics. Proposed In 2005. Airborne Processing Subsystem. The work that is to be con. Puma. and deployment of other payloads in- The nose of the ScanEagle vehicle cluding a lightweight high-resolution Stabilized Payloads houses a gimbaled and inertially sta. It is com. change from the IR camera to a color pitch. Boeing is also looking at a modu. The Other payloads include biological convoys and military bases against long-endurance ScanEagle makes and chemical sensors. Evolution. with a joystick control for the camera will introduce a Block upgrade for ret.4GHz S-band ShotSpotter Inc of Santa Clara. Aerospace Sensors element (PE# ducted will most likely dovetail with a posed of three major subsystems. Contract funding is expected program. quickly. when 320x240 IR Photon camera core/pay. Inc. including a video camera with a controlling up to four aircraft. laser designa. Navigation is ScanEagle which will include in. 170 g. This work is being conducted in Washing- vanced Remote Unattended Sensor) effort seeks to provide an expanding ton. up ary and moving targets. this extended line-of-sight communi. and the system can creasing endurance to 30 hours. AFRL-Wright the Defense Advanced Research Pro. ScanEagle is mid-way in size be. Photon lar payload that will carry electro-op. Although ScanEagle ground con- FLIR Systems. deployment of a sniper gun fire detec- ble to send secure streaming video ScanEagle has a 900MHz UHF tion and location system supplied by and voice-over-IP communication datalink and a 2. The sensors installed in the tur. and Swift mini-UAVs. environment in Iraq. Boeing has proposed developing a Helicam. Airfoil. expected to see application range of capabilities enabling wide to c o me f r o m th e A ir F o r c e on a UAV. the Marine Corps outfit it with a dual bay payload to al. Cali- from a ground control station to a downlink for video transmission. a 0602204F) (FA8650-07-C-7732). Boeing UAV with an inertially stabilized tur. Bat. which then ShotSpotter system provides addi- instantaneously relayed it to ground Other Payloads tional force protection for military troops 10 km from the UAV. which can be changed very load access is limited to one aircraft. ARGUS-IS (Imaging System).

000 1. in early 2003.000 1.5 to 13. Eye for USMC movements at night.5 micron band. batteries. weighs 120g. for a require. Raven payload capacity is 200 produces 160x120 (RS-170A) or Raven-B has a stabilized payload. Dragon Eye carries dual sensors – Micron IR camera as the Army’s Ra- ment now dubbed Dragon Eye. the Marine equipped with the ThermoVision Mi. Three in. and one side-view ther. British forces in Af. low-light TV (LLTV). and produces 160x120 Dragon Eye weighs 5-1/2 pounds off and landing (VTOL) capability. ghanistan were also using Raven. The produced by the Indigo Systems divi. the Marine Corps decided less than an hour. A winner for produc. with 467 Raven-B durance of 90 minutes.000 — — — — — 5. one high-resolution toon-sized Army elements to provide night imager. tion day camera. sion which was to have vertical take. one Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total ThermoVision Micron IR US Army (RQ-11 Raven) n/a 1. although by 2004 it for trials from ships under the code bungee-cord launched. the daylight E-O sensor. Micron IR Sensor the new Raven-B. outputs. The camera is The Micron IR uses an uncooled systems funded through FY13. and USMC Dragon Eye also carries the Raven is a small (six lbs. It has an endurance of slightly Dragon Eye Sensors In 1997. ily disassembled and fits in a back- World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems ©Teal Group Corporation . The As of early 2007. It is hand or light E-O camera. Raven-B Supersedes Dragon current information on close-in troop mal imager.Page 162 Electro-Optic/Infrared Sensors Production Forecast User (Platform) Through 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total Photon IR USMC (ScanEagle) n/a 75 150 120 120 65 120 120 — — — 770 RQ-11 Raven ThermoVision Micron IR Sensor Status: In Production Manufacturer: FLIR Systems. bolometer FPA operating in the 7. (RS-170A) or 160x128 CCIR) video and has a 45-inch wingspan. a movable camera in the nose and a ven UAV. needed for the Micron. This may be in addition to In 2001. The Micron tion was awarded in late 2002. (Indigo Systems) Unit Cost: $30. Micron IR sensor. the Navy awarded BAI fixed side-looking camera. Inc.5 micron band. and Dragon Eye systems.000 1. each Raven sys- tem consisted of three aircraft.) bat. as total sen- and AeroVironment contracts for the terchangeable cameras are available – sor payload is reportedly about competitive development of Dragon day E-O. Inc. and one-half pound (225g) – greater than Eye prototypes. Corps decided to shift procurement cron IR camera (formerly known as from its ongoing Dragon Eye UAV to “Omega”) and data links.5 to Marines had already received 242 sion of FLIR Systems. weighs 120g. tery-powered UAV used by pla.000 USMC (RQ-11 Raven) — — 145 275 120 — — — — — — 540 Marine Corps Dragon Eye ThermoVision Micron IR Sensor Status: Upgrade & Support Manufacturer: FLIR Systems. with an en.000 1. 160x128 CCIR) video outputs. erating in the 7. IR. with Future Dragon Eye developments uses an uncooled bolometer FPA op- the first production systems available originally included a Block III ver. Dragon Eye initially carried a day- to reactivate some of their Exdrones mission range of 10 km. 13.000 (speculative) Overview pack. Inc. The system is In mid-2007. (Indigo Systems) Unit Cost: $30. three sets of sensors: one high-resolu.000 (speculative) Overview ground control station. grams. with a video trans. was carrying the same ThermoVision name Dragon Drone. In December 2006. It is eas.

3 lbs. Because million in FY04). now the Marines want sharper resolu.000 per air vehicle and $10. ThermoVision Micron mini IR cam- eras had been procured for Pointers. with 467 Raven-B UAV. and the Pointer Pointer was still in use in Iraq and In 2004. This is about three times the well. Giscard added. and announced Dragon Eye along with the Army Dragon Eye systems.500 batteries and disposing of them Raven-B Supersedes Dragon was an issue. Dragon Eyes and a ground station frequencies. It has a 90 minute endurance. rines would be able to change fre- the Marines plan to acquire 1. with funding from low-light camera. The aim of the pro. 4. The Pointer carries either an 8-12 will mount E-O and IR cameras. Although the batteries worked control and a UAV. Corps decided to shift procurement cessfully conducted the initial de. as well as naissance. buildings prevent the craft from However. the US Special Op- to examine very low cost UAVs in a proof of concept under which the erations Command ordered at least 28 (UAV-VLC). which includes 3 air vehicles and also had one-time use disposable bat. Raven-B has a in June 2002 that it had purchased two units flying Raven shared the same stabilized payload. One idea is to have mates allow $60-70. ©Teal Group Corporation World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems . but UAVs rely on line-of-sight for con- ployed as early as 2003. the Marine In January 2002.000 quency while Dragon Eye is flying. quirements of larger systems. and $9 mercial off-the-shelf IR camera. information to and from the ground a control station.000 (speculative) The US UAV Joint Program Office In 1994. between buildings and down FY02. when several Marine battalions flying Marines had already received 242 terest in Dragon Eye. the Navy suc. but the Marines flying missions in urban environ- FY02-FY04 (about $2 million in Corps replaced it in 2005 with a com. grade the communications systems. (Indigo Systems) Unit Cost: $30. Plans are also underway to up. The The Army has also expressed in. which has been very successful. ments. 1991 during Operation Desert Storm Payload capacity is 900 grams. UAVs were deployed forward of a he. $2 million in FY03. to be delivered by August 2002. four downlinks. trol. Dragon Eyes and 331 Dr