INDEX CHAPTER Chapter 1

:
1.1: 1.2: 1.3:

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION
EMBEDDED SYSTEM MICROCONTROLLER PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A

PAGE NO. 04
06 19 23

Chapter 2:
2.1: 2.2: 2.3: 2.4: 2.5: 2.6:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
POWER SUPPLY UNIT OUTPUT FILTER TRANSMITTER DETAILS RECEIVER DETAILS LCD DISPLAY INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD 33

26
26 31 32 34 38

Chapter 3:
3.1: 3.2: 3.3: 3.4: 3.5: 3.6: 3.7: 3.8:

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
SOFTWARE TOOLS MPLAB INTEGRATION INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED ‘C’ EMBEDDED “C” COMPILER EMBEDDED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT EMBEDDED SYSTEM TOOLS DESIGN OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM COMPONENTS USED

39
39 39 40 41 41 42 46 49

Chapter 4: BIBLOGRAPHY CODING

CONCLUSION

51 52 53

1

FIGURE CONTENTS
FIG 1.1: THE EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN CYCLE FIG 1.2: V Diagram FIG 1.3: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER FIG 1.4: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF XBEE RECEIVER FIG 1.5: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM TRANSMITTER FIG 1.6: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM RECEIVER FIG 1.7: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16 F874A/877A FIG 1.8: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16F874A/877A FIG 2.1: POWER SUPPLY UNIT FIG 2.2: Low Pass Filter FIG 2.3: 7805 REGULATOR FIG 2.4: TWS-434A FIG 2.5: TWS-434 Pin Diagram FIG 2.6: RWS-434 Receiver FIG 2.7: RWS-434 Pin Diagram FIG 2.8: LCD DISPLAY Fig 2.9: INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD

PAGE NO.
07 07 11 12 14 15 24 25 26 29 30 32 32 33 34 35 38

2

ABSTRACT
Aim of this project is to implement class room attendance system with indoor temperature and information display using embedded systems. This system is a Hi-TECH and contemporary one for class rooms in colleges and schools. Now a day the systems were get into digital form under this concept, information from the department head can be displayed on the LCD screen using RF technology. Five things are getting important they are counter unit, the information display unit through wireless technology last one is Micro- controller unit and RF wireless unit. The counterpart counts the number of students present in the class at when they entering inside the class room; this is done by using IR sensors,. The details from the above send to controller, then controller display it on the LCD. In between this, if any information from head of the department means it will take as an interrupt by the controller and receive the information through RF wireless communication. When it is completed, the message will be displayed on the LCD screen. The message will be displayed for a particular time period. After that it will again continue to display the presents of students and room temperature. In the transmitter side the three keys are assigned to type the message. The keys assigned are as follows, one for alphabetic, second one for numeric, another one for enter button. When the message entered it will transmitted through RF wireless unit.

CHAPTER-1
3

3) Environment connected to systems through sensors.g. 2) Embedded systems are computer systems that monitor. each component characterized by properties that are selected as being relevant to the purpose. The microcontroller block is playing a major role in this project work. with the advancement technology.INTRODUCTION The project report describes the design Development and Fabrication of One demo unit of the project work “DISPLAY WIRELESS COMMUNICATION FOR CLASS ROOM MONITORING WITH NOTICE BOARD ” by using embedded systems. Body. The PIC 16F877A microcontroller is a 40-pin IC. etc A system is a part of the world that a person or group of persons during some time interval and for some purpose choose to regard as a whole. particularly in the field of Microcontrollers. The entire project was developed in embedded systems. 1) Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. Mankind. 4 . or control an external environment. The micro controller chip used in this project work is PIC 16F877A and this is like heart of the project work. consisting of interrelated components. trend is directing towards Microcontrollers based project works. E. Access Control. all the activities in our daily living have become a part of Information technology and we find microcontrollers in each and every application. actuators and other I/O interfaces. respond to. Now a day. Thus. A system is something that maintains its existence and functions as a whole through the interaction of its parts.

where they are embedded in. not a software system on PC or UNIX. software driven.Generally 8. 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. 16 Bit Controllers used with a minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose.Generally 32. An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing.1 EMBEDDED SYSTEM: 5 . not a traditional business or scientific application. operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market. Microcontrollers are embedded inside some other device so that they can control the features or actions of the project. Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine. Microcontrollers are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. Microcontrollers are often low-price devices. 5) An embedded system is a microcontroller-based. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. reliable. High-end embedded system . Another name for a microcontroller therefore is “Embedded Controller”. real-time control system. or human or network interactive. Lower end embedded systems . 1. Microwave Ovens. Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc. The program is stored in ROM (read only memory) and generally does not change.4) Embedded system must meet timing & other constraints imposed on it by environment. autonomous.

operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market.Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task.Generally 32. software driven. An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing.Generally 8. SYSTEM DESIGN CALLS: 6 . real-time control system. High-end embedded system . not a software system on PC or UNIX. reliable. autonomous. 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. An embedded system is a microcontroller-based. Microwave Ovens.Lower end embedded systems . Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine.16 Bit Controllers used with an minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose. Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc . or human or network interactive. where they are embedded in. not a traditional business or scientific application.

1: THE EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN CYCLE FIG 1.2: V Diagram 7 .FIG 1.

Characteristics of Embedded System:
• An embedded system is any computer system hidden inside a product other than a computer • There will encounter a number of difficulties when writing embedded system software in addition to those we encounter when we write applications

Throughput – Our system may need to handle a lot of data in a short period of time.

– – –

Response–Our system may need to react to events quickly Testability–Setting up equipment to test embedded software can be difficult Debugability–Without a screen or a keyboard, finding out what the software is doing wrong (other than not working) is a troublesome problem

Reliability – embedded systems must be able to handle any situation without human intervention

Memory space – Memory is limited on embedded systems, and you must make the software and the data fit into whatever memory exists

Program installation – you will need special tools to get your software into embedded systems

Power consumption – Portable systems must run on battery power, and the software in these systems must conserve power

8

Processor hogs – computing that requires large amounts of CPU time can complicate the response problem

Cost – Reducing the cost of the hardware is a concern in many embedded system projects; software often operates on hardware that is barely adequate for the job.

Embedded systems have a microprocessor/ microcontroller and a memory. Some have a serial port or a network connection. They usually do not have keyboards, screens or disk drives.

Applications:
1. Military and aerospace embedded software applications 2 . C o mm un ic a ti on A p pl ic at io ns 3 . I n d u s tr ia l a ut om at i on an d pr oc es s co nt ro l s of tw ar e

CLASSIFICATION
1. Real Time Systems. 2. RTS is one which has to respond to events within a specified deadline. 3. A right answer after the dead line is a wrong answer

RTS CLASSIFICATION
1. Hard Real Time Systems 2. Soft Real Time System

HARD REAL TIME SYSTEM
9

1. "Hard" real-time systems have very narrow response time. 2. Example: Nuclear power system, Cardiac pacemaker.

SOFT REAL TIME SYSTEM
1. "Soft" real-time systems have reduced constrains on "lateness" but still must operate very quickly and repeatable. 2. Example: Railway reservation system – takes a few extra seconds the data remains valid.

LANGUAGES USED
1. C 2. C++ 3. Java 4. Linux 5. Ada 6. Assembly

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER

10

FIG 1.3: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER BLOCK DIAGRAM OF XBEE RECEIVER 11 .

The filter thus removes the harmonics.. But the voltage may consist of ripples or harmonics. to 6V or 12V ac this value depends on the transformer inner winding.e. So we need a regulator to reduce the voltage. 12 . This should be given to step down transformer to reduce the 230V ac voltage to low voltage. But the controller operates at 5V dc and the relays and driver operates at 12V dc voltage.FIG 1. The output of the transformer is given to the rectifier circuit. i. 7805 regulator produces 5V dc. To avoid these ripples the output of the rectifier is connected to filter.4: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF XBEE RECEIVER DESCRIPTION OF THE BLOCK DIAGRAM The AC main Block is the power supply which is of single phase 230V ac. This is the exact dc voltage of the given specification. This rectifier converts ac voltage to dc voltage.

The receiver receives the signal through antenna. KEYPAD unit. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER 13 . transmitter. The transmitter used here is TWS-434. receiver and LCD. The output of the microcontroller is given to the receiver. These potentio meters acts as load. and also the circuit uses two potentio meters.The 7805 regulator produces 5V dc and this voltage is given to PIC micro controller. The antenna used here is 35cms antenna. Receiver is RWS434.

5: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF RECEIVER: 14 .FIG 1.

6: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM RECEIVER CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 15 .FIG 1.

This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit. There are Half-Wave. the ripples from the obtained DC voltage are removed using other circuits available. And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. Full-Wave and bridge Rectifiers available for this specific function. the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core. The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. unit. It charges in positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle.POWER SUPPLY: Power supply unit consists of Step down transformer. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential. Output filter. Capacitors are used as filter. The output voltage of the rectifier is in rippled form. The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage. The circuit used for removing the ripples is called Filter circuit. The efficient circuit used is the Full wave Bridge rectifier circuit. Rectifier. thus it is stepped down. Input filter. The Forward Bias is achieved by connecting the diode’s positive with positive of the battery and negative with battery’s negative. The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. Here we used Regulator 16 . To reduce or step down the voltage. The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias.

The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage.1µF capacitor. the DC voltage also changes. Thus to avoid this Regulators are used. 3rd pin is connected to the +5v dc supply. Thus this can be successfully reduced here. The principle of the capacitor is to charge and discharge. Transmitter and Receiver. 17 . Thus the output is free from ripples. Capacitor is most often used as filter. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. It is having 4 pins. 4th pin is given to the antenna. The circuit consists of LCD. the output gets affected. Here we used 0. Here we used 7805 positive regulator. The output at this stage is 5V and is given to the Microcontroller. This filter is fixed before the regulator. The output of the 7805 regulator is connected to PIC 16f877A microcontroller. It reduces the 6V dc voltage to 5V dc Voltage. Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms. CONTROLLER CIRCUIT The controller used in the circuit is the PIC 16f877A micro controller. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. It charges during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and discharges during the negative half cycle. As and then the AC voltage changes. This filter is fixed after the Regulator circuit to filter any of the possibly found ripples in the output received finally. LCD is connected to the PIC as shown in the circuit. The +5v power supply given to the 1st pin of the PIC. Transmitter used in the circuit is TWS-434. The Filter circuit is often fixed after the Regulator circuit. 1st pin is grounded and 2nd pin is given to the 25th pin of the PIC.1000µF capacitor.

RB5. So first this 230C AC voltage should be stepped down and then it should be converted to dc. 6th and 7th pins are grounded. The receiver used here is RWS 434. In this project we used 230/12V step down transformer. The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. Two potentio meters are connected to the receiver side PIC controller via RA0 pin. It consists of 7 pins. and 7812 regulator for 12V dc voltage. sensors. Because the microcontroller and sensors are operated at +5V dc voltage and relays and drivers will be operate at +12V dc voltage. And the receiver side LCD displays the message which was sent from transmitter. Two sensors are used in the circuit. After converting to dc it is applied to controller. One more potentio meter connected to LCD. 2nd pin is connected to the 26th pin of the PIC micro controller. It is a single phase 230V ac voltage. 1st. RB6. For the two controllers two 4 MHz crystal oscillators are used to produce pulses to the controller. In this circuit we used two regulators. RB7 pins of the PIC are connected from the keypad unit. relays and drivers. One for counting the members presented in the class room and another is the temperature sensor to measure the temperature of the classroom. The output of 7805 regulator is given to PIC microcontroller and 18 . thus it is stepped down. 7805 regulator for producing 5V dc. 7th pin is taken from the antenna. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. Transmitter side LCD displays the message what the user or head typed through keypad. CIRCUIT OPERATION The input of the circuit is taken from the main. the number of students presented in the class and temperature of the class room.The RB4.

1. The transmitter antenna generates the signal. The object detecting sensor is used for counting. all on one chip.2. One is object detecting sensor and the other is temperature sensor. some memory.three sensors.1 INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor which combines the processor core (CPU).2 MICROCONTROLLER 1. The PIC controller also receives the data from the sensors. The output of the 7812 regulator is connected to three driver ICs and 12 Relays. The transmitter was fixed in the HOD room and the receiver is fixed in the classrooms. number of students presented in the class and the temperature of the class room. Then the LCD which was fixed in the classroom thus displays the message from HOD. By this way The HOD can send the messages to class rooms. The main parts of this project are sensors and PIC micro controller. This message displayed on the transmitter side LCD. At the receiver section the receiver antenna receives the signals from the transmitter antenna. The sensors are connected to the RB0 and RB1 pins of the Controller. Then the message sent to the controller. In this project we used two sensors. The computer-on-a-chip is called the microcomputer whose proper meaning is a computer using a (number of) 19 . The controller then decodes the data and sent it to the transmitter antenna. When the HOD wants to send any message to the class rooms then he will type the message through keypad unit. And the temperature sensor is used to measure the temperature in the class room. The Receiver then sends these signals to PIC controller. and I/O (input/output) lines.

programmers can built very cheaply. but as the device family matures. both in terms of wiring and programming. smaller and more power efficient they are also getting more and more features. A microcontroller can be viewed as a set of digital logic circuits integrated on a single silicon chip. although many of them. In this project we used PIC 16f877A microcontroller. or an external but which will make attaching external devices easier. which will allow program development without having to remove the micro controller for the application circuit. For many microcontrollers. which have quirks. This chip is used for only specific applications. while the concept of the microcomputer is known to be a microcontroller. attempt to develop your first application. For most applications. 20 . which you will have to understand before you. the first version of microcontroller will just have memory and digital I/O. Also simplifying this requirement is the availability of micro-controllers wit SRAM and EEPROM for control store. 1.microprocessor(s) as its CPUs. Most microcontrollers do not require a substantial amount of time to learn how to efficiently program them. more and more pat numbers with varying features will be available.2 MICRO CONTROLLER CORE FEATURES 1) High-performance RISC CPU.2. we will be able to find a device within the family that meets our specifications with a minimum of external devices. Along with microcontrollers getting faster. or even built in to the final application circuit eliminating the need for a separate circuit. Often.

high-speed CMOS FLASH/EEPROM technology. 10) Power-on Reset (POR).5V. 5) Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory. 20) In-Circuit Debugging via two pins. indirect and relative addressing modes. 11) Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST). 21 . 16) Low-power.0V to 5. 6) Pin out compatible to the PIC16C73B/74B/76/77 7) Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources) 8) Eight level deep hardware stack 9) Direct. 4) Operating speed: DC . 21) Processor read/write access to program memory. 14) Power saving SLEEP mode. 22) Wide operating voltage range: 2. 23) High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA.20 MHz clock input DC .2) Only 35 single word instructions to learn. 3) All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle. 12) Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation.200 ns instruction cycle. 15) Selectable oscillator options. 13) Programmable code-protection. 18) (ICSP) In-Circuit Serial Programming 19) Single 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming capability. 17) Fully static design. Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM data memory.

25) Low-power consumption. In this project we used PIC 16f877A microcontroller.2. 6) Multi machine control is possible simultaneously.2. PIC (Microchip). We used 16 Series PIC microcontrollers. 16Series. the series are 12.Series.24) Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges. The PIC family having different series.Series. ARM Processor 1.3 ADVANTAGES OF USING A MICROCONTROLLER OVER MICROPROCESSOR A designer will use a Microcontroller to 1) Gather input from various sensors 2) Process this input into a set of actions 3) Use the output mechanisms on the Microcontroller to do something useful 4) RAM and ROM are inbuilt in the MC. PIC means Peripheral Interface Controller. 1. 14. 5) Cheap compared to MP. Examples The 8051 (ATMEL). Motorola (Motorola).Series.Series. 2) Computers. 22 . 18. and 24.4 APPLICATIONS: 1) Cell phones.

D.3.3) Robots. 1. C. E 7) Timers: 3 8) Analog comparators: 2 9) Instructions: 35 23 . This supply is also given to 11th pin directly. The first pin of the controller is MCLR pin and the 5V dc supply is given to this pin through 10KΩ resistor. 4) Interfacing to two pc’s.3. 1. The 12th pin of the controller is grounded. A tank circuit consists of a 4 MHZ crystal oscillator and two 22pf capacitors is connected to 13th and 14th pins of the PIC.3 PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A 1. B. 2) Flash program memory (14 bit words):8K 3) Data memory (in bytes): 368 4) EEPROM Data memory (in bytes):256 5) Interrupts: 15 6) I/o ports: A.1 INTRODUCTION TO PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A The PIC 16f877A microcontroller is a 40-pin IC.2 FEATURES OF PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A 1) Operating frequency: DC-20Mhz.

7: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16 F874A/877A 24 .3 PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16 F874A/877A FIG 1.3.1.

4 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PIC 16F877A FIG 1.3.8: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16F874A/877A 25 .1.

1 STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER 26 .CHAPTER -2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 2.1.1 POWER SUPPLY UNIT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FIG 2.1: POWER SUPPLY UNIT POWER SUPPLY UNIT COSISTS OF FOLLOWING UNITS 1) Step down transformer 2) Rectifier unit 3) Input filter 4) Regulator unit 5) Output filter 2.

There are Half-Wave. the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core. This is a widely used configuration. Bridge rectifier: A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full-wave rectification. which decreases the incoming electrical voltage to be compatible with your 12 volt equipment.2 RECTIFIER UNIT The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. Full-Wave and bridge Rectifiers available for this specific function. both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally. we will need a step down transformer. Step down transformers can step down incoming voltage. thus it is stepped down. This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit.1. 2.The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. and the main power supply is 230 volts. if our equipment has been specified for input voltage of 12 volts. To reduce or step down the voltage. For example. 27 . which enables you to have the correct voltage input for your electrical needs. The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential. The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias.

it is known as a bridge rectifier. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. The circuit used for removing the ripples is called Filter circuit.1. the ripples from the obtained DC voltage are removed using other circuits available. The Forward Bias is achieved by connecting the diode’s positive with positive of the battery and negative with battery’s negative. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output.FIG : Bridge rectifier A diode bridge or bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four diodes in a bridge configuration that provides the same polarity of output voltage for either polarity of input voltage. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging. It charges in 28 . The output voltage of the rectifier is in rippled form. The efficient circuit used is the Full wave Bridge rectifier circuit. When used in its most common application. And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage. 2. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input.3 INPUT FILTER Capacitors are used as filter. resulting in lower cost and weight as compared to a center-tapped transformer design.

and the capacitor is quite capable of sustaining any reasonable load in between charging pulses. is determined by the time constant: or equivalently (in radians per second): 29 . The four rectifier diodes keep recharging the reservoir capacitor on alternate half-cycles of the line voltage. Thus the output is free from ripples. and the capacitor effectively functions as a short circuit.2: Low Pass Filter One simple electrical circuit that will serve as a low-pass filter consists of a resistor in series with a load. Input side the low pass filter has been used Low pass filter: FIG 2. The break frequency. At higher frequencies the reactance drops. The combination of resistance and capacitance gives you the time constant of the filter τ = RC (represented by the Greek letter tau). So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage.positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle. This filter is fixed before the regulator. causing them to go through the load instead. and blocks low-frequency signals. The capacitor exhibits reactance. The 1000µf capacitor serves as a "reservoir" which maintains a reasonable input voltage to the 7805 throughout the entire cycle of the ac line voltage. and a capacitor in parallel with the load. also called the turnover frequency or cutoff frequency (in hertz).

Thus to avoid this Regulators are used. so that the IC won't be damaged in case of excessive load current.4 REGULATOR UNIT FIG 2. there's only time for it to charge up half the amount. Meanwhile it also contains current-limiting circuitry and thermal overload protection. At high frequencies. As and then the AC voltage changes. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms.One way to understand this circuit is to focus on the time the capacitor takes to charge. it will reduce its output voltage instead. the output gets affected. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. Thus this can be successfully reduced here.1. the capacitor only has time to charge up a small amount before the input switches direction. At double the frequency. The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage. the DC voltage also changes. there is plenty of time for the capacitor to charge up to practically the same voltage as the input voltage. It takes time to charge or discharge the capacitor through that resistor: At low frequencies. The output goes up and down only a small fraction of the amount the input goes up and down. 2.3: 7805 REGULATOR Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. Further they can also be classified as: 1) Positive regulator 30 .

Capacitor is most often used as filter. The 10µf and . the 7805 is a positive voltage DC regulator that has only 3 terminals. 2) Negative regulator • • • Ground pin Input pin Output pin It regulates the negative voltage. They are: Input voltage.2 OUTPUT FILTER The Filter circuit is often fixed after the Regulator circuit.• • • Input pin Ground pin Output pin It regulates the positive voltage.01µf capacitors serve to help keep the power supply output voltage constant when load conditions 31 . In similar to 7805. Encapsulated in a single chip/package (IC). It charges during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and discharges during the negative half cycle. Output Voltage. Ground. The principle of the capacitor is to charge and discharge. 7812 will produce a regulated DC voltage of 12V 2. 7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR: The 7805 provides circuit designers with an easy way to regulate DC voltages to 5v.

Indoors. TWS-434: The transmitter output is up to 8mW at 433.4: TWS-434A The TWS-434 transmitter accepts both linear and digital inputs can operate from 1. to ground.. The transmitter module is only 1/3 the size of a standard postage stamp.92MHz with a range of approximately 400 foot (open area) outdoors. and makes building a miniature hand-held RF transmitter very easy.3 TRANSMITTER DETAILS The TWS-434 and RWS-434 are extremely small. and are excellent for applications requiring short-range RF remote controls.01µf is included to bypass high-frequency changes. However.change. the . The electrolytic capacitor smooth’s out any long-term or low frequency variations. and can easily be placed inside a small plastic enclosure. such as digital IC switching effects.5: TWS-434 Pin Diagram 32 .. at high frequencies this capacitor is not very efficient.5 to 12 VoltsDC. the range is approximately 200 foot. FIG 2.. 2. FIG 2. The TWS-434 is approximately the size of a standard postage stamp. and will go through most walls. Therefore..

FIG 2.multiply by 0. For 35cm.2.3937 = 13.92MHz. and has both linear and digital outputs.5 to 5. the recommended antenna should be approximately 35cm long.6: RWS-434 Receiver Note: For maximum range. The RWS434 receiver operates from 4.5 volts-DC. solid. and reached a range of over 400 foot.3937. We tested these modules using a 14". the length in inches will be approximately 35cm x 0.4 RECEIVER DETAILS RWS-434: The receiver also operates at 433. Your results may vary depending on your surroundings. and has a sensitivity of 3uV. To convert from centimeters to inches -.7795 inches long. 33 . 24 gauge hobby type wire.

They have a temperature range within which the molecules are almost as mobile as they would be in a liquid. but are grouped together in an order form similar to a crystal.7: RWS-434 Pin Diagram 2.FIG 2.5 LCD DISPLAY Liquid crystal display (LCD) has material which combines the properties of both liquid and crystals. LCD DISPLAY: 34 .

When the LCD display is not enabled. For a 4-bit data bus it only requires the supply lines plus seven extra lines. LCD displays designed around Hitachi's LCD HD44780 module. the display requires a +5V supply plus 11 I/O lines.8: LCD DISPLAY More microcontroller devices are using 'smart LCD' displays to output visual information. 35 . data lines are tri-state which means they are in a state of high impedance (as though they are disconnected) and this means they do not interfere with the operation of the microcontroller when the display is not being addressed. and it is even possible to produce a readout using the 8 x 80 pixels of the display. Hitachi LCD displays have a standard ASCII set of characters plus Japanese. Greek and mathematical symbols. The following discussion covers the connection of a Hitachi LCD display to a PIC microcontroller. For an 8-bit data bus. are inexpensive.FIG 2. The LCD also requires 3 "control" lines from the microcontroller. easy to use.

an instruction is being written to the LCD. Read/Write (R/W) This line determines the direction of data between the LCD and microcontroller. When it is low. When it is high.Enable (E) This line allows access to the display through R/W and RS lines. data is read from the LCD. a character is being written to the LCD. When this line is low. Logic status on control lines: E 0 Access to LCD disabled 1 Access to LCD enabled R/W 0 Writing data to LCD 1 Reading data from LCD RS 0 Instruction 1 Character Writing data to the LCD is done in several steps: Set R/W bit to low Set RS bit to logic 0 or 1 (instruction or character) Set data to data lines (if it is writing) Set E line to high 36 . the LCD is disabled and ignores signals from R/W and RS. When it is low. the LCD interprets the type of data on data lines. data is written to the LCD. When (E) line is high. Register select (RS) With the help of this line. When it is high. the LCD checks the state of the two control lines and responds accordingly.

a new written character will be displayed at the appropriate place on the screen. Until now we discussed the operation of writing and reading to an LCD as if it were an ordinary memory.Set E line to low Read data from data lines (if it is reading). Writing and reading data from any LCD memory is done from the last address which was set up using set-address instruction. 37 . Once the address of DD RAM is set. The LCD controller needs 40 to 120 microseconds (uS) for writing and reading. But this is not so. the program must set the DD RAM address. Before we access DD RAM after defining a special character.

2.6 INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 10k 4MHz 22pf 22pf 1N4007 1 1N4007 VIN 2 VOUT GND PIC I6f877A 230v 1N4007 5v + 1000uf 103 LM7805 P O T +5v L C D 1N4007 step down transformer 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 11 13 15 1 78122 3 +12v OUTPUT +5v Fig 2.9: INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD 1) display Font: 5 x 8 dots 2) Built-in Controller:HD44780 or Comp 3) Input Data:4 Bits or 8-Bits Interface 4) Power Supply: +4V Single Power 5) Duty Cycle: 1/16 Duty 38 .

integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications employing Microchip's PIC micro and dsPIC microcontrollers. MPLAB IDE runs as a 32-bit application on MS Windows. Moving between tools is a snap.2 MPLAB INTEGRATION MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a free. Choose MPLAB C18. or try the newest Microchip's language tools compiler. targeted at the high performance PIC24 and dsPIC digital signal controllers. and upgrading from the free simulator to MPLAB ICD 2 or the MPLAB ICE emulator is done in a flash because MPLAB IDE has the same user interface for all tools.CHAPTER-3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 3. MPLAB C30.1SOFTWARE TOOLS 1) MPLAB 2) Protel 3) Propic 4) HI-Tech PIC C Compiler 3. unified graphical user interface for additional Microchip and third party software and hardware development tools. use one of the many 39 . MPLAB IDE also serves as a single. the highly optimized compiler for the PIC18 series microcontrollers. Or. is easy to use and includes a host of free software components for fast application development and super-charged debugging.

HI-TECH tools and C compilers can help you write better code and bring it to market faster. For over two decades HI-TECH Software has delivered the industry's most reliable embedded software development tools and compilers for writing efficient and compact code to run on the most popular embedded processors. HI-TECH's reliable development tools and C compilers. Whichever embedded processor family you are targeting with your software.not a subset implementation like some other PIC compilers. whether it is the ARM. HI-TECH PICC makes full use of specific PIC features and using an intelligent optimizer. HI-TECH PICC is a high-performance C compiler for the Microchip PIC micro 10/12/14/16/17 series of microcontrollers. editor and compiler. The PICC compiler implements full ISO/ANSI C. 3.3 INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED ‘C’: Ex: Hitec – c. PICC or 8051 series. They integrate into MPLAB IDE to function transparently from the MPLAB project manager. John Deere and many others. efficient embedded processor code. can generate high-quality code easily rivaling 40 . Qualcomm. with the exception of recursion. Used by tens of thousands of customers including General Motors. HI-TECH PICC is an industrial-strength ANSI C compiler . All data types are supported including 24 and 32 bit IEEE standard floating point. combined with world-class support have helped serious embedded software programmers to create hundreds of breakthrough new solutions. Whirlpool. Keil – c HI-TECH Software makes industrial-strength software development tools and C compilers that help software developers write compact.products from third party language tools vendors.

Linux. UNIX. 41 . with overlaying of local variables to minimize RAM usage 6) Comprehensive C library with all source code provided 7) Includes support for 24-bit and 32-bit IEEE floating point and 32-bit long data types 8) Mixed C and assembler programming 9) Unlimited number of source files 10) Listings showing generated assembler 11) Compatible .full featured and portable 2) Reliable . assemble and link your embedded application with a single step. Mac OS X. Solaris 3.5 EMBEDDED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT This environment allows you to manage all of your PIC projects. MPLAB ICD and most 3rd-party development tools 12) Runs on multiple platforms: Windows. You can compile. field-proven technology 3) Multiple C optimization levels 4) An optimizing assembler 5) Full linker.mature. EMBEDDED “C” COMPILER 1) ANSI C .integrates into the MPLAB IDE. Automatic handling of page and bank selection frees the programmer from the trivial details of assembler code.hand-written assembler.

6. Space: Assembly language programs are often the smallest. such as Microchip's MPLAB IDE.2 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE HAS SEVERAL BENEFITS Speed: Assembly language programs are generally the fastest programs around. assemblers provide the ability to use symbolic names for memory locations (saving tedious calculations and manually updating addresses when a program is slightly modified). but runs on another. Capability: You can do things in assembly which are difficult or impossible in High level languages. assemble and link using one command. The computational step where an assembler is run is known as assembly time.Optionally.1 ASSEMBLER An assembler is a computer program for translating assembly language — essentially. Translating assembly instruction mnemonics into opcodes. 3. allowing you to compile.6 EMBEDDED SYSTEM TOOLS 3. the compiler may be run directly from the command line. A cross assembler (see cross compiler) produces code for one type of processor.6. This enables the compiler to be integrated into third party development environments. 3. 42 . Assemblers are far simpler to write than compilers for high-level languages. and macro facilities for performing textual substitution — typically used to encode common short sequences of instructions to run inline instead of in a subroutine. a mnemonic representation of machine language — into object code.

the target language. 3. The translation process should also report the presence of errors in the source program.4 COMPILER A compiler is a program that reads a program in one language.6. The synthesis part constructs the desired target program from the intermediate representation.3 SIMULATOR Simulator is a machine that simulates an environment for the purpose of training or research. the source language and translates into an equivalent program in another language.6. We use a UMPS simulator for this purpose in our project. The analysis part breaks up the source program into constant piece and creates an intermediate representation of the source program. 43 . There are two parts of compilation.Knowledge: Your knowledge of assembly language will help you write better programs. An example of an assembler we use in our project is RAD 51. even when using High level languages. 3.

Similarly. Assembler. 1.6. Semantic analyzer takes the output of syntax analyzer and produces another tree. 2. 2. Syntax Analyzer takes an out of lexical analyzer and produces a large tree.6. intermediate code generator takes a tree as an input produced by semantic analyzer and produces intermediate code 4. 44 .4. A naive approach to that front end might run the phases serially. Loader and Link-editor.5 COUSINS OF THE COMPILER ARE 1. Preprocessor. Lexical analyzer takes the source program as an input and produces a long string of tokens. 3.6 PHASES OF COMPILER The compiler has a number of phases plus symbol table manager and an error handler.

45 .

One standard interface. User interface is the ultimate aim for an embedded module as to the user to check the output with complete convenience. The flow of the system will be like as given below. repairing the interconnection diagram as per the circuit diagram. and thus deserve some special comment. Some large or old systems use general-purpose mainframe computers or minicomputers. uses two 46 . 2) Procuring the components. 1) Finalizing the total circuit diagram. For any design cycle these will be the implementation steps. 4) Assembling the components as per the component layout and circuit diagram and soldering components. 5) Integrating the total unit. testing the components and screening the components. From the initial state of the project to the final fabrication the design considerations will be taken like the software consideration and the hardware components.7 DESIGN OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM Like every other system development design cycle embedded system too have a design cycle. 3. input and output. USER INTERFACES User interfaces for embedded systems vary widely. widely used in embedded systems. interwiring the unit and final testing the unit. listing out the components and sources of procurement.FABRICATION DETAILS The fabrication of one demonstration unit is carried out in the following sequence. sensor. 3) Making layout. The electronics usually uses either a microprocessor or a microcontroller.

buttons (the absolute minimum) to control a menu system (just to be clear. FR-V. there is a tendency to even further eliminate the dependency on specific CPU/hardware (and OS) requirements. 8051. SH. Coldfire/68k. one button should be "next menu entry" the other button should be "select this menu entry"). These often use DOS. A common configuration for very-high-volume embedded systems is the system on a chip. A related common scheme is to use a field-programmable gate 47 . these are delivered with several sets of labels. V850. X86. In some markets. With the growing acceptance of Java in this field. to tell what failed. Another basic trick is to minimize and simplify the type of output. Designs sometimes use a status light for each interface plug. A cheap variation is to have two light bars with a printed matrix of errors that they select. M32R etc. so customers can pick the most comfortable language. and the Apple/Motorola/IBM PowerPC. an application-specific integrated circuit. Atmel AVR. which as of this writing (2003) is limited to just a few competing architectures.the user can glue on the labels for the language that he speaks. PowerPC. PLATFORM There are many different CPU architectures used in embedded designs such as ARM. MIPS. PIC. Standard PC/104 is a typical base for small. This in contrast to the desktop computer market. H8. Linux or an embedded real-time operating system such as QNX or Inferno. or failure condition. mainly the Intel/AMD x86. most small computer printers use lights labeled with stick-on labels that can be printed in any language. for which the CPU was purchased as intellectual property to add to the IC's design. used in the Apple Macintosh. For example. low-volume embedded and ruggedized system design.

One common tool is an "in-circuit emulator" (ICE) or. Another common tool is a utility program (often home-grown) to add a checksum or CRC to a program. and program it with all the logic. an embedded debugger. Sometimes. so it can check its program data before executing it. development tools for a personal computer can be used if the embedded processor is a close relative to a common PC processor. 48 . This debugging tool is the fundamental trick used to develop embedded code.array. in more modern designs. A small pod usually provides the special electronics to plug into the system. However. TOOLS Like typical computer programmers. Embedded system designers also use a few software tools rarely used by typical computer programmers. Most modern FPGAs are designed for this purpose. and debuggers to develop embedded system software. and provides facilities to quickly load and debug experimental code in the system. 2) Ported from the GNU software development tools. they also use a few tools that are unfamiliar to most programmers. It replaces or plugs into the microprocessor. assemblers. embedded system designers use compilers. including the CPU. Software tools can come from several sources: 1) Software companies that specialize in the embedded market. Often a personal computer with special software attaches to the pod to provide the debugging interface.

This feature was pioneered on the PDP-11. DEBUGGING Debugging is usually performed with an in-circuit emulator.8 COMPONENTS USED 1. cell phones. A few projects use Synchronous programming languages for extra reliability or digital signal processing. higher level tools and operating systems are migrating into machinery where it makes sense. The CPU-based debugger can be used to test and debug the electronics of the computer from the viewpoint of the CPU. The microcode interrupt lets the debugger operate in hardware in which only the CPU works. Step Down Transformer 2. 3. or some type of debugger that can interrupt the microcontroller's internal microcode. so one can include any kind of data in a program. an open programming environment such as Linux. personal digital assistants and other consumer computers often need significant software that is purchased or provided by a person other than the manufacturer of the electronics. OSGi or Embedded Java is required so that the thirdparty software provider can sell to a large market. Diodes :(230/12V) – 2 No.An embedded programmer that develops software for digital signal processing often has a math workbench such as MathCAD or Mathematica to simulate the mathematics. In these systems. Less common are utility programs to turn data files into code. For example. As the complexity of embedded systems grows. :(1N4007) – 8 No 49 .

LCD :2 Nos CHAPTER 4 50 . 7805 –2 No :LED`s – 6Nos :16f877A – 2 Nos :4MHz –2Nos :330 Ω –2Nos. Light Emitting Diodes 6. Resistors :1000µF – 2 No.2 Nos :1 KΩ – 4Nos 9. PIC microcontroller 7.10 KΩ.3. Regulators 5. Capacitors 4. 22pF. Crystal Oscillator 8.4Nos :7812 – 2 No.

 This project aims at reducing the human strains and to increase the quality of work by the implementation of the automated machine.  The usage of RF Module decreases the manual work by sending a circular to every class and take sign on it by class teacher. It can also be enhanced to count the students by using a smart card reader and also by maintaining a data base to store the attendance. Finally the LCD fixed in the class room displayed the message (which was sent by HOD). number of students presented in the class and the temperature of the class room. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS  Fitted with a wireless camera it can be used for surveillance purposes. APPLICATIONS • • • In Colleges class rooms In Schools class rooms In industries departments 51 . The HOD has successfully sent the message to class rooms. And object detecting sensor operated and the controller counts the number of students presented in the class room.CONCLUSION The System was operated successfully. Temperature sensor senses the signals in the class room and given exact temperature of the class room.

Web sites: • • www.Microchips. Design News 44 (1993). Baker.how stuff works.co.com • 52 .Myke Predcko  Complete guide to pic microcontroller -e-book  C programming for embedded systems.onathan w.mikroelektronika.htm www.  A.  M.Valvano(2000)  Embedded PIC microcontroller.John Peatman  R.yu/english/product/books/PICbook/0Uvod.BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography: BOOKS:  Customizing and programming ur pic microcontroller. Alami et al.Kirk Zurell  Teach yourself electronics and electricity. The International Journal of Robotics Research 17. 315 (1998).com http://www. 1989). USA. Robotics Science (The MIT Press. Brady..Stan Giblisco  Embedded Microcomputer system.

a3.h> unsigned int i. #define fn RB4 #define cur RB5 #define inc RB6 #define set RB7 void main() { while (1) { if(fn==1) { fninc++. unsigned char fninc.ac.a9.j.a4.a6.h> #include<lcd.CODING Transmitter side: #include<pic.a2. void delay().temp.aa. display_string("MSG=").a7. } } if(fninc==1) { if(cur==1) { 53 . signed char a1.a8.ab.cur1.a5.count. if(fninc==1) { cursor_loc(0x80).

i++). if(inc==1) { if(a2<=-1) a2=-1.i<=25000.for(i=0.i<=25000. } if(set==1) { 54 . for(i=0.i++). a2++. display_data(a2). } } if(cur1==2) { cursor_loc(0x85). a1=0x20-0x30. display_data(a1). } if(set==1) { for(i=0. if(a2>=43) a2=0.i<=25000. if(cur1==13) cur1=0.i<=25000. for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x84). cur1++. a1++. } if(cur1==1) { cursor_loc(0x84). if(a1>=43) a1=0.i++). if(inc==1) { if(a1<=-1) a1=-1.i++). cursor_loc(0x85).

a3=-16. display_data(a4). for(i=0. } } if(cur1==3) { cursor_loc(0x86). cursor_loc(0x87). a4=-16. a3++.i<=25000.i<=25000. cursor_loc(0x86). if(inc==1) { if(a4<=-1) a4=-1. if(inc==1) { if(a3<=-1) a3=-1.i++). a2=-16. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i++). for(i=0.i<=25000. if(a4>=43) a4=0. } } if(cur1==4) { cursor_loc(0x87). } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i<=25000.i++).i++).for(i=0.i<=25000. display_data(a3). } } if(cur1==5) 55 . if(a3>=43) a3=0.i++). a4++.

if(temp>=43) temp=0. cursor_loc(0x88). } if(cur1==7) 56 . cursor_loc(0x88).i<=25000.i<=25000. display_data(temp). } if(set==1) { for(i=0. } a5=temp.i++). for(i=0. } if(set==1) { for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x89).i<=25000.i++). if(temp>=43) temp=0. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. temp++. for(i=0. } a6=temp. temp++. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. display_data(temp). cursor_loc(0x89). } if(cur1==6) { temp=a6. temp=-16. temp=-16.{ temp=a5.i++).i<=25000.i++).

if(temp>=43) temp=0. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i++).i<=25000. for(i=0.i<=25000.i<=25000. cursor_loc(0x8A).i++). } if(cur1==9) 57 .i++).i++). if(temp>=43) temp=0. cursor_loc(0x8A). display_data(temp). temp=-16. for(i=0. temp=-16. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i<=25000. cursor_loc(0x8B). } if(cur1==8) { temp=a8. } a7=temp. cursor_loc(0x8B). temp++. } a8=temp. display_data(temp). temp++. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1.{ temp=a7.

if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. } if(cur1==10) { temp=aa. cursor_loc(0x8D). for(i=0. } aa=temp. } if(cur1==11) 58 . temp++. } a9=temp.i++). display_data(temp). temp=-16. } if(set==1) { for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x8C). for(i=0. temp++.i<=25000. temp=-16.i<=25000. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. cursor_loc(0x8C).i++).i++). if(temp>=43) temp=0. if(temp>=43) temp=0.{ temp=a9. display_data(temp).i<=25000.i<=25000. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i++). cursor_loc(0x8D).

{ temp=ab. for(i=0. temp=-16.i<=25000. } if(set==1) { for(i=0. } if(cur1==12) { temp=ac.i++).i++). temp++. cursor_loc(0x8F). cursor_loc(0x8E).i<=25000.i++). display_data(temp). } ac=temp. display_data(temp). cursor_loc(0x8F).i++). } } 59 . for(i=0. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. if(temp>=43) temp=0. } if(set==1) { for(i=0. if(temp>=43) temp=0.i<=25000. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1.i<=25000. temp=-16. temp++. cursor_loc(0x8E). } ab=temp.

while(!TRMT). display_data(a4). display_data(a6). 60 . TXREG=0x30+a7. display_data(a5). delay(). TXREG=0x30+a4. while(!TRMT). display_data(a2). while(!TRMT). display_data(a7). delay(). while(!TRMT). delay(). delay(). while(!TRMT). display_data(a1). display_data(a3).if(fninc==2) { TXREG=0x30+a1. delay(). while(!TRMT). TXREG=0x30+a5. cursor_loc(0xC0). TXREG=0x30+a2. delay(). TXREG=0x30+a3. delay(). while(!TRMT). TXREG=0x30+a6.

j++). delay(). TXREG=0x30+ab. delay(). while(!TRMT). } Receiver Side: #include<pic.TXREG=0x30+a8. while(!TRMT).j<=400. TXREG=0x30+a9. display_data(a9). delay(). while(!TRMT).h> #define ir1 RB7 61 . display_data(ac). TXREG=0x30+ac. delay(). TXREG=0x30+aa. display_data(aa). while(!TRMT). display_data(ab).h> #include<lcd. delay(). while(!TRMT). display_data(a8). } /**********************************************************/ } } void delay() { for(j=0.

a2.T1HUN.temp. void main() { while(1) { if(ir1==1) { student++. void delay(). a3=a.student.a1. a1=a/100. display_data(a1).#define ir2 RB6 unsigned int i=0. display_data(a2). display_data(a3).T1TEN. if(count>=1) { cursor_loc(cursor). a=a%100.count.cursor=0x83.T1. a=a%10. } if(student>=1) { if(ir2==1) { student--. delay2(). } a=student. display_string("COUNT:"). a2=a/10. void delay2(). cursor_loc(0xC0). } 62 .a. display_data(RX). } } if(student>=1000) { a=0.T1ONE.a3. delay2().j. unsigned char RX.

cursor++.} } void interrupt isr() { if(RCIF==1) { RCIF=0. } } void delay() { for(i=0.i<=400. count++. } Installing coding into PIC microcontroller: 63 .i++). RX=RCREG-0x30. } void delay2() { for(i=0.i++).i<=50000.

After successful compilation of the coding close the MPLAB IDE. 5. WRT-. It displays on dialog box. Write the program in MPLAB IDE. 64 . Then it displays Fuses Settings Dialog Box. 3. 6. Then Remove the IC from the PIC Flash and it is ready for used into the project or circuit operation.> Enabled. Fix the Controller IC into PIC Flash kit. and compile it. select ok. Save the file as *. Then click on Micro controller Micro Systems PIC Flash Software Icon on the desktop. 2.> XT then click on OK. 11.> Disabled. 8. Then it displays the Program successfully installed into PIC.c. Oscillator-. select YES 9. In that put WDT -. Then select open and select the program which we already saved as *. 7. Then it asks Fuses Settings. Then it asks the Confirmation that The IC is empty.c. 10. 12. 4.1.

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