INDEX CHAPTER Chapter 1

:
1.1: 1.2: 1.3:

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION
EMBEDDED SYSTEM MICROCONTROLLER PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A

PAGE NO. 04
06 19 23

Chapter 2:
2.1: 2.2: 2.3: 2.4: 2.5: 2.6:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
POWER SUPPLY UNIT OUTPUT FILTER TRANSMITTER DETAILS RECEIVER DETAILS LCD DISPLAY INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD 33

26
26 31 32 34 38

Chapter 3:
3.1: 3.2: 3.3: 3.4: 3.5: 3.6: 3.7: 3.8:

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
SOFTWARE TOOLS MPLAB INTEGRATION INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED ‘C’ EMBEDDED “C” COMPILER EMBEDDED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT EMBEDDED SYSTEM TOOLS DESIGN OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM COMPONENTS USED

39
39 39 40 41 41 42 46 49

Chapter 4: BIBLOGRAPHY CODING

CONCLUSION

51 52 53

1

FIGURE CONTENTS
FIG 1.1: THE EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN CYCLE FIG 1.2: V Diagram FIG 1.3: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER FIG 1.4: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF XBEE RECEIVER FIG 1.5: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM TRANSMITTER FIG 1.6: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM RECEIVER FIG 1.7: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16 F874A/877A FIG 1.8: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16F874A/877A FIG 2.1: POWER SUPPLY UNIT FIG 2.2: Low Pass Filter FIG 2.3: 7805 REGULATOR FIG 2.4: TWS-434A FIG 2.5: TWS-434 Pin Diagram FIG 2.6: RWS-434 Receiver FIG 2.7: RWS-434 Pin Diagram FIG 2.8: LCD DISPLAY Fig 2.9: INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD

PAGE NO.
07 07 11 12 14 15 24 25 26 29 30 32 32 33 34 35 38

2

ABSTRACT
Aim of this project is to implement class room attendance system with indoor temperature and information display using embedded systems. This system is a Hi-TECH and contemporary one for class rooms in colleges and schools. Now a day the systems were get into digital form under this concept, information from the department head can be displayed on the LCD screen using RF technology. Five things are getting important they are counter unit, the information display unit through wireless technology last one is Micro- controller unit and RF wireless unit. The counterpart counts the number of students present in the class at when they entering inside the class room; this is done by using IR sensors,. The details from the above send to controller, then controller display it on the LCD. In between this, if any information from head of the department means it will take as an interrupt by the controller and receive the information through RF wireless communication. When it is completed, the message will be displayed on the LCD screen. The message will be displayed for a particular time period. After that it will again continue to display the presents of students and room temperature. In the transmitter side the three keys are assigned to type the message. The keys assigned are as follows, one for alphabetic, second one for numeric, another one for enter button. When the message entered it will transmitted through RF wireless unit.

CHAPTER-1
3

Body. consisting of interrelated components. 3) Environment connected to systems through sensors. etc A system is a part of the world that a person or group of persons during some time interval and for some purpose choose to regard as a whole. Now a day. or control an external environment. particularly in the field of Microcontrollers. respond to. 1) Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. The microcontroller block is playing a major role in this project work. The entire project was developed in embedded systems. trend is directing towards Microcontrollers based project works. each component characterized by properties that are selected as being relevant to the purpose. actuators and other I/O interfaces. 4 . Mankind. The PIC 16F877A microcontroller is a 40-pin IC. Access Control.g. A system is something that maintains its existence and functions as a whole through the interaction of its parts. The micro controller chip used in this project work is PIC 16F877A and this is like heart of the project work. Thus.INTRODUCTION The project report describes the design Development and Fabrication of One demo unit of the project work “DISPLAY WIRELESS COMMUNICATION FOR CLASS ROOM MONITORING WITH NOTICE BOARD ” by using embedded systems. E. 2) Embedded systems are computer systems that monitor. all the activities in our daily living have become a part of Information technology and we find microcontrollers in each and every application. with the advancement technology.

autonomous. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc. Microcontrollers are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine.1 EMBEDDED SYSTEM: 5 . 5) An embedded system is a microcontroller-based. An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing. Microcontrollers are often low-price devices. where they are embedded in. reliable. software driven. real-time control system. or human or network interactive. not a traditional business or scientific application. 1. 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. Lower end embedded systems . not a software system on PC or UNIX. operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market.Generally 8. Microcontrollers are embedded inside some other device so that they can control the features or actions of the project.Generally 32. Another name for a microcontroller therefore is “Embedded Controller”. Microwave Ovens. High-end embedded system . The program is stored in ROM (read only memory) and generally does not change.4) Embedded system must meet timing & other constraints imposed on it by environment. 16 Bit Controllers used with a minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose.

reliable. Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine. or human or network interactive.Generally 32.Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. An embedded system is a microcontroller-based. operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market. not a software system on PC or UNIX. software driven. where they are embedded in.16 Bit Controllers used with an minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose. High-end embedded system .Generally 8. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. 64 Bit Controllers used with OS.Lower end embedded systems . autonomous. Microwave Ovens. SYSTEM DESIGN CALLS: 6 . An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing. Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc . real-time control system. not a traditional business or scientific application.

1: THE EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN CYCLE FIG 1.2: V Diagram 7 .FIG 1.

Characteristics of Embedded System:
• An embedded system is any computer system hidden inside a product other than a computer • There will encounter a number of difficulties when writing embedded system software in addition to those we encounter when we write applications

Throughput – Our system may need to handle a lot of data in a short period of time.

– – –

Response–Our system may need to react to events quickly Testability–Setting up equipment to test embedded software can be difficult Debugability–Without a screen or a keyboard, finding out what the software is doing wrong (other than not working) is a troublesome problem

Reliability – embedded systems must be able to handle any situation without human intervention

Memory space – Memory is limited on embedded systems, and you must make the software and the data fit into whatever memory exists

Program installation – you will need special tools to get your software into embedded systems

Power consumption – Portable systems must run on battery power, and the software in these systems must conserve power

8

Processor hogs – computing that requires large amounts of CPU time can complicate the response problem

Cost – Reducing the cost of the hardware is a concern in many embedded system projects; software often operates on hardware that is barely adequate for the job.

Embedded systems have a microprocessor/ microcontroller and a memory. Some have a serial port or a network connection. They usually do not have keyboards, screens or disk drives.

Applications:
1. Military and aerospace embedded software applications 2 . C o mm un ic a ti on A p pl ic at io ns 3 . I n d u s tr ia l a ut om at i on an d pr oc es s co nt ro l s of tw ar e

CLASSIFICATION
1. Real Time Systems. 2. RTS is one which has to respond to events within a specified deadline. 3. A right answer after the dead line is a wrong answer

RTS CLASSIFICATION
1. Hard Real Time Systems 2. Soft Real Time System

HARD REAL TIME SYSTEM
9

1. "Hard" real-time systems have very narrow response time. 2. Example: Nuclear power system, Cardiac pacemaker.

SOFT REAL TIME SYSTEM
1. "Soft" real-time systems have reduced constrains on "lateness" but still must operate very quickly and repeatable. 2. Example: Railway reservation system – takes a few extra seconds the data remains valid.

LANGUAGES USED
1. C 2. C++ 3. Java 4. Linux 5. Ada 6. Assembly

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER

10

3: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER BLOCK DIAGRAM OF XBEE RECEIVER 11 .FIG 1.

The output of the transformer is given to the rectifier circuit.4: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF XBEE RECEIVER DESCRIPTION OF THE BLOCK DIAGRAM The AC main Block is the power supply which is of single phase 230V ac. This rectifier converts ac voltage to dc voltage. 7805 regulator produces 5V dc. So we need a regulator to reduce the voltage. But the controller operates at 5V dc and the relays and driver operates at 12V dc voltage. This is the exact dc voltage of the given specification. But the voltage may consist of ripples or harmonics. to 6V or 12V ac this value depends on the transformer inner winding. The filter thus removes the harmonics. To avoid these ripples the output of the rectifier is connected to filter.. i.e.FIG 1. 12 . This should be given to step down transformer to reduce the 230V ac voltage to low voltage.

The output of the microcontroller is given to the receiver. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER 13 . receiver and LCD.The 7805 regulator produces 5V dc and this voltage is given to PIC micro controller. The antenna used here is 35cms antenna. These potentio meters acts as load. The receiver receives the signal through antenna. transmitter. and also the circuit uses two potentio meters. Receiver is RWS434. KEYPAD unit. The transmitter used here is TWS-434.

5: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF RECEIVER: 14 .FIG 1.

6: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM RECEIVER CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 15 .FIG 1.

The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. It charges in positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle. The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. To reduce or step down the voltage.POWER SUPPLY: Power supply unit consists of Step down transformer. Output filter. The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage. And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage. Here we used Regulator 16 . The output voltage of the rectifier is in rippled form. Full-Wave and bridge Rectifiers available for this specific function. The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. the ripples from the obtained DC voltage are removed using other circuits available. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential. the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. Input filter. thus it is stepped down. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging. The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias. Capacitors are used as filter. Rectifier. There are Half-Wave. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. unit. The circuit used for removing the ripples is called Filter circuit. This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit. The Forward Bias is achieved by connecting the diode’s positive with positive of the battery and negative with battery’s negative. The efficient circuit used is the Full wave Bridge rectifier circuit.

This filter is fixed before the regulator. The +5v power supply given to the 1st pin of the PIC. The circuit consists of LCD. It reduces the 6V dc voltage to 5V dc Voltage. 17 . It is having 4 pins. the output gets affected. The output of the 7805 regulator is connected to PIC 16f877A microcontroller. Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. As and then the AC voltage changes. Transmitter and Receiver. Capacitor is most often used as filter. The output at this stage is 5V and is given to the Microcontroller. The principle of the capacitor is to charge and discharge. The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage. Thus this can be successfully reduced here. It charges during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and discharges during the negative half cycle. 3rd pin is connected to the +5v dc supply. Thus the output is free from ripples. Transmitter used in the circuit is TWS-434. LCD is connected to the PIC as shown in the circuit. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. This filter is fixed after the Regulator circuit to filter any of the possibly found ripples in the output received finally. 4th pin is given to the antenna. 1st pin is grounded and 2nd pin is given to the 25th pin of the PIC. The Filter circuit is often fixed after the Regulator circuit. Here we used 0.1µF capacitor. the DC voltage also changes.1000µF capacitor. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms. CONTROLLER CIRCUIT The controller used in the circuit is the PIC 16f877A micro controller. Thus to avoid this Regulators are used. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. Here we used 7805 positive regulator.

The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. After converting to dc it is applied to controller. The receiver used here is RWS 434. Two potentio meters are connected to the receiver side PIC controller via RA0 pin. And the receiver side LCD displays the message which was sent from transmitter. RB5. and 7812 regulator for 12V dc voltage. Transmitter side LCD displays the message what the user or head typed through keypad. thus it is stepped down. 6th and 7th pins are grounded. CIRCUIT OPERATION The input of the circuit is taken from the main. Two sensors are used in the circuit. relays and drivers. the number of students presented in the class and temperature of the class room. RB7 pins of the PIC are connected from the keypad unit. For the two controllers two 4 MHz crystal oscillators are used to produce pulses to the controller. In this circuit we used two regulators. 7th pin is taken from the antenna. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly.The RB4. It is a single phase 230V ac voltage. The output of 7805 regulator is given to PIC microcontroller and 18 . Because the microcontroller and sensors are operated at +5V dc voltage and relays and drivers will be operate at +12V dc voltage. 2nd pin is connected to the 26th pin of the PIC micro controller. It consists of 7 pins. One for counting the members presented in the class room and another is the temperature sensor to measure the temperature of the classroom. So first this 230C AC voltage should be stepped down and then it should be converted to dc. 7805 regulator for producing 5V dc. One more potentio meter connected to LCD. In this project we used 230/12V step down transformer. sensors. 1st. RB6.

The PIC controller also receives the data from the sensors. The computer-on-a-chip is called the microcomputer whose proper meaning is a computer using a (number of) 19 .2. By this way The HOD can send the messages to class rooms. The transmitter antenna generates the signal.three sensors. The object detecting sensor is used for counting. all on one chip. The sensors are connected to the RB0 and RB1 pins of the Controller. This message displayed on the transmitter side LCD. The transmitter was fixed in the HOD room and the receiver is fixed in the classrooms. The main parts of this project are sensors and PIC micro controller. The output of the 7812 regulator is connected to three driver ICs and 12 Relays. some memory. When the HOD wants to send any message to the class rooms then he will type the message through keypad unit. The Receiver then sends these signals to PIC controller. 1. and I/O (input/output) lines. Then the LCD which was fixed in the classroom thus displays the message from HOD.2 MICROCONTROLLER 1. Then the message sent to the controller.1 INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor which combines the processor core (CPU). And the temperature sensor is used to measure the temperature in the class room. At the receiver section the receiver antenna receives the signals from the transmitter antenna. One is object detecting sensor and the other is temperature sensor. number of students presented in the class and the temperature of the class room. The controller then decodes the data and sent it to the transmitter antenna. In this project we used two sensors.

which will allow program development without having to remove the micro controller for the application circuit. programmers can built very cheaply. 1. we will be able to find a device within the family that meets our specifications with a minimum of external devices. This chip is used for only specific applications. A microcontroller can be viewed as a set of digital logic circuits integrated on a single silicon chip. For many microcontrollers. both in terms of wiring and programming. In this project we used PIC 16f877A microcontroller. Along with microcontrollers getting faster.2. smaller and more power efficient they are also getting more and more features. 20 . although many of them. while the concept of the microcomputer is known to be a microcontroller. the first version of microcontroller will just have memory and digital I/O. which you will have to understand before you. Also simplifying this requirement is the availability of micro-controllers wit SRAM and EEPROM for control store. or an external but which will make attaching external devices easier. For most applications.microprocessor(s) as its CPUs. but as the device family matures. or even built in to the final application circuit eliminating the need for a separate circuit. more and more pat numbers with varying features will be available. which have quirks. Most microcontrollers do not require a substantial amount of time to learn how to efficiently program them.2 MICRO CONTROLLER CORE FEATURES 1) High-performance RISC CPU. attempt to develop your first application. Often.

2) Only 35 single word instructions to learn. 13) Programmable code-protection. 3) All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle. 23) High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA. 14) Power saving SLEEP mode. 4) Operating speed: DC . 17) Fully static design.0V to 5. 5) Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory. 16) Low-power. 22) Wide operating voltage range: 2. 18) (ICSP) In-Circuit Serial Programming 19) Single 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming capability. 12) Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation. 6) Pin out compatible to the PIC16C73B/74B/76/77 7) Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources) 8) Eight level deep hardware stack 9) Direct. 11) Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST).20 MHz clock input DC .5V. indirect and relative addressing modes. 15) Selectable oscillator options. Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM data memory. 21) Processor read/write access to program memory.200 ns instruction cycle. 21 . 20) In-Circuit Debugging via two pins. 10) Power-on Reset (POR). high-speed CMOS FLASH/EEPROM technology.

Series. 2) Computers. PIC means Peripheral Interface Controller. 18.24) Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges. PIC (Microchip).3 ADVANTAGES OF USING A MICROCONTROLLER OVER MICROPROCESSOR A designer will use a Microcontroller to 1) Gather input from various sensors 2) Process this input into a set of actions 3) Use the output mechanisms on the Microcontroller to do something useful 4) RAM and ROM are inbuilt in the MC. The PIC family having different series. 1.2. ARM Processor 1.Series.2. 25) Low-power consumption.Series. 6) Multi machine control is possible simultaneously. In this project we used PIC 16f877A microcontroller.4 APPLICATIONS: 1) Cell phones. We used 16 Series PIC microcontrollers. 5) Cheap compared to MP. 22 . the series are 12. and 24. 16Series. Motorola (Motorola). 14.Series. Examples The 8051 (ATMEL).

C. The first pin of the controller is MCLR pin and the 5V dc supply is given to this pin through 10KΩ resistor.1 INTRODUCTION TO PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A The PIC 16f877A microcontroller is a 40-pin IC. The 12th pin of the controller is grounded. 4) Interfacing to two pc’s. A tank circuit consists of a 4 MHZ crystal oscillator and two 22pf capacitors is connected to 13th and 14th pins of the PIC. 2) Flash program memory (14 bit words):8K 3) Data memory (in bytes): 368 4) EEPROM Data memory (in bytes):256 5) Interrupts: 15 6) I/o ports: A. D. B. This supply is also given to 11th pin directly. E 7) Timers: 3 8) Analog comparators: 2 9) Instructions: 35 23 .3) Robots.2 FEATURES OF PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A 1) Operating frequency: DC-20Mhz. 1.3. 1.3.3 PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A 1.

3 PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16 F874A/877A FIG 1.7: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16 F874A/877A 24 .3.1.

3.8: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16F874A/877A 25 .4 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PIC 16F877A FIG 1.1.

CHAPTER -2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 2.1 POWER SUPPLY UNIT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FIG 2.1: POWER SUPPLY UNIT POWER SUPPLY UNIT COSISTS OF FOLLOWING UNITS 1) Step down transformer 2) Rectifier unit 3) Input filter 4) Regulator unit 5) Output filter 2.1.1 STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER 26 .

The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias. For example. if our equipment has been specified for input voltage of 12 volts.2 RECTIFIER UNIT The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage. 27 .1. The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. To reduce or step down the voltage. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. This is a widely used configuration. and the main power supply is 230 volts. the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core. Step down transformers can step down incoming voltage. thus it is stepped down.The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. There are Half-Wave. we will need a step down transformer. both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally. The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. Full-Wave and bridge Rectifiers available for this specific function. which enables you to have the correct voltage input for your electrical needs. which decreases the incoming electrical voltage to be compatible with your 12 volt equipment. 2. Bridge rectifier: A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full-wave rectification. This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential.

And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging. it is known as a bridge rectifier.3 INPUT FILTER Capacitors are used as filter. resulting in lower cost and weight as compared to a center-tapped transformer design. the ripples from the obtained DC voltage are removed using other circuits available. The Forward Bias is achieved by connecting the diode’s positive with positive of the battery and negative with battery’s negative. The output voltage of the rectifier is in rippled form.1. The circuit used for removing the ripples is called Filter circuit. It charges in 28 . for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. The efficient circuit used is the Full wave Bridge rectifier circuit. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. 2. When used in its most common application.FIG : Bridge rectifier A diode bridge or bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four diodes in a bridge configuration that provides the same polarity of output voltage for either polarity of input voltage. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input.

causing them to go through the load instead. and a capacitor in parallel with the load. The 1000µf capacitor serves as a "reservoir" which maintains a reasonable input voltage to the 7805 throughout the entire cycle of the ac line voltage. The capacitor exhibits reactance. The break frequency. and the capacitor is quite capable of sustaining any reasonable load in between charging pulses.2: Low Pass Filter One simple electrical circuit that will serve as a low-pass filter consists of a resistor in series with a load.positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. and blocks low-frequency signals. Thus the output is free from ripples. also called the turnover frequency or cutoff frequency (in hertz). This filter is fixed before the regulator. At higher frequencies the reactance drops. The four rectifier diodes keep recharging the reservoir capacitor on alternate half-cycles of the line voltage. and the capacitor effectively functions as a short circuit. Input side the low pass filter has been used Low pass filter: FIG 2. is determined by the time constant: or equivalently (in radians per second): 29 . The combination of resistance and capacitance gives you the time constant of the filter τ = RC (represented by the Greek letter tau).

so that the IC won't be damaged in case of excessive load current. Further they can also be classified as: 1) Positive regulator 30 . 2. the output gets affected. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. Meanwhile it also contains current-limiting circuitry and thermal overload protection. the capacitor only has time to charge up a small amount before the input switches direction. The output goes up and down only a small fraction of the amount the input goes up and down. Thus to avoid this Regulators are used.4 REGULATOR UNIT FIG 2. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms. At double the frequency.1.3: 7805 REGULATOR Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. there's only time for it to charge up half the amount. At high frequencies. The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage. the DC voltage also changes. there is plenty of time for the capacitor to charge up to practically the same voltage as the input voltage.One way to understand this circuit is to focus on the time the capacitor takes to charge. As and then the AC voltage changes. it will reduce its output voltage instead. It takes time to charge or discharge the capacitor through that resistor: At low frequencies. Thus this can be successfully reduced here.

In similar to 7805.01µf capacitors serve to help keep the power supply output voltage constant when load conditions 31 . 2) Negative regulator • • • Ground pin Input pin Output pin It regulates the negative voltage.• • • Input pin Ground pin Output pin It regulates the positive voltage. The principle of the capacitor is to charge and discharge.2 OUTPUT FILTER The Filter circuit is often fixed after the Regulator circuit. 7812 will produce a regulated DC voltage of 12V 2. Output Voltage. the 7805 is a positive voltage DC regulator that has only 3 terminals. 7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR: The 7805 provides circuit designers with an easy way to regulate DC voltages to 5v. Encapsulated in a single chip/package (IC). Capacitor is most often used as filter. It charges during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and discharges during the negative half cycle. The 10µf and . Ground. They are: Input voltage.

and makes building a miniature hand-held RF transmitter very easy.3 TRANSMITTER DETAILS The TWS-434 and RWS-434 are extremely small. and will go through most walls. and can easily be placed inside a small plastic enclosure.. 2. FIG 2. FIG 2. The TWS-434 is approximately the size of a standard postage stamp. and are excellent for applications requiring short-range RF remote controls.92MHz with a range of approximately 400 foot (open area) outdoors. The transmitter module is only 1/3 the size of a standard postage stamp.4: TWS-434A The TWS-434 transmitter accepts both linear and digital inputs can operate from 1..01µf is included to bypass high-frequency changes.5: TWS-434 Pin Diagram 32 .change. such as digital IC switching effects. at high frequencies this capacitor is not very efficient. Indoors. the ...5 to 12 VoltsDC. However. the range is approximately 200 foot. The electrolytic capacitor smooth’s out any long-term or low frequency variations. Therefore. TWS-434: The transmitter output is up to 8mW at 433. to ground.

7795 inches long. FIG 2.3937. Your results may vary depending on your surroundings. the recommended antenna should be approximately 35cm long.multiply by 0.3937 = 13. solid. The RWS434 receiver operates from 4.5 to 5. For 35cm. To convert from centimeters to inches -. 24 gauge hobby type wire. and has both linear and digital outputs. the length in inches will be approximately 35cm x 0. and reached a range of over 400 foot.5 volts-DC.4 RECEIVER DETAILS RWS-434: The receiver also operates at 433. 33 .92MHz.2.6: RWS-434 Receiver Note: For maximum range. and has a sensitivity of 3uV. We tested these modules using a 14".

5 LCD DISPLAY Liquid crystal display (LCD) has material which combines the properties of both liquid and crystals. LCD DISPLAY: 34 .7: RWS-434 Pin Diagram 2.FIG 2. but are grouped together in an order form similar to a crystal. They have a temperature range within which the molecules are almost as mobile as they would be in a liquid.

35 . Hitachi LCD displays have a standard ASCII set of characters plus Japanese. The following discussion covers the connection of a Hitachi LCD display to a PIC microcontroller. The LCD also requires 3 "control" lines from the microcontroller. LCD displays designed around Hitachi's LCD HD44780 module. and it is even possible to produce a readout using the 8 x 80 pixels of the display. For an 8-bit data bus. For a 4-bit data bus it only requires the supply lines plus seven extra lines. data lines are tri-state which means they are in a state of high impedance (as though they are disconnected) and this means they do not interfere with the operation of the microcontroller when the display is not being addressed. easy to use.FIG 2.8: LCD DISPLAY More microcontroller devices are using 'smart LCD' displays to output visual information. When the LCD display is not enabled. Greek and mathematical symbols. are inexpensive. the display requires a +5V supply plus 11 I/O lines.

Enable (E) This line allows access to the display through R/W and RS lines. the LCD interprets the type of data on data lines. the LCD is disabled and ignores signals from R/W and RS. When it is low. data is written to the LCD. Logic status on control lines: E 0 Access to LCD disabled 1 Access to LCD enabled R/W 0 Writing data to LCD 1 Reading data from LCD RS 0 Instruction 1 Character Writing data to the LCD is done in several steps: Set R/W bit to low Set RS bit to logic 0 or 1 (instruction or character) Set data to data lines (if it is writing) Set E line to high 36 . When it is high. When (E) line is high. data is read from the LCD. a character is being written to the LCD. Register select (RS) With the help of this line. the LCD checks the state of the two control lines and responds accordingly. an instruction is being written to the LCD. When it is high. Read/Write (R/W) This line determines the direction of data between the LCD and microcontroller. When it is low. When this line is low.

Writing and reading data from any LCD memory is done from the last address which was set up using set-address instruction. 37 . Until now we discussed the operation of writing and reading to an LCD as if it were an ordinary memory. But this is not so.Set E line to low Read data from data lines (if it is reading). a new written character will be displayed at the appropriate place on the screen. the program must set the DD RAM address. Before we access DD RAM after defining a special character. The LCD controller needs 40 to 120 microseconds (uS) for writing and reading. Once the address of DD RAM is set.

6 INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 10k 4MHz 22pf 22pf 1N4007 1 1N4007 VIN 2 VOUT GND PIC I6f877A 230v 1N4007 5v + 1000uf 103 LM7805 P O T +5v L C D 1N4007 step down transformer 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 11 13 15 1 78122 3 +12v OUTPUT +5v Fig 2.2.9: INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD 1) display Font: 5 x 8 dots 2) Built-in Controller:HD44780 or Comp 3) Input Data:4 Bits or 8-Bits Interface 4) Power Supply: +4V Single Power 5) Duty Cycle: 1/16 Duty 38 .

and upgrading from the free simulator to MPLAB ICD 2 or the MPLAB ICE emulator is done in a flash because MPLAB IDE has the same user interface for all tools. MPLAB IDE also serves as a single. or try the newest Microchip's language tools compiler. the highly optimized compiler for the PIC18 series microcontrollers. use one of the many 39 . Or. is easy to use and includes a host of free software components for fast application development and super-charged debugging. integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications employing Microchip's PIC micro and dsPIC microcontrollers.2 MPLAB INTEGRATION MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a free. Choose MPLAB C18.1SOFTWARE TOOLS 1) MPLAB 2) Protel 3) Propic 4) HI-Tech PIC C Compiler 3. MPLAB C30. targeted at the high performance PIC24 and dsPIC digital signal controllers. MPLAB IDE runs as a 32-bit application on MS Windows. unified graphical user interface for additional Microchip and third party software and hardware development tools.CHAPTER-3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 3. Moving between tools is a snap.

combined with world-class support have helped serious embedded software programmers to create hundreds of breakthrough new solutions.products from third party language tools vendors. HI-TECH PICC is an industrial-strength ANSI C compiler . editor and compiler. HI-TECH's reliable development tools and C compilers. For over two decades HI-TECH Software has delivered the industry's most reliable embedded software development tools and compilers for writing efficient and compact code to run on the most popular embedded processors. HI-TECH PICC makes full use of specific PIC features and using an intelligent optimizer. Keil – c HI-TECH Software makes industrial-strength software development tools and C compilers that help software developers write compact. with the exception of recursion. All data types are supported including 24 and 32 bit IEEE standard floating point. They integrate into MPLAB IDE to function transparently from the MPLAB project manager. John Deere and many others. HI-TECH tools and C compilers can help you write better code and bring it to market faster.3 INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED ‘C’: Ex: Hitec – c.not a subset implementation like some other PIC compilers. 3. can generate high-quality code easily rivaling 40 . The PICC compiler implements full ISO/ANSI C. whether it is the ARM. Qualcomm. Whichever embedded processor family you are targeting with your software. Used by tens of thousands of customers including General Motors. Whirlpool. efficient embedded processor code. HI-TECH PICC is a high-performance C compiler for the Microchip PIC micro 10/12/14/16/17 series of microcontrollers. PICC or 8051 series.

Solaris 3. Automatic handling of page and bank selection frees the programmer from the trivial details of assembler code.mature. Mac OS X. with overlaying of local variables to minimize RAM usage 6) Comprehensive C library with all source code provided 7) Includes support for 24-bit and 32-bit IEEE floating point and 32-bit long data types 8) Mixed C and assembler programming 9) Unlimited number of source files 10) Listings showing generated assembler 11) Compatible . 41 . EMBEDDED “C” COMPILER 1) ANSI C .5 EMBEDDED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT This environment allows you to manage all of your PIC projects. UNIX.integrates into the MPLAB IDE. MPLAB ICD and most 3rd-party development tools 12) Runs on multiple platforms: Windows. field-proven technology 3) Multiple C optimization levels 4) An optimizing assembler 5) Full linker. assemble and link your embedded application with a single step.full featured and portable 2) Reliable . Linux. You can compile.hand-written assembler.

This enables the compiler to be integrated into third party development environments. assemblers provide the ability to use symbolic names for memory locations (saving tedious calculations and manually updating addresses when a program is slightly modified). a mnemonic representation of machine language — into object code. and macro facilities for performing textual substitution — typically used to encode common short sequences of instructions to run inline instead of in a subroutine.6. allowing you to compile.2 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE HAS SEVERAL BENEFITS Speed: Assembly language programs are generally the fastest programs around. 3. 42 .1 ASSEMBLER An assembler is a computer program for translating assembly language — essentially. assemble and link using one command. A cross assembler (see cross compiler) produces code for one type of processor. the compiler may be run directly from the command line.Optionally. Assemblers are far simpler to write than compilers for high-level languages.6. such as Microchip's MPLAB IDE. Translating assembly instruction mnemonics into opcodes. Capability: You can do things in assembly which are difficult or impossible in High level languages. Space: Assembly language programs are often the smallest.6 EMBEDDED SYSTEM TOOLS 3. 3. but runs on another. The computational step where an assembler is run is known as assembly time.

3.Knowledge: Your knowledge of assembly language will help you write better programs. The translation process should also report the presence of errors in the source program.6.4 COMPILER A compiler is a program that reads a program in one language.6.3 SIMULATOR Simulator is a machine that simulates an environment for the purpose of training or research. 43 . The synthesis part constructs the desired target program from the intermediate representation. There are two parts of compilation. The analysis part breaks up the source program into constant piece and creates an intermediate representation of the source program. the source language and translates into an equivalent program in another language. the target language. 3. We use a UMPS simulator for this purpose in our project. even when using High level languages. An example of an assembler we use in our project is RAD 51.

4.6 PHASES OF COMPILER The compiler has a number of phases plus symbol table manager and an error handler. 44 . Similarly. Preprocessor. Syntax Analyzer takes an out of lexical analyzer and produces a large tree. Assembler.5 COUSINS OF THE COMPILER ARE 1.6. 3.6. Semantic analyzer takes the output of syntax analyzer and produces another tree. Lexical analyzer takes the source program as an input and produces a long string of tokens. A naive approach to that front end might run the phases serially. 1. Loader and Link-editor. intermediate code generator takes a tree as an input produced by semantic analyzer and produces intermediate code 4. 2. 2.

45 .

5) Integrating the total unit. input and output. uses two 46 . and thus deserve some special comment. testing the components and screening the components. For any design cycle these will be the implementation steps. One standard interface. 3.FABRICATION DETAILS The fabrication of one demonstration unit is carried out in the following sequence. USER INTERFACES User interfaces for embedded systems vary widely. 2) Procuring the components. Some large or old systems use general-purpose mainframe computers or minicomputers. The flow of the system will be like as given below. 3) Making layout. 1) Finalizing the total circuit diagram. sensor. 4) Assembling the components as per the component layout and circuit diagram and soldering components. The electronics usually uses either a microprocessor or a microcontroller. widely used in embedded systems.7 DESIGN OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM Like every other system development design cycle embedded system too have a design cycle. repairing the interconnection diagram as per the circuit diagram. From the initial state of the project to the final fabrication the design considerations will be taken like the software consideration and the hardware components. listing out the components and sources of procurement. interwiring the unit and final testing the unit. User interface is the ultimate aim for an embedded module as to the user to check the output with complete convenience.

the user can glue on the labels for the language that he speaks. used in the Apple Macintosh. so customers can pick the most comfortable language. In some markets. and the Apple/Motorola/IBM PowerPC. These often use DOS. M32R etc. Linux or an embedded real-time operating system such as QNX or Inferno. low-volume embedded and ruggedized system design. SH. Another basic trick is to minimize and simplify the type of output. For example. or failure condition. one button should be "next menu entry" the other button should be "select this menu entry"). there is a tendency to even further eliminate the dependency on specific CPU/hardware (and OS) requirements.buttons (the absolute minimum) to control a menu system (just to be clear. an application-specific integrated circuit. PIC. MIPS. for which the CPU was purchased as intellectual property to add to the IC's design. V850. which as of this writing (2003) is limited to just a few competing architectures. X86. Atmel AVR. Coldfire/68k. most small computer printers use lights labeled with stick-on labels that can be printed in any language. FR-V. PowerPC. With the growing acceptance of Java in this field. A cheap variation is to have two light bars with a printed matrix of errors that they select. mainly the Intel/AMD x86. these are delivered with several sets of labels. Designs sometimes use a status light for each interface plug. A common configuration for very-high-volume embedded systems is the system on a chip. 8051. A related common scheme is to use a field-programmable gate 47 . H8. This in contrast to the desktop computer market. PLATFORM There are many different CPU architectures used in embedded designs such as ARM. Standard PC/104 is a typical base for small. to tell what failed.

in more modern designs. Sometimes. However. an embedded debugger. Most modern FPGAs are designed for this purpose. development tools for a personal computer can be used if the embedded processor is a close relative to a common PC processor. Often a personal computer with special software attaches to the pod to provide the debugging interface. and provides facilities to quickly load and debug experimental code in the system. TOOLS Like typical computer programmers. Another common tool is a utility program (often home-grown) to add a checksum or CRC to a program. and debuggers to develop embedded system software. so it can check its program data before executing it. and program it with all the logic. Software tools can come from several sources: 1) Software companies that specialize in the embedded market. they also use a few tools that are unfamiliar to most programmers.array. assemblers. 48 . It replaces or plugs into the microprocessor. One common tool is an "in-circuit emulator" (ICE) or. Embedded system designers also use a few software tools rarely used by typical computer programmers. 2) Ported from the GNU software development tools. embedded system designers use compilers. including the CPU. This debugging tool is the fundamental trick used to develop embedded code. A small pod usually provides the special electronics to plug into the system.

The CPU-based debugger can be used to test and debug the electronics of the computer from the viewpoint of the CPU. Diodes :(230/12V) – 2 No. higher level tools and operating systems are migrating into machinery where it makes sense. Less common are utility programs to turn data files into code. For example. so one can include any kind of data in a program.8 COMPONENTS USED 1. :(1N4007) – 8 No 49 .An embedded programmer that develops software for digital signal processing often has a math workbench such as MathCAD or Mathematica to simulate the mathematics. DEBUGGING Debugging is usually performed with an in-circuit emulator. In these systems. or some type of debugger that can interrupt the microcontroller's internal microcode. personal digital assistants and other consumer computers often need significant software that is purchased or provided by a person other than the manufacturer of the electronics. an open programming environment such as Linux. The microcode interrupt lets the debugger operate in hardware in which only the CPU works. 3. This feature was pioneered on the PDP-11. As the complexity of embedded systems grows. Step Down Transformer 2. cell phones. OSGi or Embedded Java is required so that the thirdparty software provider can sell to a large market. A few projects use Synchronous programming languages for extra reliability or digital signal processing.

Resistors :1000µF – 2 No. LCD :2 Nos CHAPTER 4 50 .2 Nos :1 KΩ – 4Nos 9. Capacitors 4. Crystal Oscillator 8. PIC microcontroller 7. 22pF.4Nos :7812 – 2 No. Regulators 5. Light Emitting Diodes 6.10 KΩ. 7805 –2 No :LED`s – 6Nos :16f877A – 2 Nos :4MHz –2Nos :330 Ω –2Nos.3.

Finally the LCD fixed in the class room displayed the message (which was sent by HOD). APPLICATIONS • • • In Colleges class rooms In Schools class rooms In industries departments 51 . number of students presented in the class and the temperature of the class room.CONCLUSION The System was operated successfully. The HOD has successfully sent the message to class rooms.  The usage of RF Module decreases the manual work by sending a circular to every class and take sign on it by class teacher. And object detecting sensor operated and the controller counts the number of students presented in the class room.  This project aims at reducing the human strains and to increase the quality of work by the implementation of the automated machine. Temperature sensor senses the signals in the class room and given exact temperature of the class room. It can also be enhanced to count the students by using a smart card reader and also by maintaining a data base to store the attendance. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS  Fitted with a wireless camera it can be used for surveillance purposes.

. Design News 44 (1993).yu/english/product/books/PICbook/0Uvod. 1989). 315 (1998).com • 52 .co.BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography: BOOKS:  Customizing and programming ur pic microcontroller. USA.htm www.John Peatman  R.Valvano(2000)  Embedded PIC microcontroller. Alami et al. Web sites: • • www.how stuff works.com http://www.Kirk Zurell  Teach yourself electronics and electricity.  M.onathan w. Baker.Microchips. Brady. Robotics Science (The MIT Press.  A.Stan Giblisco  Embedded Microcomputer system. The International Journal of Robotics Research 17.mikroelektronika.Myke Predcko  Complete guide to pic microcontroller -e-book  C programming for embedded systems.

a7.a6. void delay(). unsigned char fninc.a3.cur1.aa.ac.a9.a8.h> unsigned int i.j. } } if(fninc==1) { if(cur==1) { 53 . display_string("MSG=").ab. #define fn RB4 #define cur RB5 #define inc RB6 #define set RB7 void main() { while (1) { if(fn==1) { fninc++. if(fninc==1) { cursor_loc(0x80).temp.a4.h> #include<lcd.a5.CODING Transmitter side: #include<pic. signed char a1.a2.count.

i<=25000.i<=25000. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i++).i++).i++). if(cur1==13) cur1=0. if(a1>=43) a1=0. a1++. a1=0x20-0x30. if(inc==1) { if(a2<=-1) a2=-1. for(i=0. } if(set==1) { 54 . } if(cur1==1) { cursor_loc(0x84). cur1++. for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x84).i<=25000. } } if(cur1==2) { cursor_loc(0x85). display_data(a2). a2++. display_data(a1).i<=25000.i++). if(inc==1) { if(a1<=-1) a1=-1. cursor_loc(0x85).for(i=0. if(a2>=43) a2=0.

display_data(a4). } } if(cur1==4) { cursor_loc(0x87). } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i++). for(i=0.i++). } } if(cur1==5) 55 . a3=-16. if(a4>=43) a4=0. cursor_loc(0x86). cursor_loc(0x87). a4=-16. display_data(a3).i<=25000.i<=25000. } } if(cur1==3) { cursor_loc(0x86). a2=-16.i<=25000. if(inc==1) { if(a4<=-1) a4=-1. for(i=0. a4++.i<=25000.i++). if(a3>=43) a3=0. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i++).for(i=0.i++). if(inc==1) { if(a3<=-1) a3=-1.i<=25000. a3++.

} if(set==1) { for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x89).i++). cursor_loc(0x88). for(i=0.i++). if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i<=25000.i++). display_data(temp).i<=25000. if(temp>=43) temp=0. display_data(temp). cursor_loc(0x89). cursor_loc(0x88). } if(cur1==6) { temp=a6.i<=25000. if(temp>=43) temp=0. temp++. temp=-16.{ temp=a5. for(i=0.i++). temp++. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. } a5=temp.i<=25000. temp=-16. } if(cur1==7) 56 . } a6=temp.

i<=25000. temp++.i++).i++). if(temp>=43) temp=0.i++). temp=-16. } if(cur1==9) 57 .i++). } if(set==1) { for(i=0. for(i=0. display_data(temp). for(i=0. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i<=25000.i<=25000. cursor_loc(0x8B). } if(cur1==8) { temp=a8. display_data(temp). if(temp>=43) temp=0. temp++. cursor_loc(0x8A). temp=-16.{ temp=a7. } a8=temp. cursor_loc(0x8B). } a7=temp. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. cursor_loc(0x8A).i<=25000.

cursor_loc(0x8C). display_data(temp). } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i++).i<=25000. for(i=0. } a9=temp. temp=-16. if(temp>=43) temp=0.i++). if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. temp++.i++). } aa=temp. } if(cur1==11) 58 . cursor_loc(0x8D). if(temp>=43) temp=0. temp++. cursor_loc(0x8D). cursor_loc(0x8C). } if(cur1==10) { temp=aa. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1.{ temp=a9. temp=-16.i++).i<=25000. for(i=0.i<=25000. display_data(temp). } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i<=25000.

i++). cursor_loc(0x8F). if(temp>=43) temp=0. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1.{ temp=ab. } ac=temp.i<=25000.i++). for(i=0. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. } if(cur1==12) { temp=ac. display_data(temp). } if(set==1) { for(i=0. temp++. temp++.i<=25000. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i<=25000. cursor_loc(0x8E). display_data(temp). temp=-16. if(temp>=43) temp=0.i++). } } 59 . cursor_loc(0x8E). cursor_loc(0x8F). for(i=0. temp=-16.i<=25000.i++). } ab=temp.

TXREG=0x30+a6. delay(). display_data(a3). 60 . while(!TRMT). display_data(a1). display_data(a4). while(!TRMT). delay(). TXREG=0x30+a4. delay(). delay(). display_data(a7). delay().if(fninc==2) { TXREG=0x30+a1. TXREG=0x30+a7. delay(). while(!TRMT). while(!TRMT). while(!TRMT). TXREG=0x30+a5. display_data(a5). TXREG=0x30+a3. TXREG=0x30+a2. cursor_loc(0xC0). delay(). display_data(a6). while(!TRMT). display_data(a2). while(!TRMT).

while(!TRMT). while(!TRMT). display_data(ab). display_data(a8). TXREG=0x30+aa. delay(). TXREG=0x30+ab. display_data(ac). while(!TRMT).TXREG=0x30+a8. delay(). } Receiver Side: #include<pic. while(!TRMT). TXREG=0x30+a9.j<=400. TXREG=0x30+ac. display_data(a9).h> #include<lcd. } /**********************************************************/ } } void delay() { for(j=0. delay(). display_data(aa). while(!TRMT). delay().j++).h> #define ir1 RB7 61 . delay().

#define ir2 RB6 unsigned int i=0. unsigned char RX. display_data(RX).T1TEN. a2=a/10.count. void delay2().cursor=0x83.a3. } } if(student>=1000) { a=0. a3=a.a1. } if(student>=1) { if(ir2==1) { student--. } a=student.T1ONE.j. a=a%10. display_data(a1).student.a2. display_data(a3). delay2(). display_data(a2). if(count>=1) { cursor_loc(cursor).a. a=a%100. a1=a/100.T1HUN. void delay().temp.T1. display_string("COUNT:"). } 62 . delay2(). cursor_loc(0xC0). void main() { while(1) { if(ir1==1) { student++.

i++).i<=400. RX=RCREG-0x30.} } void interrupt isr() { if(RCIF==1) { RCIF=0. } void delay2() { for(i=0. count++. cursor++. } Installing coding into PIC microcontroller: 63 . } } void delay() { for(i=0.i++).i<=50000.

5. WRT-. It displays on dialog box. Oscillator-. Then Remove the IC from the PIC Flash and it is ready for used into the project or circuit operation. Then it asks Fuses Settings. Then it asks the Confirmation that The IC is empty. 7. Then select open and select the program which we already saved as *. After successful compilation of the coding close the MPLAB IDE. 3. 12. 11.> Disabled. select YES 9.c. 8. 4. select ok. and compile it.1. Then click on Micro controller Micro Systems PIC Flash Software Icon on the desktop. Fix the Controller IC into PIC Flash kit. 6. Then it displays the Program successfully installed into PIC. In that put WDT -. Write the program in MPLAB IDE.c.> Enabled. 10.> XT then click on OK. Save the file as *. 2. 64 . Then it displays Fuses Settings Dialog Box.

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