INDEX CHAPTER Chapter 1

:
1.1: 1.2: 1.3:

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION
EMBEDDED SYSTEM MICROCONTROLLER PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A

PAGE NO. 04
06 19 23

Chapter 2:
2.1: 2.2: 2.3: 2.4: 2.5: 2.6:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
POWER SUPPLY UNIT OUTPUT FILTER TRANSMITTER DETAILS RECEIVER DETAILS LCD DISPLAY INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD 33

26
26 31 32 34 38

Chapter 3:
3.1: 3.2: 3.3: 3.4: 3.5: 3.6: 3.7: 3.8:

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
SOFTWARE TOOLS MPLAB INTEGRATION INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED ‘C’ EMBEDDED “C” COMPILER EMBEDDED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT EMBEDDED SYSTEM TOOLS DESIGN OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM COMPONENTS USED

39
39 39 40 41 41 42 46 49

Chapter 4: BIBLOGRAPHY CODING

CONCLUSION

51 52 53

1

FIGURE CONTENTS
FIG 1.1: THE EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN CYCLE FIG 1.2: V Diagram FIG 1.3: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER FIG 1.4: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF XBEE RECEIVER FIG 1.5: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM TRANSMITTER FIG 1.6: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM RECEIVER FIG 1.7: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16 F874A/877A FIG 1.8: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16F874A/877A FIG 2.1: POWER SUPPLY UNIT FIG 2.2: Low Pass Filter FIG 2.3: 7805 REGULATOR FIG 2.4: TWS-434A FIG 2.5: TWS-434 Pin Diagram FIG 2.6: RWS-434 Receiver FIG 2.7: RWS-434 Pin Diagram FIG 2.8: LCD DISPLAY Fig 2.9: INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD

PAGE NO.
07 07 11 12 14 15 24 25 26 29 30 32 32 33 34 35 38

2

ABSTRACT
Aim of this project is to implement class room attendance system with indoor temperature and information display using embedded systems. This system is a Hi-TECH and contemporary one for class rooms in colleges and schools. Now a day the systems were get into digital form under this concept, information from the department head can be displayed on the LCD screen using RF technology. Five things are getting important they are counter unit, the information display unit through wireless technology last one is Micro- controller unit and RF wireless unit. The counterpart counts the number of students present in the class at when they entering inside the class room; this is done by using IR sensors,. The details from the above send to controller, then controller display it on the LCD. In between this, if any information from head of the department means it will take as an interrupt by the controller and receive the information through RF wireless communication. When it is completed, the message will be displayed on the LCD screen. The message will be displayed for a particular time period. After that it will again continue to display the presents of students and room temperature. In the transmitter side the three keys are assigned to type the message. The keys assigned are as follows, one for alphabetic, second one for numeric, another one for enter button. When the message entered it will transmitted through RF wireless unit.

CHAPTER-1
3

Now a day. 1) Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. Access Control. all the activities in our daily living have become a part of Information technology and we find microcontrollers in each and every application. particularly in the field of Microcontrollers. The micro controller chip used in this project work is PIC 16F877A and this is like heart of the project work.INTRODUCTION The project report describes the design Development and Fabrication of One demo unit of the project work “DISPLAY WIRELESS COMMUNICATION FOR CLASS ROOM MONITORING WITH NOTICE BOARD ” by using embedded systems. Body. 3) Environment connected to systems through sensors. etc A system is a part of the world that a person or group of persons during some time interval and for some purpose choose to regard as a whole. The PIC 16F877A microcontroller is a 40-pin IC. 4 . The microcontroller block is playing a major role in this project work. consisting of interrelated components. actuators and other I/O interfaces. each component characterized by properties that are selected as being relevant to the purpose. trend is directing towards Microcontrollers based project works. Thus.g. 2) Embedded systems are computer systems that monitor. A system is something that maintains its existence and functions as a whole through the interaction of its parts. respond to. with the advancement technology. The entire project was developed in embedded systems. E. Mankind. or control an external environment.

16 Bit Controllers used with a minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose. real-time control system. Lower end embedded systems . High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. The program is stored in ROM (read only memory) and generally does not change. High-end embedded system . software driven.Generally 8. 1. An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing. or human or network interactive. Microcontrollers are embedded inside some other device so that they can control the features or actions of the project. Microcontrollers are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market. reliable.Generally 32. Microcontrollers are often low-price devices. not a software system on PC or UNIX. autonomous. Microwave Ovens. where they are embedded in. not a traditional business or scientific application.1 EMBEDDED SYSTEM: 5 .4) Embedded system must meet timing & other constraints imposed on it by environment. Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc. Another name for a microcontroller therefore is “Embedded Controller”. Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine. 5) An embedded system is a microcontroller-based.

where they are embedded in. autonomous.16 Bit Controllers used with an minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose. or human or network interactive.Generally 32. real-time control system. reliable. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc . not a traditional business or scientific application.Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. High-end embedded system . An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing. SYSTEM DESIGN CALLS: 6 . operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market. 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine.Generally 8. Microwave Ovens. not a software system on PC or UNIX. An embedded system is a microcontroller-based.Lower end embedded systems . software driven.

1: THE EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN CYCLE FIG 1.FIG 1.2: V Diagram 7 .

Characteristics of Embedded System:
• An embedded system is any computer system hidden inside a product other than a computer • There will encounter a number of difficulties when writing embedded system software in addition to those we encounter when we write applications

Throughput – Our system may need to handle a lot of data in a short period of time.

– – –

Response–Our system may need to react to events quickly Testability–Setting up equipment to test embedded software can be difficult Debugability–Without a screen or a keyboard, finding out what the software is doing wrong (other than not working) is a troublesome problem

Reliability – embedded systems must be able to handle any situation without human intervention

Memory space – Memory is limited on embedded systems, and you must make the software and the data fit into whatever memory exists

Program installation – you will need special tools to get your software into embedded systems

Power consumption – Portable systems must run on battery power, and the software in these systems must conserve power

8

Processor hogs – computing that requires large amounts of CPU time can complicate the response problem

Cost – Reducing the cost of the hardware is a concern in many embedded system projects; software often operates on hardware that is barely adequate for the job.

Embedded systems have a microprocessor/ microcontroller and a memory. Some have a serial port or a network connection. They usually do not have keyboards, screens or disk drives.

Applications:
1. Military and aerospace embedded software applications 2 . C o mm un ic a ti on A p pl ic at io ns 3 . I n d u s tr ia l a ut om at i on an d pr oc es s co nt ro l s of tw ar e

CLASSIFICATION
1. Real Time Systems. 2. RTS is one which has to respond to events within a specified deadline. 3. A right answer after the dead line is a wrong answer

RTS CLASSIFICATION
1. Hard Real Time Systems 2. Soft Real Time System

HARD REAL TIME SYSTEM
9

1. "Hard" real-time systems have very narrow response time. 2. Example: Nuclear power system, Cardiac pacemaker.

SOFT REAL TIME SYSTEM
1. "Soft" real-time systems have reduced constrains on "lateness" but still must operate very quickly and repeatable. 2. Example: Railway reservation system – takes a few extra seconds the data remains valid.

LANGUAGES USED
1. C 2. C++ 3. Java 4. Linux 5. Ada 6. Assembly

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER

10

3: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER BLOCK DIAGRAM OF XBEE RECEIVER 11 .FIG 1.

The output of the transformer is given to the rectifier circuit. The filter thus removes the harmonics. This rectifier converts ac voltage to dc voltage. This is the exact dc voltage of the given specification. But the controller operates at 5V dc and the relays and driver operates at 12V dc voltage. This should be given to step down transformer to reduce the 230V ac voltage to low voltage. 7805 regulator produces 5V dc.FIG 1. i. 12 .e..4: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF XBEE RECEIVER DESCRIPTION OF THE BLOCK DIAGRAM The AC main Block is the power supply which is of single phase 230V ac. But the voltage may consist of ripples or harmonics. to 6V or 12V ac this value depends on the transformer inner winding. So we need a regulator to reduce the voltage. To avoid these ripples the output of the rectifier is connected to filter.

Receiver is RWS434. The output of the microcontroller is given to the receiver. The antenna used here is 35cms antenna. These potentio meters acts as load. KEYPAD unit.The 7805 regulator produces 5V dc and this voltage is given to PIC micro controller. receiver and LCD. transmitter. The transmitter used here is TWS-434. and also the circuit uses two potentio meters. The receiver receives the signal through antenna. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER 13 .

FIG 1.5: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF RECEIVER: 14 .

6: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM RECEIVER CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 15 .FIG 1.

The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. The efficient circuit used is the Full wave Bridge rectifier circuit. To reduce or step down the voltage. The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. Input filter. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. Rectifier. Here we used Regulator 16 . the ripples from the obtained DC voltage are removed using other circuits available. This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit. It charges in positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core. The Forward Bias is achieved by connecting the diode’s positive with positive of the battery and negative with battery’s negative. There are Half-Wave.POWER SUPPLY: Power supply unit consists of Step down transformer. The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging. Capacitors are used as filter. The circuit used for removing the ripples is called Filter circuit. Full-Wave and bridge Rectifiers available for this specific function. The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias. Output filter. thus it is stepped down. unit. And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage. The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential. The output voltage of the rectifier is in rippled form.

4th pin is given to the antenna. Capacitor is most often used as filter. This filter is fixed before the regulator. Thus to avoid this Regulators are used. It reduces the 6V dc voltage to 5V dc Voltage. 3rd pin is connected to the +5v dc supply. 1st pin is grounded and 2nd pin is given to the 25th pin of the PIC. The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage. Transmitter used in the circuit is TWS-434. Thus this can be successfully reduced here. the output gets affected. The output of the 7805 regulator is connected to PIC 16f877A microcontroller. Here we used 0. The principle of the capacitor is to charge and discharge. It charges during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and discharges during the negative half cycle.1µF capacitor. The Filter circuit is often fixed after the Regulator circuit. the DC voltage also changes. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms. This filter is fixed after the Regulator circuit to filter any of the possibly found ripples in the output received finally. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. Transmitter and Receiver. It is having 4 pins. The +5v power supply given to the 1st pin of the PIC. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. The circuit consists of LCD. CONTROLLER CIRCUIT The controller used in the circuit is the PIC 16f877A micro controller. Thus the output is free from ripples. The output at this stage is 5V and is given to the Microcontroller. Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. Here we used 7805 positive regulator. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. As and then the AC voltage changes. 17 . LCD is connected to the PIC as shown in the circuit.1000µF capacitor.

In this project we used 230/12V step down transformer. After converting to dc it is applied to controller. It is a single phase 230V ac voltage. RB5. and 7812 regulator for 12V dc voltage. the number of students presented in the class and temperature of the class room. Because the microcontroller and sensors are operated at +5V dc voltage and relays and drivers will be operate at +12V dc voltage. The output of 7805 regulator is given to PIC microcontroller and 18 . 2nd pin is connected to the 26th pin of the PIC micro controller. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. 1st. Transmitter side LCD displays the message what the user or head typed through keypad. One for counting the members presented in the class room and another is the temperature sensor to measure the temperature of the classroom.The RB4. 7805 regulator for producing 5V dc. thus it is stepped down. RB6. CIRCUIT OPERATION The input of the circuit is taken from the main. The receiver used here is RWS 434. And the receiver side LCD displays the message which was sent from transmitter. sensors. Two potentio meters are connected to the receiver side PIC controller via RA0 pin. 6th and 7th pins are grounded. One more potentio meter connected to LCD. It consists of 7 pins. Two sensors are used in the circuit. So first this 230C AC voltage should be stepped down and then it should be converted to dc. RB7 pins of the PIC are connected from the keypad unit. 7th pin is taken from the antenna. relays and drivers. In this circuit we used two regulators. For the two controllers two 4 MHz crystal oscillators are used to produce pulses to the controller. The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value.

1. In this project we used two sensors. The main parts of this project are sensors and PIC micro controller. The PIC controller also receives the data from the sensors. This message displayed on the transmitter side LCD.2 MICROCONTROLLER 1. The transmitter was fixed in the HOD room and the receiver is fixed in the classrooms. The sensors are connected to the RB0 and RB1 pins of the Controller. Then the message sent to the controller. Then the LCD which was fixed in the classroom thus displays the message from HOD. By this way The HOD can send the messages to class rooms.three sensors.2. At the receiver section the receiver antenna receives the signals from the transmitter antenna. The computer-on-a-chip is called the microcomputer whose proper meaning is a computer using a (number of) 19 . The Receiver then sends these signals to PIC controller. One is object detecting sensor and the other is temperature sensor. And the temperature sensor is used to measure the temperature in the class room. and I/O (input/output) lines. number of students presented in the class and the temperature of the class room. all on one chip. When the HOD wants to send any message to the class rooms then he will type the message through keypad unit. The output of the 7812 regulator is connected to three driver ICs and 12 Relays. The transmitter antenna generates the signal. The object detecting sensor is used for counting. The controller then decodes the data and sent it to the transmitter antenna.1 INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor which combines the processor core (CPU). some memory.

the first version of microcontroller will just have memory and digital I/O. but as the device family matures. attempt to develop your first application.2 MICRO CONTROLLER CORE FEATURES 1) High-performance RISC CPU. Also simplifying this requirement is the availability of micro-controllers wit SRAM and EEPROM for control store. In this project we used PIC 16f877A microcontroller.2. smaller and more power efficient they are also getting more and more features. or an external but which will make attaching external devices easier. both in terms of wiring and programming. Most microcontrollers do not require a substantial amount of time to learn how to efficiently program them. 1. which you will have to understand before you. while the concept of the microcomputer is known to be a microcontroller. For many microcontrollers. although many of them. we will be able to find a device within the family that meets our specifications with a minimum of external devices. programmers can built very cheaply. For most applications. which have quirks. 20 .microprocessor(s) as its CPUs. more and more pat numbers with varying features will be available. which will allow program development without having to remove the micro controller for the application circuit. Often. A microcontroller can be viewed as a set of digital logic circuits integrated on a single silicon chip. or even built in to the final application circuit eliminating the need for a separate circuit. Along with microcontrollers getting faster. This chip is used for only specific applications.

Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM data memory. high-speed CMOS FLASH/EEPROM technology. 18) (ICSP) In-Circuit Serial Programming 19) Single 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming capability. 12) Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation. 4) Operating speed: DC . 21) Processor read/write access to program memory. 21 . 10) Power-on Reset (POR).2) Only 35 single word instructions to learn. 17) Fully static design. 3) All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle. 5) Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory. 13) Programmable code-protection. 22) Wide operating voltage range: 2. 11) Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST).0V to 5. 15) Selectable oscillator options. indirect and relative addressing modes.5V. 6) Pin out compatible to the PIC16C73B/74B/76/77 7) Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources) 8) Eight level deep hardware stack 9) Direct. 20) In-Circuit Debugging via two pins. 14) Power saving SLEEP mode. 23) High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA.200 ns instruction cycle.20 MHz clock input DC . 16) Low-power.

24) Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges. 25) Low-power consumption. Examples The 8051 (ATMEL). In this project we used PIC 16f877A microcontroller.3 ADVANTAGES OF USING A MICROCONTROLLER OVER MICROPROCESSOR A designer will use a Microcontroller to 1) Gather input from various sensors 2) Process this input into a set of actions 3) Use the output mechanisms on the Microcontroller to do something useful 4) RAM and ROM are inbuilt in the MC. 6) Multi machine control is possible simultaneously. 22 .Series. 16Series. the series are 12. 1. ARM Processor 1. The PIC family having different series.2.2. We used 16 Series PIC microcontrollers.4 APPLICATIONS: 1) Cell phones.Series.Series. 14. and 24. Motorola (Motorola). 18. 5) Cheap compared to MP.Series. 2) Computers. PIC means Peripheral Interface Controller. PIC (Microchip).

1. A tank circuit consists of a 4 MHZ crystal oscillator and two 22pf capacitors is connected to 13th and 14th pins of the PIC. B. C.3. 1.3. 2) Flash program memory (14 bit words):8K 3) Data memory (in bytes): 368 4) EEPROM Data memory (in bytes):256 5) Interrupts: 15 6) I/o ports: A. D.3 PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A 1.3) Robots. The 12th pin of the controller is grounded. The first pin of the controller is MCLR pin and the 5V dc supply is given to this pin through 10KΩ resistor.1 INTRODUCTION TO PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A The PIC 16f877A microcontroller is a 40-pin IC. E 7) Timers: 3 8) Analog comparators: 2 9) Instructions: 35 23 . This supply is also given to 11th pin directly.2 FEATURES OF PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A 1) Operating frequency: DC-20Mhz. 4) Interfacing to two pc’s.

3 PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16 F874A/877A FIG 1.1.3.7: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16 F874A/877A 24 .

3.8: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16F874A/877A 25 .1.4 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PIC 16F877A FIG 1.

1.CHAPTER -2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 2.1: POWER SUPPLY UNIT POWER SUPPLY UNIT COSISTS OF FOLLOWING UNITS 1) Step down transformer 2) Rectifier unit 3) Input filter 4) Regulator unit 5) Output filter 2.1 STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER 26 .1 POWER SUPPLY UNIT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FIG 2.

Step down transformers can step down incoming voltage. Full-Wave and bridge Rectifiers available for this specific function. Bridge rectifier: A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full-wave rectification.2 RECTIFIER UNIT The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage. and the main power supply is 230 volts. both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally.1. The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. which decreases the incoming electrical voltage to be compatible with your 12 volt equipment. we will need a step down transformer. There are Half-Wave. 27 .The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. thus it is stepped down. For example. if our equipment has been specified for input voltage of 12 volts. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. To reduce or step down the voltage. 2. the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential. This is a widely used configuration. The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. which enables you to have the correct voltage input for your electrical needs. The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias.

FIG : Bridge rectifier A diode bridge or bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four diodes in a bridge configuration that provides the same polarity of output voltage for either polarity of input voltage. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage.3 INPUT FILTER Capacitors are used as filter. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. resulting in lower cost and weight as compared to a center-tapped transformer design. the ripples from the obtained DC voltage are removed using other circuits available. It charges in 28 . The Forward Bias is achieved by connecting the diode’s positive with positive of the battery and negative with battery’s negative. it is known as a bridge rectifier. 2. When used in its most common application.1. The output voltage of the rectifier is in rippled form. The circuit used for removing the ripples is called Filter circuit. The efficient circuit used is the Full wave Bridge rectifier circuit.

2: Low Pass Filter One simple electrical circuit that will serve as a low-pass filter consists of a resistor in series with a load. The 1000µf capacitor serves as a "reservoir" which maintains a reasonable input voltage to the 7805 throughout the entire cycle of the ac line voltage. Thus the output is free from ripples. At higher frequencies the reactance drops. This filter is fixed before the regulator.positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle. and the capacitor is quite capable of sustaining any reasonable load in between charging pulses. causing them to go through the load instead. and blocks low-frequency signals. also called the turnover frequency or cutoff frequency (in hertz). So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. The capacitor exhibits reactance. Input side the low pass filter has been used Low pass filter: FIG 2. The break frequency. and the capacitor effectively functions as a short circuit. The combination of resistance and capacitance gives you the time constant of the filter τ = RC (represented by the Greek letter tau). The four rectifier diodes keep recharging the reservoir capacitor on alternate half-cycles of the line voltage. and a capacitor in parallel with the load. is determined by the time constant: or equivalently (in radians per second): 29 .

so that the IC won't be damaged in case of excessive load current.3: 7805 REGULATOR Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. the DC voltage also changes. Thus this can be successfully reduced here. It takes time to charge or discharge the capacitor through that resistor: At low frequencies. At high frequencies. The output goes up and down only a small fraction of the amount the input goes up and down. Thus to avoid this Regulators are used. the output gets affected.4 REGULATOR UNIT FIG 2. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. it will reduce its output voltage instead. The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage.One way to understand this circuit is to focus on the time the capacitor takes to charge. Further they can also be classified as: 1) Positive regulator 30 . Meanwhile it also contains current-limiting circuitry and thermal overload protection. 2. the capacitor only has time to charge up a small amount before the input switches direction. As and then the AC voltage changes. there's only time for it to charge up half the amount. At double the frequency. there is plenty of time for the capacitor to charge up to practically the same voltage as the input voltage.1. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms.

In similar to 7805.2 OUTPUT FILTER The Filter circuit is often fixed after the Regulator circuit. the 7805 is a positive voltage DC regulator that has only 3 terminals. The principle of the capacitor is to charge and discharge. Capacitor is most often used as filter. Ground. 2) Negative regulator • • • Ground pin Input pin Output pin It regulates the negative voltage.• • • Input pin Ground pin Output pin It regulates the positive voltage. The 10µf and .01µf capacitors serve to help keep the power supply output voltage constant when load conditions 31 . It charges during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and discharges during the negative half cycle. Output Voltage. Encapsulated in a single chip/package (IC). 7812 will produce a regulated DC voltage of 12V 2. They are: Input voltage. 7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR: The 7805 provides circuit designers with an easy way to regulate DC voltages to 5v.

Indoors..5: TWS-434 Pin Diagram 32 . and will go through most walls. and can easily be placed inside a small plastic enclosure.4: TWS-434A The TWS-434 transmitter accepts both linear and digital inputs can operate from 1... and are excellent for applications requiring short-range RF remote controls. the . at high frequencies this capacitor is not very efficient. FIG 2. The electrolytic capacitor smooth’s out any long-term or low frequency variations. Therefore. FIG 2. The TWS-434 is approximately the size of a standard postage stamp.92MHz with a range of approximately 400 foot (open area) outdoors. such as digital IC switching effects. and makes building a miniature hand-held RF transmitter very easy.change. The transmitter module is only 1/3 the size of a standard postage stamp.. TWS-434: The transmitter output is up to 8mW at 433.01µf is included to bypass high-frequency changes. However. to ground.3 TRANSMITTER DETAILS The TWS-434 and RWS-434 are extremely small.5 to 12 VoltsDC. 2. the range is approximately 200 foot.

7795 inches long. 33 . and has a sensitivity of 3uV.2. the length in inches will be approximately 35cm x 0. Your results may vary depending on your surroundings. the recommended antenna should be approximately 35cm long. The RWS434 receiver operates from 4. To convert from centimeters to inches -. For 35cm.5 volts-DC. FIG 2.multiply by 0.5 to 5. We tested these modules using a 14". solid.92MHz.3937.3937 = 13. 24 gauge hobby type wire. and has both linear and digital outputs. and reached a range of over 400 foot.6: RWS-434 Receiver Note: For maximum range.4 RECEIVER DETAILS RWS-434: The receiver also operates at 433.

FIG 2. LCD DISPLAY: 34 .7: RWS-434 Pin Diagram 2.5 LCD DISPLAY Liquid crystal display (LCD) has material which combines the properties of both liquid and crystals. but are grouped together in an order form similar to a crystal. They have a temperature range within which the molecules are almost as mobile as they would be in a liquid.

the display requires a +5V supply plus 11 I/O lines.FIG 2. and it is even possible to produce a readout using the 8 x 80 pixels of the display. Hitachi LCD displays have a standard ASCII set of characters plus Japanese.8: LCD DISPLAY More microcontroller devices are using 'smart LCD' displays to output visual information. are inexpensive. For a 4-bit data bus it only requires the supply lines plus seven extra lines. data lines are tri-state which means they are in a state of high impedance (as though they are disconnected) and this means they do not interfere with the operation of the microcontroller when the display is not being addressed. 35 . The following discussion covers the connection of a Hitachi LCD display to a PIC microcontroller. easy to use. For an 8-bit data bus. When the LCD display is not enabled. LCD displays designed around Hitachi's LCD HD44780 module. The LCD also requires 3 "control" lines from the microcontroller. Greek and mathematical symbols.

a character is being written to the LCD. data is read from the LCD. the LCD interprets the type of data on data lines. an instruction is being written to the LCD. When it is high. the LCD checks the state of the two control lines and responds accordingly. Register select (RS) With the help of this line. When (E) line is high. data is written to the LCD. When it is low. Read/Write (R/W) This line determines the direction of data between the LCD and microcontroller. the LCD is disabled and ignores signals from R/W and RS. When it is high. When this line is low.Enable (E) This line allows access to the display through R/W and RS lines. When it is low. Logic status on control lines: E 0 Access to LCD disabled 1 Access to LCD enabled R/W 0 Writing data to LCD 1 Reading data from LCD RS 0 Instruction 1 Character Writing data to the LCD is done in several steps: Set R/W bit to low Set RS bit to logic 0 or 1 (instruction or character) Set data to data lines (if it is writing) Set E line to high 36 .

But this is not so. The LCD controller needs 40 to 120 microseconds (uS) for writing and reading. Before we access DD RAM after defining a special character. Once the address of DD RAM is set. 37 . Writing and reading data from any LCD memory is done from the last address which was set up using set-address instruction. a new written character will be displayed at the appropriate place on the screen. Until now we discussed the operation of writing and reading to an LCD as if it were an ordinary memory. the program must set the DD RAM address.Set E line to low Read data from data lines (if it is reading).

6 INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 10k 4MHz 22pf 22pf 1N4007 1 1N4007 VIN 2 VOUT GND PIC I6f877A 230v 1N4007 5v + 1000uf 103 LM7805 P O T +5v L C D 1N4007 step down transformer 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 11 13 15 1 78122 3 +12v OUTPUT +5v Fig 2.2.9: INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD 1) display Font: 5 x 8 dots 2) Built-in Controller:HD44780 or Comp 3) Input Data:4 Bits or 8-Bits Interface 4) Power Supply: +4V Single Power 5) Duty Cycle: 1/16 Duty 38 .

is easy to use and includes a host of free software components for fast application development and super-charged debugging.1SOFTWARE TOOLS 1) MPLAB 2) Protel 3) Propic 4) HI-Tech PIC C Compiler 3. Choose MPLAB C18. Moving between tools is a snap. unified graphical user interface for additional Microchip and third party software and hardware development tools. or try the newest Microchip's language tools compiler. MPLAB C30. MPLAB IDE also serves as a single. Or. use one of the many 39 .2 MPLAB INTEGRATION MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a free.CHAPTER-3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 3. and upgrading from the free simulator to MPLAB ICD 2 or the MPLAB ICE emulator is done in a flash because MPLAB IDE has the same user interface for all tools. the highly optimized compiler for the PIC18 series microcontrollers. targeted at the high performance PIC24 and dsPIC digital signal controllers. MPLAB IDE runs as a 32-bit application on MS Windows. integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications employing Microchip's PIC micro and dsPIC microcontrollers.

3 INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED ‘C’: Ex: Hitec – c. Keil – c HI-TECH Software makes industrial-strength software development tools and C compilers that help software developers write compact. Whichever embedded processor family you are targeting with your software. editor and compiler. efficient embedded processor code. with the exception of recursion. can generate high-quality code easily rivaling 40 . HI-TECH PICC is a high-performance C compiler for the Microchip PIC micro 10/12/14/16/17 series of microcontrollers. Used by tens of thousands of customers including General Motors. combined with world-class support have helped serious embedded software programmers to create hundreds of breakthrough new solutions. HI-TECH PICC is an industrial-strength ANSI C compiler .products from third party language tools vendors. HI-TECH tools and C compilers can help you write better code and bring it to market faster. whether it is the ARM. All data types are supported including 24 and 32 bit IEEE standard floating point. For over two decades HI-TECH Software has delivered the industry's most reliable embedded software development tools and compilers for writing efficient and compact code to run on the most popular embedded processors. HI-TECH PICC makes full use of specific PIC features and using an intelligent optimizer. They integrate into MPLAB IDE to function transparently from the MPLAB project manager. HI-TECH's reliable development tools and C compilers. John Deere and many others. Whirlpool.not a subset implementation like some other PIC compilers. PICC or 8051 series. 3. The PICC compiler implements full ISO/ANSI C. Qualcomm.

UNIX. You can compile. Automatic handling of page and bank selection frees the programmer from the trivial details of assembler code. field-proven technology 3) Multiple C optimization levels 4) An optimizing assembler 5) Full linker.5 EMBEDDED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT This environment allows you to manage all of your PIC projects.full featured and portable 2) Reliable . assemble and link your embedded application with a single step.mature. Mac OS X. with overlaying of local variables to minimize RAM usage 6) Comprehensive C library with all source code provided 7) Includes support for 24-bit and 32-bit IEEE floating point and 32-bit long data types 8) Mixed C and assembler programming 9) Unlimited number of source files 10) Listings showing generated assembler 11) Compatible . 41 . Solaris 3. Linux.hand-written assembler.integrates into the MPLAB IDE. EMBEDDED “C” COMPILER 1) ANSI C . MPLAB ICD and most 3rd-party development tools 12) Runs on multiple platforms: Windows.

6 EMBEDDED SYSTEM TOOLS 3. Capability: You can do things in assembly which are difficult or impossible in High level languages.Optionally. assemble and link using one command. but runs on another.1 ASSEMBLER An assembler is a computer program for translating assembly language — essentially. Assemblers are far simpler to write than compilers for high-level languages.6. the compiler may be run directly from the command line. assemblers provide the ability to use symbolic names for memory locations (saving tedious calculations and manually updating addresses when a program is slightly modified). The computational step where an assembler is run is known as assembly time. Translating assembly instruction mnemonics into opcodes. 42 . such as Microchip's MPLAB IDE. 3. This enables the compiler to be integrated into third party development environments.6. Space: Assembly language programs are often the smallest. allowing you to compile. a mnemonic representation of machine language — into object code. A cross assembler (see cross compiler) produces code for one type of processor. and macro facilities for performing textual substitution — typically used to encode common short sequences of instructions to run inline instead of in a subroutine. 3.2 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE HAS SEVERAL BENEFITS Speed: Assembly language programs are generally the fastest programs around.

6. There are two parts of compilation.3 SIMULATOR Simulator is a machine that simulates an environment for the purpose of training or research. The analysis part breaks up the source program into constant piece and creates an intermediate representation of the source program. 3. the target language. An example of an assembler we use in our project is RAD 51. even when using High level languages. 3.4 COMPILER A compiler is a program that reads a program in one language.6.Knowledge: Your knowledge of assembly language will help you write better programs. We use a UMPS simulator for this purpose in our project. The synthesis part constructs the desired target program from the intermediate representation. the source language and translates into an equivalent program in another language. 43 . The translation process should also report the presence of errors in the source program.

6 PHASES OF COMPILER The compiler has a number of phases plus symbol table manager and an error handler.4.6. 44 . Loader and Link-editor. intermediate code generator takes a tree as an input produced by semantic analyzer and produces intermediate code 4. Lexical analyzer takes the source program as an input and produces a long string of tokens. Semantic analyzer takes the output of syntax analyzer and produces another tree. 2. 3. A naive approach to that front end might run the phases serially. Syntax Analyzer takes an out of lexical analyzer and produces a large tree.6. 2.5 COUSINS OF THE COMPILER ARE 1. Assembler. 1. Similarly. Preprocessor.

45 .

Some large or old systems use general-purpose mainframe computers or minicomputers. listing out the components and sources of procurement. input and output. 3. widely used in embedded systems. sensor.FABRICATION DETAILS The fabrication of one demonstration unit is carried out in the following sequence. For any design cycle these will be the implementation steps. 5) Integrating the total unit. interwiring the unit and final testing the unit. 3) Making layout. One standard interface. The electronics usually uses either a microprocessor or a microcontroller. 1) Finalizing the total circuit diagram. USER INTERFACES User interfaces for embedded systems vary widely. repairing the interconnection diagram as per the circuit diagram. 4) Assembling the components as per the component layout and circuit diagram and soldering components. User interface is the ultimate aim for an embedded module as to the user to check the output with complete convenience. and thus deserve some special comment. 2) Procuring the components. uses two 46 . The flow of the system will be like as given below. From the initial state of the project to the final fabrication the design considerations will be taken like the software consideration and the hardware components. testing the components and screening the components.7 DESIGN OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM Like every other system development design cycle embedded system too have a design cycle.

most small computer printers use lights labeled with stick-on labels that can be printed in any language. there is a tendency to even further eliminate the dependency on specific CPU/hardware (and OS) requirements. mainly the Intel/AMD x86. V850. PIC. H8. Standard PC/104 is a typical base for small. With the growing acceptance of Java in this field. used in the Apple Macintosh. which as of this writing (2003) is limited to just a few competing architectures. to tell what failed.the user can glue on the labels for the language that he speaks. These often use DOS. for which the CPU was purchased as intellectual property to add to the IC's design. and the Apple/Motorola/IBM PowerPC. MIPS. these are delivered with several sets of labels. M32R etc. This in contrast to the desktop computer market. one button should be "next menu entry" the other button should be "select this menu entry"). FR-V. so customers can pick the most comfortable language. X86. A related common scheme is to use a field-programmable gate 47 . For example.buttons (the absolute minimum) to control a menu system (just to be clear. PLATFORM There are many different CPU architectures used in embedded designs such as ARM. Another basic trick is to minimize and simplify the type of output. Linux or an embedded real-time operating system such as QNX or Inferno. Atmel AVR. or failure condition. SH. low-volume embedded and ruggedized system design. Designs sometimes use a status light for each interface plug. A cheap variation is to have two light bars with a printed matrix of errors that they select. 8051. PowerPC. Coldfire/68k. A common configuration for very-high-volume embedded systems is the system on a chip. an application-specific integrated circuit. In some markets.

including the CPU. they also use a few tools that are unfamiliar to most programmers. in more modern designs. and program it with all the logic. Another common tool is a utility program (often home-grown) to add a checksum or CRC to a program. It replaces or plugs into the microprocessor. This debugging tool is the fundamental trick used to develop embedded code. TOOLS Like typical computer programmers. However. and debuggers to develop embedded system software. Embedded system designers also use a few software tools rarely used by typical computer programmers. Most modern FPGAs are designed for this purpose. an embedded debugger. A small pod usually provides the special electronics to plug into the system. 48 . so it can check its program data before executing it. One common tool is an "in-circuit emulator" (ICE) or. and provides facilities to quickly load and debug experimental code in the system. development tools for a personal computer can be used if the embedded processor is a close relative to a common PC processor. assemblers. Software tools can come from several sources: 1) Software companies that specialize in the embedded market.array. 2) Ported from the GNU software development tools. Sometimes. embedded system designers use compilers. Often a personal computer with special software attaches to the pod to provide the debugging interface.

so one can include any kind of data in a program. :(1N4007) – 8 No 49 . personal digital assistants and other consumer computers often need significant software that is purchased or provided by a person other than the manufacturer of the electronics. In these systems. Less common are utility programs to turn data files into code. 3. For example. an open programming environment such as Linux.8 COMPONENTS USED 1. higher level tools and operating systems are migrating into machinery where it makes sense. This feature was pioneered on the PDP-11. The CPU-based debugger can be used to test and debug the electronics of the computer from the viewpoint of the CPU. As the complexity of embedded systems grows. DEBUGGING Debugging is usually performed with an in-circuit emulator. A few projects use Synchronous programming languages for extra reliability or digital signal processing. or some type of debugger that can interrupt the microcontroller's internal microcode. OSGi or Embedded Java is required so that the thirdparty software provider can sell to a large market.An embedded programmer that develops software for digital signal processing often has a math workbench such as MathCAD or Mathematica to simulate the mathematics. Diodes :(230/12V) – 2 No. Step Down Transformer 2. cell phones. The microcode interrupt lets the debugger operate in hardware in which only the CPU works.

4Nos :7812 – 2 No. LCD :2 Nos CHAPTER 4 50 .2 Nos :1 KΩ – 4Nos 9. 7805 –2 No :LED`s – 6Nos :16f877A – 2 Nos :4MHz –2Nos :330 Ω –2Nos. Crystal Oscillator 8.10 KΩ. PIC microcontroller 7. 22pF.3. Resistors :1000µF – 2 No. Regulators 5. Light Emitting Diodes 6. Capacitors 4.

 The usage of RF Module decreases the manual work by sending a circular to every class and take sign on it by class teacher. Temperature sensor senses the signals in the class room and given exact temperature of the class room. Finally the LCD fixed in the class room displayed the message (which was sent by HOD). It can also be enhanced to count the students by using a smart card reader and also by maintaining a data base to store the attendance.  This project aims at reducing the human strains and to increase the quality of work by the implementation of the automated machine. The HOD has successfully sent the message to class rooms. APPLICATIONS • • • In Colleges class rooms In Schools class rooms In industries departments 51 . FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS  Fitted with a wireless camera it can be used for surveillance purposes. number of students presented in the class and the temperature of the class room.CONCLUSION The System was operated successfully. And object detecting sensor operated and the controller counts the number of students presented in the class room.

Robotics Science (The MIT Press..Stan Giblisco  Embedded Microcomputer system.Microchips.htm www. Web sites: • • www.Valvano(2000)  Embedded PIC microcontroller. 315 (1998).co.com • 52 .  M.John Peatman  R. Brady.com http://www.Myke Predcko  Complete guide to pic microcontroller -e-book  C programming for embedded systems. 1989).  A.how stuff works.yu/english/product/books/PICbook/0Uvod. USA.onathan w.mikroelektronika.BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography: BOOKS:  Customizing and programming ur pic microcontroller. Alami et al.Kirk Zurell  Teach yourself electronics and electricity. Design News 44 (1993). Baker. The International Journal of Robotics Research 17.

a4.a7.a8.a6.a3. unsigned char fninc. if(fninc==1) { cursor_loc(0x80). #define fn RB4 #define cur RB5 #define inc RB6 #define set RB7 void main() { while (1) { if(fn==1) { fninc++.cur1.count.ac.CODING Transmitter side: #include<pic.a5.ab.j. void delay(). } } if(fninc==1) { if(cur==1) { 53 .temp.aa. display_string("MSG=").h> unsigned int i. signed char a1.a9.a2.h> #include<lcd.

i<=25000. display_data(a1).i++). a2++. cur1++. if(inc==1) { if(a2<=-1) a2=-1. cursor_loc(0x85). if(cur1==13) cur1=0. for(i=0. a1=0x20-0x30.i++). } } if(cur1==2) { cursor_loc(0x85). a1++.i++). } if(set==1) { 54 .i<=25000.for(i=0. } if(cur1==1) { cursor_loc(0x84). cursor_loc(0x84). } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i++). display_data(a2). if(a1>=43) a1=0. for(i=0.i<=25000. if(inc==1) { if(a1<=-1) a1=-1.i<=25000. if(a2>=43) a2=0.

} } if(cur1==3) { cursor_loc(0x86). a3++. if(inc==1) { if(a4<=-1) a4=-1. cursor_loc(0x87). a3=-16. } if(set==1) { for(i=0. for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x86).i<=25000. if(a4>=43) a4=0. display_data(a3).i<=25000.i++). a4++.i<=25000.i++).i++). display_data(a4). if(inc==1) { if(a3<=-1) a3=-1.i<=25000. } } if(cur1==5) 55 . a4=-16. if(a3>=43) a3=0.for(i=0.i<=25000. } } if(cur1==4) { cursor_loc(0x87). for(i=0.i++). } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i++). a2=-16.

} a6=temp. } if(cur1==6) { temp=a6. if(temp>=43) temp=0. display_data(temp).i++). cursor_loc(0x88). if(temp>=43) temp=0.{ temp=a5.i<=25000.i++). display_data(temp).i++). for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x88). cursor_loc(0x89). if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. } a5=temp. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i++). } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i<=25000.i<=25000. temp++. for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x89). temp++. } if(cur1==7) 56 . temp=-16. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. temp=-16.i<=25000.

i++).i<=25000. for(i=0. display_data(temp). } if(set==1) { for(i=0. temp++. } if(set==1) { for(i=0. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1.i++). if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. cursor_loc(0x8B). cursor_loc(0x8B).i<=25000. if(temp>=43) temp=0. for(i=0.i<=25000. if(temp>=43) temp=0. } if(cur1==9) 57 . } a8=temp. cursor_loc(0x8A). cursor_loc(0x8A). temp=-16.i<=25000. } if(cur1==8) { temp=a8.i++). temp++. } a7=temp. display_data(temp).{ temp=a7. temp=-16.i++).

i++). if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. temp++. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1.i<=25000. } if(cur1==10) { temp=aa. cursor_loc(0x8D).i++). } if(set==1) { for(i=0. } if(set==1) { for(i=0. if(temp>=43) temp=0. temp=-16. } a9=temp. for(i=0. display_data(temp).i++). for(i=0.i<=25000. cursor_loc(0x8C). if(temp>=43) temp=0. temp=-16. } if(cur1==11) 58 .{ temp=a9. temp++. display_data(temp).i<=25000.i++).i<=25000. cursor_loc(0x8C). } aa=temp. cursor_loc(0x8D).

i<=25000.i<=25000. } } 59 .i++). if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. display_data(temp).i<=25000. cursor_loc(0x8E). for(i=0.i++).i<=25000. cursor_loc(0x8F). cursor_loc(0x8F). } if(cur1==12) { temp=ac. } if(set==1) { for(i=0. if(temp>=43) temp=0. temp++.i++). display_data(temp). for(i=0. temp=-16. cursor_loc(0x8E). temp=-16. } ac=temp.{ temp=ab. temp++. } ab=temp. if(temp>=43) temp=0. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i++).

60 . while(!TRMT). TXREG=0x30+a6. delay(). TXREG=0x30+a5. display_data(a5). display_data(a1). delay(). while(!TRMT). display_data(a4). display_data(a3). delay(). delay(). display_data(a6). display_data(a2). display_data(a7). TXREG=0x30+a3. while(!TRMT). TXREG=0x30+a2. TXREG=0x30+a4.if(fninc==2) { TXREG=0x30+a1. delay(). while(!TRMT). while(!TRMT). delay(). cursor_loc(0xC0). while(!TRMT). TXREG=0x30+a7. delay(). while(!TRMT).

while(!TRMT). delay(). display_data(aa). TXREG=0x30+ac.TXREG=0x30+a8. delay(). } /**********************************************************/ } } void delay() { for(j=0. display_data(a9). display_data(ac). delay(). while(!TRMT). display_data(ab).h> #include<lcd.j<=400. TXREG=0x30+ab. while(!TRMT). TXREG=0x30+aa. display_data(a8). } Receiver Side: #include<pic. TXREG=0x30+a9. while(!TRMT). delay(). while(!TRMT).j++). delay().h> #define ir1 RB7 61 .

a. } } if(student>=1000) { a=0. } a=student. unsigned char RX. a1=a/100. a2=a/10. display_data(a1). void main() { while(1) { if(ir1==1) { student++. } if(student>=1) { if(ir2==1) { student--.cursor=0x83. if(count>=1) { cursor_loc(cursor).#define ir2 RB6 unsigned int i=0. a3=a. display_data(a3). display_string("COUNT:"). a=a%100.T1ONE.j. delay2().a2.T1HUN. display_data(a2). void delay(). void delay2().T1TEN.student.temp.a1.count. cursor_loc(0xC0).a3. delay2(). a=a%10. } 62 .T1. display_data(RX).

i<=50000.i++). } Installing coding into PIC microcontroller: 63 .} } void interrupt isr() { if(RCIF==1) { RCIF=0. cursor++.i<=400. } } void delay() { for(i=0. count++. } void delay2() { for(i=0.i++). RX=RCREG-0x30.

4. 64 .c. After successful compilation of the coding close the MPLAB IDE. Then it asks the Confirmation that The IC is empty. Then it displays Fuses Settings Dialog Box. Oscillator-.> XT then click on OK. In that put WDT -. 8.> Disabled. Write the program in MPLAB IDE. 3.1.c.> Enabled. Then Remove the IC from the PIC Flash and it is ready for used into the project or circuit operation. 6. select ok. Then it displays the Program successfully installed into PIC. 12. 5. It displays on dialog box. Fix the Controller IC into PIC Flash kit. 11. 10. Then click on Micro controller Micro Systems PIC Flash Software Icon on the desktop. 2. select YES 9. Then select open and select the program which we already saved as *. WRT-. Save the file as *. 7. Then it asks Fuses Settings. and compile it.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful