INDEX CHAPTER Chapter 1

:
1.1: 1.2: 1.3:

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION
EMBEDDED SYSTEM MICROCONTROLLER PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A

PAGE NO. 04
06 19 23

Chapter 2:
2.1: 2.2: 2.3: 2.4: 2.5: 2.6:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
POWER SUPPLY UNIT OUTPUT FILTER TRANSMITTER DETAILS RECEIVER DETAILS LCD DISPLAY INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD 33

26
26 31 32 34 38

Chapter 3:
3.1: 3.2: 3.3: 3.4: 3.5: 3.6: 3.7: 3.8:

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
SOFTWARE TOOLS MPLAB INTEGRATION INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED ‘C’ EMBEDDED “C” COMPILER EMBEDDED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT EMBEDDED SYSTEM TOOLS DESIGN OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM COMPONENTS USED

39
39 39 40 41 41 42 46 49

Chapter 4: BIBLOGRAPHY CODING

CONCLUSION

51 52 53

1

FIGURE CONTENTS
FIG 1.1: THE EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN CYCLE FIG 1.2: V Diagram FIG 1.3: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER FIG 1.4: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF XBEE RECEIVER FIG 1.5: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM TRANSMITTER FIG 1.6: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM RECEIVER FIG 1.7: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16 F874A/877A FIG 1.8: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16F874A/877A FIG 2.1: POWER SUPPLY UNIT FIG 2.2: Low Pass Filter FIG 2.3: 7805 REGULATOR FIG 2.4: TWS-434A FIG 2.5: TWS-434 Pin Diagram FIG 2.6: RWS-434 Receiver FIG 2.7: RWS-434 Pin Diagram FIG 2.8: LCD DISPLAY Fig 2.9: INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD

PAGE NO.
07 07 11 12 14 15 24 25 26 29 30 32 32 33 34 35 38

2

ABSTRACT
Aim of this project is to implement class room attendance system with indoor temperature and information display using embedded systems. This system is a Hi-TECH and contemporary one for class rooms in colleges and schools. Now a day the systems were get into digital form under this concept, information from the department head can be displayed on the LCD screen using RF technology. Five things are getting important they are counter unit, the information display unit through wireless technology last one is Micro- controller unit and RF wireless unit. The counterpart counts the number of students present in the class at when they entering inside the class room; this is done by using IR sensors,. The details from the above send to controller, then controller display it on the LCD. In between this, if any information from head of the department means it will take as an interrupt by the controller and receive the information through RF wireless communication. When it is completed, the message will be displayed on the LCD screen. The message will be displayed for a particular time period. After that it will again continue to display the presents of students and room temperature. In the transmitter side the three keys are assigned to type the message. The keys assigned are as follows, one for alphabetic, second one for numeric, another one for enter button. When the message entered it will transmitted through RF wireless unit.

CHAPTER-1
3

A system is something that maintains its existence and functions as a whole through the interaction of its parts. trend is directing towards Microcontrollers based project works. The entire project was developed in embedded systems. Thus. respond to. 3) Environment connected to systems through sensors. with the advancement technology. consisting of interrelated components. The micro controller chip used in this project work is PIC 16F877A and this is like heart of the project work. etc A system is a part of the world that a person or group of persons during some time interval and for some purpose choose to regard as a whole. 4 .INTRODUCTION The project report describes the design Development and Fabrication of One demo unit of the project work “DISPLAY WIRELESS COMMUNICATION FOR CLASS ROOM MONITORING WITH NOTICE BOARD ” by using embedded systems. The microcontroller block is playing a major role in this project work. all the activities in our daily living have become a part of Information technology and we find microcontrollers in each and every application. particularly in the field of Microcontrollers. or control an external environment.g. each component characterized by properties that are selected as being relevant to the purpose. E. 2) Embedded systems are computer systems that monitor. Now a day. Body. Access Control. actuators and other I/O interfaces. 1) Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. Mankind. The PIC 16F877A microcontroller is a 40-pin IC.

or human or network interactive. Microcontrollers are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. autonomous. software driven. 16 Bit Controllers used with a minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose. not a software system on PC or UNIX. operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market. Microcontrollers are embedded inside some other device so that they can control the features or actions of the project. 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc. Another name for a microcontroller therefore is “Embedded Controller”.Generally 32.Generally 8. Microwave Ovens.1 EMBEDDED SYSTEM: 5 . reliable. Lower end embedded systems . not a traditional business or scientific application. Microcontrollers are often low-price devices. The program is stored in ROM (read only memory) and generally does not change. High-end embedded system . where they are embedded in. real-time control system. Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine.4) Embedded system must meet timing & other constraints imposed on it by environment. An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. 1. 5) An embedded system is a microcontroller-based.

High-end embedded system . Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc . operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market.Generally 8.Generally 32. or human or network interactive. 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. real-time control system. where they are embedded in.Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. SYSTEM DESIGN CALLS: 6 . autonomous. An embedded system is a microcontroller-based. not a software system on PC or UNIX. not a traditional business or scientific application. Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. reliable. An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing. Microwave Ovens. software driven.Lower end embedded systems .16 Bit Controllers used with an minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose.

2: V Diagram 7 .FIG 1.1: THE EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN CYCLE FIG 1.

Characteristics of Embedded System:
• An embedded system is any computer system hidden inside a product other than a computer • There will encounter a number of difficulties when writing embedded system software in addition to those we encounter when we write applications

Throughput – Our system may need to handle a lot of data in a short period of time.

– – –

Response–Our system may need to react to events quickly Testability–Setting up equipment to test embedded software can be difficult Debugability–Without a screen or a keyboard, finding out what the software is doing wrong (other than not working) is a troublesome problem

Reliability – embedded systems must be able to handle any situation without human intervention

Memory space – Memory is limited on embedded systems, and you must make the software and the data fit into whatever memory exists

Program installation – you will need special tools to get your software into embedded systems

Power consumption – Portable systems must run on battery power, and the software in these systems must conserve power

8

Processor hogs – computing that requires large amounts of CPU time can complicate the response problem

Cost – Reducing the cost of the hardware is a concern in many embedded system projects; software often operates on hardware that is barely adequate for the job.

Embedded systems have a microprocessor/ microcontroller and a memory. Some have a serial port or a network connection. They usually do not have keyboards, screens or disk drives.

Applications:
1. Military and aerospace embedded software applications 2 . C o mm un ic a ti on A p pl ic at io ns 3 . I n d u s tr ia l a ut om at i on an d pr oc es s co nt ro l s of tw ar e

CLASSIFICATION
1. Real Time Systems. 2. RTS is one which has to respond to events within a specified deadline. 3. A right answer after the dead line is a wrong answer

RTS CLASSIFICATION
1. Hard Real Time Systems 2. Soft Real Time System

HARD REAL TIME SYSTEM
9

1. "Hard" real-time systems have very narrow response time. 2. Example: Nuclear power system, Cardiac pacemaker.

SOFT REAL TIME SYSTEM
1. "Soft" real-time systems have reduced constrains on "lateness" but still must operate very quickly and repeatable. 2. Example: Railway reservation system – takes a few extra seconds the data remains valid.

LANGUAGES USED
1. C 2. C++ 3. Java 4. Linux 5. Ada 6. Assembly

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER

10

FIG 1.3: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER BLOCK DIAGRAM OF XBEE RECEIVER 11 .

But the controller operates at 5V dc and the relays and driver operates at 12V dc voltage. The filter thus removes the harmonics. The output of the transformer is given to the rectifier circuit. to 6V or 12V ac this value depends on the transformer inner winding. This should be given to step down transformer to reduce the 230V ac voltage to low voltage. So we need a regulator to reduce the voltage. But the voltage may consist of ripples or harmonics.e. 12 . This rectifier converts ac voltage to dc voltage.4: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF XBEE RECEIVER DESCRIPTION OF THE BLOCK DIAGRAM The AC main Block is the power supply which is of single phase 230V ac. i. This is the exact dc voltage of the given specification.. To avoid these ripples the output of the rectifier is connected to filter.FIG 1. 7805 regulator produces 5V dc.

The receiver receives the signal through antenna. The transmitter used here is TWS-434. and also the circuit uses two potentio meters. The output of the microcontroller is given to the receiver. The antenna used here is 35cms antenna. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER 13 . transmitter. receiver and LCD. Receiver is RWS434. These potentio meters acts as load.The 7805 regulator produces 5V dc and this voltage is given to PIC micro controller. KEYPAD unit.

5: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF RECEIVER: 14 .FIG 1.

6: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF CLASS MONITORING SYSTEM RECEIVER CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 15 .FIG 1.

The circuit used for removing the ripples is called Filter circuit. The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias. Input filter. It charges in positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle. The efficient circuit used is the Full wave Bridge rectifier circuit. Capacitors are used as filter. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. The output voltage of the rectifier is in rippled form. thus it is stepped down. There are Half-Wave. the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core. Full-Wave and bridge Rectifiers available for this specific function. the ripples from the obtained DC voltage are removed using other circuits available. The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage.POWER SUPPLY: Power supply unit consists of Step down transformer. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging. The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit. To reduce or step down the voltage. And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage. The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential. unit. Output filter. Rectifier. The Forward Bias is achieved by connecting the diode’s positive with positive of the battery and negative with battery’s negative. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. Here we used Regulator 16 .

So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. It charges during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and discharges during the negative half cycle. 17 . 4th pin is given to the antenna. Thus to avoid this Regulators are used. It reduces the 6V dc voltage to 5V dc Voltage. the DC voltage also changes. The output at this stage is 5V and is given to the Microcontroller. The circuit consists of LCD.1000µF capacitor. Thus this can be successfully reduced here. It is having 4 pins. Transmitter used in the circuit is TWS-434. the output gets affected. Thus the output is free from ripples. 3rd pin is connected to the +5v dc supply. The Filter circuit is often fixed after the Regulator circuit. This filter is fixed after the Regulator circuit to filter any of the possibly found ripples in the output received finally. Capacitor is most often used as filter. The output of the 7805 regulator is connected to PIC 16f877A microcontroller. The +5v power supply given to the 1st pin of the PIC. The principle of the capacitor is to charge and discharge. The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage. As and then the AC voltage changes. Transmitter and Receiver.1µF capacitor. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms. 1st pin is grounded and 2nd pin is given to the 25th pin of the PIC. Here we used 0. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. Here we used 7805 positive regulator. LCD is connected to the PIC as shown in the circuit. This filter is fixed before the regulator. Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. CONTROLLER CIRCUIT The controller used in the circuit is the PIC 16f877A micro controller.

So first this 230C AC voltage should be stepped down and then it should be converted to dc. The output of 7805 regulator is given to PIC microcontroller and 18 . CIRCUIT OPERATION The input of the circuit is taken from the main. relays and drivers. 2nd pin is connected to the 26th pin of the PIC micro controller. and 7812 regulator for 12V dc voltage. the number of students presented in the class and temperature of the class room. Because the microcontroller and sensors are operated at +5V dc voltage and relays and drivers will be operate at +12V dc voltage. After converting to dc it is applied to controller. thus it is stepped down. And the receiver side LCD displays the message which was sent from transmitter. 7th pin is taken from the antenna. 7805 regulator for producing 5V dc. For the two controllers two 4 MHz crystal oscillators are used to produce pulses to the controller. One more potentio meter connected to LCD. Two potentio meters are connected to the receiver side PIC controller via RA0 pin. 1st. RB5. One for counting the members presented in the class room and another is the temperature sensor to measure the temperature of the classroom. The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. Transmitter side LCD displays the message what the user or head typed through keypad. Two sensors are used in the circuit. In this project we used 230/12V step down transformer.The RB4. RB6. The receiver used here is RWS 434. sensors. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. 6th and 7th pins are grounded. It consists of 7 pins. RB7 pins of the PIC are connected from the keypad unit. It is a single phase 230V ac voltage. In this circuit we used two regulators.

and I/O (input/output) lines. 1.2 MICROCONTROLLER 1. In this project we used two sensors. By this way The HOD can send the messages to class rooms. The Receiver then sends these signals to PIC controller. The PIC controller also receives the data from the sensors.2. Then the LCD which was fixed in the classroom thus displays the message from HOD. all on one chip. One is object detecting sensor and the other is temperature sensor. The transmitter was fixed in the HOD room and the receiver is fixed in the classrooms.1 INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor which combines the processor core (CPU). some memory. The main parts of this project are sensors and PIC micro controller. The output of the 7812 regulator is connected to three driver ICs and 12 Relays. And the temperature sensor is used to measure the temperature in the class room. The computer-on-a-chip is called the microcomputer whose proper meaning is a computer using a (number of) 19 .three sensors. The object detecting sensor is used for counting. number of students presented in the class and the temperature of the class room. At the receiver section the receiver antenna receives the signals from the transmitter antenna. The sensors are connected to the RB0 and RB1 pins of the Controller. This message displayed on the transmitter side LCD. When the HOD wants to send any message to the class rooms then he will type the message through keypad unit. Then the message sent to the controller. The controller then decodes the data and sent it to the transmitter antenna. The transmitter antenna generates the signal.

A microcontroller can be viewed as a set of digital logic circuits integrated on a single silicon chip. the first version of microcontroller will just have memory and digital I/O. In this project we used PIC 16f877A microcontroller. more and more pat numbers with varying features will be available. programmers can built very cheaply. although many of them. This chip is used for only specific applications. For many microcontrollers.2. smaller and more power efficient they are also getting more and more features. or an external but which will make attaching external devices easier. Often. Also simplifying this requirement is the availability of micro-controllers wit SRAM and EEPROM for control store.2 MICRO CONTROLLER CORE FEATURES 1) High-performance RISC CPU. we will be able to find a device within the family that meets our specifications with a minimum of external devices. attempt to develop your first application. Along with microcontrollers getting faster. but as the device family matures. 20 . which will allow program development without having to remove the micro controller for the application circuit. while the concept of the microcomputer is known to be a microcontroller. both in terms of wiring and programming. 1. Most microcontrollers do not require a substantial amount of time to learn how to efficiently program them. or even built in to the final application circuit eliminating the need for a separate circuit. For most applications. which have quirks.microprocessor(s) as its CPUs. which you will have to understand before you.

2) Only 35 single word instructions to learn. 21 . 22) Wide operating voltage range: 2. 16) Low-power.200 ns instruction cycle. 23) High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA. 10) Power-on Reset (POR). 15) Selectable oscillator options. 12) Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation. 21) Processor read/write access to program memory.5V. 18) (ICSP) In-Circuit Serial Programming 19) Single 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming capability. 4) Operating speed: DC . Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM data memory. 17) Fully static design. 6) Pin out compatible to the PIC16C73B/74B/76/77 7) Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources) 8) Eight level deep hardware stack 9) Direct. high-speed CMOS FLASH/EEPROM technology. indirect and relative addressing modes. 13) Programmable code-protection. 20) In-Circuit Debugging via two pins. 11) Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST).20 MHz clock input DC . 5) Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory. 14) Power saving SLEEP mode. 3) All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle.0V to 5.

2) Computers. 14. 25) Low-power consumption.24) Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges. PIC (Microchip). and 24.3 ADVANTAGES OF USING A MICROCONTROLLER OVER MICROPROCESSOR A designer will use a Microcontroller to 1) Gather input from various sensors 2) Process this input into a set of actions 3) Use the output mechanisms on the Microcontroller to do something useful 4) RAM and ROM are inbuilt in the MC. 22 . 18. The PIC family having different series.Series.Series. PIC means Peripheral Interface Controller.2. 1.Series.4 APPLICATIONS: 1) Cell phones.2. ARM Processor 1. Examples The 8051 (ATMEL).Series. the series are 12. In this project we used PIC 16f877A microcontroller. Motorola (Motorola). We used 16 Series PIC microcontrollers. 16Series. 6) Multi machine control is possible simultaneously. 5) Cheap compared to MP.

4) Interfacing to two pc’s. C.2 FEATURES OF PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A 1) Operating frequency: DC-20Mhz. The first pin of the controller is MCLR pin and the 5V dc supply is given to this pin through 10KΩ resistor.3. E 7) Timers: 3 8) Analog comparators: 2 9) Instructions: 35 23 .3) Robots.1 INTRODUCTION TO PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A The PIC 16f877A microcontroller is a 40-pin IC. 2) Flash program memory (14 bit words):8K 3) Data memory (in bytes): 368 4) EEPROM Data memory (in bytes):256 5) Interrupts: 15 6) I/o ports: A. The 12th pin of the controller is grounded. This supply is also given to 11th pin directly.3. D. 1. A tank circuit consists of a 4 MHZ crystal oscillator and two 22pf capacitors is connected to 13th and 14th pins of the PIC.3 PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F877A 1. B. 1.

3 PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16 F874A/877A FIG 1.1.7: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16 F874A/877A 24 .3.

8: PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC 16F874A/877A 25 .3.1.4 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PIC 16F877A FIG 1.

1: POWER SUPPLY UNIT POWER SUPPLY UNIT COSISTS OF FOLLOWING UNITS 1) Step down transformer 2) Rectifier unit 3) Input filter 4) Regulator unit 5) Output filter 2.1.CHAPTER -2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 2.1 STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER 26 .1 POWER SUPPLY UNIT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FIG 2.

27 . This is a widely used configuration. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit. Full-Wave and bridge Rectifiers available for this specific function. if our equipment has been specified for input voltage of 12 volts. which decreases the incoming electrical voltage to be compatible with your 12 volt equipment. both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally. thus it is stepped down. Step down transformers can step down incoming voltage. which enables you to have the correct voltage input for your electrical needs. 2. The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias. There are Half-Wave.The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. To reduce or step down the voltage.1. For example. the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core.2 RECTIFIER UNIT The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage. and the main power supply is 230 volts. we will need a step down transformer. The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. Bridge rectifier: A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full-wave rectification.

The efficient circuit used is the Full wave Bridge rectifier circuit. The Forward Bias is achieved by connecting the diode’s positive with positive of the battery and negative with battery’s negative. When used in its most common application. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output.1. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging.FIG : Bridge rectifier A diode bridge or bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four diodes in a bridge configuration that provides the same polarity of output voltage for either polarity of input voltage. The output voltage of the rectifier is in rippled form. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input. it is known as a bridge rectifier. 2. It charges in 28 . The circuit used for removing the ripples is called Filter circuit. And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage. the ripples from the obtained DC voltage are removed using other circuits available.3 INPUT FILTER Capacitors are used as filter. resulting in lower cost and weight as compared to a center-tapped transformer design.

The four rectifier diodes keep recharging the reservoir capacitor on alternate half-cycles of the line voltage. Thus the output is free from ripples.2: Low Pass Filter One simple electrical circuit that will serve as a low-pass filter consists of a resistor in series with a load. This filter is fixed before the regulator. Input side the low pass filter has been used Low pass filter: FIG 2. also called the turnover frequency or cutoff frequency (in hertz). The combination of resistance and capacitance gives you the time constant of the filter τ = RC (represented by the Greek letter tau). causing them to go through the load instead. and a capacitor in parallel with the load. At higher frequencies the reactance drops. The 1000µf capacitor serves as a "reservoir" which maintains a reasonable input voltage to the 7805 throughout the entire cycle of the ac line voltage. and the capacitor effectively functions as a short circuit. The break frequency. and blocks low-frequency signals. The capacitor exhibits reactance. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. and the capacitor is quite capable of sustaining any reasonable load in between charging pulses.positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle. is determined by the time constant: or equivalently (in radians per second): 29 .

The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage. Further they can also be classified as: 1) Positive regulator 30 . there is plenty of time for the capacitor to charge up to practically the same voltage as the input voltage. Thus this can be successfully reduced here. the DC voltage also changes. so that the IC won't be damaged in case of excessive load current.4 REGULATOR UNIT FIG 2. The output goes up and down only a small fraction of the amount the input goes up and down.3: 7805 REGULATOR Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms. As and then the AC voltage changes. it will reduce its output voltage instead. there's only time for it to charge up half the amount.1. the capacitor only has time to charge up a small amount before the input switches direction. the output gets affected.One way to understand this circuit is to focus on the time the capacitor takes to charge. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. At high frequencies. 2. Meanwhile it also contains current-limiting circuitry and thermal overload protection. Thus to avoid this Regulators are used. It takes time to charge or discharge the capacitor through that resistor: At low frequencies. At double the frequency.

Capacitor is most often used as filter. 7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR: The 7805 provides circuit designers with an easy way to regulate DC voltages to 5v. It charges during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and discharges during the negative half cycle. Encapsulated in a single chip/package (IC). 2) Negative regulator • • • Ground pin Input pin Output pin It regulates the negative voltage. Ground.01µf capacitors serve to help keep the power supply output voltage constant when load conditions 31 . The 10µf and .• • • Input pin Ground pin Output pin It regulates the positive voltage. Output Voltage.2 OUTPUT FILTER The Filter circuit is often fixed after the Regulator circuit. They are: Input voltage. 7812 will produce a regulated DC voltage of 12V 2. the 7805 is a positive voltage DC regulator that has only 3 terminals. The principle of the capacitor is to charge and discharge. In similar to 7805.

4: TWS-434A The TWS-434 transmitter accepts both linear and digital inputs can operate from 1.. TWS-434: The transmitter output is up to 8mW at 433.01µf is included to bypass high-frequency changes. and makes building a miniature hand-held RF transmitter very easy. FIG 2. and will go through most walls. such as digital IC switching effects. and are excellent for applications requiring short-range RF remote controls.change.5: TWS-434 Pin Diagram 32 .. The electrolytic capacitor smooth’s out any long-term or low frequency variations. at high frequencies this capacitor is not very efficient. 2. However. FIG 2.3 TRANSMITTER DETAILS The TWS-434 and RWS-434 are extremely small. the .. The transmitter module is only 1/3 the size of a standard postage stamp. Therefore. The TWS-434 is approximately the size of a standard postage stamp.. the range is approximately 200 foot. Indoors.5 to 12 VoltsDC. to ground. and can easily be placed inside a small plastic enclosure.92MHz with a range of approximately 400 foot (open area) outdoors.

solid.5 volts-DC.6: RWS-434 Receiver Note: For maximum range. 33 . and has a sensitivity of 3uV.4 RECEIVER DETAILS RWS-434: The receiver also operates at 433. We tested these modules using a 14".92MHz.3937.multiply by 0.2. To convert from centimeters to inches -. FIG 2. Your results may vary depending on your surroundings. the length in inches will be approximately 35cm x 0. the recommended antenna should be approximately 35cm long.7795 inches long.5 to 5. and has both linear and digital outputs.3937 = 13. The RWS434 receiver operates from 4. 24 gauge hobby type wire. and reached a range of over 400 foot. For 35cm.

5 LCD DISPLAY Liquid crystal display (LCD) has material which combines the properties of both liquid and crystals.FIG 2. LCD DISPLAY: 34 .7: RWS-434 Pin Diagram 2. but are grouped together in an order form similar to a crystal. They have a temperature range within which the molecules are almost as mobile as they would be in a liquid.

LCD displays designed around Hitachi's LCD HD44780 module. and it is even possible to produce a readout using the 8 x 80 pixels of the display. the display requires a +5V supply plus 11 I/O lines. The LCD also requires 3 "control" lines from the microcontroller. The following discussion covers the connection of a Hitachi LCD display to a PIC microcontroller. For an 8-bit data bus. are inexpensive. Greek and mathematical symbols. When the LCD display is not enabled. easy to use.FIG 2. 35 .8: LCD DISPLAY More microcontroller devices are using 'smart LCD' displays to output visual information. data lines are tri-state which means they are in a state of high impedance (as though they are disconnected) and this means they do not interfere with the operation of the microcontroller when the display is not being addressed. For a 4-bit data bus it only requires the supply lines plus seven extra lines. Hitachi LCD displays have a standard ASCII set of characters plus Japanese.

When this line is low. data is written to the LCD. data is read from the LCD. the LCD is disabled and ignores signals from R/W and RS. When it is low. Logic status on control lines: E 0 Access to LCD disabled 1 Access to LCD enabled R/W 0 Writing data to LCD 1 Reading data from LCD RS 0 Instruction 1 Character Writing data to the LCD is done in several steps: Set R/W bit to low Set RS bit to logic 0 or 1 (instruction or character) Set data to data lines (if it is writing) Set E line to high 36 . a character is being written to the LCD. When it is high. Register select (RS) With the help of this line. an instruction is being written to the LCD. When it is high. When (E) line is high.Enable (E) This line allows access to the display through R/W and RS lines. the LCD interprets the type of data on data lines. Read/Write (R/W) This line determines the direction of data between the LCD and microcontroller. the LCD checks the state of the two control lines and responds accordingly. When it is low.

Set E line to low Read data from data lines (if it is reading). Writing and reading data from any LCD memory is done from the last address which was set up using set-address instruction. a new written character will be displayed at the appropriate place on the screen. Until now we discussed the operation of writing and reading to an LCD as if it were an ordinary memory. the program must set the DD RAM address. Before we access DD RAM after defining a special character. Once the address of DD RAM is set. But this is not so. The LCD controller needs 40 to 120 microseconds (uS) for writing and reading. 37 .

9: INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD 1) display Font: 5 x 8 dots 2) Built-in Controller:HD44780 or Comp 3) Input Data:4 Bits or 8-Bits Interface 4) Power Supply: +4V Single Power 5) Duty Cycle: 1/16 Duty 38 .6 INTERFACING PIC MICROCONTROLLER TO LCD: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 10k 4MHz 22pf 22pf 1N4007 1 1N4007 VIN 2 VOUT GND PIC I6f877A 230v 1N4007 5v + 1000uf 103 LM7805 P O T +5v L C D 1N4007 step down transformer 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 11 13 15 1 78122 3 +12v OUTPUT +5v Fig 2.2.

1SOFTWARE TOOLS 1) MPLAB 2) Protel 3) Propic 4) HI-Tech PIC C Compiler 3. Moving between tools is a snap. unified graphical user interface for additional Microchip and third party software and hardware development tools. and upgrading from the free simulator to MPLAB ICD 2 or the MPLAB ICE emulator is done in a flash because MPLAB IDE has the same user interface for all tools.CHAPTER-3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 3. integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications employing Microchip's PIC micro and dsPIC microcontrollers.2 MPLAB INTEGRATION MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a free. or try the newest Microchip's language tools compiler. is easy to use and includes a host of free software components for fast application development and super-charged debugging. use one of the many 39 . the highly optimized compiler for the PIC18 series microcontrollers. MPLAB C30. MPLAB IDE runs as a 32-bit application on MS Windows. Choose MPLAB C18. Or. targeted at the high performance PIC24 and dsPIC digital signal controllers. MPLAB IDE also serves as a single.

Whirlpool. All data types are supported including 24 and 32 bit IEEE standard floating point. Used by tens of thousands of customers including General Motors. PICC or 8051 series. 3. HI-TECH PICC makes full use of specific PIC features and using an intelligent optimizer.not a subset implementation like some other PIC compilers. HI-TECH tools and C compilers can help you write better code and bring it to market faster. can generate high-quality code easily rivaling 40 . Keil – c HI-TECH Software makes industrial-strength software development tools and C compilers that help software developers write compact. They integrate into MPLAB IDE to function transparently from the MPLAB project manager. John Deere and many others. whether it is the ARM. efficient embedded processor code. HI-TECH's reliable development tools and C compilers. editor and compiler.3 INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED ‘C’: Ex: Hitec – c. Qualcomm. combined with world-class support have helped serious embedded software programmers to create hundreds of breakthrough new solutions. Whichever embedded processor family you are targeting with your software. The PICC compiler implements full ISO/ANSI C. with the exception of recursion. HI-TECH PICC is an industrial-strength ANSI C compiler . For over two decades HI-TECH Software has delivered the industry's most reliable embedded software development tools and compilers for writing efficient and compact code to run on the most popular embedded processors.products from third party language tools vendors. HI-TECH PICC is a high-performance C compiler for the Microchip PIC micro 10/12/14/16/17 series of microcontrollers.

41 .hand-written assembler. UNIX.full featured and portable 2) Reliable . You can compile. with overlaying of local variables to minimize RAM usage 6) Comprehensive C library with all source code provided 7) Includes support for 24-bit and 32-bit IEEE floating point and 32-bit long data types 8) Mixed C and assembler programming 9) Unlimited number of source files 10) Listings showing generated assembler 11) Compatible . Automatic handling of page and bank selection frees the programmer from the trivial details of assembler code.integrates into the MPLAB IDE. Solaris 3.mature. MPLAB ICD and most 3rd-party development tools 12) Runs on multiple platforms: Windows. Mac OS X.5 EMBEDDED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT This environment allows you to manage all of your PIC projects. Linux. EMBEDDED “C” COMPILER 1) ANSI C . assemble and link your embedded application with a single step. field-proven technology 3) Multiple C optimization levels 4) An optimizing assembler 5) Full linker.

This enables the compiler to be integrated into third party development environments. Capability: You can do things in assembly which are difficult or impossible in High level languages.6. 3. A cross assembler (see cross compiler) produces code for one type of processor. Translating assembly instruction mnemonics into opcodes. 3. allowing you to compile.6 EMBEDDED SYSTEM TOOLS 3.2 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE HAS SEVERAL BENEFITS Speed: Assembly language programs are generally the fastest programs around. The computational step where an assembler is run is known as assembly time. and macro facilities for performing textual substitution — typically used to encode common short sequences of instructions to run inline instead of in a subroutine. a mnemonic representation of machine language — into object code. assemble and link using one command. Assemblers are far simpler to write than compilers for high-level languages.Optionally. but runs on another. such as Microchip's MPLAB IDE.6.1 ASSEMBLER An assembler is a computer program for translating assembly language — essentially. Space: Assembly language programs are often the smallest. the compiler may be run directly from the command line. 42 . assemblers provide the ability to use symbolic names for memory locations (saving tedious calculations and manually updating addresses when a program is slightly modified).

The analysis part breaks up the source program into constant piece and creates an intermediate representation of the source program. even when using High level languages.6.6. 43 .3 SIMULATOR Simulator is a machine that simulates an environment for the purpose of training or research.Knowledge: Your knowledge of assembly language will help you write better programs. We use a UMPS simulator for this purpose in our project. 3.4 COMPILER A compiler is a program that reads a program in one language. the target language. There are two parts of compilation. 3. The translation process should also report the presence of errors in the source program. the source language and translates into an equivalent program in another language. An example of an assembler we use in our project is RAD 51. The synthesis part constructs the desired target program from the intermediate representation.

1. 2. Semantic analyzer takes the output of syntax analyzer and produces another tree. 3. Lexical analyzer takes the source program as an input and produces a long string of tokens.6. 2. intermediate code generator takes a tree as an input produced by semantic analyzer and produces intermediate code 4. Similarly.6 PHASES OF COMPILER The compiler has a number of phases plus symbol table manager and an error handler.5 COUSINS OF THE COMPILER ARE 1. A naive approach to that front end might run the phases serially. Assembler. 44 .4.6. Preprocessor. Loader and Link-editor. Syntax Analyzer takes an out of lexical analyzer and produces a large tree.

45 .

uses two 46 . 3. testing the components and screening the components. input and output. 5) Integrating the total unit. One standard interface. 3) Making layout. The electronics usually uses either a microprocessor or a microcontroller.7 DESIGN OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM Like every other system development design cycle embedded system too have a design cycle. listing out the components and sources of procurement. and thus deserve some special comment. 1) Finalizing the total circuit diagram. The flow of the system will be like as given below. 2) Procuring the components. From the initial state of the project to the final fabrication the design considerations will be taken like the software consideration and the hardware components. widely used in embedded systems. User interface is the ultimate aim for an embedded module as to the user to check the output with complete convenience. repairing the interconnection diagram as per the circuit diagram. 4) Assembling the components as per the component layout and circuit diagram and soldering components. Some large or old systems use general-purpose mainframe computers or minicomputers. sensor. USER INTERFACES User interfaces for embedded systems vary widely.FABRICATION DETAILS The fabrication of one demonstration unit is carried out in the following sequence. interwiring the unit and final testing the unit. For any design cycle these will be the implementation steps.

PLATFORM There are many different CPU architectures used in embedded designs such as ARM. Coldfire/68k. and the Apple/Motorola/IBM PowerPC. FR-V. used in the Apple Macintosh. These often use DOS.buttons (the absolute minimum) to control a menu system (just to be clear. 8051. PIC. for which the CPU was purchased as intellectual property to add to the IC's design. A common configuration for very-high-volume embedded systems is the system on a chip. H8. SH. For example. With the growing acceptance of Java in this field. Standard PC/104 is a typical base for small. to tell what failed. MIPS. so customers can pick the most comfortable language. V850. which as of this writing (2003) is limited to just a few competing architectures. This in contrast to the desktop computer market.the user can glue on the labels for the language that he speaks. Designs sometimes use a status light for each interface plug. M32R etc. In some markets. low-volume embedded and ruggedized system design. PowerPC. there is a tendency to even further eliminate the dependency on specific CPU/hardware (and OS) requirements. Linux or an embedded real-time operating system such as QNX or Inferno. or failure condition. one button should be "next menu entry" the other button should be "select this menu entry"). these are delivered with several sets of labels. Another basic trick is to minimize and simplify the type of output. A cheap variation is to have two light bars with a printed matrix of errors that they select. mainly the Intel/AMD x86. an application-specific integrated circuit. X86. Atmel AVR. A related common scheme is to use a field-programmable gate 47 . most small computer printers use lights labeled with stick-on labels that can be printed in any language.

Often a personal computer with special software attaches to the pod to provide the debugging interface. However. Another common tool is a utility program (often home-grown) to add a checksum or CRC to a program. development tools for a personal computer can be used if the embedded processor is a close relative to a common PC processor. Software tools can come from several sources: 1) Software companies that specialize in the embedded market. assemblers. One common tool is an "in-circuit emulator" (ICE) or. in more modern designs. and program it with all the logic. and debuggers to develop embedded system software. Most modern FPGAs are designed for this purpose. This debugging tool is the fundamental trick used to develop embedded code. A small pod usually provides the special electronics to plug into the system. including the CPU. Sometimes. and provides facilities to quickly load and debug experimental code in the system. 2) Ported from the GNU software development tools. 48 . so it can check its program data before executing it. Embedded system designers also use a few software tools rarely used by typical computer programmers. TOOLS Like typical computer programmers. embedded system designers use compilers.array. they also use a few tools that are unfamiliar to most programmers. It replaces or plugs into the microprocessor. an embedded debugger.

An embedded programmer that develops software for digital signal processing often has a math workbench such as MathCAD or Mathematica to simulate the mathematics. As the complexity of embedded systems grows. In these systems. The CPU-based debugger can be used to test and debug the electronics of the computer from the viewpoint of the CPU. an open programming environment such as Linux. so one can include any kind of data in a program. :(1N4007) – 8 No 49 .8 COMPONENTS USED 1. DEBUGGING Debugging is usually performed with an in-circuit emulator. Less common are utility programs to turn data files into code. For example. Step Down Transformer 2. or some type of debugger that can interrupt the microcontroller's internal microcode. higher level tools and operating systems are migrating into machinery where it makes sense. 3. A few projects use Synchronous programming languages for extra reliability or digital signal processing. Diodes :(230/12V) – 2 No. personal digital assistants and other consumer computers often need significant software that is purchased or provided by a person other than the manufacturer of the electronics. This feature was pioneered on the PDP-11. The microcode interrupt lets the debugger operate in hardware in which only the CPU works. cell phones. OSGi or Embedded Java is required so that the thirdparty software provider can sell to a large market.

7805 –2 No :LED`s – 6Nos :16f877A – 2 Nos :4MHz –2Nos :330 Ω –2Nos. PIC microcontroller 7. Crystal Oscillator 8. Capacitors 4. Resistors :1000µF – 2 No.4Nos :7812 – 2 No.2 Nos :1 KΩ – 4Nos 9. Regulators 5. 22pF.3. Light Emitting Diodes 6. LCD :2 Nos CHAPTER 4 50 .10 KΩ.

Temperature sensor senses the signals in the class room and given exact temperature of the class room. APPLICATIONS • • • In Colleges class rooms In Schools class rooms In industries departments 51 . FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS  Fitted with a wireless camera it can be used for surveillance purposes. It can also be enhanced to count the students by using a smart card reader and also by maintaining a data base to store the attendance. number of students presented in the class and the temperature of the class room.  The usage of RF Module decreases the manual work by sending a circular to every class and take sign on it by class teacher. And object detecting sensor operated and the controller counts the number of students presented in the class room. The HOD has successfully sent the message to class rooms.  This project aims at reducing the human strains and to increase the quality of work by the implementation of the automated machine.CONCLUSION The System was operated successfully. Finally the LCD fixed in the class room displayed the message (which was sent by HOD).

co. Brady.Microchips. The International Journal of Robotics Research 17. 1989).Kirk Zurell  Teach yourself electronics and electricity.yu/english/product/books/PICbook/0Uvod..  M.onathan w. Baker.htm www. Robotics Science (The MIT Press.com • 52 . USA.John Peatman  R.Myke Predcko  Complete guide to pic microcontroller -e-book  C programming for embedded systems.mikroelektronika. Web sites: • • www. 315 (1998).Stan Giblisco  Embedded Microcomputer system.  A.how stuff works.Valvano(2000)  Embedded PIC microcontroller. Alami et al.BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography: BOOKS:  Customizing and programming ur pic microcontroller.com http://www. Design News 44 (1993).

if(fninc==1) { cursor_loc(0x80).ab. #define fn RB4 #define cur RB5 #define inc RB6 #define set RB7 void main() { while (1) { if(fn==1) { fninc++.CODING Transmitter side: #include<pic.ac. unsigned char fninc. signed char a1.a3.a4. display_string("MSG=").a6.j.a5.a8.count. } } if(fninc==1) { if(cur==1) { 53 . void delay().h> unsigned int i.a9.cur1.temp.h> #include<lcd.a7.a2.aa.

cursor_loc(0x85).i<=25000.i<=25000.for(i=0. for(i=0. if(cur1==13) cur1=0. display_data(a2). } if(set==1) { for(i=0. } if(set==1) { 54 . if(inc==1) { if(a1<=-1) a1=-1.i++). if(a1>=43) a1=0.i<=25000.i++).i++). if(inc==1) { if(a2<=-1) a2=-1. display_data(a1).i++). a2++. } if(cur1==1) { cursor_loc(0x84). cur1++. for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x84).i<=25000. if(a2>=43) a2=0. } } if(cur1==2) { cursor_loc(0x85). a1++. a1=0x20-0x30.

i++).i<=25000. for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x86).i++). a4=-16. } } if(cur1==3) { cursor_loc(0x86).i++).i<=25000. if(inc==1) { if(a3<=-1) a3=-1. } } if(cur1==4) { cursor_loc(0x87). a2=-16. for(i=0.i<=25000. display_data(a3).i++). a4++. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i<=25000. cursor_loc(0x87). a3++. if(inc==1) { if(a4<=-1) a4=-1. } } if(cur1==5) 55 . display_data(a4).i<=25000. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.for(i=0. a3=-16. if(a3>=43) a3=0.i++). if(a4>=43) a4=0.

if(temp>=43) temp=0. temp++.i++). } a6=temp. cursor_loc(0x89). } if(cur1==6) { temp=a6.i++). if(temp>=43) temp=0. display_data(temp).i<=25000. display_data(temp). for(i=0.i<=25000. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i<=25000.{ temp=a5. cursor_loc(0x89). } if(set==1) { for(i=0. for(i=0. temp=-16. temp++.i<=25000. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1.i++). } a5=temp. } if(cur1==7) 56 . cursor_loc(0x88).i++). cursor_loc(0x88). temp=-16.

i++). } a7=temp. temp++. temp++. cursor_loc(0x8A). if(temp>=43) temp=0. } if(set==1) { for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x8B). display_data(temp). } a8=temp. temp=-16. if(temp>=43) temp=0. for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x8B).i++). } if(cur1==8) { temp=a8. display_data(temp). cursor_loc(0x8A). } if(cur1==9) 57 . for(i=0.{ temp=a7. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i++).i<=25000. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1.i<=25000.i<=25000. temp=-16.i++).i<=25000. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1.

for(i=0. display_data(temp).i<=25000.i<=25000. temp=-16. cursor_loc(0x8D). if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. cursor_loc(0x8C).i++).i++).i<=25000. display_data(temp).i++). if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. temp++.{ temp=a9. } if(cur1==10) { temp=aa. } aa=temp. } if(cur1==11) 58 . temp=-16. if(temp>=43) temp=0. temp++. if(temp>=43) temp=0. } a9=temp. } if(set==1) { for(i=0. } if(set==1) { for(i=0.i<=25000. cursor_loc(0x8D). for(i=0. cursor_loc(0x8C).i++).

i++). cursor_loc(0x8E).i<=25000. temp=-16. if(temp>=43) temp=0. cursor_loc(0x8F). } ab=temp. cursor_loc(0x8E). if(temp>=43) temp=0. display_data(temp).i++). for(i=0. } if(set==1) { for(i=0. } ac=temp.i++). for(i=0.i<=25000.{ temp=ab. } if(set==1) { for(i=0. temp=-16. display_data(temp). if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1. temp++. if(inc==1) { if(temp<=-1) temp=-1.i<=25000. } } 59 . cursor_loc(0x8F).i++). } if(cur1==12) { temp=ac.i<=25000. temp++.

delay(). while(!TRMT). TXREG=0x30+a5. display_data(a7). display_data(a3). TXREG=0x30+a6. delay(). TXREG=0x30+a3. while(!TRMT). display_data(a2). TXREG=0x30+a4. while(!TRMT). delay(). delay().if(fninc==2) { TXREG=0x30+a1. delay(). while(!TRMT). cursor_loc(0xC0). delay(). display_data(a6). while(!TRMT). while(!TRMT). TXREG=0x30+a7. TXREG=0x30+a2. while(!TRMT). delay(). 60 . display_data(a1). display_data(a5). display_data(a4).

} Receiver Side: #include<pic. display_data(ac). while(!TRMT).h> #define ir1 RB7 61 . delay(). while(!TRMT). TXREG=0x30+a9. TXREG=0x30+aa. delay(). while(!TRMT). display_data(a9).TXREG=0x30+a8.h> #include<lcd.j++).j<=400. display_data(a8). delay(). display_data(ab). TXREG=0x30+ab. delay(). } /**********************************************************/ } } void delay() { for(j=0. while(!TRMT). display_data(aa). while(!TRMT). delay(). TXREG=0x30+ac.

a=a%100. void delay(). } a=student. a1=a/100. display_string("COUNT:"). void main() { while(1) { if(ir1==1) { student++.T1TEN. display_data(RX). delay2().T1HUN.a3. a=a%10. display_data(a2). delay2().a.cursor=0x83.#define ir2 RB6 unsigned int i=0.temp. a3=a. unsigned char RX.student. if(count>=1) { cursor_loc(cursor). display_data(a3).T1. } if(student>=1) { if(ir2==1) { student--.j. } } if(student>=1000) { a=0. void delay2().T1ONE. display_data(a1).a1. } 62 . cursor_loc(0xC0). a2=a/10.a2.count.

i<=50000.i<=400.i++). } void delay2() { for(i=0. } } void delay() { for(i=0.} } void interrupt isr() { if(RCIF==1) { RCIF=0. RX=RCREG-0x30. cursor++. } Installing coding into PIC microcontroller: 63 .i++). count++.

7. 12. After successful compilation of the coding close the MPLAB IDE. 3. 8. It displays on dialog box. WRT-. 4. select ok. 10. Then it displays the Program successfully installed into PIC. 5.> Enabled. Write the program in MPLAB IDE. 2.c. 6.> Disabled.1. Then select open and select the program which we already saved as *. Fix the Controller IC into PIC Flash kit. 64 .> XT then click on OK. Oscillator-. Then Remove the IC from the PIC Flash and it is ready for used into the project or circuit operation. Then it asks the Confirmation that The IC is empty. and compile it. Save the file as *.c. 11. select YES 9. Then it asks Fuses Settings. Then click on Micro controller Micro Systems PIC Flash Software Icon on the desktop. Then it displays Fuses Settings Dialog Box. In that put WDT -.

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