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DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
(GOVT COLEEGE OF SCIENCE AND COMMERCE BENAZEER BHOPAL)
2. Professor Deptt Of Biotechnology Unique College Bhopal Under The Co Guidance Of DR DEWEEDI Asstt Professor DepttOf Chemistry Govt College Of Science And Commerce Benazer Bhopal SYNOPSIS 1. a process unpleasantly familiar to everyone occurs in response to a range of traumas from sunburn and wounds and to infection and auto immune conditions. Inflammation .TITLE: Phytochemical Investigations Of Zingiberofficinale (Ginger ) In Relation To Its Anti Arthritic Activity. Most of the biological needs of humanity and other animals are met by our environment.INTRODUCTION: The plant kingdom is abundant in species that act as anti arthritic and anti inflammatory to animal tissue. The herbal . The most important inflammatory conditions to affect humanity are the varieties of arthritis and rheumatism.Under The Guidance Of DR JAGRATI TRIPATHI Asstt.
There is a growing importance in traditional health systems in providing health care for a wider population across the globe. Unfortunately chemical identification of these activities is given much more attention then therapeutic use. that produce either inflammation of connective tissue . Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disability and auto immune disorder that affects about 1% of population. protein produced by the immune system in response to the rheumatic process. The attention of scientists all over the world is focused towards the alternative system of medicine in the recent past.medicine is used in its treatment throughout the world. These herbal remedies obtained from vario us medicinal plants are less expensive. loss of normal capacity to distinguish self from nonself resulting in immune reactions against ones own tissues and cells called auto immune diseases. Herblists around the world know of many plants with inflammation inhibiting and anti arthritic activities. It is said that medicinal plants cure almost all diseases. especially in developing . because a hyper active immune system may cause fatal disease due to over whelming allergic reaction leading to series of derangements . The medicinal plants are the only easy accessible health care alternative for most of our population. This is because plants are viewed as sources of potentially valuable drugs rather than living inherent value in themselves. About one out of seven Americans exhibit some form of arthritis . particularly in joints or non inflammatory degeneration of these tissues. Are tested to determine antiarthritic activity. 163 species of plants and fungi are tested to determine antiinflamatory activity and among 500 sps only 50 sps. Arthritis is a general term used for approximately 100 named diseases.immune system is vital to survive . Medicinal plants are a part of social life. A common auto immune form of arthritis is Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Blood tests often reveal the presence of rheumatoid factors. In a we ll known study.
Ibuprofen and Naproxen etc.countries. These herbal formulations are becoming increasingly popular in india .g.most medicines deal with treatment of accompanying symptoms like pain and inflammation . Modern allopathic medicine has no complete cure for the disease . US and other countries. Brassica alba ( Mustard Plaster) etc. It was the objective of the present study to conduct a survey among Kavirajaes of six districts of Bangladesh. Angelica archangelica (Angelica). recommends and promotes traditional as well as natural remedies in national health care programmes as they are easily available at low cost. systemic inflammatory disorder that principally affects synovial joints .g. Zingiberofficinale ( Ginger). The herbs which have been used to treat joint pains or arthritis include Medicago sativa (Alfa Alfa).asaresult alternative treatments based on natural plant products and herbal mixtures are used. severe adverse reactions and toxicity. disease modifying anti inflammatory and anti rheumatic drugs e. Larrea tridentate ( Chaparra l). including some risks of infection in sub sets of patients being treated with biological response modifiers . The leaves constituted the . biological response modifiers e. WHO currently encourages . Methotrexate (MTX) and Leflunomide etc. 3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE: Mohammad Rahmatullah et al reported that arthritis is a chronic. A total of 32 medicinal plants distributed into 23 families . Tumor Necrosis factors . alpha blocking agents. The Araceae and Solanaceae family contributed 03 plants each. Besides their high cost. co rtisone and prednisone . comparatively safe and are culturally acceptable.g. The drugs commonly used for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis include glucocortocidse.
S Tripathy et al studied the effect of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Hybanthusenneaspermus(Violaceae) on Freund¶s adjuvant arthritis.ethyl acetate .4%). The medicinal plants obtained in present survey offer considerable potential for further scientific studies to be carried out. Each extracts were then subjected for preliminary phytochemical studies and pharmacological inv estigation. All the extracts have exhibited significant anti arthritic activity. methanol using Soxhlet apparatus and distilled water by maceration. The anti arthritic activity was carried out using complete Freund¶s adjuvant induced arthritis model. Both the extracts significantly (p<0. M.9%). The barks of Allangiumsalvifoliumwang were collected and dried in shade and subject for successive extraction with petroleum ether . phenols.6% for alcoholic and aqueous extracts respectively. The percentage of yield was found to be 12. This result support the folkore use of this plant against the inflammatory conditions like arthritis.Jubae et al studied the anti arthritic activity of stem barks of Allangiumsalvifolium belonging to family Alangiaceae was studied in rats.8%) followed by fruits (16.001) decreased the paw thickness at the end of 30 days treatment. The ethanol .4%) as compared to aqueous extract (57. At the end of the studies the alcoholic extract shows more pronounce effect (59. carbohydrates and tannins in the extracts. flavonoids.8 and 10.plant part most frequently used (28. choloroform. Indomethacin (10mg/kg bw) was used as standard drug . Kamalutheen et al studied that the various extracts of Merremiatridentatawere investigated for anti inflammatory and anti arthritic activity in male albino rats. glycosides. S. The phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of alkaloids. The acute toxicity studies were carried out according to the up and down method of CPCSEA guidelines no 425 and anti arthritic activity by Freund¶s adjuvant arthritis model .
rutidosperma .32% which is comparable with standard drug indomethacin 74. skeleton muscular disorder having nearest approximation to human rheumatoid arthritis..5% inhibition.0% inhibition respectively with that of the standard drug Prednisolone(5mg/kg) which produced 58.0% and 51.Chakarborty and H. RekhaRajendran and EkambaramKrishnakumar studied that adjuvant induced arthritis is a chronic crippling . The ethanol extract at the dose of 300mg/kg body weight inhibited the raw paw edema by 68.7% inhibition respectively after 19 days when compared to that of standard drug(55.Roy showed that various extracts of Cleome rutidosperma were investigated for its anti arthritic activity in male albino rats . The doses of 200mg/kg bw of ethanolic extract of C.tridentata exhibit significant anti arthritic activities.5%) . Prednisolone (5mg/kg bw) was used as a standard drug.extract of Merremiatridentata exhibited significant dose dependent activity in acute inflammation and the doses of 100mg/kg bw and 200mg/kg bw produced 38. 8% inhibition respectively after 3h as compared with that of standard drug which showed 48.K. The doses of ethanol extract of M. in chronic model of gra nuloma pouch in rats produced 48. wood is done by Freund¶s adjuvant induced arthritis model. The evaluation of anti arthritic activity was carried out using cotton pellet granuloma method and Freund¶s adjuvant induced arthritis model. In arthritis model the dose of 100mg/kg bw and 200mg/kg bw of the ethanol extract produced 49.87% inhibition of rat paw edema after 21 days. The anti arthritic activity of ethanol extract of PremnaserratifoliaLinn.5% and 59% inhibition. The wood of Premnaserratifolia is reported to be useful in the treatment of arthritis. The ethanolic extract of C.K. The results of the current investigation concluded that ethanol extract of .3% and 42. A.0% and in arthritis model produced 44.rutidosperma exhibited significant anti arthritic activity as compared to other extracts.
Further the biochemical. alkaloids. Against Pongamiapinnata(Linn) and Pierre and Vitexnegundo Linn. alcoholic extracts of the A. et al studied the anti arthritic and anti inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Vernoniaanthelmintica. The petroleum ether. saponins and tannins. flavonoids.K. steroids. Mangesh S Bansod et al aimed to assess the anti arthritic nature of poly herbal formulation containing Cissampelos Pereira Linn. Polyherbal formulation (200mg/kg. glycosides. chloroform.9%) and subjected to preliminary phytochemical and acute toxicity studies.galanga rhizomes in the presence of chemically active compounds by standard methods. The seeds were extracted by Soxhlet method using ethanol (99. The phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of alkaloids. The results of present study were revealed the effectiveness of EVA in acute as well as a chronic inflammatory conditions without ulcerogenic potential.. The application of all the three extracts exhibited statistically significant edema inhibition. 400mg/kg and 600 mg/kg) reduces hind paw swelling and . Otari.galanga rhizome extracts is endowed with effective anti arthritic activity. Uma Chandur et al studied the extracts of Zingiberaceae family A.galanga was evaluated for anti arthritic activity. The effects of EVA was evaluated for acute inflammation in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and for chronic inflammationin complete Freund¶s adjuv ant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats . triterpenes and polyphenols in EVA. The results obtained suggest that A.P.wood possess significant anti arthritic activity due to the presence of phytoconstituents such as irridoid glycosides. phenol ic compounds.serratifoliaLinn. phenolic compounds and flavonoids.histopathological and radiographic evaluation was performed.V. Freund¶s adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. The results showed the presence of flavonoids.
phalanges and ankle joint space of polyherbal formulation treated group animals showed protective effect against adjuvant induced arthritis.sylvestrepossessed significant anti arthritic activityinalla the parameters of his study. flavonoids. ethanol and water fractions of the leaves of Clerodendroninermewere subjected to in vitro anti inflammatory activity of HRBC membrane stabilization method in various concentrations. ethyl acetate. ethyl acetate. He revealed that the petroleum ether (40 -60) extract and aqueous extract of G. The effect was represented as follows Ethyl acetate > Chloroform > Ethanol > Water > Petroleum ether. The standard drug used in his study was diclofenac sodium. He also showed that the more .while histopathology reveals the significant reduction in mono nuclear in filtration. choloroform. rheumatism. elephantiasis and intermitlant fever.sylvestre using Freund¶s adjuvant arthritis in rats. The petroleum ether. phenols. M. The radiological pictures of the joints particularly metatarsal. pannus formation and bone erosion. NOTEWORTHY CONTRIBUTIONS: Jitender K Malik et al described that the leaf extracts of Gymnemasylvestrehave an anti arthritic activity using albino rats. tannins. steroids. He studied the anti arthritic action of leaves of G. The petroleum ether. The qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloid.body weight alongwith significant improvement in haematologicalstudy . carbohydrates. choloroform. fixed oils and volatile oils. ethanol and water fractions of the leaves of Clerodendroninerme were subjected to in vitro anti arthritic activity by protein denaturation method. 4. All the extracts showed positive response.Sangeetha et al studied that Clerodendroninermebelongs to family Verbenaceae is used for the treatment of veneral diseases.
R.01) inhibitory effect was observed with A. defecation and urination. Havagiray R Chitme and Nitin P Patel described that Aristolachiabracteatais well known for its anti arthritis activity in Indian system of medicine. weight bearing ability and also decline in scratching. The maximum membrane stabilization of A.Hb value and restores body weight. The course of treatment was followed for over and 4 weeks post inoculation period using health parameters . They analysed its anti arthritic activity using Freund¶s complete adjuvant in rats.sylvestreis due to nature of steroids.Lavanya et al described that the phytochemical analysis of methanolic extracts of A.05) increase in pain threshold.malabaricaand indicated the presence of steroid.47% at a dose of 250mcg/ml. triterpenoids and saponin glycosides.potent anti arthritic activity of leaves of G.bracteataextract on Freund¶s complete adjuvant induced paw edema throughout the study (p<0. They also showed that the isolation and use of active constituents from A.malabaricaby inhibition of protein denaturation method. clinical and behavioural methods of study. The results indicate that regular treatment of adjuvant induced arthritic rats with A. Sugnificant (p<0.34% at a dose of 1000mcg/0. They also analysed that treatment of FCA induced rats with A.5ml and that of protein denaturation was found to be 97. malabarica treating rheumatism and inflammation. clinical observations and behavioural changes.malabarica was found to be 98.bracteata extracts shown (p<0. They showed the anti arthritic activity of A. The methanolic extracts of the plant exhibited remarkable anti arthritic activity. They obtained results which show ed promising effect on FCA modulated health status. Flavonoid and terpenoid type of compounds in it.001). .bracteataextracts improves ESR.
Pharmacological Screening: (a) Experimental animals. (b) Extraction with various solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical screening: (a) Preliminary phytochemical screening. 6. (b) Purification procedure using chromatographic purification. Preparation of extracts: (a) Maceration process for aqueous extract preparation. (c) Anti arthritic activity: In this the Freund¶s adjuvant arthritis model is followed.Mass Spectroscopy) 6. EXPECTED OUTCOME: Arthritis is one of the most common auto immune inflammatory conditions of unknown etiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study has been undertaken to study the anti arthritic activity of bioactive compounds isolated from Zingiberofficinale (Ginger) . Compilation of data. Drugs and Chemicals. The presently available pharmacological treatments in the market are not only causing economical exploitation but .HPLC) (c) Spectrum analysis (IR. (b) Acute toxicity studies. 4.NMR. 7. 5. Identification and collection of plant material.(TLC. Drying and grinding process of plant parts using sophisticated instruments. 3. (d) Statistical analysis.5. 2. 1.
Orient Longmann Ltd.e physiotherapy. About 60 -90% of dissatisfied arthritis patients are likely to seek CAM therapy i. 5.also associated with severe adverse effects. May Aug 2010.2(2). REFERENCES: 1.3.2003 Aug. It has been predicted that near about 500 plants have been indicated in treatment of arthritis .Bangladesh Bulletin. Vol..Vol.Indian Medicinal Plants.A Compendium of 500 Species. Bansod S Mangesh et al.2009. 3. 4.Vol.330-332.7:18-21.So the present study has been undertaken to study the anti arthritic activity of Zingiberofficinale and to develop a proper medication which will be eco friendly and has very less side effects that can be used for prophylactic and therapeutic purpose to control this dangerous disease. Islam.however.Vol. 6. 2. 7.N and M. 8. Chitme R Havagiray and Patel P Nitin .107 -109. Medical Research Council .Kahn.1981. yoga and extract of medicinal plants.2. Chandur Uma et al.2010.Madras1997.6-15.The Open Natural Products Journal.. ChakarbortyA.Rangari V D.593-597.Roy H K. only few plants have been scientifically evaluated (<50). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.2011. 890-894. Indian J. 41.3. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology.2(10)..Suppl 2..Rheumatic diseases other than rheumaticfever. AryaVaidyaShala . Aggarwal R B . 186-192.Exp Bio ...K.
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