National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.

00 to Km 270.00)

Draft Feasibility Report

7.0

TRAFFIC SURVEYS, ANALYSIS AND FORECASTS 7.1 Introduction In planning and design of a highway an appreciation of the traffic expected to use the highway is of importance to assess the capacity requirements, pavement design, identify present and likely future traffic problems and to device suitable remedial measures and evolve appropriate designs. It is important for toll roads to assess the revenue from toll collections on the Project. As part of this study, a systematic methodology has been followed to assess the characteristics of the traffic on the project road. Kerala Border to Thrissur of NH-47 is an important link providing the most direct route from Tamilnadu, Karnataka , Andhra Pradesh and other parts of India to Kerala. In view of this, it is considered part of North-South corridor by NHAI for capacity augmentation to 4-lanes. The data for the study has been collected from field surveys as well as from secondary sources. Vehicle and traffic growth rates have been correlated to the demographic and economic growth trends of the state to establish future growth rates. The link-wise travel demand has been projected as per the growth rate estimates and a traffic diversion procedure has been used to derive traffic on different links of the road network. The details on traffic surveys and results from its analysis are presented in this chapter followed by the derivation of traffic growth rates and traffic diversion analysis to estimate travel demand on the project road. 7.1.1 Objectives The primary objectives of this traffic study are to: • • • • • • • assess the characteristics of traffic movement on the project road collect historical data on traffic growth in the project road estimate the future growth rate . determine the travel pattern as well as type and weight of commodities carried by goods vehicles. determine the turning movements of traffic at road intersections identify traffic bottlenecks and the need for service roads bypasses to congested locations determine the spectrum of axle loads and the vehicle damage factor of different types of commercial vehicles.

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National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.00 to Km 270.00)

Draft Feasibility Report

7.1.2

Surveys To fulfill these objectives, the following traffic surveys were carried out • • • • • • • Traffic volume count surveys at 4 locations for 7 days Origin and destination surveys for 24 hours at two locations Turning movement surveys for 12 hours at Junctions/Intersections. Journey time and delay studies over the entire project road Pedestrian movement surveys at 3 locations Traffic Accident Data Collection Axle load surveys at 2 locations for 48 hours

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The Locations of the surveys conducted shown in Figure 7.1. 7.2 Classified Traffic Volume Counts 7.2.1 Objectives The intensity of traffic flow at any given section of the road forms the basis for determining its spatial and structural design requirements. The collection of traffic data thus assumes utmost significance in the development of any road project. In order to assess the Average Daily Traffic at any section of road, classified traffic counts are carried out for a continuous period of 7 days to average any variation in the short term. 7.2.2 Methodology The project road was divided into four homogeneous sections based on preliminary reconnaissance studies in such a way that the traffic intensity within a particular section will be more or less uniform. Classified traffic counts were organised at one selected location in each section. The locations of 7-day continuous traffic count stations are Table 7.1. Data on the number of vehicles of different categories moving along the road in both directions are noted by enumerators specially trained for this purpose. The vehicles are broadly classified into motorised and nonmotorised vehicles, which are further sub divided into specific categories of vehicles. The traffic counts are generally conducted in accordance with IRC SP19-2001. However, the groupings of vehicles are further split to reflect the present day traffic pattern on the project road.

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National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.00 to Km 270.00)

Draft Feasibility Report

Table 7.1 Classified Traffic Count Locations Homogeneous Section HS-1 Kerala/TN Border to Palakkad (Km 182/0 to Km 204) HS-2 Palakkad (Km 204) to Alathur (Km 226) HS-3 Alathur (Km 226) to Vadakancherry (Km 239) HS-4 Vadakancherry (Km 239) to Thrissur (Km 270) Count No. SC/1 Location Km 191/000 Survey dates 24th July – 30th July 2004 15th July – 21st July 2004 21st July – 27th July 2004 13th July – 19th July 2004

SC/2

Km 210/600

SC/3

Km 237/000

SC/4

Km 263/100

7.2.3

Results and Analysis The summary of ADT, in terms of vehicles and PCU at all the four count locations is given in Table 7.2. The details pertaining to hourly and day wise distribution of average daily traffic at the seven count locations are given in Annexure VII. It may be noted that there was a general strike of state private bus operators over entire kerala state from 26th to 30th July 2004, there was a fall in Mini Bus and Bus traffic during these days. It is therefore considered to justified to take the 5 days average from 21st to 25th for Mini bus and Bus traffic at Km 237/000, and 2 days average from 24th to 25th at km 191/000. From Table 7.2 and Annexure VII, the following can be observed.

The Average Daily traffic on the project road ranges between 10315 vehicles in Section 1 to 14486 vehicles in section 4. The traffic intensity in terms of Passenger Car Units ranges between 17204 PCU’s in section 1 to 25365 PCU’s in section 4. The Average Daily Traffic (ADT) is close to 17200 PCU’s in Section 1, 18726 PCU’s in section 2, 19604 in section 3, and about 25365 PCU’s in Section 4. The traffic increases from Palakkad Town and Vadakanchery due to traffic joining from Southern Parts of Tamlnadu.
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National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.00 to Km 270.00)

Draft Feasibility Report

The traffic indicates that significant traffic generators along the project road and the traffic, is predominantly high in the section 2, 3 and 4. There are about 3800 trucks observed in Section 3 and 4 compared to about 2900 in Section 1 and 2, about 900 higher. Light Goods vehicle range from 564 to 924. The passenger car traffic ranges from 3085 in Section 2 to 4216 observed in Section 4. The bus traffic is also maximum in Section 4 at 1477, followed by 1088 in Section 2 Two-wheeler traffic ranges from 2226 in Section 4 to 2057 in Section 1. The slow moving traffic is slightly high on Section 1, otherwise it ranges from 29-142 vehicles. Out of the total slow moving traffic, cycle traffic is significant which is about 96% of the total slow moving traffic. The Day wise variation of traffic mode wise at Km 191/000 is indicated in Figure 7.2. The Day wise Variation of Traffic in PCUs is indicated in Figure 7.3. Details of mode wise hourly distribution of different categories of vehicles at Km 191/000 are indicated in Figure 7.4. The Hourly Variation of Traffic is indicated Figures 7.5. Composition of traffic at Km 191/000 is indicated in Figure 7.6.Weekly variation of traffic in terms of Total vehicles & total PCU is given in Figure 7.7. Similarly for other locations i.e at Km 210/600, Km 237/000 & Km 263/100 all the above details are given in Figure 7.8 to 7.13, Figures 7.14 to 7.19 & Figure 7.20 to 7.25 respectively.

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National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.00 to Km 270.00)

Draft Feasibility Report

7 Day CVC Locations

Turning Movement Survey Locations

O-D Survey/Axle Load Survey Locations

Pedestrian Count Locations

Figure 7.1 Traffic Survey Locations

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00 to Km 270.00) Draft Feasibility Report Table 7.2 SOWiL Limited. 7-6 .National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.

National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. 7-7 .00) Draft Feasibility Report Figures 7.2 to 7.00 to Km 270.4 SOWiL Limited.

National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.5 to 7. 7-8 .7 SOWiL Limited.00 to Km 270.00) Draft Feasibility Report Figures 7.

7-9 .10 SOWiL Limited.8 to 7.00 to Km 270.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.00) Draft Feasibility Report Figures 7.

7-10 .13 SOWiL Limited.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.00) Draft Feasibility Report Figures 7.11 to 7.00 to Km 270.

00) Draft Feasibility Report Figures 7.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.16 SOWiL Limited.00 to Km 270.14 to 7. 7-11 .

19 SOWiL Limited.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. 7-12 .00 to Km 270.00) Draft Feasibility Report Figures 7.17 to 7.

7-13 .00 to Km 270.00) Draft Feasibility Report Figures 7.20 to 7.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.22 SOWiL Limited.

00 to Km 270.25 SOWiL Limited.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.23 to 7.00) Draft Feasibility Report Figures 7. 7-14 .

1 2 3 4 SOWiL Limited.27.26 Intensity of Traffic (No. The highest and lowest hourly volumes of traffic in different sections of the project road are indicated below in Table 7.3. Project section Highest hourly traffic volume Motorised NonPassenger Vehicles motorised Car Units Vehicles 634 36 939 639 14 997 628 9 1068 915 15 1502 Lowest hourly traffic volume Motorised NonPassenger Vehicles motorised Car Units Vehicles 214 0 495 284 0 597 236 0 610 243 0 609 The hourly distributions of motorised and non-motorised vehicles as well as passenger car units at different count stations are summarized in Figures 7. 7.2. The hourly distribution of traffic at various count locations is illustrated in Annexure VII.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.29. Table 7.26.3: Highest and Lowest traffic volume in different sections.00 to Km 270.00) Draft Feasibility Report The traffic intensity at different count locations is presented in Figure 7. Fig 7. of Vehicles) in different sections of project road TRAFFIC VOLUME(NUMBERS) 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Non-Motorised vehicles Agr Tr actor/ T railor Trucks LCV MiniBus/ Bus Car / Three Wheelers Two Wheelers Km 191/000 Km 210/600 Km 237/000 Km 263/100 SURVEY LOCATION 7.28 and 7. 7-15 .4 Hourly Variation and Peak hour factor Analysis has been carried out to understand hourly variation and peak hour traffic characteristics.

00 to Km 270.28 Hourly Variation of Non Motorised Traffic at Different Count Stations 40 Non-Motorised Vehicles(Numbers) 35 30 25 SC 1 20 SC 2 15 SC 3 10 5 0 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 SC 4 Tim e SOWiL Limited. 7-16 .00) Draft Feasibility Report Fig 7.27 Hourly Variation of Motorised Traffic at Different Count Stations 1000 900 Motorised Vehicles(Numbers) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 SC 4 SC 1 SC 2 SC 3 Tim e Fig 7.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.

Table 7.92 Peak Hour (Hrs.92% in section 4.4 Locations S. 1 2 3 4 Survey Location Km 191/000 Km 210/600 Km 237/000 Km 263/100 Peak Hour Factors Observed at Various Count Peak Hour Volume (PCU) 939 997 1068 1502 PHF (in %) 5.2.46 5.00 to Km 270.33 5.29 Hourly Variation of Total Traffic at Different Count Stations 1600 1400 1200 Total Traffic (PCU's) 1000 SC 1 800 SC 2 600 SC 3 400 200 0 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 SC 4 Tim e The Peak Hour Factor (PHF) (defined as the ratio between the number of vehicles counted during the peak hour to the total vehicles counted in a day) calculated at various count locations is presented in Table 7. No. it can be observed that the peak hour traffic volume at different count stations range between 5. 7-17 .4.00) Draft Feasibility Report Fig 7.) 17:00-18:00 17:00-18:00 18:00-19:00 18:00-19:00 Road SC/1 SC/2 SC/3 SC/4 From the table and illustrations in the Annexure.54 % at different survey locations.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.45 5.5 Average Annual Daily Traffic SOWiL Limited. 7. the mean peak hour factor being 5.33% in section 2 to 5.

14 1.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.23 0.54 As the classified traffic volume counts was conducted in the month of July. therefore for calculation of AADT. The variation of calculated seasonal factors is given below.03 1.19 1.07.07 0. AADT at different count stations (After applying seasonal factors) is given in Table 7.92 1. value of seasonal factor has been taken as 1. this data was used for calculation of seasonal factors.98 0. SOWiL Limited.5.D.94 0. Seasonal Variation Factors at Peruvamoozhy Bridge Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Seasonal Factors 1.20 1.00) Draft Feasibility Report Monthly Toll Collection Revenues (which is the reliable source to assess the monthly variation during the season) at Peruvamoozhy Bridge(Kottayam Nedumbassry Road M.07 1.00 to Km 270. 7-18 . The AADT was arrived at by multiplying these factors with ADT obtained from the traffic volume count.R) was collected for the last one year.28 1.

00) Draft Feasibility Report Insert Table 7.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. 7-19 .00 to Km 270.5 SOWiL Limited.

SOWiL Limited. 7. Results of the O -D surveys are used to describe the user characteristics. 7-20 .2 Methodology The Origin-Destination survey as well as Commodity movement survey was carried out adopting Roadside Interview method as detailed in IRC 102-1988.3. occupancy. i. This information is also useful in determining the need for bypasses for heavily built up urban sections along the project road. Details of origin-destination surveys conducted as part of this study are presented in Table 7.6.00) Draft Feasibility Report 7. commodity type and length of trip.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. was used for O-D survey.e. the survey elicited characteristics like origin and destination. SC/1 SC/4 Location Km 191/000 Km 263/100 Roadside Interview method. as detailed in IRC: 102-1988. The survey was carried out for passenger and commercial vehicles for 24 hours at two locations.1 Objective The objective of the Origin-Destination (O-D) survey is to gather information regarding travel characteristics of different users on the project road. For goods modes.6 Origin-destination Survey Details Homogeneous Section HS-1 Kerala/TN Border to Palakkad (Km 182/2 to Km 204) HS-4 Vadakancherry (Km 239) to Thrissur (Km 270) Count No. The survey was carried out for both passenger and goods vehicles for 24 hours (in both directions) on a working day.3 Origin Destination Survey 7. would predominantly cover O-D movements on the Project Road that are of interest to the project. It was considered that two O-D survey locations one each in Section 1 and Section 4.. both of passengers and goods vehicles.00 to Km 270. such as distribution of local and through traffic as well as commodity type and weight of goods carried by trucks. The O-D survey elicited passenger mode characteristics like origin and destination.3. trip purpose and length of trip by mode type. Trained enumerators under the supervision of Transport Planners collected the trip characteristics. Table 7.

3. 9. 2.00 to Km 270. Table 7.13 1 2 3 4 LCV 2-Axle Truck 3-Axle Truck Multi-Axle Vehicle Total The sample size for each category of passenger vehicles is summarised in Table 7. the sample size for various types of goods vehicles ranges between 15% and 35%.7. 4. As can be seen in the table. SOWiL Limited.00) Draft Feasibility Report 7.48 36. 3. the sample size for passenger vehicles ranges between 15% and 20%.8.7 Sample Size for Various Types of Goods Vehicles Food Grains/Agriculture Products Perishable Goods Petroleum/Chemical products Building Materials Engineering Goods Garments Parcel Lorries Others Empty S. 7-21 . 8.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.23 18.32 18. Sample Size The sample size for each category of goods vehicles at both locations are summarised in Table 7. The commodity groupings are as follows:1. Vehicle Type OD Station (Km 191/000) OD Station (Km 263/100) Number of Number of Sample Size Sample Size Vehicles Vehicles (in %) (in %) Interviewed Interviewed 86 434 125 79 724 15.07 21. plus empty trucks. The details of zones are given in Annexure VIII.47 160 581 144 34 919 17. 7. No.74 21. the types of goods carried were broadly grouped into 8 categories. 5. 6. With respect to goods vehicles. As can be seen in the table.60 21.12 18.19 21.3 Zoning The entire country was divided into 38 zones in such a way that the characteristics of interzonal and intrazonal trips could be clearly analysed and their influence assessed on the project road.

contribute most of the goods trips originating/terminating from/to the east of Project Road.5% in Kottayam and Quilon districts. about 19% generates (including both originating or terminating traffic) at Coimbattore City.00 to Km 270.3. 10% at rnakulam.95 1 Passenger Car and Jeeps 7. SOWiL Limited. 17% at other parts of Tamilnadu. and Delhi. and Vadakanchery are major generators of passenger traffic. Karnataka. Alathoor. other parts of Tamilnadu. Pollaci other parts of Tamilnadu. 5% at other parts of Tamilnadu. 2. No.8 Sample Size for Various Types of Passenger Vehicles S. 4% in Karnataka 3% in Andhra Pradesh. Thrissur. 7-22 . 0. Ernakulam. West Bengal. Of the total Passenger traffic observed on the project road.5 % in other parts of Country and 18. Thrissur.00) Draft Feasibility Report Table 7.32 830 19. The combined OD matrix is analysed to assess the travel pattern of both goods and passenger vehicles. 12% generates (including both originating or terminating traffic) at Coimbattore city. Coimbattore. The analysis of the travel pattern reveals the following: Palakkad. Vehicle Type OD Station (Km 191/000) OD Station (Km 263/100) Number of Number of Sample Size Sample Size Vehicles Vehicles (in %) (in %) Interviewed Interviewed 496 15.5% other Parts of Kerala State. Quilon. 4% in Kottayam and Quilon districts. 12% in Thrissur.5% in other parts of Country. Andhra Pradesh. Trivendrum Kozhikode and Western Karnataka (Mangalore) contribute most of the traffic originating or terminating from/to the West of Project Road. 17% in Thrissur. Maharashtra. 30% in other parts of Kerala. Palakkad. Of the total goods traffic observed on the project road. 8% generates in Palakkad. Ernakulam.4 OD matrices The OD matrix for goods and passenger vehicles observed at Km 191/000 and Km 263/100 OD Station’s are given in Annexure VIII. 2. Gurivayur. Trip Distribution The OD matrices derived from the OD data collected at both locations are combined into one matrix to obtain OD matrix for the project. Kottayam.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. Similarly. 19% at Ernakulam. Coimbattore. Karnataka. 16% generates in Palakkad.

The goods traffic therefore is a mix of short and long distance traffic with a higher percentage of long distance traffic. SOWiL Limited.86 61.26 3.9 Percentage Contribution of Trips by Various Regions Goods Trips Region-wise Contribution of Trips (in %) Andhra Kerala Tamilnadu Karnataka Pradesh Others 74.98 25.27 51.09 2.43 3.77 50.52 1.92 4.00 61. 21% vehicles have a lead between 101-200 km.67 0.61 0. 4% have a lead in the range of 16013200 km and 0. 23% have a lead in the range of 401-800 km. 8.9.99 32.71 From the above table it can be seen that the observed goods traffic is generally a mix of short and long distance traffic whereas most of the passenger traffic generates within the Kerala and Tamilnadu States. Table 7.5% vehicles have lead of more than 3200 km.43 12. 11% have a lead between 51-100 km.50 4.00 to Km 270.87 12.30 presents the lead distribution for goods vehicles at both the locations combined.94 29. 20% have a lead in the range of 201-400 km.76 28.34 Vehicle Type LCV 2-Axle Truck 3-Axle Truck Multi-Axle Truck Total Passenger Trips Vehicle Type Region-wise Contribution of Trips (in %) Andhra Kerala Tamilnadu Karnataka Pradesh Others 25.5 Lead Distribution of Goods Vehicles Figure 7.3.00) Draft Feasibility Report The summary of the contribution of the major generating regions of both goods and passenger traffic estimated based on the travel pattern estimated under the combined OD matrix is given in Table 7.09 2.00 Passenger Cars and Jeeps 73.43 0. around 12 % of vehicles have a lead of less than 50 km.00 6. 7-23 . 7.03 2.81 0. As can be observed.06 2.14 0.86 22.5% have a lead in the range of 801-1600 km.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.28 2.

6 Lead Distribution of Passenger Cars Figure 7.00 0. 7-24 .31 Lead Distribution of Passenger Vehicles 35.000 % of Vehicles 25.3.30 Lead Distribution of Goods Vehicles 25. 4% have a lead in the range of 401-800 km. 2% have a lead in the range of 801-1600 km.10.11.000 15.00 % of Vehicles 15. 12% have a lead in the range of 201-400 km.000 >50 50-100 100-150 150-200 200-250 250-300 300-500 Lead in Km >500 Characteristics of Passenger Cars are given in Table 7.00 <=50 51 to 100 101 to 201 to 200 400 401 to 801 to 1601 to >3200 800 1600 3200 Draft Feasibility Report Lead in Km Characteristics of good vehicles are given in Table 7. SOWiL Limited.00 20. 28% have a lead between 51-100 km.000 10.31 presents the lead distribution for passenger Cars at both the locations combined.000 20.00) Fig 7.000 30. 21% vehicles have a lead between 101-200 km. 7. around 30 % of vehicles have a lead of less than 50 km. As can be observed.00 to Km 270. The goods traffic therefore is a mix of short and long distance traffic with a higher percentage of short distance traffic Fig 7. 2% have a lead in the range of 16013200 km and 1% vehicles have lead of more than 3200 km.00 5.00 10.000 5.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.000 0.

00 to Km 270.10 SOWiL Limited.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.00) Draft Feasibility Report Table 7. 7-25 .

7-26 .National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.11 SOWiL Limited.00) Draft Feasibility Report Table 7.00 to Km 270.

for duration of 24 hours on normal days.13 Table 7. The findings of the survey are reported in Table 7.40 51.45 Rs/Km 0. The survey has been conducted on random sample basis.60 Rs/Km 0.1 31.70 31.0 Rs/Km 0.4 39. Response of car user for various toll levels has been recorded.4 7.0 Rs/Km 1.00 Acceptence (%) 6. Response of Truck Operators for various toll levels has been recorded.15 Rs/Km 0.0 SOWiL Limited.4.70 100.12 WTP for Car Users WTP 0. The survey has been conducted on random sample basis.5 Rs/Km 0.30 Rs/Km 0.80 9.1 For Car User WTP Survey for Truck Operators has been conducted at 2 locations along with the O-D Survey.9 100. The findings of the survey are reported in Table 7. 7-27 .0 Rs/Km Total 7.0 Rs/Km Total Acceptence (%) 1.00) Draft Feasibility Report 7.4.40 5.2 For Truck operators WTP Survey for Truck Operators has been conducted at 2 locations along with the O-D Survey.2 15. for duration of 24 hours on normal days.12 Table 7.00 to Km 270.4 Willingness To Pay (WTP) Surveys 7.13 WTP for Truck operators WTP 2.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.5 Rs/Km 1.

5.2 Methodology Three locations of high pedestrian activity were chosen for the study.00 am to 8:00 pm.5 106 Mannoothy Bus Stand Km 266.600 – Koothupatta ii) Km 203.15 Cross Pedestrian Traffic and Conflict Level Koothupatta Km 203 Chandra Nagar Bus Stand Km 204.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. These are i) Km 203.00) Draft Feasibility Report 7.14 and conflict levels at different study locations are indicated in Table 7. Table 7.15.00 to Km 270. All these locations are within the village and Towns.5 Pedestrian Survey 7.1 Objective Pedestrian surveys are intended to collect data on the intensity of pedestrian movement at specific locations of significant pedestrian activity with a view to identifying and providing the type and extent of pedestrian facilities needed at these locations. 7.600 – Manoothy The details of pedestrians crossing the Project road at the mid block sections Survey was conducted between 8.3 Pedestrian Crossings 192 99 655 Evening Peak Hour 18:00-19:00 18:00-19:00 18:00-19:00 Pedestrian Crossings 206 106 913 8:00-9:00 Table 7.6 8:00-9:00 Chandra Nagar Bus 10:00-11:00 Stand Km 203.14 Peak hour pedestrian movements across the Project road Location Morning Peak Hour Koothupatta Km 202.0 Mannoothy Bus Stand Km 266. 206 7-28 .3 913 Indicator Peak Hour Pedestrian Traffic (P) SOWiL Limited. The details of pedestrian crossings at different study locations are indicated in Table 7. The data has been tabulated and analysed in order to decide the highest intensity of pedestrian movement at these locations.5.900 – Chandra Nagar Bus Stand iii) Km 204.

4 arm 4 arm .00 to Km 270. 4.3 arm Pollachi Road meeting with NH 47 Palakkad Bypass Starting Point Thiruvallamali Chitoor Road Crosses with NH-47 Alathoor Bypass Starting Point.11 3.3 arm . 7 8.48 14.3 arm .National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.4 arm . Also the pedestrian crossings are spread within the Built up areas.4 arm . Studies were carried out at the following intersections: 1.09 7. 10 . Depending on location of local crossings. 7. 3.6 Intersection Turning Movement Survey 7.1 Objective The objective of the turning movement survey is to determine the directional movement of traffic in order to assess the measures required to improve the junction capacity and to regulate safe traffic movement. 9.6. Alathur Mudiyagaon Road Crosses with NH-47 Alathoor Bypass Ending Point Vadakanchery Bypass Starting Junction Vadakanchery Padoor Road Crosses with NH-47 Vadakanchery Bypass Ending Point Thrissur Bypass Starting Point SOWiL Limited.3 arm .00) Fast Veh. Km 202/800 Km 203/800 Km 216/400 Km 228/000 Km 230/300 Km 231/775 Km 239/000 Km 240/200 Km 240/900 Km 268/200 .3 arm 3 arm .3 Analysis of study data The intensity of pedestrian activity is very high and is sufficient enough to warrant provision of a pedestrian underpass. During Pedestrian Peak (V) Present Conflict Level (PV2/2x10^8) Draft Feasibility Report 1739 2562 1757 3. 2.6. pedestrian sub way may be provided at suitable location to avoid indiscriminate crossings and providing safety. 7.5.2 Methodology A total of 8 intersections were selected for conducting turning movement studies. 5 6. 7-29 .

6. Km 216/400 – To Thiruvallamalai/Chittoor This is a four-arm right-angled intersection. assuming an average growth rate of 8. The peak hour traffic at this junction is 2240 veh/hr on major road (all directions) and 1190 veh/hr on minor road.e.3 Analysis of Turning Movement study The peak hour flow diagrams are given in Annexure IX. assuming an average growth rate of 8.000 pcu/hr. Km 202/800 – To Pollachi It is a three-arm junction. SOWiL Limited. assuming an average growth rate of 8. i.. As per IRC:931985 (“Guidelines on Design and Installation of Road Traffic Signals”) the traffic at intersections will require time separation.5% p. The traffic on major arm and minor arm satisfies the IRC specifications for signalisation. signal control. 7.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. as per IRC:92-1985. The traffic on major arm and minor arm satisfies the IRC specifications for signalisation. 7-30 . Junctions that do not warrant the above two types of control will require priority control. the junction will require grade separation by the year 2016. with two arms being NH 47 and the third one Road leading to Palakkad Town. i.00) Draft Feasibility Report The directional traffic counts were carried out for 12 hours between 8 am and 8 pm at 15 minutes intervals. The total pcu at this junction during peak hour is 3430 pcu/hr. iii.a.00 to Km 270. The traffic on major and minor arms warrants signal control at this junction as per IRC specifications. i. with two arms being NH 47 and the third one Road leading to Pollachi.a.e.5% p. Similarly. The peak hour traffic at this junction is 730 veh/hr on major road (NH 47) (all directions) and 502 veh/hr on minor road.a. The total pcu at this junction during peak hour is 2489 pcu/hr. Km 203/800 – To Palakkad Town It is a three-arm junction. The peak hour traffic at this junction is 1724 veh/hr on major road (all directions) and 304 veh/hr on minor road. when the major road flow is more than 800 vehicles per hour (both directions) and the minor road flow is more than 250 vehicles per hour (one direction) for each of any 8 hours of an average day. grade separation. the junction will require grade separation by the year 2026. Roads leading to Thiruvallamalai and Chittoor branch off at this location.. The total pcu at this junction during peak hour is 1600 pcu/hr.5% p. the junction will require grade separation by the year 2022. when the total peak hour flow at the intersection is more than 10. traffic will require space separation. ii.

the junction will require signal control by 2009. Km 239/000 -To Vadakanchery town/Pollachi It is a three-arm junction. vi vii viii SOWiL Limited.00 to Km 270. Km 228/000 – To Alathoor Town/Chittoor This is a four-arm right-angled intersection. . Roads leading to Alathoor Town and Chittoor branch off at this location. the junction will require grade separation by the year 2027. the junction will require grade separation by the year 2028 Km 231/775 – To Alathoor Town It is a three-arm junction. The peak hour traffic at this junction is 739 veh/hr on major road (NH 47) (all directions) and 519 veh/hr on minor road.5% p. with two arms being NH 47 and the third one Road leading to Vadakanchery Town/Pollachi. the junction will require signal control by 2009. The total pcu at this junction during peak hour is 1410 pcu/hr.To Alathur Town/Mudiyagaon This is a four-arm right-angled intersection. The traffic on major arm and the traffic on minor arm does not qualify for signalisation and therefore. The peak hour traffic at this junction is 779 veh/hr on major road (NH 47) (all directions) and 312 veh/hr on minor road.5% p. The peak hour traffic at this junction is 794 veh/hr on major road (all directions) and 156 veh/hr on minor road.a. The peak hour traffic at this junction is 864 veh/hr on major road (NH 47) (all directions) and 265 veh/hr on minor road. The total pcu at 7-31 v. Assuming an average growth rate of 8. with two arms being NH 47 and the third one Road leading to Alathoor Town. The peak hour traffic at this junction is 667 veh/hr on major road (all directions) and 126 veh/hr on minor road. The total pcu at this junction during peak hour is 1148 pcu/hr. The traffic on major and minor arms warrants signal control at this junction as per IRC specifications. assuming an average growth rate of 8. Roads leading to Vadakanchery Town and Chittoor branch off at this location. The traffic on major arm and the traffic on minor arm does not qualify for signalisation and therefore.5% p. The traffic on major and minor arms warrants signal control at this junction as per IRC specifications. Assuming an average growth rate of 8. Roads leading to Alathoor Town and Mudiyagaon branch off at this location. Km 240/200 – To Vadakanchery Town/Padoor This is a four-arm right-angled intersection.a.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. this junction does not presently warrant signalisation.00) Draft Feasibility Report iv. assuming an average growth rate of 8.5% p. this junction does not presently warrant signalisation. 230/300 .a. The total pcu at this junction during peak hour is 1129 pcu/hr.a. The total pcu at this junction during peak hour is 1498 pcu/hr.

SOWiL Limited. the junction will require grade separation by the year 2025. Km 202/800 Pollachi road Junction Km 203/800 Palakkad bypass Starting Point Km 240/900 Vadakanchery Bypass Ending Point Km 268/200 Thrissur Bypass Starting Point.5% p. the junction will require grade separation by the year 2021. Km 268/200 – To Thrissur Town It is a three-arm junction.a.5% p. The peak hour traffic at this junction is 922 veh/hr on major road (all directions) and 368 veh/hr on minor road. 1.00) Draft Feasibility Report this junction during peak hour is 1693 pcu/hr.a.5% p. the junction will require grade separation by the year 2025. The traffic on major and minor arms warrants signal control at this junction as per IRC specifications. 7-32 .  Better speed shall be maintained at the National Highway maintaining its level of service. x As per the existing traffic and projected volumes for next 5 years or so erection of traffic signals at the above Intersections/Junctions shall be justified.00 to Km 270. assuming an average growth rate of 8. with two arms being NH 47 and the third one Road leading to Thrissur Town. Provision of flyover is also result in following advantages. however it is felt that to provide uninterrupted and safe flow of the traffic on the National Highway “Grade Separators” may be constructed at the following locations along with the widening of the National Highway. assuming an average growth rate of 8. The traffic on major and minor arms warrants signal control at this junction as per IRC specifications. 4. The total pcu at this junction during peak hour is 1824 pcu/hr. 3. The traffic on major and minor arms warrants signal control at this junction as per IRC specifications. 2.  Intersections are located in the congested urban area and pedestrian movements are considerable. with two arms being NH 47 and the third one Road leading to Vadakanchery Town. The peak hour traffic at this junction is 1362 veh/hr on major road (all directions) and 667 veh/hr on minor road. The total pcu at this junction during peak hour is 2478 pcu/hr. assuming an average growth rate of 8.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.a.  Traffic delays to the through traffic will be completely avoided resulting in time savings. ix Km 240/900 – To Vadakanchery Town It is a three-arm junction.

7.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.7 Speed and Delay studies 7.32. the test vehicle is run at the average speed of the traffic stream so that the numbers of vehicles overtaken by the test vehicle and the number of vehicles overtaking the test vehicle are approximately equal. SOWiL Limited. A minimum of 2 runs is made in each section at different times of the day i.7. which rises to about 43.00 to Km 270.26 kmph. 7. morning.e.2 Methodology Travel speeds on different sections of the project road were determined by the moving car method.08 kmph in the afternoon and then falls to 40.00) Draft Feasibility Report  Uninterrupted flow shall results in savings of operating costs of the vehicles. 7. 7-33 . 7.  Safety at the intersection shall be ensured by separating local and through traffic. In this method.3 Study and Analysis The details of average travel speeds along the project road morning. The observer determines the travel time and delay in each kilometer of the project road by using stopwatches.1 Objective Speed and delay studies are intended to provide information on road sections subject to undue traffic congestion and delay or other factors resulting in reduced travel speeds so that suitable remedial measures can be initiated to improve the overall travel speeds on the roads.19 kmph in the evening.7. The average speed in the morning along the project road is 41. afternoon and evening are indicated in Figure 7. afternoon and evening.

it is necessary to analyze past traffic accident data on the study section.0 44. The accident data collected year wise with number of accidents in respective year has been given Figure 7.33 and Table 7.0 Valayar to Palakkad Palakkad-Alathur Alathur-Vadakanchery Vadakanchery-Thrissur Afternoon Evening 7.16. vehicle. 7-34 .0 38. 7.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.00) Figure 7.00 to Km 270. road and environment.1 Methodology Details of traffic accidents which occurred on the project road during the past 6 years were collected from the Police records and analyzed. viz.0 42..0 36. vehicle performance and environmental characteristics are beyond the purview of the highway engineer. In order to assess the economic savings likely due to reduction in traffic accidents and their severity resulting from any highway improvement scheme. significant reduction in the number of traffic accidents and their severity can be achieved by improvements to the road system.32 Journey Speeds along Project Road 46.8 Traffic Accident Studies Traffic accidents are random occurrences due to deficiencies in one or more of the elements of traffic. SOWiL Limited.8.0 34. While deficiencies in driver behaviour.0 Draft Feasibility Report Speed (Kmph) Morning 40. driver.

2004) SOWiL Limited.2004) Kuzhalamannam Police Station Fatal Non-Fatal 7 19 8 31 6 33 10 40 3 32 8 21 Alathoor Police Station Fatal 12 17 13 15 9 9 Non-Fatal 37 63 52 76 38 33 Palakkad Police Station Fatal Non-Fatal 3 46 6 39 12 37 14 39 10 39 4 23 Vadakanchery Total (Palakkad Police Station Distrct) Fatal Non-Fatal Fatal Non-Fatal 9 53 61 256 9 52 74 290 5 55 72 283 11 70 83 314 10 81 56 275 7 37 44 185 Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 (31.00) Fig 7.33 Past Years Accident Data on NH-47 600 Draft Feasibility Report 500 400 300 200 100 0 1999 Total Accidents 440 2000 511 2001 500 Y ear 2002 536 2003 459 2004 (Up to 31/08) 310 Table 7.16 Accidents Data on NH-47 (Km 182/200 to 270/000) Palakkad District Valayar Police Pudussery Police Station Station Year Fatal Non-Fatal Fatal Non-Fatal 1999 13 39 17 62 2000 12 47 22 58 2001 14 45 22 61 2002 20 54 13 35 2003 12 51 12 34 2004 14 38 2 33 (31.08.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. 7-35 .00 to Km 270.08.

Chelikad.00) Draft Feasibility Report Thrissur District Peechi Police Station Mannoothy Police Station Total (Thrissur District) Year Fatal Non-Fatal Fatal Non-Fatal Fatal Non-Fatal 1999 13 61 9 40 22 101 2000 23 77 4 43 27 120 2001 14 65 6 60 20 125 2002 6 69 13 51 19 120 2003 2 70 13 43 15 113 2004 13 34 5 29 18 63 (31. Charapparambu. Palakkad District Chullimada Palam. Thrissur Bypass Junction. Vadakkumuri.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. Vazhukkumpara and Chemboothara. Manalur. 7. Kompazha. Vellappara Chekkode. Agri.2 Black Spots (Accident Prone Areas): According to the information received from the Police Department.2 Location of Survey Axle load studies were carried out at two locations. Kadamkode. the following black spots with in the project area have been identified. at Km 190/000 in Palakkad District on 9th and 10th August 2004 and the other at Km SOWiL Limited. IRC-37-1999 provides a scientific method for design for flexible pavements based on the concept of Equivalent Standard Axle and Vehicle Damage Factor. 7. Swathi Junction. Thottapatti. Kazchaparambu. The intensity of traffic loading is defined in terms of cumulative number of standard axle load repetitions in a given period of time.00 to Km 270. Kadumuthurthi. University Area.9. Pirivusula. ITCAnchumoorthimangalam. Mullakkara.9.1 General The intensity of traffic loading and the corresponding damaging factor of different categories of vehicles is an important parameter for the design of pavements.2004) 7. DonBosco School Area.9 Axle load survey 7. 7-36 . KTC Junction.8. Kindimukku.08. Kariyangodu Junction. Infront of Dayana Tower Thankam Theater Junction and Chemmanamukku Thrissur District Pattikad. Kannannur. Kurikad.

To avoid traffic bottlenecks at site. The studies were conducted using two calibrated electronic weigh axle load pads.g cars. etc). three axle and multi axle trucks and light goods vehicles (both loaded and empty) were selected at random and weighed to determine their individual axle weights. tractors. the axle load survey was conducted alternatively in each direction for 3 hours.9. 7-37 . The studies were carried out for a continuous period of 48 hours at each location covering both directions of traffic.D.F are given in Annexure X. 7.35. SOWiL Limited.0 AXLj = Axle load SXLj = Standard load The detailed calculations on derivation of the V. The equivalent single axle (ESA) load factor termed as Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF) for each vehicle is calculated using the following formula: VDF=(AXLj/SXLj)LE Where.34 and 7. VDF= Vehicle Damage Factor LE = Axle load equivalency exponent=4.16 Tonnes). The VDF of the different types of vehicles weighed at the above two locations and in either directions are indicated in Figure 7. one in each direction.00 to Km 270.3 Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF) Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF) can be defined as the relative pavement damage potential of a particular vehicle of known axle load as compared to that of a vehicle with standard axle load of 18000 lb (8. Two axle.00) Draft Feasibility Report 263/700 in Thrissur district on 7th and 8th August 2004. Vehicle Damage Factors (VDF) were assessed for each category of vehicles that contribute significantly to pavement distress for project road as under: • • • • • Light Commercial Vehicles (LCV) Two Axle Single Unit Commercial Vehicle (2 axle) Three Axle Single Unit Commercial Vehicle (3 Axle) Multi Axle Vehicle Bus Remaining vehicle types were not considered in the analysis since most of them are too light to provide significant distress to the pavement (e.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. two-wheelers. A number of buses were also weighed at each location.

806 850.F Bus Types of Vehicles 8 7 6 V.833 0.336 Km 191/000 Km 263/700 V.117 2.17.00 to Km 270.871 2.1480.11 2.186 1.35 Vehicle Damage Factor at Km 191/000 and 263/700 (TN/Kerala Border to Thrissur) Km 191/000 5.T 252 921 267 VDF ESAL 37.T 354 1228 355 VDF ESAL 38.576 6.F 5 4 3 2 1 0 Fig 7.94 2659.D.A.625 7-38 SOWiL Limited.Axle Truck Multi Axle Truck 0.533 3.625 5.686 0.848 1298.A.872 134 887.Axle Truck 3 .235 0.148 1.241 3.305 0.296 1552.166 0. .National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.34 Vehicle Damage Factor at Km 191/000 and 263/700 (Thrissur to T/Kerala Border) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 6.166 3.657 97 346.349 3.657 5.45 3.D.Axle Truck 3 .686 3.65 0.11 LCV 2 .168 0.662 A. The combined VDF calculated for both the locations is presented in Table 7.D.D.17: Combined VDF Location: 190/000 Direction: Kerala Border to Thrissur Direction:Thrissur to TN/Kerala Border Vehicle Type LCV 2-AXLE TRUCK 3-AXLE TRUCK M-AXLE TRUCK A.00) Draft Feasibility Report Fig 7.576 Km 263/700 Bus Types of Vehicles The values of VDF to be used in pavement design needs to be carefully selected.75 3.081 LCV 2 . Table 7.Axle Truck Multi Axle Truck 1.186 0.

7-39 . Consequently. SOWiL Limited. Initially.533 426.833 3.00) BUS TOTAL Combined VDF 488 2025 Draft Feasibility Report 148.168 2.349 0. This past traffic data has been obtained from the PWD (NH) offices located along the project road.157 A. as suggested by the Indian Roads Congress (IRC: 108-1996). state income (NSDP) and per capita income for the Study State’s has been developed. Recent trend in traffic/vehicle registration growth.00 to Km 270. which is a proven technique worldwide and is the preferred technique in India.117 83 780 3338 435.T 510 1807 428 VDF ESAL 85.D.2 5214.F.301 1.299 1316.933 8365. over their long-term growth for which elasticity was worked out. is considered in moderating the elasticity values for future periods.904 5.241 0.68 5187.49 2. for each type of vehicle and the elasticity values obtained.305 0. Motor vehicle registration data for Kerala and Tamilnadu States has also been collected. the traffic forecast for the project road has been carried out.D.10 Traffic Forecast 7.45 351 5079.022 1.84 2936. value as 2.897 2190. and 263/000 log-log regression curve fits have been developed.65 330. Similar time series past data on population.1 Background Adopting the transport demand elasticity method.476 508 2579 0.871 5.30 7.522Combined VDF From the above analysis the consultants recommendation is for adopting V.076 0.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.973 2.A.336 0.258 5. past traffic census data is regressed with the selected economic variable such as population.003 89 801 3635 474. Efforts have been made to build time series past traffic data for the project road from the available data.10. Based on the available data for km 191/000. per capita income and State income (NSDP).450Combined VDF Location: 263/700 Direction: Kerala Border to Thrissur Direction:Thrissur to TN/Kerala Border Vehicle Type LCV 2-AXLE TRUCK 3-AXLE TRUCK M-AXLE TRUCK BUS TOTAL Combined VDF A.T 479 1603 393 VDF ESAL 38. motor vehicle registration data has been used which resulted in a good-fit.799 2938.081 1.A.D.

two wheelers and trucks were further moderated to detailed vehicle categories.18 below summarizes the Annual Average Compound Growth Rate (AACGR) of traffic by vehicle for the project road for the PWD count locations. Km 203/000. Past traffic data collected for each of the sections has been analyzed. 7. Further.91 3516 4832 4911 TW 2393 3398 3708 4387 4709 5137 5593 5696 6017 5974 5480 8. This is considered necessary because as the purchasing power increases there will be a shift from low cost vehicle to high speed/power and more comfortable vehicles. considering the likely future shift among the vehicle categories.00 to Km 270.00) Draft Feasibility Report Considering the projected elasticity values. The projected growth rates worked out major vehicle groups such as car. 7-40 .06 1592 1756 1858 Goods Vehicles 3172 4039 4244 4844 5198 4456 6064 6366 6815 6546 6189 6. with the road improvement and realization of economics of scale.2 Past Traffic Growth Past traffic data on the Project road is available for Km 191/000. bus. Table 7. The probable structural shift and modal choice of vehicle ownership from 2 axle trucks to MAV’s and 2/3 wheeler market to car have been taken in to account while moderating the elasticity values.18 Past Traffic Growth on the Project Road Location (Km) Year 1992 1993 1994 1995 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 AACGR(%) 1992-2002 203/000 1992 1993 1994 191/000 1996 Cars/3Wheelers 3709 4981 5494 5974 6492 6795 7185 7485 7924 7904 7343 7.64 3467 3824 3914 SOWiL Limited.07 5251 4312 6011 Buses 1186 2028 1715 2115 2480 2718 3161 3399 3756 3694 3385 11. These market driven forces have been realistically considered in the traffic forecast. Km 239/000 and Km 263/000. Table 7. goods operators will tend to transfer from 2 axle trucks to Multi-Axle vehicles. vehicle type wise growth rates were worked out for different time periods.10. economic development indicators for the State’s within the project influence area and the traffic distribution between them as arrived from traffic surveys.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.

54 5396 7044 8232 9473 9982 10392 8364 5511 4.19to Tables 7.30 2739 2745 3710 3306 3630 4958 6775 5748 4367 5427 5981 8.38 2824 3402 3051 4518 5468 4839 5822 6037 7010 8289 9145 12.01 511 488 578 924 1290 1787 1643 1759 1929 2253 2622 17. 7-41 .00) 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 AACGR(%) 1992-2002 1992 1993 1994 1995 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 AACGR(%) 1992-2002 1992 1993 1994 1995 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 AACGR(%) 1992-2002 263/000 1996 239/000 1996 6291 7024 7776 8274 8887 9740 8457 7261 3.77 Vehicle type wise annual growth rates are observed with fluctuations among the count stations. Hence an attempt was made to calculate elasticity values for two count stations (km 191/000 and Km 263/000) to verify its suitability.12 2396 2746 2915 4100 5585 5556 6167 6625 5982 5552 5850 9.77 494 500 820 832 824 1174 2290 1856 1356 1517 1404 11. which are used for the regression analysis along with traffic data considered (km 191/000 and Km 263/000).XI. The economic indicators of Kerala and Tamilnadu states. are given in Tables 7.60 2975 3279 2566 3357 3484 4154 5268 4084 4745 4614 5521 6.00 to Km 270.22 and their detailed analysis is presented in Annexure .73 1133 1476 1483 2042 2266 1918 2422 2901 2853 3042 3087 10.47 Draft Feasibility Report 4135 5602 7135 8072 8454 9212 8574 8034 8.68 1064 1170 2624 1423 2158 1626 1815 2026 1571 1943 1690 4.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. SOWiL Limited.34 1785 1815 1622 1782 2022 2330 2265 1703 0.

Average Daily Traffic (ADT) at Km 191/000 of NH 47 2.00 to Km 270. Average Daily Traffic (ADT) at Km 263/000 of NH 47 2.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. Population NSDP2 Cars/3 2 Lakhs) ('000) (Rs) Wheelers1 2385107 2590792 2694747 2802645 2863315 2985358 3111132 30048 30424 30805 31186 31539 31856 32145 7938 8516 8748 8987 9079 9371 9678 2746 2915 4100 5585 5556 6167 6625 Year 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 Buses1 1476 1483 2042 2266 1918 2422 2901 Goods Vehicles1 3402 3051 4518 5468 4839 5822 6037 TW1 488 578 924 1290 1787 1643 1759 1.19 Data Considered for Regression Analysis (Past Traffic at Km 191/000 and Kerala Economy) Per capita NSDP (Rs. Pertaining to Kerala State at 1993-94 Constant Prices Table 7. Pertaining to Kerala State at 1993-94 Constant Prices SOWiL Limited. Population NSDP2 Cars/3 Lakhs)2 ('000) (Rs) Wheelers1 2385107 2590792 2694747 2802645 2863315 2985358 3111132 30048 30424 30805 31186 31539 31856 32145 7938 8516 8748 8987 9079 9371 9678 4981 5494 5974 6492 6795 7185 7485 Year 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 Buses1 2028 1715 2115 2480 2718 3161 3399 Goods Vehicles1 4039 4244 4844 5198 4456 6064 6366 TW1 3398 3708 4387 4709 5137 5593 5696 1.00) Draft Feasibility Report Table 7.20 Data Considered for Regression Analysis (Past Traffic at Km 263/000 and Kerala Economy) Per capita NSDP (Rs. 7-42 .

car. Cars/3 Lakhs)2 ('000) (Rs) Wheelers1 Buses1 5164169 5808144 6027459 6331673 6793632 7185175 7697144 576872 584109 591436 598261 604442 610207 615574 8952 9944 10191 10583 11240 11775 12504 4981 5494 5974 6492 6795 7185 7485 2028 1715 2115 2480 2718 3161 3399 Year 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 Goods Vehicles1 4039 4244 4844 5198 4456 6064 6366 TW1 3398 3708 4387 4709 5137 5593 5696 1.10. Pertaining to Tamilnadu State at 1993-94 Constant Prices 7.00 to Km 270. mostly govern freight traffic growth. Similarly.3 Elasticity’s Passenger traffic demand is a function of growth of population and percapita income.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. State income growth.22 Data Considered for Regression Analysis (Past Traffic at Km 263/000 and Tamilnadu Economy) NSDP (Rs. Pertaining to Tamilnadu State at 1993-94 Constant Prices Table 7. the elasticity of traffic demand for 2 W.26. 7-43 . In line with this philosophy. bus and truck with respect to the past traffic growth was estimated. The resultant elasticity values are presented in Tables 7.21 Data Considered for Regression Analysis (Past Traffic at Km 191/000 and Tamilnadu Economy) Per capita Population NSDP2 NSDP (Rs. Average Daily Traffic (ADT) at Km 263/000 of NH 47 2.23 to 7. SOWiL Limited. Lakhs)2 5164169 5808144 6027459 6331673 6793632 7185175 7697144 Year 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 Population ('000) 576872 584109 591436 598261 604442 610207 615574 Per capita NSDP2 Cars/3 (Rs) Wheelers1 Buses1 8952 9944 10191 10583 11240 11775 12504 2746 2915 4100 5585 5556 6167 6625 1476 1483 2042 2266 1918 2422 2901 Goods Vehicles1 3402 3051 4518 5468 4839 5822 6037 TW1 488 578 924 1290 1787 1643 1759 1.00) Draft Feasibility Report Table 7. Average Daily Traffic (ADT) at Km 191/000 of NH 47 2.

51 4. (Statistical test Co-efficient) 8.22 Period 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 log of Population log of TW Traffic log of PCI log of Truck Traffic log of NSDP Table 7.87 0.21 5.24 8.78 16.29 9.5 21.00 to Km 270.00) Draft Feasibility Report Table 7.38 t .24 Regression Analysis Results (Past Traffic Data at Km 263.01 2.99 0.97 2.86 0.84 5 7.stat.23 Regression Analysis Results (Past Traffic Data at Km 191.62 5.88 0.94 0.98 Elasticity Value 6.19 9.73 8.96 0.93 0.14 5. (Statistical test Co-efficient) 24.83 11.97 0.86 4.95 8.28 Table 7.43 3.12 4.67 15.000 with Kerala Economy) Dependent Variable log of Car Traffic log of Bus Traffic Independent Variable log of Population log of PCI log of Population log of PCI R2(Corelation Coefficient) 0.92 0.72 7-44 Period 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 .24 1.000 with Tamilnadu Economy) Dependent Variable log of Car Traffic log of Bus Traffic log of TW SOWiL Limited. Independent Variable log of Population log of PCI log of Population log of PCI log of Population R2(Corelation Coefficient) 0.78 Elasticity Value 5.67 2.79 Elasticity Value 14.98 0.88 0.99 0.07 6.000 with Kerala Economy) Dependent Variable log of Car Traffic log of Bus Traffic log of TW Traffic log of Truck Traffic Independent Variable log of Population log of PCI log of Population log of PCI log of Population log of PCI log of NSDP Period 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 R2(Corelation Coefficient) 0. (Statistical test Co-efficient) 21.73 t .73 0.96 1.stat.3 5.stat.63 t .78 5.23 9.83 0.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.69 13.25 Regression Analysis Results (Past Traffic Data at Km 191.22 3.82 0.06 7.78 0.96 3.82 1.

42 0.49 The recent growth trend (1997-2002) with respect to long-term growth trend achieved during 1993-2002 for past traffic for different vehicle categories shows differences.71 1. Assuming that these changes will have more impact in future traffic scenario of the project road.00 to Km 270.Economic Vehicle Elasticity for 1993variable 2000(Present variable Type 2000(Present Study) considered Study) considered Car Bus Two wheelers Trucks 10.93 4.(Statistical test Co-efficient) 8.75 2. Past data for 7 years from 1993 to 2000 on vehicle type wise registration and economic variable performance in Kerala and Tamilnadu SOWiL Limited.96 0.59 3.88 3.00) Traffic log of Truck Traffic log of PCI log of NSDP 1993-2000 1993-2000 0.88 PCI PCI PCI Recommended Elasticity(Weighted Average)* 20052015 and 2009 2010-2014 beyond 4.12 8.43 14.99 t .22 4.25 3. The economic changes taking place in Kerala and Tamilnadu states may explain these changes.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.8 0.27 Recommended Elasticity for Past Traffic Growth Weighted Average Weighted Average* Weighted Average* Economic Elasticity for 1993.25 3.93 0.92 22.26 Regression Analysis Results (Past Traffic Data at Km 263.50 1.stat.50 1.83 9.87 Table 7.70 1.96 Population Population Population NSDP 3.95 0. the arrived elasticity values were moderated and recommended for forecast.4 3.000 with Tamilnadu Economy) Dependent Variable log of Car Traffic log of Bus Traffic log of TW Traffic log of Truck Traffic Independent Variable log of Population log of PCI log of Population log of PCI log of Population log of PCI log of NSDP Period 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 R2(Co-relation Elasticity Coefficient) Value 0.79 4.16 7.75 5.36 * Passenger Vehicles Contribution is 75% Kerala State and 25% Tamilnadu State Goods Vehicles contribution is 65% Kerala State and 35% Tamilnadu State (Based on O-D Analysis) 7.67 0.26 3.85 4.31 5.04 0.34 2.93 14.75 3.85 2.28 5.4 Vehicle Registration Growth To have a better idea of projections elasticity values has also been worked out adopting the procedure as suggested by Indian Roads Congress (IRC: 108-1996).78 1. 7-45 .75 Draft Feasibility Report 1.71 1. as given below in Table 7.27.75 4.17 9.88 1. Table 7.10.

Table 7.56 1. Lakhs)2 TW1 7-46 .28 to Table 7.00) Draft Feasibility Report States was considered for log-log regression technique. Vehicle Registration Data Pertaining to Kerala State 2. Hence it is appropriate is consider the growth pattern that has emerged out of the economic model.28 Data Considered for Regrssion Analysis (Vehicle Registration Data and Economic Indices for Kerala State) Per capita 2 NSDP (Rs.32. as given in Table 7. Details of statistical relationship arrived for the above ‘e’ values are given in Annexure XI.36 226806 247605 273922 257048 330603 370964 396874 9. which related the economic growth with the growth in vehicle registration data. as reflected in their R2 and t-stat.29 Data Considered for Regrssion Analysis (Vehicle Registration Data and Economic Indices for Tamilnadu State) Per capita Population NSDP2 Cars/3 Goods ('000) (Rs) Wheelers1 Buses1 Vehicles1 Year SOWiL Limited. the passenger and goods vehicles growth were regressed with the following economic indicators in different combinations: • Population • Per Capita income (PCI) • NSDP (Total) Time series data considered for regression analysis is presented in Table 7.This analysis has resulted in the following ‘e’ values.67 88455 100252 111762 131311 139145 151082 163443 10.13 7938 8516 8748 8987 9079 9371 9678 3. values.77 Year 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 AACGR(%) from 19942000 TW1 428641 496873 591923 694242 798982 904961 1020797 15. are found with good fit.53 30048 30424 30805 31186 31539 31856 32145 1. Pertaining to Kerala State at 1993-94 Constant Prices Table 7.00 to Km 270. as well the past performance and the composition of Kerala and Tamilnadu economy.77 30370 34862 38177 43030 55482 48884 58888 11.29. NSDP (Rs. Population NSDP Cars/3 Goods Lakhs)2 ('000) (Rs) Wheelers1 Buses1 Vehicles1 2385107 2590792 2694747 2802645 2863315 2985358 3111132 4.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.30 to Table 7. In tune with the analysis philosophy indicated earlier.

69 Draft Feasibility Report 115279 126916 142490 152897 164890 174017 183476 8.86 10.21 14.98 Elasticity Value 8. Pertaining to Tamilnadu State at 1993-94 Constant Prices Table 7.32 3.(Statistical test Co-efficient) 6.99 Elasticity Value 7.05 1.82 4.59 3.74 132.95 7.88 576872 584109 591436 598261 604442 610207 615574 1.91 4.05 1586412 1815233 2101787 2454067 2816820 3214068 3678275 15.31 Regression Analysis Results (Vehicle Registration Data with Tamilnadu Economy) Dependent Variable Independent Variable log of Car log of Population R2(Corelation Coefficient) 0.09 8952 9944 10191 10583 11240 11775 12504 5.5 12.87 1 0.(Statistical test Co-efficient) 19.90 20568 21080 21578 21936 22989 22713 22738 1. Vehicle Registration Data Pertaining to Tamilnadu State 2.01 9.83 0.stat.93 0.01 Period 1993-2000 SOWiL Limited.84 Period 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 Table 7.00 to Km 270.48 t .95 0.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.73 280799 297878 319837 345587 376746 407975 443023 7.9 0.stat.30 Regression Analysis Results (Vehicle Registration Data with Kerala Economy) Dependent Variable Independent Variable log of Population log of Car Traffic log of PCI log of Population log of Bus Traffic log of PCI log of Population log of TW Traffic log of PCI log of Truck Traffic log of NSDP R2(Corelation Coefficient) 0.05 t .00) 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 AACGR(%) from 1994-2000 5164169 5808144 6027459 6331673 6793632 7185175 7697144 6.75 2.96 5. 7-47 .

23 Draft Feasibility Report 12. Table 7.32 Recommended Elasticity for Vehicle Registration Growth Weighted Average Weighted Weighted Average* Average* Elasticity for Elasticity for Recommended Elasticity(Weighted Average)* 1993Economic 1993Economic 2000(Presen variable 2000(Presen variable 2015 and Vehicle Type t Study) considered t Study) considered 2005-2009 2010-2014 beyond SOWiL Limited.52 7. in road traffic as well as between various modes. are considered to represent mainly the past traffic growth pattern.10.98 2.00 to Km 270.97 1. The arrived elasticity values were moderated and recommended for forecast. Development in vehicle technology. Future modal shift among vehicle types.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.91 0.97 0. as presented in Table 7.32.32.00) Traffic log of PCI 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 1993-2000 0.97 0.5 Moderated Transport Demand Elasticity The estimated ‘e’ values.35 12. in addition: • • • Recent economic changes taking place in the project influence region.86 1 0.46 1. it is necessary to moderate the elasticity values to accommodate the above factors discussed as well as to arrive at the growth rates that are realistic. 7-48 .71 0.65 41. However. as given below in Table 7. the future traffic growth pattern is likely to be affected by the following factors. With this background.87 12.69 1. Elasticity values considered in the recent highway projects in the study region or recommended by multilateral funding institutions for Indian Highway Projects are also studied.97 log of Population log of Bus Traffic log of PCI log of Population log of TW Traffic log of PCI log of Truck Traffic log of NSDP 7.52 13.02 5.

introduced in the nineties. equipped with adequate safeguards. 7-49 . any projection beyond 10-15 years will have little relevance in current context. But unfortunately. The individual state’s economy performances and their targets may slightly vary to the national level Considering the factors such as past performance of the economy against their set targets.93 2. leading to an open economy system.62 12. the entire period beyond 2015 has been kept as one slab.63 3.5-6.78 2. this system makes Indian economy more prone to the global fluctuations.13 2.93 * Passenger Vehicles Contribution is 75% Kerala State and 25% Tamilnadu State Goods Vehicles contribution is 65% Kerala State and 35% Tamilnadu State (Based on O-D Analysis) 7. recent developments in economic liberalization measures. as well as before. Independent evaluations by different agencies put the nation’s economic growth during the Ninth Plan period. Hence.13 3. Based on the performance of the economy and the near term economic development contemplated in the states. With the strengths and weakness of the present system. future economic growth scenario is formulated for the following time periods.00 7.24 PCI PCI PCI 3.10.6 Future Economy Prospects Ongoing economic liberalization measures.62 2. in the range of 5.69 0.69 2. though the targets were mostly never achieved. opportunities available in local and global markets etc. The consideration of time periods is mainly based on the Five Year Plan periods practiced at national and state levels. • • • 2005 – 2009 2010 – 2014 2015 and beyond We feel..88 1. Indian economy has performed fairly well during the liberalization period. were oriented to make the national economy with a strong competitive base.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.50 1.00) Car Bus Two wheelers Trucks 8.06 1. The Ninth Five Year Plan Documents (1997-2002) set 7% target for economic growth for the Nation.00 to Km 270.0 percent. Recent economic performance of the nation.40 Draft Feasibility Report 3. shift in between sectors.71 4. in terms of net domestic product.04 Population Population Population NSDP 2. the future growth pattern of Kerala and Tamilnadu states economy is likely to follow the growth rates indicated below: SOWiL Limited.38 2. and no further projection is attempted. was found to be in the range of 5 to 6 percent growth.

00 2.07 0. Passenger Vehicles Tgr = [(Pgr x 0.00 6.86 1.10.00) Draft Feasibility Report Future Economic Growth Pattern(% per annum) Year 2005-2009 2010-2014 >=2015 Kerala State NSDP PCI Population 4.50 5. Tgr – Traffic growth rate Pgr – Population growth rate PCIgr – Per capita income growth rate E – Elasticity value Above passenger vehicles model assigns equal weightage to the economic variables of population and per capita income.50 0. the future average annual compound traffic growth rates by vehicle type are estimated.00 to Km 270.60 0.7 Traffic growth rates Based on the moderated elasticity values and the projected economic/demographic indicators and with the given model as follows.5)] x E Where.85 4.5) + (PCIgr x 0.50 3. 7-50 .50 5.00 3.95 1.90 6.00 4.00 4.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. Goods Vehicles Tgr = ( NSDPgr) x E Where.46 1.10 Tamilnadu State NSDP PCI Population 6. NSDPgr – NSDP Growth Rate E – Elasticity Value SOWiL Limited.90 7.

No 1 2 3 4 5 Vehicle Type Car Goods Vehicles Bus TW Agri Tractor/Trailor 2005-2009 8.56 5. Based on the recommended elasticity’s and the weighted economy.04 9.34 5.11 4.No 1 2 3 4 5 SOWiL Limited. growth scenarios for different vehicle types on the Project Road are presented in Table 7. the growth rates are assumed at the worst scenario.53 2015 and beyond 7.87 8.8 5.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.25 7. Pessimistic Scenario: In this scenario. traffic composition weight for different vehicle types from different states were arrived from origin – destination surveys.31 8.33 Projected Traffic Growth Rates adopted for the study Projected Annual Traffic Growth Rate (%) Pessimistic Approach S.33.51 8.10.36 10.41 8.58 6.31 7-51 .17 3.87 6.86 5.41 6. Table 7.63 6. the growth rates are assumed at the maximum value observed in methods described above.63 2015 and beyond 8.28 8.03 4.8 Optimistic. Vehicle Type Car Goods Vehicles Bus TW Agri Tractor/Trailor 2005-2009 10.61 6.53 3.00 to Km 270. To assess the effect of individual state’s economy on the project road from the states within the project influence area.03 8.87 Projected Annual Traffic Growth Rate (%) Optimistic Approach S.00) Draft Feasibility Report 7. Normal Scenario: Normal scenario depicts the average growth rate considering optimistic and pessimistic scenarios For the project road traffic growth rates were arrived on weighted average basis.03 6. Normal & Pessimistic Growth Rates The forecast of the traffic has been based further analyzed under three scenarios as follows: • • • Optimistic Scenario: In this scenario.04 2010-2014 10.86 2010-2014 8.85 7.

7-52 . For pavement design and economic analysis purposes.1 5 Traffic growth rates. This generated traffic could be expected to add to the normal traffic during the initial years when the 4-lane road facility becomes operational.No 1 2 3 4 5 Vehicle Type Car Goods Vehicles Bus TW Agri Tractor/Trailor 2005-2009 9.5 7.9 Generated/Diverted Traffic Post evaluation studies carried out along few completed four lane roads as well the actual observations on similar completed roads indicate that following completion of the road improvements.5 5.5 5 7. Accordingly. Thus the proposed 4 lane divided highway facility for the Project Road is also likely to attract generated and diverted traffic in view of its better performance characteristics such as higher operating speeds and better riding quality.33 are recommended for further planning purpose. it is reasonable to assume a notional increase in the road traffic due to generated/diverted traffic. In the event the proposed project road is considered for implementation through BOT route. it is advisable to consider traffic growth rates under pessimistic scenario to project the future traffic. educational institutions.5 7 6. as it represent the most likely scenario of future traffic growth for the project road. generated traffic can be expected but as yet not has been quantified.5 7 9 7 2010-2014 8. as estimated and presented in Table 7.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182. in the absence of precise information regarding future growth factors of parallel transport facilities such as railways.10 Projected Traffic SOWiL Limited. the generated/diverted traffic is assumed in a phased manner as follows: Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 1% 2% 3% 7.2 5. commercial and residential buildings.10.5 8. 7. new developments have occurred along the road which includes industry.10. As a result of this development. as gathered from the limited experience available with recent BOT toll road projects in India.00 to Km 270.5 2015 and beyond 7. growth rates under ‘normal scenario’ are considered for traffic forecast. However.00) Draft Feasibility Report Projected Annual Traffic Growth Rate (%) – Normal Approach S. Thus growth rates under pessimistic scenario are recommended for BOT analysis.

11Lane Requirements The IRC guidelines (IRC: 64-1990) stipulates the daily capacity for two and four lanes highways as follows:   Two Lane – 30. 7-53 .00) Draft Feasibility Report The mode-wise AADT has been projected in vehicles and PCUs for different years and sections of the project road under different growth scenarios and is presented in Annexure-XI.No 1 2 3 4 Location 191/000 210/600 237/000 263/100 S.D.A.D.34 Projected Motorised A.T(PCUs) Pessimistic Approach 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 28465 38392 49441 63878 82807 31230 41920 53697 68996 88945 32740 43974 56353 72440 93420 42377 57047 73299 94492 122232 S. IRC guidelines suggest service volume corresponding to level of service B (which corresponds to a service volume 50% of the maximum SOWiL Limited.No 1 2 3 4 Projected Motorised A.A.T(PCUs) Normal Approach Location 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 191/000 30100 42356 56757 76211 102551 210/600 33031 46321 61795 82601 110638 237/000 34615 48556 64789 86616 116028 263/100 44817 62963 84195 112821 151504 Projected Motorised A.A.34 Table 7. The Summary of projected motorized traffic at different locations given at Table 7.T(PCUs) Optimistic Approach 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 32069 48227 68211 96654 137219 35194 52729 74279 104822 148194 36865 55242 77830 109848 155318 47781 71763 101330 143347 203178 S.T at Various Locations Projected Motorised A.00 to Km 270.D.No 1 2 3 4 Location 191/000 210/600 237/000 263/100 7.000 PCUs/day (Maximum at LOS-F) However.D.10.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.000 PCUs/day (Maximum at LOS-F) Four Lane – 80.A.

i.000 PCU/day for 4 lane road) as design capacity. Based on the above capacity criteria.35 Table 7.00) Draft Feasibility Report capacity. SOWiL Limited.National Highways Authority of India Preparation of Feasibility Study and DPR of Kerala Border to Thrissur Section of NH-47 (Km 182.35 Section-wise Lane Requirements Eligible for 4-lane widening Optimistic Pessimistic Normal Growth Growth Growth Scenario Scenario Scenario 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 Eligible for 6-lane widening Normal Optimistic Pessimistic Growth Growth Growth Scenario Scenario Scenario 2014 2013 2012 2009 2013 2012 2011 2008 2016 2014 2014 2010 Homogeneous Section Kerala Border to Palakkad Palakkad to Alathoor Alathoor to Vadakanchery Vadakanchery to Thrissur As shown above.e. the lane configuration for the project road during the analysis period is worked out and results of same are summarized in Table 7. all the sections of the project road are eligible for widening to 4-lane configuration. 7-54 .00 to Km 270. 15000 PCU/day for 2 lane road and 40.

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