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REDOX

DEFINITION OF REDOX :

 LOSS OF/GAIN IN OXYGEN

LOSS OF/GAIN IN HYDROGEN

 TRANSFER OF ELECTRON

 CHANGES IN OXIDATION STATE

The meaning of oxidising agent, reducing agent and examples

REDOX EQUATIONS :
 HALF EQUATION OF OXIDATION
 HALF EQUATION OF REDUCTION
 OVERALL (NET) IONIC EQUATION

Redox concept and redox equation


in the following reactions

APPLICATION OF REDOX IN :
1. THE DISPLACEMENT OF METAL
2. ELECTROCHEMISTRY(
p CHEMICAL CELL ,
ELECTROLYSIS & CORROSION OF METAL)
3. DISPLACEMENT OF HALOGENS
4. CHANGES OF Fe →Fe & Fe →Fe
2+ 3+ 3+ 2+

5. TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS AT A DISTANCE


6. REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS INCLUDING CARBON
AND HYDROGEN

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Redox

10.1 The meaning of redox reaction


1. Definition of redox - chemical reaction involving oxidation and reduction taking place at the same
time.
2. Oxidation and reduction can be defined in three ways :

OXIDATION REDUCTION
a) Loss of oxygen/hydrogen Gain in oxygen / Loss of Loss of oxygen / Gain in
and gain in oxygen hydrogen hydrogen
/hydrogen

b) Loss of / Gain in electrons Loss of electrons Gain in electrons


Increase in the oxidation state Decrease in the oxidation state
c) Changes in oxidation state

2. a) Oxidising agent - a substance that causes other substances to undergo oxidation and the agent
itself being reduced.
b) Reducing agent - a substance that causes other substances to undergo reduction and the agent itself
being oxidised.

10.2 Oxidation and reduction reactions.


a) In terms of oxygen/hydrogen gain/ loss

Example 1

Mg + CuO MgO + Cu
Explanation:
Magnesium – undergoes oxidation because _______________________________________________

- it acts as a reducing agent because _____________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Copper(II) oxide – undergoes reduction because _________________________________________

- it acts as an oxidising agent because _________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

Example 2
H2S (g) + Cl2 (g) S (s) + 2HCl (g)
Explanation
Chlorine gas - undergoes _________________ because ________________________________________.

- it acts as ____________________________ agent because _________________________

_________________________________________________________________________.

Gas hydrogen sulphide - undergoes _______________ because__________________________________.

- it acts as ____________________________ agent because ________________________

_________________________________________________________________________.
Example (iii)
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3CuO + 2NH3 N2 + 3H2O + 3Cu
Explanation :
Copper(II) Oxide - undergoes _______________ because ______________________________________.

- it acts as _________________ agent because ______________________________

__________________________________________________________________________.

Ammonia - undergoes _______________ because __________________________________________.

- acts as __________________ agent because _____________________________

_________________________________________________________________________.

b) In terms of electron gain/ loss

Example 1
2Na + Cl2 2NaCl
Explanation

Sodium atom with an electron arrangement of 2.8.1 will form a stable octet by losing 1 electron.
Na Na+ + e
2.8.1 2.8

Sodium undergoes ____________________ because ______________________________________.

- it acts as ______________________ agent because __________________________

__________________________________________________________________________.

Chlorine with electron arrangement of 2.8.7 will form a stable octet by gaining 1 electron
Cl + e- Cl-
2.8.7 2.8.8

Chlorine undergoes ____________________ because ______________________________________.

- it acts as ______________________ agent because ___________________________

__________________________________________________________________________.

Example (II)
Mg + CuSO4 MgSO4 + Cu

Mg Mg2+ + 2e (loss of electrons)


Cu2+ + 2e- Cu (gain in electrons )

- Magnesium atom undergoes __________________ because ________________________________and it acts


as _______________________ because ______________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________.

- Cu2+ ion undergoes ______________ because _________________________________ and it acts as

_______________________ because______________________________________________

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In terms of change in oxidation state

1. General rules to determine oxidation state

(i) atoms and molecules of element have an oxidation state of zero.

Example
Molecule of Oxidation
Element State
H2 0
O2 0
Cl2 0

Atom Oxidation
State
Cu 0
Na 0
Fe 0
He 0

(ii) The oxidation state for hydrogen in the compound is +1


(iii) The oxidation state for oxygen in the compound is -2
(iv) The oxidation state for any monoatomic ions are similar to the charges of the ions .

Example
Ion oxidation Ion Oxidation
state state
Na+ +1 Cl- -1
Cu2+ +2 Br- -1
Fe2+ +2 O2- -2
Fe2+ +3 S2- -2

(v) The oxidation state of the ions from Group 1, 2 and 13 are fixed because the atom of these Groups can form a
stable octet by losing 1 e-, 2e- and 3e- respectively. Therefore, the oxidation state for these ions are +1, +2
and +3.

(vi) The sum of the oxidation state for elements in a neutral compound is 0
(vii) The sum of the oxidation state for elements in a polyatomic ion equals to the charges of the ion.
# The oxidation state of the transition metals and non-metallic elements vary from one compound to another.

Example : Determine the oxidation state of the underlined elements

 KMnO4 =

 MnO2 =

 CO32- =

 CO2 =

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 CO =

 NO3- =

 NO2 =

 NH4+ =

1. Nomenclature of ionic compounds in accordance to I.U.P.A.C


i. Since the oxidation state of elements from Group 1, 2 and 13 are fixed, the names of the compounds are
written without the oxidation state. The oxidation state of elements from other groups must be written.
ii. The name of ionic compounds begins with the metal element followed by the non-metallic element.

Example:
Formula Charge IUPAC Name Common Name
Fe(OH)2 +2 Iron (II) hydroxide Ferrous hydroxide
Fe(OH)3 +3 Iron (III) hydroxide Ferric hydroxide
PbO +2 Lead (II) oxide Lead monoxide
PbO2 +4 Lead(IV) oxide Lead dioxide
H2SO4 +6 Sulphuric (VI) acid Sulphuric acid
H2SO3 +4 Sulphuric (IV) acid Sulphurrous acid

2. To determine a redox reaction by using the change in oxidation state.

I. When the oxidation state of a substance increased, the substance is oxidised. It also acts as a
reducing agent.
II. When the oxidation state of a substance decreased , the substance is reduced. It acts as an
oxidising agent.
III. A reaction is not redox if no elements undergo a change in oxidation state.

Example: To determine whether the reactions below are Redox.

(a) AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3


↓ ↓↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓

Oxidation state:

- this reaction is __________________ because ________________________________________.

(b) Mg + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2


↓ ↓ ↓↓ ↓ ↓↓ ↓
Oxidation state:

- this reaction is _________________ because ________________________________________.

Explanation:
• Magnesium is oxidised because ____________________________________________________.

• Hydrogen ion is reduced because _______________________________________________.

• Oxidising Agent = ________________________.

• Reducing Agent = _________________________.

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10.3 Writing A Redox Equation
♦ A redox equation involved the following:
i. Half equation for oxidation (loss of ē)
ii. Half equation for reduction (gain in ē)
iii. Overall (net) ionic equation can be formed by combining step (i) and (ii):
a) Change the coefficient of both the half equations until the number of electrons are equal.
b) By combining the two half equations, the electrons are cancelled.
Cth :
Reaction Aluminium and Copper (II) Magnesium and silver nitrate
sulphate

Half equation for


oxidation:

Half equation for


reduction:

Changing of the coefficient


of the half equation of
oxidation

Changing of the coefficient


of the half equation of
reduction

Overall (net) ionic


equation

10.4 Application of Redox Reaction

I Displacement of metals from its salt solution.


II Redox reactions in electrochemistry
a) Chemical Cell
b) Electrolysis
c) Corrosion of metals
III Displacement of halide ions by another halogen.
IV Reactions of Fe2+ → Fe3+ and Fe3+ → Fe2+
V Transfer of electron at a distance
VI Reactivity series of metals
a) Constructing the reactivity series
b) Determining the positions of hydrogen and carbon in the reactivity
series
c) Extraction of metals

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(I) Redox Reaction in the displacement of metals from its salt solution.

a) Electrochemistry Series: A series in the order of the tendency for a metal to form positive ions
(cations).

• The more electropositive a metal, the easier its atom loses electron to form positive ion.
K •K Displacement of metals:- The more electropositive metal will lose its ………………. to metal ion which is
Na less electropositive. The more electropositive metal will be …………….. and corrodes while the less
Ca
electropositive metal ion will be ………………… and ……………………..
Mg
Al • Chemical cell :- The more electropositive metal becomes the negative terminal and …………… electron. The
Zn metal undergoes …………………. and corrodes.
Fe -Metal which is less electropositive becomes the …………….. terminal. The ion that is selected for discharge in
Sn
Pb the solution undergoes …………….. and the mass of the positive terminal will increase.

H -The further the distance between two metals in the electrochemical series, the bigger the …………. of the
Cu chemical cell.
Ag
• Electrolysis: The less electropositive metallic ion in the solution will gain electrons and will be discharged and
undergoes …………………….

Example : The reaction between zinc and copper (II) sulphate.

Half equation for oxidation:

Half equation for reduction:

Overall (net) ionic equation:

Observation: Colour change in (i) copper(II) sulphate ………………………….


(ii) zinc …………………………………………

(II) Redox reaction in electrochemistry (Refer to the Electrochemical Series)


(a) Electrolysis (Chemical changes caused by electric current)
(b) Chemical Cell (Chemical changes that produce electric current)
(c) Corrosion of metal (A process in which a metallic atom losses electron to form positive ion)

REDOX IN ELECTROLYSIS AND CHEMICAL CELL


ELECTROLYSIS CHEMICAL CELL
Anode Cathode Negative Terminal Positive Terminal
Anion/ metallic Cation gains The more The metal ion in the
atom losses its electron electropositive metal electrolyte gains
electron losses its electrons electrons
Oxidation Reduction Oxidation Reduction
Anion/ Metal atom Cation acts as the The more Metal ion in the
acts as the reducing oxidising agent electropositive atom electrolyte acts as
agent acts as the reducing the oxidising agent

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agent
Answer these questions:
1).

Carbon electrode
Elektrod X X
karbon Carbon electrode Y

Aqueous potassium sulphate

Answer the following questions based on diagram II.

a) Which electrode is the anode?

.................................................................................................................................

b) Name the product yielded at the X electrode.

.................................................................................................................................

c) Write the ionic equation at the Y electrode.

.................................................................................................................................

d) Explain why the ion in (c) is selected for discharge.

.................................................................................................................................

e) Name the substance that is

i) being oxidised .....................................................................................................


ii) being reduced ......................................................................................................
f) What is the oxidation state of sulphur in sulphate ion?

.................................................................................................................................

2) X is 0.001 mol dm-3 aqueous sodium chloride. Y is 2.0 mol dm-3 aqueous sodium chloride. Both solutions are

electrolysed separately using carbon as electrodes.

a). Name the products formed at the cathode and anode in the :

i). Electrolysis of solution X: Cathode: …………………….. Anode: ………………………..

ii). Electrolysis of solution Y: Cathode: …………………….. Anode: ………………………..

b). Name the substance that is oxidised in the :

i). Electrolysis of solution X: ……………………………

ii). Electrolysis of solution Y: ……………………….

c) The products collected at the anode in the electrolysis of solutions X and Y are different. Explain why.

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……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

d) Write the half equation of the reaction that takes place in the anode :

i) Electrolysis of solution X : ………………………………………… ii) Electrolysis of solution Y :

………………….

3)

Answer the following questions based on the above diagram.


a) Which electrode is the positive terminal ?

.................................................................................................................................

b) Write the observations at the

i) negative terminal:............................................................................................

ii) positive terminal:.............................................................................................

c) Write the ionic equation for the reaction that takes place at the

i) negative terminal:.........................................................................................

ii) positive terminal :.............................................................................................

d) Write the overall (net) ionic equation for the reaction that takes place in the chemical cell above.

.................................................................................................................................

e) Name the substance that is being reduced in the above reaction.

.................................................................................................................................

f) Name the substance that acts as a reducing agent in the above reaction.

.................................................................................................................................
g) How will the voltmeter reading change if the magnesium electrode in the magnesium sulphate
solution is replaced by zinc electrode in the zinc sulphate solution ?

.................................................................................................................................

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4). The diagram below shows the apparatus set-up for a chemical cell. Answer the following questions accordingly.

(a) Solution X is used as a salt bridge. State a suitable solution for X ……………………
(b) The function of solution X is …………………………………….

(c) Mark on the diagram the positive terminal, the negative terminal and the direction of the electron flow.

a) Write the half equation for the reaction that occurs in:
i. Cell A:………………………………………………………….
ii. Cell B :……………………………………………………
b) State the type of reaction that occurs in
i. Cell A :…………………………………………………..
ii. Cell B :………………………………………………….
c) (i) What is observed in cell B when the reaction occurs ?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(ii) Explain your answer in (c)(i).

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Redox in the corrosion of metal

Corrosion of metal takes place in two ways :


a) Atmospheric corrosion
b) Electrochemical corrosion
a) Atmospheric corrosion
i) Takes place when a metal released electron to the oxygen in the air to form metallic oxides..
Example :
Mg Mg2+ + 2e
O2 + 4e- 2O2-
2Mg + O2 2MgO
ii) Aluminium oxide and zinc oxide are hard, impermeable and not easily cracked. Therefore, aluminium
is more suitable to be used as construction material. The layer of aluminium oxide on the aluminium metal
prevents it from undergoing further corrosion.
iii) Iron (III) oxide is brittle (rust) → the metal undergoes continuous corrosion.

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iv) The rate of atmospheric corrosion is accelerated with the presence of electrolyte→metals in the vicinity of
beaches are corroded easily because sea water is an electrolyte.

Rusting of iron
- Corrosion of iron (Fe → Fe2+ + 2e ) is a process that takes place when iron corrodes spontaneously in the
presence of water and oxygen.

- Rusting of iron:
O2
O2
Water

A B A
Iron

 Part A is thinner, therefore the concentration of oxygen is higher


O2 + 2H2O + 4e → 4OH- (reduction)
 Part B, iron releases electrons
Fe → Fe2+ + 2e (oxidation)
 Overall ionic reaction
2Fe + O2 + 2H2O 2Fe(OH)2
 Fe2+ ion (green) but rust is brown because Fe(OH) 2 undergoes further oxidation.
Fe(OH)2 Fe2O3 . xH2O , where x represents a value.

 Rusting of iron occurs faster in areas exposed to air because the dissolved impurities become electrolytes
which will speed up the flow of electrons.
Example :
- Industrial areas that contain H2S (hydrogen sulphide) and SO2 (sulphur dioxide) gases
- Beach areas that have sodium chloride.

b) Electrochemical corrosion
 The process of metal losing electrons to form ions when in contact with different metals in the
presence of a certain electrolyte :
Methods to prevent rusting :
- form an alloy :
- oiling / greasing
- galvanisation
- sacrificial protection
- electroplating

Experiment:
Topic : The effect of other metals on the rusting of iron

Hypothesis:

Manipulated variable :

Respondent variable :
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Fixed variable :

Apparatus :

Chemicals :

Diagram:

Procedure :

Recording of Results:

Inference :

Conclusion :

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Exercise : Answer the following questions.

Jelly + phenolphthalein + potassium hexasianoferate (III)

copper
zinc Magnesium Iron +
+ iron + nail iron nail
nail iron nail

P Q R S

Three iron nails are coiled with stannum , metal Y, and metal Z respectively and placed in three different test tubes.
Each test tube is filled with aqueous sodium chloride. After a few days the following results are obtained.

Beaker Observations – Degree of Rusting


A A bit
B None at all
C A lot

a). Based on the observations, arrange the metals i.e. stannum, Y and Z in a descending order of their
electropositivity.
………………………….., …………………………., ………………………………..
b). Suggest one possible metal for
Y: ……………………………………. Z: ……………………………………………
c). What is the name of the chemical process that occurs in each test tube?………………………
d). Explain why the iron in test tube B does not rust at all.
…………………………………………………………………………………………..
e). Write the ionic equation for the chemical changes that takes place in test tubes A and C.
…………………… ……………………………………………………………………...

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2. Metal will corrode when it is exposed to the atmosphere over a period of time. The rate of corrosion depends on
the position of the metal in the electrochemical series.
a). Between magnesium and iron, which will corrode faster when exposed to atmosphere? Explain your answer.
…………………………………………………………………………………………...
…………………………………………………………………………………………...
b). Why are goods made of iron and plated with zinc provides better protection as compared to iron plated with tin?
…………………………………………………………………………………………...
…………………………………………………………………………………………...
c). Why are goods made of aluminium self-protected from corrosion?
………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………..
d).Besides being plated with tin and zinc, suggest two other ways to prevent iron from corrosion.
…………………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………….

2) The diagram below shows the experiment conducted to study the effect of metals on the corrosion of iron nails.

nails

Y Z

Stannum
A B C

a) What ion is detected by


i) Phenolphthalein?

ii) Potassium hexasianoferat (III)

b) State your observation for each test tube P, Q, R and S when they are left for a few moment.
i) Test tube P

ii) Test tube Q

iii) Test tube R

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iv) Test tube S

c) Arrange the four metals i.e. iron, zinc, magnesium and copper according to their position in the
electrochemical series. The most electropositive metal is to be mentioned first.

d)
i) Name the type of reaction that takes place when iron rusts.

ii) Write the half equation for the reaction in (d)(i).

e) What is the purpose of test tube R in this experiment?

f) Name another type of metal that can accelerate the rusting of iron process.

(III) Displacement of halide ion by a halogen.


III
IV a) Electronegativity series of halogen.
HALOGEN HALIDE
Electronegativity of
halogens increases/ a Chlorine water : Cl2 chloride ion: Cl- The tendency for a halide
measurement of the to become a halogen
tendency of an atom Bromine water: Br2 bromide ion: Br- increases.
in a stable molecule to
attract electrons to Iodine water : I2 iodide ion : I-
become negative ions
Displacement can happen
-Halogens that are more electronegative can attract electrons from halides that are less electronegative.
-Halogens that are more electronegative – undergo……………. because they…………….. electrons to form halides
- Halides that are less electronegative – undergo ……………… because they …………….. electrons to form halogens.

Ex. : 1) Chlorine water with potassium iodide


Cl2 + 2e- 2Cl- (half equation of reduction)
-
2I I2 + 2e (half equation of oxidation)
Cl2 + 2I- 2Cl- + I2 (overall (net) redox equation)

Note: Halogens show specific colour in tetrachloromethane.

Halogen Colour in aqueous solution Colour in


tetrachloromethane(CCl4)
Cl2 Greenish yellow Colourless
Br2 Brown orange
I2 Brown purple

2). In an experiment, iodine is formed when bromine water is added to potassium iodide solution.
c) How do you confirm the formation of iodine in the experiment?
………………………………………………………………………………………..

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d) Write the half equation for the chemical change that takes place in
i) bromine water :………………………………………………………………
ii) potassium iodide:…………………………………………………………..
iii) reducing agent :…………………………………………………………
iv) the substance that has been reduced…………………………………………
e) Write the overall (net) ionic equation for that reaction.
………………………………………………………………………………………..

(IV). The changing of Fe2+ →Fe3+ and Fe3+ → Fe2+

a) Change of Fe2+ (green) Fe3+ (brown)


- Iron (II) ion undergoes oxidation by losing electron to form iron (III) ion.
Fe2+ Fe3+ + e
- The substance added is an oxidising agent that can gain electron and undergo reduction such as bromine
water(Br2), chlorine water(Cl2), acidic potassium manganate (VII) and acidic potassium dichromate (VI).
- Observations : The colour turns from green to brown , Confirmatory test :
………………………………………
Example : i. Reaction between bromine water and iron(II) sulphate.
Fe2+ Fe3+ + e ( )
-
Br2 + 2e 2Br- ( )
_________________________________________

2Fe2+ + Br2 2Fe3+ + 2Br- ( )

ii. Write the redox equation for the reaction between chlorine water and iron (II) sulphate solution.

Half equation for oxidation :

Half equation for reduction :


Overall (net) redox equation :

b) Change of Fe3+(brown) Fe2+( green)


- Iron (III) ion undergoes reduction by gaining electron to form iron (II) ion.
- The substance added is a reducing agent that can release electron and undergo oxidation such as magnesium,
aluminium and zinc.
- Observations : The brown colour turns green. Confirmatory test……………………………………………..

Example : Reaction between zinc powder and iron (III) sulphate solution.
Zn Zn2+ + 2e ( )
Fe3+ + e- Fe2+ ( )
___________________________________________

2Fe3+ + Zn 2Fe2+ + Zn2+


(V) Transfer of Electron At A Distance
a) Occurs when two solutions are separated by an electrolyte in a U-tube.
b) Redox reaction occurs as a result of electron flow through an external circuit.
c) Electrons flow from the reducing agent (releases electron) to the oxidising agent (gains electron).
d) Carbon electrode that is immersed in a reducing agent is known as negative terminal (anode).
e) Carbon electrode that is immersed in an oxidising agent is known as positive terminal (cathode).
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OXIDISING AGENT : A substance that is …………… in a reaction or a substance that gains ………………
The oxidising agent undergoes ………………..
Examples of common substances that are used as an oxidising agent:
Substance Half equation for reduction Observation/ Test
Acidic potassium manganate (VII)
Acidic sodium dichromate(VI)
Chlorine water
Bromine water
Copper (II) sulphate, Copper (II)
chloride
Iron (III) sulphate, Iron (III) chloride
# In a chemical cell / U-tube cell– electrodes that are immersed in an aqueous solution of an oxidising agent
becomes the ……………terminal or ……………………..because electrons are …………………..
g). REDUCING AGENT: A substance that is …………… in a reaction or a substance that releases
……………… …………... The reducing agent undergoes ……………………
Examples of common substances that are used as a reducing agent:
Substance Half equation for oxidation Observation/ Test
Potassium iodide
Potassium bromide
Iron(II) chloride,
Iron(II) sulphate
# In a chemical cell / U-tube cell – Metal electrodes/ inert electrodes that are immersed in the reducing agent
becomes the ……………terminal or anode because electrons are…………………….

V
Apparatus set-up

Negative terminal Positive terminal

Reducing agent
Oxidising agent

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COMPLETE THE TABLE BELOW TO SHOW THE ELECTRON TRANSFER REACTIONS
Reactants Oxidising Reducing Write the half equation for Write the half equation for Write the overall (net) redox Draw the diagram and mark
agents agents oxidation, (releases electron / reduction, (gains electron/ equation  The direction of electron flow
negative terminal) observations positive terminal)  Positive/ negative terminal
and confirmatory test observations and
confirmatory test

Iron(II) sulphate
and bromine
water

Potassium
iodide and
acidic potassium
permanganate(V
II)

Iron(II) sulphate
and acidic
potassium
dichromate(VI)

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(VI) Redox in Reactivity Series
a) Reactivity series : A series that arranges metals in accordance to the reactivity of their reactions with
oxygen to form metal oxides
K
Na • More reactive in their reaction with oxygen to form metal oxide.
• The more reactive metal is able to reduce metal oxide that ………….. reactive. The more reactive
Ca
metal will undergo………………. because it gains ……………… while the less reactive metal
Mg .
oxide undergo……………… because it…………………oxygen .
Al
• Metals that are located below carbon in the reactivity series can be extracted from their ores using

C carbon as carbon is cheap and is released as carbon dioxide gas after the reaction: Metal oxide(s) +
Zn Carbon(s) → Metal(s) + Carbon dioxide(g) ↑
• Metals that are more reactive than carbon in the reactivity series can be extracted from their ores by
H using the electrolysis process, e.g. extraction of aluminium metal from aluminium oxide.
Fe
• The empirical formula for metals that are more reactive than hydrogen in the reactivity series
Sn .
such as magnesium can be determined by heating the metal strongly in a crucible.
Pb
• The empirical formula for metals that are less reactive than hydrogen eg. copper can be
Cu determined by passing through hydrogen gas to the strongly heated metal oxides in a combustion tube.

b) 3 important experiments:
i) To construct the reactivity series.
ii) To determine the position of carbon in the reactivity series
iii) To determine the position of hydrogen in the reactivity
series.

# Prepare a report for each of the above stated experiments. Your report must contain:
- The hypothesis
- Constant variable, manipulated variable and responding variable
- Apparatus and substances.
- A labeled diagram of the apparatus set- up
- Procedure
- Observations
- Precautionary measures
- Equations of reaction
c) Uses of the reactivity series.
 To predict whether a metal can reduce the oxide of another metal. If metal X is more reactive than
metal Y, then metal X can displace oxygen from the metal Y oxide.
 Extraction of metals - (i) Iron - in industries
(ii) Tin - in industries
Determine whether the following reactions occur. If the reaction occurs, mark ‘/’ and if not, mark ‘x’.
a) Zinc oxide + Hydrogen ( ) b) Iron (II) oxide + Hydrogen ( )
b) Hydrogen oxide + Copper ( ) d) Carbon + Silver oxide ( )
c) Magnesium oxide + Carbon ( ) e) Copper + Zinc oxide ( )
d) Aluminium + Carbon dioxide ( ) f) Iron + Lead (II) oxide ( )
e) Argentum + Hydrogen oxide ( )

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