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Crafts sector is the second largest employment sector in India. There are 23 million crafts people in India today. Many agricultural and pastoral communities depend on their traditional craft skills as a secondary source of Income. The inherent skills in embroidery, weaving, basketry etc. are a means to social and economic independence. The crafts sector is home based industry which requires minimum of expenditure, infrastructure and training. It needs existing skills, locally available resources and materials. The inputs required may easily provide and these are more in terms of product or design adaptation than expensive investment in energy, machinery and technology. However, there is a shift from small scale industries to hi-tech mechanized production. The rural crafts based industries, agro based industries and other traditional occupation based economic activities are being replaced by MNC’s sophisticated production through support of expensive marketing and advertising strategies. The change in consumer buying trends and entry of various new international brands of products has aggressively promoted factory produced commodities into rural and urban markets. Crafts have been an integral part of village life. But production for home consumption is radically different from production for a commercial market. Traditional craft skill needs sensitive adaptation, proper quality control, suitable pricing and improved designs to meet customer demand and satisfacton. Dastkar, SEWA and several other NGO’s have intervened in a organized manner for revivalism, craft development, skill up-gradation, marketing of finished goods etc. SEWA Banaskantha (Gujarat), SEWA, Lucknow (U.P.) products are examples of traditional embroidery skills that had been either ignored or degraded and whose products now compete effectively in the Indian and international fashion market. Importantly, Dastkar is committed to help 47
Through organized intervention in terms of imparting training in embroidery. embroider.prepare the crafts persons. techniques and arts. earning about Rs. confidence for mobility in different corners of India and abroad. Craft is basically a commercial activity. 48 . They have shifted from traditional products to contemporary. housebound and previously totally dependent on the local money lenders to fetch the work. Many artisans face the problems of finance and cash flow which restrict economic development and improving the living standards. strongly reflecting the cultural identity and individual skills. Indian women are being taught to sew. Today. tie dye. Dastkar has trained to earn women’s own livelihood through their own hand skills – Patch work. knit to become economically independent. these 100 women have grown to 4500. It is to be noted that all Dastkar design and product development is based on traditional motifs. illiterate. Adithi and Mahila Vikas Sahyog Samiti have supported crafts women in Bihar. the craft products and the consumer to assist and encourage the establishment of artisan groups that are entirely self sufficient and self reliant and increasingly less dependent on outsider interventions. They were black bulkhead. marketing and supply chain management. crotchet. Even craft people are harassed by yoke of their debts to the middlemen and money lenders. teaching them new skills and designs. Fund may also be used for investment in new design development like SEWA Lucknow and Bharti Vikas Manch have endeavoured. Capital investment is the key to the development and promotion of the craft. it is essential to have a capital fund for purchasing raw materials and assisting with wages for a large quantity demand of products. embroidery and printing. They traveled all over India happily and interact with equal ease with males dealing in embroidery. appliqué. 100-150 a month. now Muslim women are feeling economic liberation. raw materials. To assist artisans in breaking this circle and to ensure quality production. Crafts persons must be involved in every aspect of design and production and understand the functions of production. SEWA in Lucknow started to work with 100 chikan embroidery women. urban market led products.
Madras. Islamic fundamentalism and demand finance. 7-10 crores. health and awareness programmes and camps. a school. Chowk. Lucknow in 1995 reported that UPEC identified 37 towns/ villages in Lucknow and 12 towns/ villages in Unnao district for promoting the chikan craft. cutting. Panne Lal. Kakori. 800-2000 a month. Malihabad. A study conducted by Dr. Chchangamal. Minorities Financial And Development Corporation Ltd. They march in protest against social evils. The designing. Again. A study carried out by Giri Institute of Development Studies.finance. during 1987 reported that annual production of chikan goods was worth of Rs.C. Pune and Delhi besides its high demand in America and Australia. Bombay. 144. credit and facilities from Government. Lal Bihari Tandon. 49 . Bhartiya Chikan. SEWA now has two shops. Today the original 12 women have grown to 1400 and earn an average of Rs.02 lakh chikan goods in 1990-91. at Giri Institute of Development Studies. The big industrialists like Seth Narayan Das. Adam Nagar and City Station. 2000. The women participate in every aspect of SEWA planning and production from fixing wage scales to eventual sales.P. Approximately 50. Bhagwat Das. Koneshwar. one in Lucknow and one in Delhi and in 1994. Lucknow. their turnover was over Rs. It also opened Six major centres of production viz. UPEC formulated an ambitious project to train 6000 women in the age group of 14-30 years over a period of three years. tailoring and printing were conducted at these centres. Another study carried out by U. Directorate of Information and Public Relations. SEWA Sales in 1985 were Rs. The profits go back into a crèche. Dixit. 46000. Another study on chikan crafts – women in Lucknow and Unnao. a paper published in Naya Daur (Awadh Ank) by U.000 artisans were engaged in this industry. Lucknow during 1978-79 revealed that about 45000 persons were engaged in Chikan Work in Lucknow. carried out by Institute of Applied Statistics and Development Studies. Beeru Jain. Bijnour. Lucknow in 1996-97 revealed that about 35000 workers were engaged in Chikan Craft in Lucknow alone which produced worth of Rs. marketing etc. revealed that chikan goods of Lucknow are highly demanded at Calcutta.P. 2 Crore. R.
doria. while Zardozi work was done on ‘Malmal’ cloth earlier. Chikankari is no more confined to muslim women and workers. It is estimated domestic market size of Lucknow was Rs. Almost the entire production is currently directed to the domestic market where such items continue to be popular. century suiz cotton etc. 730 million annually. mainly in Chowk.00. 2. suiz cotton. As per information available from U. Kamdani work is generally done by females on Dupatta. chambric. tanjeb. gold and other nickels with chikankari of ‘Salma Sitara’. it is estimated that about 6 lakh workers and artisans are engaged in this craft.50 crore which shows growth 2. 90. terri rubia.00. It is to be noted that clothes for chikankari. century pince. There were about 2000 retails shops in Lucknow. Even a large number of Angarakha are sold annually. Zardozi is very popular and it is demanded during marriage ceremony of muslim girls. Aminabad. It shows that about Rs. The traditional chikan goods and fancy attractive designs are available at Pratap Chandra Lakhan Lal at Dyorhi Aga Mir. chikankari was popular for karchob 50 . traditional craft of chikankari is concentrated mainly in and around Lucknow. This estimation was based on statistics available in late 1990’s. Anil Kumar Rastogi etc. primary as a subsidiary occupation in the cottage sector. Good Tanjeb Kurta was worth of Rs. sheft. There were nearly 1.0 crores out of this estimated production. The threads are coated with silver. Presently the annual production of the chikan goods may be worth of Rs. it has exscinded to other communities and classes. Export Corp. Now. Charbagh etc. These items are highly priced. Earlier.75 folds during 2000 to 2005. Nishatganj. generally selected are jorjet. Lucknow. The total annual value of production of chikan industry was estimated to be around Rs. Ltd.Khanna Chikan. about 90 percent of the production was concentrated in Lucknow and its adjoining areas alone. 300 to 5000 while the price of Angarakha was reported to be Rs. Dyorhi Aga Mir. are dealing large business.000 daily during 2000. 247. Salwar Suit. 1500.P. Nazirabad. terri viyal. Jampar. Rai Barielly and Unnao.000 workers practicing this craft. Sari. viyal. Other centres where the craft is in vogue to some extent include Barabanki.
Sari. the earnings of workers are very low while the profit margins for retailers and traders are very high. 122. Maxi etc. USA. printing and chikan embroidery contribute approximately 2 percent. out of total sales of Rs. in comparison to the cost of finished products the value and contribution of each category of artisans is small. Bangalore. 3 percent and 6 percent of the cost. About 80 percent chikan goods are imported by USA alone. Lucknow and Nagpur. Nigeria and Switzerland. Incase of Kurtas washing charges account for another 1 percent and remaining is the cost of the cloth. Japan. ‘Palki’ etc. The contractors collect raw materials from the traders/ entrepreneurs distribute these among individual artisans at their houses. hulk of the chikan garments are marketed by traders who are entrepreneurs/ manufacturers themselves. Lucknow. Jampar. They get the articles produced on their own. Jacket. negotiate the labour charges and they pay them after work is completed and return the finished/ semi finished items to the traders/ entrepreneurs after obtaining payment from them on piece rate basis as initially settled. Importantly. The middlemen who supply to retail outlets are reported to retain a margin of about 15 percent on the cost of the product which includes interest on the capital for the duration of the production cycle.P.97 lakh in 1990-91. Again export prices are very high with huge profit margins. Thus. stitching. curtains of elephant. largest sale was reported to be in Hyderabad followed by Delhi. Further. Importantly. The function of distributing work is some times carried out through contractors who are entrusted with the job of chikan garment stitching and chikan embroidery at rates settled with them by the trades/ entrepreneurs. Export Corp. Canada. Now this has shifted to Salwar Suit. Shal. While the importers of chikan goods are UK.cloth like ‘Masnad’. The market is largely dominated by well established families in this trade. Australia. cutting. As statistics available from U. ‘Shamiyana’. West Germany. The sale price is determined by adding 15 percent to 30 percent on cost of production.. 5 percent. Most of the artisans are in their grip as they also borrow money 51 . The margin of profit varies in the context of places and the buyers.
the export is being promoted. Govt. However. Lucknow produced worth of Rs. These products were marketed through its own show rooms.5 lakh during 1985-86. U. has unveiled a vision 2010 for the textile sector which sets the target of $ 50 billion exports by 2010. The textile industry now faces a scenario where the players can export a large quantity.1 Concentration of Chikan Embroidery Work District Lucknow Town/ City/ Village Mall Amethi Alamnagar Amethia Chowk Bijnour Molviganj Chillawan Sadatganj Durgaganj Daliganj 37 20 10 15 5 18 4 12 4 15 5 Distance from Distt.94 crores in 2002-03. The textile industry is the single largest foreign exchange earner for India. While All India Handloom Fabric Society produced worth of Rs. India is expecting a growth of 15-18 percent in export of textile products.5 lakh during 1985-86. Export Corp. Table 4. 8.) 52 . USA and Canada are the constituents of North America.. indirectly.49 crores in 1998-99 to Rs. the value of exports of cotton fabric grew by 271. The Textile Ministry. The year 2005 brings in a host of opportunities for the Indian textile trends comes to an end.incase of need.1. Headquarter (km. 842. Textile industry has today reached the $ 37 billion mark with exports of about $ 13 billion. 223. USA is still leading in the import of Indian Cotton handloom fabrics and made ups. During 1998-99. 53 lakh was reported which constituted just 6 percent of the produced goods. 40 lakh in 1986-87. the export of chikan goods worth of Rs. of India. Currently it accounts for about 8 percent of GDP while about 38 million people are gainfully employed with it. During the year 1985-86.P. SEWA had produced goods worth of Rs. from Rs. 2.17 percent. The concentration of chikan embroidery work is shown in Table 4.
Garhi Kanaura Aminabad Itaunja Nishatganj Amaniganj Patanala Kakori Balaganj Mahmudnagar Malihabad Alambagh Malhaur Khurram Nagar Chinhat Husainabad Mohibullahpur Thakurganj Rahimabad Khadra Sahibnagar Sarojini Nagar Chaupatia Biswan Sidhauli Mahmudabad Sandila Balamau Mallawan Barabanki Asiwan Bangarmau Kashim Nagar Mir Ganj Mohan Chakalbansi Harchanpur Bachcharawan Singhpur 5 3 30 5 40 10 17 10 24 27 10 15 8 10 8 10 6 6 8 15 12 6 40 35 45 54 45 30 0 40 75 6 35 35 30 15 35 45 It shows that chikan craft is not confined in urban centres but it has grown in remote villages too.2) 53 . 2005. A rapid survey conducted in 1995 showed that in the concentrated areas more than one third households were engaged in chikan craft.Sitapur Hardoi Barabanki Unnao Rae Barielly Source: Field Survey. (Table 4. They were mainly muslims.
46 63.98 Muslim 120 128 236 205 80 110 200 500 120 87 95 206 105 140 204 76 119 147 381 3259 (55.2 Concentration of Chikan Craft in Lucknow and Unnao Cluster Lucknow Amethi Amethia Bijnour Chillawan Durgaganj Garhi Kannaura Itanuza Kakori Mahmoodnagar Malhaur Mohibullapur Rahimabad Saleh Nagar Sikrauri Unnao Asiwan Bangarmau Kasim Nagar Mirganj Mohan Total Total Households 1500 718 985 558 315 687 927 2810 250 433 1810 825 452 295 559 671 980 1029 2163 17173 Engaged in chikan crafts 200 215 394 255 155 375 270 900 128 195 175 275 175 258 355 148 170 319 908 5870 (34:18) % 13.72 87.0 45.13 32.0 41.4 49.3.03 50.52) Hindu 80 87 158 50 75 265 70 400 8 108 80 69 70 118 151 72 51 172 527 2611 (44.33 29.0 45.51 22.59 29.33 33.66 17.94 40.48) Source: IASADS. 54 .33 38.21 54.Table 4. Lucknow.35 31. 1995. Average rates paid and time taken by crafts women to complete different chikan items are shown in Table 4.03 17.
73 3 Fine 14 21. These are mainly sarees. The main products of chikan embroidery are shown in Table 4.17 6 All Over Tepchi 482 432. ladies salwar suits. No.) 158 240 Salwar Suits 2 All Over Jali (3 pcs.38 Average Time (days) 1995 2005 16 10 18 26 32 45 46 35 36 20 13 4 4 28 11 10 5 4 9 10 25 30 38 30 25 25 5 1 2 15 10 12 5 2 Narrow Border Pallu (Bakhia) 2 Narrow Border Pallu 77 115 (Phanda) 3 Broder Border Pallu 118 150 (Phanda) 4 Broader Border Pallu 139 191 (Bakhia) 5 All Over Jalidar 194 217.00 5 Ordinary Murri 8 21. 1 Work/ Activities Average Rates (Rs.50 2 Fine With Kangan Keel 21 34.83 Source: IASAD.4.) 1995 2005 62 100.54 Gents Kurta 1 Super Fine 87 94.3 Average Ratio Paid and Time Taken By Crafts Women To Complete Different Chikan Items Item Saree Sr. Lucknow.18 Gents Suits Codes as per embroidery designing 1 K–4 10 17 2 K–3 10 18. 1995 and Field Survey.66 3 Ordinary Embroidery 96 135.66 4 Ordinary 8 20. The wage rates have been restructured while time schedule for completing the assigned work has been slashed down. 2005. gents suits etc.) 187 236.86 4 Dupatta Ordinary 54 23. 55 .Table 4.72 Ladies 1 All Over Jali (2 pcs.
) Jali (3 pcs. The estimated number of chikan outlets is shown in Table 4. 2005. 1 Product Saree Nature of Embroidery Narrow Border Pallu (Bakhia) Narrow Border Pallu (Phanda) Broader Border Pallu (Bakhia) Broader Border Pallu (Phanda) Jalidar Tepchi Jali (2 pcs.5. No.4 Main Products of Chikan Embroidery Sr.Table 4.) Ordinary Embroidery Dupatta (Ordinary) Large & Medium Size Short Size K-4 K-3 Pathani Suit Superfine Fine with Kangan Keel Fine Ordinary Ordinary Murri Ordinary embroidery Fine embroidery Ordinary embroidery Fine embroidery Ordinary embroidery Fine embroidery Cap Handkerchief Kitchen items etc. Source: Field Survey. 2 Ladies Salwar Suits 3 Gents Suits 4 Gents Kurta 5 6 7 8 Bedsheet Pillow Cover Wall Hanging (Parda) Misc. 56 .
6 (a) Projected Growth of Chikan Business 2004 247.80 187.86 2009 629.7) 57 .20 74.83 2008 521.00 Chikan Association Handicraft Office NGO’s Manufacturer’s/ Whole sellers Average Number of Outlets Percentage No. (Table 4. About 60 percent sales is being coming during season i.00 2004 148.5 Total Number of Chikan Outlets Manufacturer/ Whole seller 900 800 1000 700 850 38. 629.8 percent during 2000 to 2004.70 41. while 30 percent demand is coming from abroad. summer.e. There are 22000 outlets.40 51. 2005. The average rates of chikan goods has grown by 136.21 crores.00 247.80 104. Table 4.50 99.96 117. mainly retailers. It is estimated that by the year end of 2009 chikan business will grow to Rs.Table 4.60 129.21 Source: Field Survey.64 Retailer 1200 1100 1250 1000 1138 51.6) Table 4.50 2001 70. (Table 4.87 2006 359.72 Seasonal/Contractor 200 100 250 300 212 9. 2005. Crores) On Season (March–July) Off Season Total Sale 2000 62.40 2001 77. 2005. Again it is estimated that 25 percent sales is being consumed in local. of outlets Source: Field Survey.0 2007 432.64 Total 2300 2000 2500 2000 2200 100.50 Source: Field Survey.00 2003 112.50 2005 297. while 45 percent sales is being made in different parts of country.6 Total Seasonal Sale during Last Five Year (Rs.44 46.
Table 4. Importantly.7 Different Channel of Sale (Rs.40 2001 34. (Table 4.07 [46%] 29. 2000 12 18 5 4 5 2.70 [50%] 41.10.50 2003 9 18 3 2.5 5 5 4 7 4 11 12 4 5 4 7.26 [28%] 104.87 [25%] 111. sales of georzette sarees has grown while sale of silk saree has declined over the period.61 [15%] 58.60 5 6 3 10.92 [48%] 32.09 [35%] 117.8) Table 4.15 [45%] 56.25 [25%] 129.9 and 4.50 2001 10 10 8 6 7.8 Item wise Percentage Sale during Last five Year Cotton Sarees Jorzett Sarees Silk Sarees Pure Jorzett Sarees Terry viol Sarees Pure Shiphon Sarees Kota Sarees Cotton Salwar Suit Jorzett Salwar Suit Silk Salwar Suit Lahnga Patiyala Suit Gents Kurta Bed Sheet Others Source: Field Survey.50 3.3 2001 17 7.50 9.3 10 Item wise cost of production is shown in Table 4.75 [25%] 84.5 2 3 3 9 5 16 2 5 5 5. 58 .20 1 9 9 10 4 2 6 3 8. Crores) Local Other Part of Country Export Total 2000 27.17 [26%] 48.50 15 8 2 3 6 2.50 Source: Field Survey.5 7.00 2004 61.83 [27%] 61.00 2003 46.38 [45%] 74.50 . 2005.10 [30%] 187.25 [30%] 247.50 2001 17.50 6.90 2004 9 20 2. 2005.50 3.50 5 3 8 5 13 3 5.
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