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(Beverages Distribution Management System)
(Raman Thakur) Registration No. 1050070042 Programme & Section B. Tech CSE ‘C17T1’
Under the Guidance of
Navjyot Kaur (faculty Co-ordinator)
Navneet Singh (Industry Co-ordinator)
Department Of CSE/IT Lovely School of Technology Lovely Professional University, Phagwara July – December 2011
Declaration I hereby declare that the project work entitled “Beverages Distribution Management System” is an authentic record of my own work carried out at NextGen Venturi Pvt. Ltd. Chandigarh, as requirements of Industry Internship project for the award of degree of B. Tech CSE, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, under the guidance of Navneet Singh(Industry Coordinator) and Navjyot kaur(Faculty coordinator), during July to December 2010). Raman Thakur 1050070042 Date:
Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of our knowledge and belief.
Navjyot Kaur (Faculty Coordinator) Coordinator)
Navneet Singh (Industry
Without their continuous help and motivation my efforts would not have been able to be shaped into a tangible form. Their continuous surveillance over my work allowed me to work more efficiently. who mentored and supported me throughout. who not only assigned me a responsible role in the project but also confided in me their confidence during the entire cycle of project development inspite of mine being totally new to this kind of work. Navjyot Kaur. They always inspired me towards learning and gaining knowledge and helped me at all stages of the project by spending their invaluable time and effort. My sincere obligations go to Mr. Navneet Singh (Project Manager). Chandigarh. Ltd. Lecturer. Phagwara. I am also extremely thankful to Ms.. for providing me with an opportunity to work with them and be an active team member of a project of such value. Raman Thakur (Student LPU) .Acknowledgement I am grateful to NextGen Venturi Pvt. Acknowledgement is also due to my parents. friends and all those people who have been continuous support to me in the successful completion of this project. Lovely Professional University.
Whats new in the System to be developed 4.Table of Content 220.127.116.11. Data Flow Diagrams 6.1. Database Design 6. General Description 5. Purpose 5. Entity-Relationship Diagrams 6. System Design 6. DFD for Present System 3. General Design Issues 6. Functional Requirements 5. Design Constraints 6. Abstract 5. Scope 5.2.1. Software Requirement Specification 18.104.22.168.9. Product Function Overview 5.3. Feasibility Analysis 4.3.4. Project Plan 22.214.171.124. Developer’s Responsibility Overview 126.96.36.199. Product Defination 4. Existing Software 3.1. Pseudo Code (Algorithms) . Profile of the Problem 3.4. External (User) Interface Requirements 5.5. Organizational overview 2. Introduction 3. Existing System 3. Introduction 5. Problem Analysis 4.
Corporative Overview: High Technologies Solutions continuously raise standards of professionalism within the IT training industry and to create standards of excellence against which candidates measured. It support to leading luxury automotive industry worldwide and also manufacturing of innovative Bluetooth devices under brand Venturi. America. prepares developers to create and deliver products and services for corporate and Internet. NextGen Venturi Ltd’s strategy and business objective are focused on becoming a market leader in the development and distribution of devices promoting mobile value added multimedia solutions and benefits of convergence products through its VENTURI portfolio.Project : Beverages Distribution Management System Organizational Overview Company Overview: NextGen Venturi is a UK headquartered technology company with offices throughout Europe. Our set of courses in Software Development Education. Japan and India. NextGen with diversified range of business operations are providing bluetooth testing services and IT and software database. These programmers address software .
And by which we can implemented any Architecture such as one. NET platform.Net Microsoft .NET Crystal Report . Our customers work with us across different service lines . These solutions also feature extensive offerings on Microsoft™.Net Framework 2008.NET : Object-oriented language in crossplatform .NET and Java Enterprise Development with J2EE What we do-Our Core Competencies: Our full-service portfolio that allows us to address diverse customer needs and deliver an integrated.as/400 technologies and Java® technologies. three or n-tier Architecture. Application Development Using J2EE and J2ME. scripting languages. one-stop solution differentiates us. Business Logic and Data link layer). Description:. including Microsoft’s . . and web services.NET : eXtensible markup Language Interacting with .NET Architecture VB.NET : Visual Basic on .using the depthand breadth of our offering to align IT strategy with evolving business needs. NET Framework : Basic Concepts.NET ADO .Net Technology Provide completes Environment for Developing Application System (presentation layer. 2. two.NET / C#.NET : Server side scripting on .NET XML . IBM Mainframe . Our training division is providing training is these streams:1. ASP .design principles at every skill level and provide thorough instruction on the use of various development tools. . Web Development using Microsoft . Training in Advanced technologies: Shortage of skilled manpower prompted us to open Training division to cater to our company needs and for outside world as well.NET SQL SERVER C# .
North America and Japan. robust. Italy. Enterprise Java Beans : A component architecture for multi-tier client/server system. Venturi Mini is a Music Streaming and Hands-free Car Device. Building on the solid foundation of Java SE. Germany. Core Java Advanced Java J2EE Architecture : J2EE Concepts. NextGen is a first company to manufacture and develop the Bluetooth devices in India and are also the provider of Bluetooth IOT test services. Basic J2EE Architecture Java Server Pages : Secured Server side scripting. Java Struts : Development utility framework Product Overview: NextGen is a UK based MNC based at IT Park Chandigarh. Enterprise Edition (Java EE) is the industry standard for developing portable. This is a plug and play device and can be used for following features: · Hands-free calling · Music Stream from mobile to Music system of Car (without any wire) · IPod/MP3 connectivity via bluetooth · Iphone Compatible · Laptop Music connectivity via Bluetooth · Devices Charging · Navigation System compatible · Phonebook download · Plug and play – no installation required · Audio Out/ Audio In port – Wired connectivity in case Bluetooth is not available on handset/iPod/Mp3 · . IT and Database development and maintenance to luxury automotive companies in Europe. scalable and secure server-side Java applications. Java EE provides web services. Java Servlets : server side java programming. NextGen is having operations in North America. France. Spain.JAVA Java Platform.1 : An Interactive Server. BEA Weblogic 8. India. Java Beans : A component object model for java. Japan and India.
Soft drink or cold drink distributors can use this software. This project is mainly meant for the Beverage Distributor.Ambient Light Sensor – Auto adjustment We have won “Best Innovation and Design Engineering Award” at CES Show Las Vegas – USA.The software is based on three tier Distribution System (including producer. This software is meant to serve the organization by reducing the paper work. Hence it helps in saving time and labour. Maintenance of record. but not be limited to the following: • User Registration o User Profile o Employee management o Manage Sell and purchase record o Manage stock record o Promotional SMS . This project is flexible enough to support any beverage product. also Amazing Tech and The Gadget Show Award for this product. They can manage their business anywhere in the world while accessing internet. Sonim. We are selling it all across the globe with major telecom and retailers such as “Car Phone Warehouse”. sending promotional Ads by SMS. Verizon. They can manage their promotional SMS. maintaining detail of the Customer. Core activities may include. Profile of Software: This software is a web application for the use of the Beverages Distributer. Salom Success etc. Any new user can create his account by paying registration fee. The basic premise of the system is that it enable distributor to manage the overall records between producer and distributor and distributor and retailer (including all the staff activity). The main module we are going to cover security and authentication. This product enable user to manage their all distribution system online. Database Design and application. This project is mainly meant for the Beverage Distributor. User Friendly GUI. distributor and retailer).
registration systems. creating Distributor signup for users.o Resource Management Other than this. Provide distributor to manage and promote their business. Least the site needs an administrator. someone with the technical knowledge and the time to monitor the site. . unsolicited comments and filters. to suspend or remove users who abuse their membership. and so forth. the application has the entire basic website feature as: • • • • • • • • • • Home About us Services Provided Terms and condition Site Map Contact us Environment and society Health and awareness Water management Security and authentication This project is flexible enough to support any beverage product. customizing fields for users to describe themselves. photos. there are important security measures that need to be addressed to prevent malicious attacks. Additionally. Problem Analysis: Product Defination: The layout and design.
Two major benefits are: • • Improving the performance Minimizing the cost of processing This software is web based application. Behavioral Feasibility: Behavioral feasibility estimates the reaction of the User staff towards the development of the computerized system. Technical Feasibility 3. So. For the successful implementation of any system. DreamViewer. Hibernate • AJAX Our team is well aware of these technologies and can easily be implemented in developing the desired software. the users must be impressed that the new system is for his benefit. Three key considerations are involved in the feasibility analysis.Feasibility Study: Feasibility study describes and evaluates the systems and provides for the selection of the best system that meets the system performance requirements. then it doesn’t matter how best the system is or how much effort you are putting in its development. 1. the behavioral feasibility plays a very important role in the development of new system It reveals that whether the system is acceptable by user or not. To develop the software the following technology will be used as per requirement: • Language: Java • Editor : NetBeans. Economic Feasibility 2. NotePad • Database : MySql. . If the user does not ready to use it. In this part of feasibility analysis we determined the technical possibilities for the implementation of the system. MS Visio. Behavioural Feasibility The feasibility study of the software is as follow: Technical feasibility: Technical Feasibility centers on the existing system and to what extent it can support the proposed system.
The hardware specifications for the system are given below: Personal Computer: The cost of the PC depends upon the configuration of the PC. The software tools needed for the development of the system are given below: JDK 1. The total cost for the proposed system comprises of hardware costs and software costs.Economic Feasibility: Economic feasibility determines the benefits and saving that are expected from the system and compare them with costs. Cost/Benefit analysis has been done on the basis of total cost of the system and direct and indirect benefits derived from the system. thus an efficient server would act as the backbone of a good communication system. The minimum specifications are: • • Core2Dual processor 512 MB RAM 120 GB free disk space Window Server 2005 • • Software Costs: the Software costs for the proposed system can be calculated from the cost of software tools needed from the development of the proposed system. The main aim of economic feasibility is to check whether the system is financially affordable or not. The cost for the proposed system can be divided into two parts given below: Hardware Costs The hardware cost for the proposed system can be calculated from cost of hardware needed for the development of the proposed system.5 SQL SERVER 2005 . The minimum specification assumed for the Pc is given below: • • P4 processor 256 MB RAM 40 GB free disk space MS Windows • • Server: As the software is a client-server based application.
If not than kindly let us know. Time duration: 14-18 weeks No of Staff will engaged: 3 No of pages: 20 to 25 Charges for gateway Purchasing Charges for Web hosting Others Expanse If this cost estimation fit in your budget than kindly inform us we will feel free to start the project. we can discus on issues and hopefully come to a solution. As per the above schedule of event and because of the following reason the software will cost about 30000 to 40000 INR .Cost Analysis: We have studies you project and done some research our team is ready to work on project. Project Plan: This project is estimated to accomplish in four months. The due date for different event as follow: Schedule of Event: Event Date .
1 RFP Distribution to Vendors Written Confirmation of Vendors with Bid Intention Questions from Vendors about scope or approach due Responses to Vendors about scope or approach due Presentation on the features and technologies Target Date for Review of Proposals Final Vendor Selection Discussion(s)--Week of NA Anticipated decision and selection of Vendor(s) NA Anticipated commencement date of work 1/8/2010 15/8/2010 25/8/2010 8/9/2010 24/9/2010 8/10/2010 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18/10/2010 8/11/2010 29/11/2010 10/12/2010 10 First Demo and Feedback 11 Second Demo and Feedback 12 Final Submission and Implementation Existing System: According to our knowledge and research based on the software ‘Beverage Distribution Management System’. The software is based on web application and no such website have been found by our team and there may exist a desktop application but this one is fully new web application for the future prospective in the Distribution System of Soft drinks. we came to know that there is no such existing system till now. Software Requirement Specification : Abstract: The web application is based on 3 tier Distribution System and thus according to its architecture we need basic requirements such as- .
If the user(distributor) is a new one then he has to fill application form containing his personal information. Send promotional SMS through the system. To meet their needs they want to adapt every possible technology which can help them. Purpose The purpose of this document to describe the essential requirements for the web application website along with the description of the various interfaces required for the proposed system. which will be displayed on his profile. The . It is meant for use by the developers and will be the basis for validating the final delivered system. Any changes made to the requirements in the future will have to go through a formal approval process. The main application of the system is that it would manage the overall records between producer and distributor and distributor and retailer (including all the staff activity). In scope: In today’s world every business organization want to earn more by reducing the labour and investing less time. Then only the user can log on to the system. Also users(distributors) are allowed to upload only one photo of his choice. Scope This document is the only one that will describe the requirements of the proposed system.which he only can access . Distributor also can do promotion of their products or company by sending the messages facility in bulk. The developer is responsible for asking for clarifications wherever necessary. They can manage their business anywhere in the world while accessing internet. • • • Connect with producer and retailer using instant messages and promotional sms Manage all the system anytime and anywhere with the use of internet. The user can send sms to any member at any point of time for the promotional point of view.• • • • User will create his own account containing a unique username and password . Introduction This software is a web application based on three tier Distribution System which enable user to manage their all distribution system and promotional messages through online.
SRS: Software Requirements Specification. Our project helps them to meet all their needs. Any market related prediction. Out of Scope: • • Tax computations for gains/losses. customers and with overall system in no time through internet. It will help the user or distributor to create his account and then manage the overall system of his business through the authentication of the created profile. Installing the web application software on the website. and Abbreviations: BMDS: Beverages Management Distribution System. Conducting any user training if needed for the proper operation of the system. Naturally. This types of Distribution Management website differ of course. WWW: World Wide Web. Developer’s Responsibility Overview The developer means our team is responsible for the following : • • • Developing the Beverage Distribution System. Till now to run their business. they have to do lots of work. In today world user want a system that can provide the facility to access the overall management of his business from the computer to minimize his time and to get the maximum profit. GUI: Graphical User Interface. Acronyms. this kind of website will help the user in the fields like marketing your business or accomplish . Thus our team is going to work on a software named ‘Beverages Management Distribution System ’ that will enable a user or Distributer to access his overall management of Distribution System through online.beverage distributors are not exception. General Description As we see in the today scenario small businesses are getting their own marketing websites so they can connect with their employees. due to the diverse nature of online working.
In the profile user must upload his photo according the rules and as per requirements to give the authentication to the user. 2->He can manage his staff salary.which he only access. he must agree with the given conditions. 3->He can manage the daily distribution of soft drinks. After creating the profile user will get list of facilities 1->There will be the facility for the user to promote his drinks and company through the promotional SMS. • The main page of the software will have also many features and functions. There will be certain condition before giving the authentication to the user.certain goals with in less time as it consumed earlier by using the hardcopy. Product Function Overview • • • • User will create the account to get the authentication to access the system containing the username and password . Planning of this project will include following things: Team Structure Topic Understanding Modular break-up of the system . 4->can calculate the daily profit or weekly or monthly as per his choice. There will be tabs for the following : Home About us Services Provided Terms and condition Site Map Contact us Project planning I took assignment for developing a computerized system of “Beverage Distribution Management System”.
Processor logic for each module Database requirements Specific Requirements Software functions: BDMS should support the following use cases: Class of Use cases Use case related to Installation Use cases related to system authorization Use Cases Installation Description of Use cases Creates and initializes working files. Login into BDMS Login Change Password Use cases related to Profile Create profile Rename profile Change BDMS password Creates a new portfolio Rename an existing profile Delete an existing profile Creates a new security in a given Renames an existing security Deletes an existing security Add a transaction to a security Delete profile Use cases related to securities Create security Rename Security Delete security Use cases related to Promotional SMS Sending Promotional SMS .
2. System asks the user for the home directory in which all the working files will be created. Functional Requirements We describe the functional requirements by giving various use cases. 4. 5(a)1. 4. System does authentication. Main Scenario : 1. System creates the working files in the specified home directory. 2. Installation aborted. User specifies the home directory and login/password. Start the application. 3. Give him 3 chances. b. Main screen is displayed. List of Distributor and company names. Alternate Scenario : Authorization fails o Prompt the user that he typed the wrong password o Allow him to re-enter the password. User is also asked for the initial login and password. Use cases related to system authorization: Use Case 2: Login Primary Actor: User Pre Condition: Nil Main Scenario : 1. User initiates “Beverages Distribution Managent System” installation program. 3. Use Case 1: Installation Primary Actor: User Pre Condition: Internet connection available. Alternate Scenario: 5(a). Authorization information. Use Case 3: Change Password Primary Actor: User Pre Condition: User logged in Main Scenario : . User prompted for login and password. Working files contain: a. Network failure. User gives the login and password.
Portfolio with the same new name exists. Primary Actor: User Pre-Condition: User logged in. . New password and confirm new password do not match. 4(b)1. 5. Allow him to re-enter the attributes. User enters a different name. 2. User initiates the “create portfolio” functionality. 4(b). Prompt the user that he typed the wrong password 4(a)2. Authorization fails 4(a)1. User initiates the password change command. Renaming fails. User is prompted for old password. 2. User enters the new name. 4(a)3. User initiates the “rename portfolio” functionality. Use Case 4: Create Profile Primary Actor: User Pre Condition: User logged in. 2. System asks the user for the portfolio name. User gives the old password. new password and confirm new password. System does authentication. 3. Alternate Scenario: o The profile whose name is supposed to change does not exist. 3. Portfolio with the same name exists. new password and confirm new password. 4.1. Main Scenario: 1. Give 3 chances. Allow him to re-enter the password. System asks the user for a different name. System asks for the portfolio to be renamed and the new name. 3. Alternate Scenario: 4(a). 4(a)1. 4. 4(a)2. Give him 3 chances. 4. Main Scenario : 1. User enters the portfolio name. Alternate Scenario : 4(a). An empty portfolio is created. New password is registered with the system. Empty portfolio gets created. Renaming fails. the error message is displayed. the error message is displayed. Use Case 5: Rename profile. Portfolio is renamed.
5. the error message is displayed. Alternate Scenario: 5(a) A security with the given answer doesn’t match. An empty security of specified attributes is created. 3. 3. the error message is displayed. 4. 4. o Security with the same question name exists. Portfolio does not exist. Deletion fails. . Main Scenario : 1. Main Scenario : 1.Use Case 6: Delete profile. error message is displayed. Main Scenario : 1. 2. System asks for the name of the portfolio. Primary Actor: User Pre-Condition: User logged in. 2. System asks the user for the security and the new question. User enters the new question. User initiates the ”delete portfolio” functionality. System asks the user to enter the attributes of the security. User initiates the “rename question” functionality. 3(a)1. Use Case 8: Rename security. Primary Actor: User Pre-Condition: User logged in. o Renaming fails. b :Date of birth. Alternate Scenario: o Renaming fails. 5. Alternate Scenario: 3(a). 3. User selects the profile. The portfolio is deleted. 2. Question:which you have select during the creation of profile . Use cases related to securities: Use Case 7: Create a security. User initiates the “create security” functionality. System specifies the question: a. Primary Actor: User Pre-Condition: User logged in. User selects the question in case the user forget his password. Security is changed.
2. . 3. 3. User selects the option of viewing a particular profile (selects a profile from the select tab). Main Scenario : 1. 3. Main Scenario: 1. Primary Actor: User Pre-Condition: User logged in. Use Case 11: Display Security Primary Actor: User Pre-Condition: User logged in. Use Case 12: Send Promotional SMS. 2. User selects the option of viewing a particular security (selects a profile from the profile tag). SMS is sent. Main Scenario: 1. Security is deleted. System displays the profit in the profile with the net-worth by summing up. Alternate Scenario o Security does not exist. 2. User initiates the “delete security” functionality. Use Case 10: Display Profile Primary Actor: User Pre-Condition: User logged in. User initiates the “send SMS” functionality. System asks for the security name.Use Case 9: Delete security. User selects the SMS option in the home page. System asks for the names or group to which the SMS is to be sent. Primary Actor: User Pre-Condition: User logged in. o Deletion fails. 4. Main Scenario : 1. System displays all the profile. error message is displayed. User selects the delete option. Alternate Scenario o SMS does not send. 4.
External (User) Interface Requirements This web application would provide windows based graphical user interface to be designed using Dream Weiver. servlet.0 or higher. Flash. design standards and conventions. Netbeans. Design Constraints • Software Constraints: The system is to run under the Windows Operating System. User interface will comply with functional coverage. User interface for the ‘Beverage Distribution Management Software ’ are: Feedback Messages Online help Appropriate Error messages Various screens to be designed for the system are: Login Screen Screen displaying profile of a user Screen to edit profile Screens for viewing to manage staff salary. Screens to send the promotional SMS. • b) Hardware Constraints: Pentium IV 1. JSP. Screen to print the receipt. etc. Internet Explorer 6. error message is displayed.o Sending fails.2 GHz 512 KB Cache 256MB RAM VGA card with 512 MB built-in RAM 40 GB Hard Disk 101 Keyboard 15” SVGA Colour Monitor 1 Parallel and 2 Serial Ports Ethernet card (10/100 Mbps) .
Web clients use a browser to access the middle tier over an HTTP connection such as the Internet. This tier contains both the presentation logic and the business rules that define a Web site. this layer consists of the front end user interfaces. in turn. Business logic This layer constitutes the middle tier containing the Application Server consisting of reusable Java Components.JRun completely supports the latest industry standards for developing Web application composed of the following: Java servlets: Java servlets are server-side components written in Java that add custom functionality to a Web server. The most important aspect of distributed applications is the logical partitioning of an application into three fundamental layers: Presentation Business logic Data Source A simple distributed application model consists of a client that communicates with the middle layer. These screens have very high user interaction and hence must have a good look-n-feel and ease of navigation. The following sections describe the functionality of the each layer in detail: Presentation Also called the Client tier. which itself consists of the application server and an application containing the business logic. Servlets are ideally suited for Web-based applications because they support the HTTP request/response model and allow access to the EJB components used for data access and manipulation. communicates with a database that supplies and stores data. JRun is used to implement applications for the middle tier. The application. which act as a medium between the system and the user. .System Design General Design Issues: System Architecture Beverages Distribution Management website is a Client-Server based distributed Application. Included in this tier are any applets that execute on the client’s machine.
The scripting portion of a JSP page present dynamic content back to the client. When a client requests a JSP page. HTTP clients Server-side Presentation Server-side Business logic Java servlets EJB Web Server JSP Pages EJB Engine EJB EJB Enterprise Data Store HTML content This three-tier architecture offers several advantages: Client tier Middle tier Data tier The tiers.JSP pages: JSP pages create servlets from text files containing a combination of HTML and scripting code. indices. static content such as HTML pages. procedures. you can access Java servlets. or even components of the tiers. The middle tier shields clients from the complexities of accessing the Enterprise data store. Data Source:This layer represents the data storage and data access features. can be distributed across multiple hardware systems to improve system scalability and performance. etc. JSP pages. views. custom tag libraries. and EJBs from JSP pages. the page is translated into a Java servlet.The Data Source layer will be responsible for: Storage of data Retrieval of data Maintenance of data Integrity of data In developing the software of BDMS . . layers are independent of each other. In addition. The Java Servlet API defines Web applications as being composed of Java servlets. and will host MySql consisting of physical database and logical objects like tables. and any other application resources.
I1 S ta te I d C i ty N a m e Overall Design Per User: . Database Design General Design: S tate U s e rT a 1 le b P K U s e rId U s e rN a m e D a t e o f B irt h P a ssw o rd E m a ilId C o n ta c t N o S e c u rit y Q u e s t io n A nsw er A d d re s h C it y S tate C o u n t ry C o u n t ry P K C o u n tr y I d C o u n tr y N a m e PK S ta te I d F K1.The component architecture allows you to distribute application development across your development group.I1 C o u n tr y I d S ta te N a m e C it y PK C i ty I d F K1. For example. Java Servlet developers are typically concerned with information presentation rather than with implementing business rules.
V e h ic a lT a b le P K V e h i c a l Id V eh icalN o V e h ic a lN a m e S t a ffT A b le P K S ta ffI d S t a ff N a m e S a la ry D a ily E x p e n s e S a la ry D u e S a la ry T a b le D a te o fP a y e m e n t B onus A m ount S a la ry C u t A dv anc eP ay m ent A m o u n t P a y b le F K1 S t a ff I d D e p o s it T a b le C u s to m e rT a b le P K C u s to m e rI d F K1 S ta ffI d F K2 V e h ic a lI d D a te A m o u n t D e p o s it a b le A m o u n t D e p o s it e d D ueA m ount E x tra E x p e n d it u re D e ta il F u e lC h a rg e C u s to m e rN a m e C o n ta c tN o C o n ta c tN o 2 A d d re s s L o a n T a b le D a te L o a n C a re t LoanB otel F K1 C u s t o m e rI d F K2 S ta ff Id P u rc h a s e T a b le P K D a te I n/O u _T a b le t S a le T a b le P K D a te D ate F K2 S ta ff Id F K1 V e h ic a lI d S to c k T a b le P K Ite m I d Ite m N a m e C o s tP r i c e S a le P ri c e S to c k L i k a g e S to c k Use Case Diagrams: Fig(a) .
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