# Generalised calculator

y =
a
1277.981
5.36

mass
exponent
m
b
4000
0.66

Kleiber line (mammals)

y=amb

B M R=3. 3 4kg0 .7 5
mass (kg)
1

BMR (W.kg-0.75)
3.340

Metabolic rate (in J/hr and in W) for selected taxa from Table 4-5 of Withers (1992) using a bod
Placental
Marsupial
Platypus Echidna
Passerines
J/hr
12118.7 11280.0
8464.6
8909.2
7948.9
3521.0 20444.4
W
3.366
3.133
2.351
2.475
2.208
0.978
5.679
Lizards Varanids Lacertids Snakes
Boids
Colubrids Turtles
J/hr
376.8
548.0
495.4
490.0
215.3
696.8
494.2
W
0.105
0.152
0.138
0.136
0.060
0.194
0.137

SMR (in mL O2 h-1) according to White et al. (2006) for various vertebrates of mass (in g) o
OLS is from an ordinary least squares regression. RMA is from a reduced major axis
fish
amphibians
reptiles
birds
Temp
OLS
RMA
OLS
RMA
OLS
RMA
OLS
20 oC
39.286
42.963
34.921
46.249
20.960
22.607
38 oC
96.033 102.036 148.415 198.208 104.800 115.547 504.881
SMR (in W) from above for these vertebrates using an oxygen equivalence (in kJ.l O2-1) o
fish
amphibians
reptiles
birds
Temp
OLS
RMA
OLS
RMA
OLS
RMA
OLS
20 oC
0.220
0.241
0.196
0.260
0.118
0.127
o
38 C
0.539
0.573
0.833
1.112
0.588
0.648
2.833
Q10 estimates (with 95% confidence intervals) according to White et al. (2006) for these vario
fish
amphibians
reptiles
birds
1.65
2.21
2.44
2.09
CI
1.56
1.74
2.05
2.37
2.25
2.64
1.45

er line (mammals)

M R=3. 3 4kg0 .7 5
BMR (W.kg-0.75)
3.340

Marsupial line

B M R=2.3 3kg0.7 5
mass (kg)
1

BMR (W.kg-0.75)
2.330

thers (1992) using a body mass (in g) of:
Passerines
Nonpasserines
21826.1 12468.0 11635.8
6.063
3.463
3.232
Crocodyl
Anura
Bufo
534.8
460.5
658.0
0.149
0.128
0.183

tebrates of mass (in g) of
1000
from a reduced major axis regression.
birds
mammals
RMA
OLS
RMA

511.876 531.165 599.198
uivalence (in kJ.l O2-1) of
20.2
birds
mammals
RMA
OLS
RMA

2.872
2.980
3.362
al. (2006) for these various vertebrates
birds
mammals
2.09
2.81
3.05
2.44
3.24

1000
J/hr
W
J/hr
W

Thermal conductance (presumably, minimal) as cited by Withers (1992, p155) for mammals and birds o
Mammals
Nonpasserine birds
Passerine birds

1.0808 J.g-1.hr-1.oC-1
0.3387 J.g-1.hr-1.oC-1
0.2170 J.g-1.hr-1.oC-1

0.00030023 W.g-1.oC-1
0.00009407 W.g-1.oC-1
0.00006028 W.g-1.oC-1

0.3002
0.0941
0.0603

Thermal time constant and therefore thermal conductance for heating and cooling
All lizard shaped reptiles (< 7.6 kg) from Grigg et al. (1979) with heat capacity of (in J.g-1.oC-1) of
ln τ
Thermal time constant (τ)
Thermal conductance (Ko)
Heating
3.21
24.70 min
135.63 J.min-1.oC-1
Cooling
3.46
31.80 min
105.35 J.min-1.oC-1
Alligators (0.6 to 7.6 kg) from Smith (1976) with heat capacity of (in J.g-1.oC-1) of
ln τ
Thermal time constant (τ)
Thermal conductance (Ko)
Heating
1.40
25.06 min
133.67 J.min-1.oC-1
Cooling
1.54
34.36 min
97.51 J.min-1.oC-1

for mammals and birds of mass (in g) of:
W.kg-1.oC-1
W.kg-1.oC-1
W.kg-1.oC-1

1000

0.3002 W.oC-1
0.0941 W.oC-1
0.0603 W.oC-1

for heating and cooling reptiles.
3.35 and mass (in g) of
1000
ermal conductance (Ko)
2.260 W.oC-1
mean
1.756 W.oC-1
2.008 W.oC-1
3.35 and mass (in g) of
1000
ermal conductance (Ko)
2.228 W.oC-1
mean
o -1
1.625 W. C
1.927 W.oC-1

Allometric relationships for respiratory variables according to Tab 13-8 in Withers (1992) for animals of

Mammals
Birds
Lizards
Amphib

Lung volume (ml)

Tidal volume (ml)

52.97
27.64
219.97
360.20

7.50
13.21
28.25

Resp rate (min-1)
Mammals
Birds
Reptiles

37.17
17.15
15.63

Generalised c
Mammalian alveolar surface area (cm )
2

21161.52

y =
a
789.668
1.57

ers (1992) for animals of mass (in g) of
Resp rate (min-1)

Min Vol (ml.min-1)

37.17
17.15
15.63

279.19
242.97
78.12

Generalised calculator
mass
exponent
m
b
4000
0.75

y=amb

1000

ml O2.g-1.hr-1

INPUTS
Mass of animal (g)
Energetic equivalence of O2 (kJ.l O2-1)

1000

W (=J.s-1)

0.100

1.000

2.02
0
48.48
2020
0.56
48480
0.1
0
2.4
1.67
100
0.03
2400

3.6
0
86.4
3600
1
86400
0.18
0
4.28
2.97
178.22
0.05
4277.23

20.2

OUTPUTS
Energy per unit mass per unit time

J.g-1.hr-1
J.g-1.s-1
J.g-1.day-1
J.hr-1
J.s-1(=W)
J.day-1
ml O2.g-1.hr-1

Energy per animal per unit time

Oxygen consumption per unit mass per unit time

ml O2.g-1.s-1
ml O2.g-1.day-1
ml O2.kg-1.min-1
ml O2.hr-1

Oxygen consumption per animal per unit time

ml O2.s-1

from Withers 1992

ml O2.day-1

22

O2 equiv (kJ/l)

21.5
21
20.5
20
19.5
19
18.5
0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9
RQ

1

1.1

ml O2.g-1.hr-1

0.100

2.02
0
48.48
2020
0.56
48480
0.1
0
2.4
1.67
100
0.03
2400

W (=J.s-1)

1.000

3.6
0
86.4
3600
1
86400
0.18
0
4.28
2.97
178.22
0.05
4277.23

ml O2.kg-1.min-1

1.000

1.21
0
29.09
1212
0.34
29088
0.06
0
1.44
1
0.01
0
0.14

J.hr-1

1000.000

1
0
24
1000
0.28
24000
0.05
0
1.19
0
49.5
0.01
1188.12

J/g/hr

1.000

1
0
24
1000
0.28
24000

RQ

O2 equiv
1

21.4

0.88
0.8
0.76
0.73
0.7

20.9
20.5
20.1
19.9
19.5