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Establishment of Waste Network for sustainable solid waste

management planning and promotion of integrated decision


tools in the Balkan Region (BALKWASTE)

LIFE07/ENV/RO/686

Action 2: Assessment of waste management status in Balkan


Countries - Greece

Athens, March 2010


Revised version
WASTE MANAGEMENT STATUS-GREECE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.  INTRODUCTION...................................................................................... 4 
1.1.  LAND PRESENTATION .................................................................................................................................. 4 
1.2.  CLIMATE..................................................................................................................................................... 5 
1.3.  ADMINISTRATIVE AREAS -POPULATION ........................................................................................................ 5 
1.4.  MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OVER THE PAST FEW YEARS ....................................................... 10 
1.5.  ACTORS INVOLVED IN THE M.S.W. SECTOR ............................................................................................... 11 

2.  WASTE GENERATION ......................................................................... 14 


2.1.  MUNICIPAL WASTE GENERATION ............................................................................................................... 14 
2.2.  WASTE COMPOSITION ............................................................................................................................... 19 
2.3.  HAZARDOUS WASTE ................................................................................................................................. 19 

3.  Waste COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT ............................................ 21 


3.1.  RESPONSIBLE AUTHORITIES FOR THE COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT OF WASTE .......................................... 21 
3.2.  COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT PRACTICES................................................................................................. 21 
3.3.  SEPARATION AT SOURCE SCHEMES ........................................................................................................... 22 

4.  Waste treatment and disposal ............................................................ 31 


4.1.  TREATMENT UNITS .................................................................................................................................... 31 
4.2.  SECONDARY PRODUCT MARKET ................................................................................................................ 32 
4.3.  LANDFILLS ............................................................................................................................................... 38 
4.4.  POOR WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES – IMPACT TO THE ENVIRONMENT .................................................. 39 
4.5.  REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE ...................................................................................... 41 

5.  Financial issues ................................................................................... 52 


5.1.  WASTE COLLECTION ................................................................................................................................. 52 
5.2.  WASTE TREATMENT /DISPOSAL ................................................................................................................. 53 
5.3.  EC AND NATIONAL FUNDING ..................................................................................................................... 53 
5.4.  WASTE MANAGEMENT IN RELATION TO ECONOMIC SITUATION .................................................................... 55 

6.  Problem identification ......................................................................... 57 


6.1.  WASTE COLLECTION AND SEPARATION AT SOURCE SCHEMES .................................................................... 57 
6.2.  WASTE TREATMENT .................................................................................................................................. 57 
6.3.  WASTE DISPOSAL ..................................................................................................................................... 58 
6.4.  PUBLIC ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS ...................................................................................................... 58 

7.  CONCLUSIONS..................................................................................... 59 


8.  References ............................................................................................ 62 

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ABBREVIATIONS

N.W.M.P. National Waste Management Planning


R.W.M.P. Regional Waste Management Planning
W.M.A. Waste Management Authority
M.S.W. Municipal Solid Waste
P.P.C. Public Power Corporation
P.D. Presidential Decree
P.P.P. Public - Private - Partnership
O.J.G. Official Journal Gazette
J.M.D. Joint Ministerial Decision
R.S. Recycling System
M.D. Ministerial Decision
C.D.E.W. Construction & Demolition Waste
W.E.E.E. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
E.L.V. End of life vehicles
M.B.T. Mechanical - Biological Treatment
R.D.F. Refuse Derived Fuel
E.S.D. Environment and Sustainable Development
E.F.R.D. European Funds for Regional Development
R.O.P. Regional Operational Programms
G.H.G. Greenhouse Gas
G.D.P. Gross Domestic Product

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. LAND PRESENTATION

Greece (and the Greek Islands) is a peninsular and mountainous country


located in Southern Europe, on the Mediterranean, between Albania,
Bulgaria, Turkey and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The
country dominates the Aegean and Ionian Sea. It has a total area of 131,940
square km of which land represents 130,800 square km and water 1,140
square km. Greece has a coastline of 13,676 km and is divided in regions and
island groups which are organized, for administrative purposes, into
prefectures. The mainland consists of the following regions: Central Greece,
Peloponnese, and Thessaly (east/central), Epirus (west), Macedonia
(north/northwest), Thrace (northwest). Capital city of Greece is Athens,
located in the Attica basin, in the centre of the Greek territory. The
Peloponnese peninsula is located in the southern part of Greece. It is
separated from the mainland by the Isthmus of Corinth. The northern
mainland is dissected by high mountains that extend southwards towards a
landscape of fertile plains, pine-forested uplands and craggy, scrub-covered
foothills. One of the characteristics of Greece is the large amount of islands.
There are more than 2000 islands scattered both in the Aegean and Ionian
Seas. The majority are located in the Aegean between the mainland and
Turkey.

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The Aegean archipelago includes the regions of the Saronic, the closest
islands to Athens, the Cyclades, the most famous region with 39 islands such
as Santorini, Mykonos, Paros or Naxos, the Dodecanese which lies off the
Turkish coast, of which Rhodes is the best known, Crete which is the largest
of the islands, the Sporades near the city of Volos and the Northeast Aegean
group which includes Lemnos, Lesvos, Chios, Samos and Ikaria. The Ionian
Sea includes the islands of Corfu, Kefalonia, Lefkada, Ithaki, Zakynthos and
Kithira. Greece is a mountainous country. The lowest point is the
Mediterranean Sea, at 0m of height, and the highest point is the Mount
Olympus, at 2917 m. The country is quite rich in natural resources providing
petroleum, magnetite, lignite, bauxite, hydropower and marble.

1.2. CLIMATE

Greece has a Mediterranean climate with plenty of sunshine, mild


temperatures and a limited amount of rainfall. Due to the country's
geographical position, its rugged relief and its distribution between the
mainland and the sea, there is a great variation in Greece's climate. In
summer, the dry hot days are cooled by seasonal winds called the meltemi,
while mountainous regions have generally lower temperatures. The winters
are mild in lowland areas, with a minimum amount of snow and ice, yet,
mountains are usually snow-covered. Moreover, a common phenomenon is
the occurrence of different climactic conditions during the same season (for
instance, mild heat in coastal areas and cool temperatures in mountainous
regions).

1.3. ADMINISTRATIVE AREAS -POPULATION


1.3.1. ADMINISTRATIVE AREAS

Greece is divided into 13 Regions, of which nine are located in the mainland
and four in the islands. The Regions are further divided into 51 prefectures.
The division into Regions was established through Article 61 of the Law
1622/1986 (OJG 92 A’) «Local Authorities – Regional Development –

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Democratical Programming». Later on, the Law 2503/97 (OJG 107 A’)
«Regional administration, organization, personnel and regulations concerning
local authorities» granted Regions the role of a decentralized administrative
unit with their own personnel, departments and budget.

1.Attica
2.Central Greece
3.Central Macedonia
4.Crete
5.Eastern Macedonia & Thrace
6.Epirus
7.Ionian Islands
8.Northern Aegean
9.Peloponnese
10.Southern Aegean
11.Thessaly
12.Western Greece
13. Western Macedonia
Figure 1: Greek Regions

The regions as mentioned before are further divided into 51 prefectures which
are listed in the following table.

Table 1: Greek Prefectures

1 Attica 27 Kerkyras
2 Evoias 28 Kefallonias
3 Eurytanias 29 Leukadas
4 Fokidas 30 Zakynthou
5 Fthiotidas 31 Chiou
6 Voiotias 32 Lesvou
7 Chalkidikis 33 Samou
8 Imathias 34 Arkadias
9 Kilkis 35 Argolidas
10 Pellas 36 Korinthias
11 Pierias 37 Lakonias

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12 Serron 38 Messinias
13 Thessalonikis 39 Cycladon
14 Chanion 40 Dodekanisou
15 Herakleiou 41 Karditsas
16 Lasithiou 42 Larisas
17 Rethymnou 43 Magnisias
18 Dramas 44 Trikalon
19 Evrou 45 Achaias
20 Kavalas 46 Aitolokarnanias
21 Rodopis 47 Ileias
22 Xanthis 48 Florinas
23 Artas 49 Grevenon
24 Ioanninon 50 Kastorias
25 Prevezis 51 Kozanis
26 Thesprotias (a) Agio Oros

The geographical allocation of the prefectures can be seen in the picture


below.

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Figure 2: Geographical allocation of the Greek Prefectures

The prefectures are subdivided into 900 municipalities and 133 communities.
Regarding solid waste management it must be noted that general planning is
carried out through the National Waste Management Planning (N.W.M.P.) and
the targets set there, are apportioned into the 13 Regions through the
Regional Waste Management Planning (R.W.M.P.). Each Region is divided
into Administrative Areas, which sometimes happen to have the same
geographical borders as the Prefectures. Most of the times though the
Administrative Areas and Prefectures are not in alignment. For example the
Region of Central Greece consists of five Prefectures but the total number of
the Administrative Areas is eleven.

According to R.W.M.P. Greece is divided into a number of 104 Administrative


Areas. Waste management activities are carried out by the Waste
Management Authority (W.M.A.) of each Administrative Area.

1.3.2. POPULATION

In the 1st of January 2008 Greek population was estimated to 11.215.000


inhabitants which is 43.300 more than that of the 1st of January 2007,
according to data published by Eurostat. The population increased mainly due
to immigration. The total number of immigrants was 41.000 while the
population increase due to births was around 2.300.

In the next table the total population for every Prefecture is being presented
for 2009. The data derives from the 2001 census assuming that each year
there is a population increase of 1%.

Table 2: Greek Population

Prefecture Population 2001 Population 2009


Attica 3.761.810 4.073.501
Aitolokarnanias 267.374 289.528
Voiotias 125.359 135.746

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Evoias 216.339 238.290


Eurytanias 32.592 35.292
Fthiotidas 181.213 196.228
Fokidas 48.382 52.391
Argolidas 101.389 109.790
Arkadias 115.989 125.599
Achaias 322.789 349.534
Ileias 193.288 209.303
Korinthias 141.496 153.220
Lakonias 101.111 109.489
Messinias 192.849 208.828
Zakynthoy 37.979 41.126
Kerkyras 107.594 116.509
Kefallonias 42.397 45.910
Leukadas 26.941 29.173
Artas 97.265 105.324
Thesprotias 52.587 56.944
Ioanninon 177.137 191.814
Prevezis 69.743 75.522
Karditsas 160.539 173.841
Larisas 278.163 301.211
Magnisias 195.536 211.737
Trikalon 161.936 175.353
Grevenon 46.324 50.162
Dramas 116.928 126.616
Imathias 149.784 162.195
Thessalonikis 824.633 892.959
Kavalas 147.076 159.262
Kastorias 53.483 57.914
Kilkis 106.653 115.490
Kozanis 168.563 182.530
Pellas 157.903 170.896
Pierias 131.898 142.827
Serron 244.017 264.235
Florinas 58.998 63.886
Chalkidikis 107.179 116.059
Agion Oros 2.262 2.449
Evrou 153.164 165.855
Xanthis 104.746 113.425
Rodopis 111.473 120.709
Dodekanisou 190.071 205.820
Cykladon 112.615 121.946
Lesvou 111.040 120.240
Samou 43.581 47.192
Chiou 54.464 58.977
Herakleiou 276.353 299.251

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Lasithiou 77.342 83.750


Rethymnou 81.547 88.304
Chanion 143.009 154.858
TOTAL 10.964.020 11.872.463
Source: National statistical service of Greece (www.statistics.gr)

1.4. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OVER THE PAST FEW


YEARS

The first waste management planning begun in the early nineties for each
prefecture. This would have made sense a few decades earlier when solid
waste management cost was still low.

The requirements for recycling, processing and landfilling of solid waste


increased the need of an integrated planning in national and regional level.
Nevertheless, Greece did not adjust to the new requirements and waste
management was organized taking in mind only the borders of each
Prefecture. This was deeply influenced by the fact that by that time each
municipality was responsible for its own waste. Main priority was to close
down uncontrolled dumpsites without considering the fact that waste
treatment facilities would be necessary in the near future in order to divert part
of the waste stream from landfills.

As a result numerous landfills were planned and constructed throughout the


country. The 1998 intermediate National Planning promoted the construction
of 75 landfills in order to accept waste from 75% of the total population.
Around 85% of those landfills had capacity of less than 50 tn per day.

In the 2000 National Planning 124 landfills were to be constructed (70 in the
mainland, 11 in Crete and 43 in the rest of the islands). Among these, the
majority had a capacity of less than 50 tn per day.

The need for R.W.M.P. was highlighted by the Ministry of Environment


(Circular 11836/1951/27.6.2002) and was included in the 2003 N.W.M.P.
where it was stated that R.W.M.P. should be established by 22/12/2005.

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1.5. ACTORS INVOLVED IN THE M.S.W. SECTOR


Special mention should be made of the interministerial committee for
integrated waste management which was established during March 2008. The
committee consists of the a) State Secretary for Interior responsible for
regional and local government issues as well as for development programs in
the role of the President, b) the State Secretary for Financing responsible for
investment and development issues and c) the State Secretary for
Development responsible for industrial and environmental issues as well as
for quality policy. Main responsibilities of the committee are:

a) To issue and monitor an integrated plan that includes all activities


related to collection, recovery, storage, transportation, treatment, reuse
and final disposal of solid waste.
b) To issue and submit operational plans, programs and other actions
involved in the solid waste management sector and moreover to
evaluate, approve and finance all the above, with national or EC Funds
and to monitor their implementation.
c) To monitor the implementation of waste management plans and the
coordination of the stakeholders involved.
d) To coordinate and monitor suggestions and other actions for the
sanitation and later on the utilization of restored uncontrolled dumpsites
and landfills. Also to survey the works and the authorities responsible
for their implementation in order to impose penalties according to the
law.
e) To comment on suggestions submitted to the committee responsible
for Public-Private-Partnership (P.P.P.) projects and are relevant to solid
waste management.
f) To promote information campaigns aiming to inform and mobilize the
public opinion towards an environmental friendly solid waste
management.

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g) To represent the country in European and international authorities and


organizations for issues concerning solid waste and to submit funding
requests to them.

The Ministries of Finance, Environment and Interior are also involved in the
management of municipal solid waste. The Ministry of Environment is the
main actor involved in waste management. In particular:

¾ It defines waste management policy

¾ It is responsible for the legislative framework and proposes the issuing


of legislative regulations (Laws, Presidential Decrees, Join Ministerial
Decisions, and Ministerial Decisions) and circulars for the
implementation of the legislation.

¾ It prepares the National Planning of non hazardous Solid Waste and


the National Planning of hazardous Solid Waste, where the targets and
actions regarding waste management are described.

¾ It delivers opinion on whether the planned actions of the R.W.M.P.


should be included in funding programs always in accordance with the
targets set in the N.W.M.P..

¾ It grants environmental permissions to solid waste management


facilities

¾ It includes waste management works carried out by municipalities in


the funding program Operational Plan – Environment

¾ It includes studies in the funding program Operational Plan –


Environment

The ministry of interior is responsible for organizing and monitoring of W.M.A.


(registry, operational plans), while the Ministry of Finance for funding the

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necessary infrastructure. Funding through P.P.P. model is approved by a


committee of the Ministry of Finance.

According to the N.W.M.P. the municipalities are responsible for waste


collection. The operation of transfer stations, the processing and disposal of
waste lies within the jurisdiction of W.M.A..

W.M.A. can assign the operation of waste management facilities to private


stakeholders similar to the occasion when the contractor serves as operator
during the test phase.

For waste streams not included in M.S.W. the management responsibility lies
within the producer. Especially for special waste streams included in Law
2939/01 (electrical waste, tyres, vehicles etc) recycling is carried out by
schemes created and financed by the producers.

For the time being monitoring of Recycling Systems is assigned to the


Direction of Recycling of the Ministry of Environment. Not a long time ago the
Presidential Decree (P.D.) for the establishment of the ‘’Organization for
Recycling of Packaging Waste and other Products’’ was adopted.

It must be noted that during the issuing of permission, funding, construction


and operation of solid waste management infrastructure numerous authorities
are involved as stated in the national legislation. For example forest and
archeological authorities and the Ministries of Health and Culture need to
deliver an opinion on the environmental impact assessment studies

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2. WASTE GENERATION

2.1. MUNICIPAL WASTE GENERATION

The data for the qualitative and quantitative composition of waste in Greece
are not sufficient since until recently waste was disposed in uncontrolled
landfills. Only the last few years when a big number of modern landfills was
constructed did the monitoring of waste quantities begun.

2.1.1. NATIONAL LEVEL

According to the N.W.M.P. (2003), 4,6 M. tones of waste are produced


annually, of which 39% is produced in the Region of Attica (Athens). A big
amount of waste (16%) is produced in the Region of Central Macedonia
(Thessaloniki). During 1997 the average daily production was 0,97
kg/inhabitant/day and in 2001 the daily production increased to 1,14
kg/inhabitant/day. The daily amount of waste generated is constantly
increasing according to landfill operators. Only in Attica region it is estimated
that the daily amount of waste reaches up to 6.000 tn/day.

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Figure 3: Increase of waste quantities in the Attica Region

2.1.2. REGIONAL LEVEL

The waste quantities for each Region and Administrative Area given in the
tables below are estimations. For the generation of the data presented the
census of 2001 and a population increase of 1% per year were taken in
account. The average daily waste of production per inhabitant is estimated to
1,14 kg/Person according to the N.W.M.P..

Table 3: Waste generation in the Region of Attica

ATTICA TOTAL 1.694.984 tn


Administrative Area 1 Administrative Area 2
PREFECTURE Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn)
ATTICA 4.069.822 1.693.453 3.680 1.531

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Table 4: Waste generation in the Region of Central Greece

CENTRAL GREECE TOTAL 273.951 tn


Administrative Area 1 Administrative Area 2 Administrative Area 3 Administrative Area 4
PREFECTURE Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn)
VOIOTIA 60.312 25.096 75.434 31.388
EVOIA 46.816 19.480 125.166 52.082 62.692 26.086 3.616 1.504
EYRYTANIA 35.292 14.865
PTHIOTIDA 19.820 8.247 126.451 52.616 49.958 20.787
PHOKIDA 52.391 21.800

Table 5: Waste generation in the Region of Crete

CRETE TOTAL 260.545 tn


Administrative Area 1 Administrative Area 2 Administrative Area 3 Administrative Area 4 Administrative Area 5
Waste Waste Waste Waste
PREFECTURE Population Population Population Population Population Waste (tn)
(tn) (tn) (tn) (tn)
IRAKLEIO 162.792 67.738 60.761 25.283 25.485 10.604 27.041 11.252 23.171 9.641
CHANIA 144.421 60.093 6.766 2.815 3.528 1.468 144 60
RETHYMNO 88.304 36.743
LASITHI 57.124 23.769 26.626 11.079

Table 6: Waste generation in the Region of North Aegean

NORTHERN AEGEAN TOTAL 94.210 tn


Administrative Area 1 Administrative Area 2 Administrative Area 3 Administrative Area 4
PREFECTURE Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn)
CHIOS 15.941 6.633 43.036 17.907
LESVOS 101.520 42.242 18.720 7.790
SAMOS 21.609 8.992 12.934 5.382 10.677 4.443 1.972 821

Table 7: Waste generation in the Region of Westerm Macedonia

WESTERN MACEDONIA TOTAL 147.862 tn


Administrative Area 1
PREFECTURE Population Waste (tn)
- 354.919 147.862

Table 8: Waste generation in the Region of Epirus

EPIRUS TOTAL 178.758 tn


Administrative Area 1
PREFECTURE Population Waste (tn)
IOANNINA 191.814 79.814
PREVEZA 75.522 31.425
ARTA 105.324 43.825
THESPROTIA 56.944 23.694

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Table 9: Waste generation in the Region of Western Greece

WESTERN GREECE TOTAL 353.005 tn


Administrative Area 1 Administrative Area 2 Administrative Area 3 Administrative Area 4
Waste
PREFECTURE Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Population Waste (tn)
(tn)
ILEIA 209.303 87.091
ACHAIA 191.358 79.624 76.318 31.756 61.747 25.693 20.112 8.369
AITOLOKARNANIA 55.127 22.938 147.096 61.207 41.134 17.116 46.170 19.211

Table 10: Waste generation in the Region of Southern Aegean

SOUTHERN AEGEAN TOTAL 131.029


Administrative Area 1 Administrative Area 2 Administrative Area 3 Administrative Area 4 Administrative Area 5
PREFECTURE Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn)
KYKLADON 23.055 9.597 10.460 4.353 11.459 4.772 9.597 3.993 17. 840 7.423
DODEKANISOU 126.648 52.698 339 141 33.511 13.944 3.296 1.372 13. 035 7.525

Administrative Area Administrative Area Administrative Administrative


Administrative Area 8
6 7 Area 9 Area 10
Waste Waste
PREFECTURE Population Population Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn)
(tn) (tn)
KYKLADON 19 930 8.293 10.950 4.556 1.791 745 262 109 606 252
DODEKANISOU 8.887 3.698 7.050 2.934 1.072 445 1.341 558 1 027 427

Administrative Area Administrative Area


Administrative Area 13 Administrative Area 14 Administrative Area 15
11 12
Waste Waste
PREFECTURE Population Population Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn)
(tn) (tn)
KYKLADON 2.615 1.088

DODEKANISOU 2.822 1.174 1 027 427 577 240 466 194 171 71

Table 11: Waste generation in the Region of Peloponnese

PELOPONNESE TOTAL 294.152 tn


Administrative Area 1 Administrative Area 2 Administrative Area 3
PREFECTURE Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn)
ARGOLIDA 109.790 45.684
ARKADIAS 125.599 52.262
KORINTHIAS 103.759 43.174 32.879 13.681 16.582 6.900
LAKONIAS 109.489 45.558
MESSINIAS 208.828 86.893

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Table 12: Waste generation in the Region of Central Macedonia

CENTRAL MACEDONIA TOTAL 775.923 tn


Administrative Area
Administrative Area 1 Administrative Area 2 Administrative Area 3 Administrative Area 5
4
Waste Wast
PREFECTURE Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Waste (tn) Population Population
(tn) e (tn)
IMATHIA 162.195 67.489
THESSALONIKI 560.944 233.409 332.016 138.152
KILKIS 41.548 17.288 73.942 30.767
PELLAS 38.243 15.913 73.874 30.739 58.870 24.496
PIERIAS 103.953 43.255 38.873 16.175
SERRON 264.235 109.948
CHALKIDIKIS 10.115 4.209 6.027 2.508 12.671 5.272 77.714 32.337 9.532 3.966

Table 13: Waste generation in the Region of Ionian Islands

IONIAN ISLANDS TOTAL 96.833 tn


Administrative Area 1
PREFECTURE Population Waste (tn)
ZAKYNTHOS 41.126 17.112
KERKYRA 116.509 48.479
KEFALLONIA 42.397 19.103
LEYKADA 29.173 12.139

Table 14: Waste generation in the Region of Thessaly

THESSALY TOTAL 358.738 tn


Administrative Area 1
PREFECTURE Population Waste (tn)
KARDITDSA/TRIKALA 349.194 145.300
LARISA 301.211 125.334
MAGNISIA 211.737 88.104

Table 15: Waste generation in the Region of eastern Macedonia - Thrace

EASTERN MACEDONIA -
TOTAL 285.389 tn
THRACE
Administrative Area 1
PREFECTURE Population Waste (tn)
- 685.867 285.389

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2.2. WASTE COMPOSITION

The most important changes regarding waste composition from 1980 until
today lie within the reduction of the putrescibles fraction and the increase of
plastic and paper as it was shown in a recent research that examined the
composition of M.S.W. in Athens.

The data indicates that M.S.W. still consists mainly of putrescibles (44%),
even if the amount is reduced. Paper increased from 20% to 28% while the
amount of plastics has doubled (13%). Glass and metals lie each at around
3%. The remaining 9% consists of different materials like for example the
fraction wood, rubber and leather ( around 2%).

Other
Glass
9%
3%
Metal
3%
Putrescibles
Plastic Putrescibles Paper
13% 44%
Plastic
Metal
Glass
Other

Paper
28%

Figure 4: Waste composition

2.3. HAZARDOUS WASTE

It is estimated that 330.000 tn of hazardous waste are produced annually in


Greece. Around 62% of that amount is disposed while the rest is being
recycled. The largest amounts are produced in Attica 48,5%, central
Macedonia 12,6%, Central Greece 10,2%, Thessaly 6,9% and Western
Greece 5,2%. In addition around 600.000 tones are stored in industrial areas.
That amount is smaller than estimated but poses an environmental threat.

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Handling practices of industrial hazardous waste in Greece consists of the


following:

¾ Storage in areas located inside the production facilities. This occurs


usually in industrial facilities where large amounts of hazardous waste
are produced.

¾ Transportation abroad for disposal or recycling purposes in facilities


located inside the EU, since no suitable infrastructure exists in Greece.

According to the ministry of environment during 2004 1.550 tn were


transferred abroad mainly in Germany (over 70%).

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3. WASTE COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT

3.1. RESPONSIBLE AUTHORITIES FOR THE COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT


OF WASTE

J.M.D. 50910/2727/2003 (OJG 1909/Β) «On measures and terms for solid
waste management» names the Municipalities as the competent authorities
for the collection and transfer of waste. The municipalities reserve the right not
to collect waste that does not resemble household waste and cannot be
collected for technical reasons. In that case the producer is responsible for the
collection.

According to the Ministerial Decision No. 2527 OJG B 83/21.1.2009 it is


possible for W.M.A. to take over collection of waste instead of the
municipalities. A programme contract between the W.M.A. and the
municipality can be signed towards that direction.

Operation of waste transfer stations is responsibility of the W.M.A. of each


Administrative Area.

3.2. COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT PRACTICES

For the collection of waste, rolling bins with capacities from 80 to 1700 lt are
used. The collection and transport is carried out by the municipalities using
mainly press and mill type vehicles.

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3.3. SEPARATION AT SOURCE SCHEMES

3.3.1. ΟRGANIC WASTE

Although separate collection of organic waste is promoted in all R.W.M.P., this


has not been implemented in Greece yet, not even in a pilot scale. Some
municipalities run home composting programs like for example the
Municipality of Eleusina.

3.3.2. PACKAGING WASTE

According to Law 2939/01 «packaging is every product, manufactured by any


kind of material raw or secondary that is used to contain goods in order to
protect, move and distribute them from the producer to the final consumer».

The Law was implemented in 2001 and two years later the Ministry of
Environment approved the Collective System for Alternative Management of
packaging materials «CSAM - Recycling».

In January 2004 the Directive 2004/12/EC (J.M.D. 9268/469/2007) adopted


new recovery and recycling targets for packaging waste. Deadline to fulfill
those targets is the 31/12/2011.

¾ no later than 31 December 2011 60 % as a minimum by weight of


packaging waste will be recovered or incinerated at waste incineration
plants with energy recovery

¾ no later than 31 December 2011 the following minimum recycling targets


for materials contained in packaging waste will be attained:

(i) 60 % by weight for glass;

(ii) 60 % by weight for paper and board;

(iii) 50 % by weight for metals;

(iv) 22,5 % by weight for plastics, counting exclusively material that is

recycled back into plastics;

(v) 15 % by weight for wood.

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The total amount of packaging materials produced is estimated to 1 Mio.


Tones/year, while 20% of the total waste amount comprises of packaging
waste. The competent authority for managing packaging waste HERRCO
(Hellenic Recovery Recycling Corporation) has come to an arrangement with
packaging producers as stated in the legal framework, in order to ensure that
packaging waste is being collected and recycled.

At the same time, contracts have been signed with several municipalities in
order to install and expand the separation at source system of packaging
material.

Packaging waste is temporarily stored in blue bins that are provided by Herrco
and afterwards is transferred to materials recovery facilities (MRF). In the next
tables some data from the collection and processing of packaging waste are
presented.

Table 16: Operating Results of the national packaging waste management system

Indicator 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


Population 428.827 2.514.638 4.297.977 6.115.297 6.800.000
Associated Municipalities 102 211 337 446 610
Operating MRFs 3 9 12 15 18
Collection bins 5.143 10.767 25.103 51.602 80.455
Collection Vehicles 16 32 95 140 247
Recycling bags 80.000 160.000 710.000 1.208.650 1.700.000
Employees 78 171 510 680 1052
Operating expenses
2,9 9,8 15,6 20,1 24
(M.€)
Investments 1 8,3 9,1 10 25,9
Packaging Waste (tn) 5.505 63.551 266.623 344.362 415.844
Printed Paper (tn) 4.781 8.810 19.660 35.245 56.512
Source: Herrco (www.herrco.gr)

Apart from Herrco the following recycling systems have been approved:

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¾ Recycling system for used oil packaging KEPED (M.D. 105857 ,OJG
391Β/4.4.2003). This system aims to collect and recover used waste oil
packaging waste. During 2007 3.900 tn out of a total of 7.680 tn were
recovered and recycled which corresponds to a percentage of 50,8%.

¾ Packaging waste management system of the Vasilopoulos S.A. (M.D.


106156 , OJG 1108Β/22.7.2004). This system has recovered and
recycled 1.240 tn of private label packaging waste and an additional
2.450 tn of other packaging waste.

¾ Collection system was based on the establishment of refund recycling


centers. Those centers accept and sort the materials and provide a
small financial compensation. The Central Union of Municipalities and
Communities of Greece is participating in the system and it will function
in a supplementary way to the system of Herrco.

Since the beginning of 2009 Municipalities receive extra financial aid for the
collection of recyclables. The amount scales according to the quantity of
packaging waste collected per inhabitant.

Table 17:Financial contribution for the collection of packaging waste

Collected Waste Financial Aid


From (kg) To (kg) € / tn
0,0 8,0 30
8,1 15,0 40
15,1 20,0 50
20,1 25,0 60
25,1 30,0 65
30,1 -- 70

Out of the 1.050.000 tn of packaging waste generated in Greece 504.000 tn


(48%) were recycled during 2007.

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3.3.3. END OF LIFE VEHICLES(E.L.V.)

The term of End of Life Vehicle refers to every vehicle that can be classified
as waste meaning that its owner is willing or intends or is obligated to dispose
it. The following categories of vehicles can be defined as End of Life Vehicles:

- Vehicle that its owner intends to dispose

- Abandoned vehicle that has been declared as waste

- Vehicle that is partially or totally destroyed

- Vehicle that does not fulfill legal and technical requirements

The national management scheme for E.L.V. (EDOE) was approved by the
M.D. 105136/10.06.04 (OJG 907Β/17.06.04) and its operation is governed by
the regulations of Law 2939/2001 and P.D. 116/2004. Owners of E.L.V. are
obliged to hand them in designated collection points or authorized treatment
facilities without being charged since there is no market value for the vehicle.
Given that many E.L.V. owners dump their cars, EDOE is cooperating with
local authorities who collect these vehicles. According to the P.D. 116/2004
following targets are set:

• no later than January 1st, 2015, for all end-of life vehicles, the reuse and
recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 95 % by an average weight
per vehicle and year

• Within the same time limit, the re-use and recycling shall be increased to a
minimum of 85 % by an average weight per vehicle and year.

During the first quarter of 2008 the scheme was active in 32 prefectures
covering 85% of the total population. Around 45.000 E.L.V. out of the
estimated 50.000 have been recycled.

3.3.4. WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT(W.E.E.E.)

The term electrical and electronic waste refers to a wide spectrum of materials
and is one of the most complicated solid waste streams due to the variety of
raw materials it contains and to the many different types of electrical devices

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that be found in the market. Directive 2002/96/ΕC classifies W.E.E.E.


according to its origin source in the following categories:

- Large household appliances

- Small household appliances

- IT and telecommunications equipment

- Consumer equipment

- Lighting equipment

- Electrical and electronic tools

- Toys, leisure and sports equipment

- Medical devices

- Monitoring and control instruments

- Automatic dispensers

According to Directives 2002/96/EC all member states should adopt


appropriate measures to minimize the disposal of W.E.E.E. as unsorted
municipal waste and to achieve a high level of separate collection. In order to
ensure that, efficient collection schemes should be set where distributors and
owners will be able to return W.E.E.E. free of charge.

The producers of E.E.E. products will have to join a management scheme or


to create one. Additionally in accordance to the polluter pays principle they
will have to finance the collection and processing of W.E.E.E..

W.E.E.E. management in Greece is governed by the regulations of Law


2939/01 and P.D.s 117/2004 and 15/2006. Since 2004 the recycling scheme
«Appliances Recycling S.A.» is active.

Producers of Electric and Electronic equipment sign the Entry Agreement,


regularly declare the quantities of products marketed in Greece and pay the
legally required financial contribution to "Appliances Recycling S.A.". The
scheme also cooperates with local authorities in order to set collection points

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for citizens. The following table contains data regarding the operation of the
scheme.

Table 18: Operating Results of the WEEE management system

Operating Results of the WEEE system


Indicator 2006 2007
Associated Producers 619 748
W.E.E.E. quantities (put on the market 175.646 206.624
Associated Municipalities 182 315
Population covered 4.581.904 6.426.380
Collection points 392 2.058
Treatment facilities 1 5
Collected W.E.E.E. (tn) 11.340 31.405
Processed W.E.E.E. (tn) 9.816 28.926
W.E.E.E. can be transferred directly to the Corinth processing facility or stored
temporarily. It must be mentioned that local collectors are trading useful
materials contained in W.E.E.E. and an initiative should be taken in order to
associate them to the scheme.

3.3.5. USED TIRES

Current legislative statutes forbid the landfilling of used tires. According to Law
2939/01 and P.D. 109/04, tire producers are obligated to create or participate
to recycling schemes for used tires. Owners or final users of used tires are
obliged to hand them to collection points or approved management schemes.
The competent scheme called Ecoelastika S.A. begun its operation in 1-11-
2004 in the Prefectures of Voiotia and Fthiotida. From the 54.638 tn produced
in 2006, 46.697 tn (85%) were collected. Nowadays the scheme is active in
both Greek mainland and islands. Around 14% of the tires collected have
been co incinerated in the cement industry, 73% were processed in milling
facilities while the rest 12% was either stored or exported (1%). The achieved
recycling and recovery rates exceeded by far targets set by the current
legislation. In Greece recycled tires are used mainly for

- Construction of sport facilities

- Construction of rubber wheels for waste bins

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3.3.6. CONSTRUCTION & DEMOLITION WASTE

The term construction and demolition waste refers to a wide variety of


materials that can be divided into four main categories depending on their
source of origin:

(α) Excavation materials

(β) Road construction waste

(γ) Demolition waste

(δ) Construction – Site waste

No organized network for the management of construction and demolition


waste exists in Greece. Actions towards recycling and recovery are not
frequent and depend totally on the site manager. Mainly useful materials like
cables and glasses are recovered while the inert waste is used for the
restoration of old quarries.

According to the J.M.D. regulating landfilling of waste, disposal of construction


and demolition waste should take place only in landfills for inert materials.

Statistical data in the E.U. show that the average production of C.D.E.W. lies
around 480 kg per capita. In Greece the amount is higher since only in the
Region of Attica 6 Mio. tones are annually produced.

The C.D.E.W. is disposed in old quarries, uncontrolled dumpsites or landfills.


Only a small percentage (0,5%) is being recycled.

3.3.7. ΒATTERIES

The competent management scheme for batteries AFIS S.A. started its
operation in March 2004. Afis has come to an agreement with
importers/producers of batteries, which contribute a fee for every battery sold
in the Greek market in order to cover the costs for collection, transportation,
recycling and dissemination activities. Battery recycling rates are very high.

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Collection bins have been placed in 33.000 spots spread out across Greece.
The collected tons are presented in the following diagram.

Figure 5: Collected batteries

During 2007 442 tones out of 2.100 tones of batteries were recycled which
equals to a percentage of 21%.

3.3.8. USED OILS

Article 17 of Law 2939/2001 describes the creation of recycling schemes for


used oils. The specifications and requirements for the operation and creation
of the management scheme are described in the P.D. 82/2004 «On measures
and terms for the recycling of used oils »

In June 2004, the competent authority Greek Environmental Technology S.A.


was created for the management of waste oils. The company is cooperating
with major oil consumers like the Army and the Public Power Corporation
(P.P.C.) and has focused in promoting cooperation with municipalities. The
producers of waste oils are obliged to hand the waste to approved collectors.
Around 36.550 tn of waste oils have been collected and regenerated, which
equals to 60,9 % of the totally produced waste.

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3.3.9. MEDICAL WASTE

Currently a modern incinerator is operating in the Attica Region with a total


capacity of 30 tn/day. Due to the fact that not all medical facilities have signed
an agreement, the full capacity of the incinerator is not being utilized. Some
medical institutions have their own incinerating kilns while others have
assigned waste management to private companies.

Due to the hazardous nature of medical waste, it is necessary to monitor the


implementation of the current legislation. The collection of waste from small
medical facilities is also a matter that has to be looked into. The fact that most
hospitals lack infrastructure and specialized personnel increases the odds that
hazardous waste will end up in M.S.W. landfills.

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4. WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

4.1. TREATMENT UNITS

4.1.1. MECHANICAL BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PLANTS FOR M.S.W.

Until now three mechanical – biological treatment units have been constructed
in Greece. They are located in Athens, Kalamata (Peloponnese) and Chania
(Crete). The Kalamata plant is the oldest one and begun its operation in 1997
receiving 32.000 tn waste per year. In 2003, the plant stopped operating due
to a court decision.

The treatment plant in A. Liossia in the region of Athens has a maximum


nominal capacity of 438.000 tn being thus one of the largest M.B.T. units in
Europe. Waste is introduced in rotating drums in order to decrease in size and
afterwards is transferred to one of the 48 aerated trenches.

The Chania plant is the newest one with a total annual capacity of 70.000
tn/year and works similar to the plant in Athens.

4.1.2. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PLANTS FOR SOURCE SEPARATED ORGANIC

Although all RMWP promote the construction of treatment facilities that will
process organic waste after separation at source the works have not begun

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yet. In Attica three treatment units one with a capacity of 80.000 tones and
two of 40.000 tones are planned.

4.1.3. MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES

The recyclables collected through the separation at source scheme of


packaging materials are being processed in material recovery facilities.

There, through handpicking and mechanical sorting, the packaging waste is


sorted into materials for recovery and recycling purposes. The total number of
MRF’s in operation is 23 while more will be constructed in order to achieve the
national targets.

4.1.4. INCINERATION PLANTS FOR M.S.W.

No Incineration Plants are currently in operation. The environmental impact


assessment studies for a plant in the island of Rhodes and the Region of
Peloponnese are in progress. Considering the fact that the issuing of an
operating permission is a time-consuming procedure, its not expected that it
will start operating before 2013.

4.2. SECONDARY PRODUCT MARKET

Potential products of a mechanical – biological treatment are R.D.F., S.R.F. ,


recyclables and compost. In Greece, no recipient for the R.D.F. produced in
the M.B.T. of A. Liossia has been found. As a result, it is either stored or used
in landfilling operations. The compost produced in Athens and Chania is used
as filling material in landfills or for restoration works in uncontrolled dumpsites.
It has no commercial value.

4.2.1. REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (R.D.F.)

The W.M.A. of the Attica Region issued a market study in order to find a way
to utilize the R.D.F. produced in the Athens treatment unit. The study included

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two big cement industries (AGET Iraklis and Titan A.E.) and other types of
industry, where big amounts of energy are required (Public Power
Corporation, Steel Industries and Lime Industries) but there was no
correspondence.

The cement industries did not provide data relating to the fuel type they are
using and gave the following specifications regarding the characteristics of the
R.D.F. in order to accept it as a fuel:

- Moisture Content: 3-10%

- Chlor Content: 15%

- Low bulk density

Some of the issues brought to the table by the industry (low facility
performance, odor emissions while handling R.D.F. which might affect
personnel, need of storage capacity, R.D.F. production rate, modification of
the facility’s environmental permission terms) should be examined closely and
solutions should be provided. Assuming that the R.D.F. qualitative
requirements are met then the perspectives for the acceptance of R.D.F. will
be given since the interest in using alternative fuels is constantly increasing.

A contract has been signed between AGET – IRAKLIS and the W.M.A. which
states that initially 35.000 tn/year will be co incinerated in the AGET plant and
that amount will increase to 75.000 tn/year. According to the contract, AGET
will receive 10 € per tone of R.D.F. co incinerated. Totally 750.000 €/year will
be required. The contract was signed during February 2007 and has a five
year duration. Nevertheless the total amount of R.D.F. is still being landfilled.

4.2.2. COMPOST

For the compost produced in the Athens M.B.T. a study was issued in order to
examine the available options for its utilization.

The study investigated the possibility to utilize the compost in Municipalities


with park areas, in the gardening sector and in the Public Power Corporation
Plant of Megalopolis.

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In case compost is utilized as a soil improver following requirements should


be met:

- Zero content of heavy metals

- Moisture content: 30%

- pH: 6,5-7

- Grain size: fine

- Total N Content: 80-90%

- NH4 Content: 75%

- Impurities (glas,plastic): 1%

- Zero content on enterobacteriaceae

Agricultural and fertilizer firms are mainly interested in specific chemical and
physical characteristics when evaluating the quality of a compost product. The
product’s quality should remain constant throughout the year. Typical
requirements are:

- Moisture content: 40%

- pH 6,5-7,0

- C/N ratio: 15

- Grain size: fine

- Total N Content:: 1,5%

- Impurities (glas,plastic): 1%

- Zero content of heavy metals

- A six month testing in order to assess its contribution to the growth rate of
the plants

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When the aforementioned requirements are met, gardening businesses are


interested in the use of compost, especially if its price is lower than other
fertilizers and soil improvers.

The Public Power Corporation was interested in using compost as a


restoration material in order to compensate its mining activities. The company
expressed its reservations regarding how suitable the material for the
restoration of the mining sites is. For that reason it requested an initial five
month trial period in order to assess the situation.

At the time being the compost is only used for restoration and landfill works.
The average price is 2,5 €/tn.

4.2.3. RECYCLING PRODUCTS

The main recyclable materials produced during the mechanical sorting of


M.S.W. are metals. As mentioned before, in 2007, the recycling rate in Greece
was 14% (62 kg per capita - year). Depending on the desired recovery rates,
other recyclables such as plastic, paper and glass can be recovered as well.
These materials are not pure since they derive from commingled waste and
contain a big proportion of impurities, mainly organic waste. The impurities
cause the materials to have a lower commercial compared to recyclables
originating from source separation schemes.

4.2.3.1. Ferrous Metal

Ferrous metals recovered originate from packaging waste and consist of steel
with a thin internal layer of tin. The requirements set by companies in order to
absorb the recycled metals are the following:

- Metals should be separated and free from impurities (plastic, wood, earth)

- Sorting into categories is usually a necessary requirement and increases


commercial value

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No significant problems have been identified in selling the recovered metals.


Prices achieved lie around 120-130 €/tn.

4.2.3.2. Non Ferrous metal

The main fraction of non ferrous metals comprises of aluminium originating


from beer and refreshment cans. Scrap aluminium can achieve high prices
that encourage high recovery rates. It can be reused many times without
loosing in quality. Requirements in order to sell the non ferrous metals are:

- Metals should be sorted and free from impurities

- High compression is not wanted in order to be able separate the metals


easily.

Selling prices for aluminimium vary a lot depending on the market needs.
Usually it can be sold for 1000 €/tn.

4.2.3.3. Paper

Paper can be classified in different categories depending on quality and the


presence of impurities. Paper originating from commingled waste has, for
example, low commercial value due to a big amount of impurities found, such
as:

- plastic films that cause problems to the paper recycling equipment

- organics attached that cause high moisture levels


- small metal pieces like paper clips

Paper is the fastest developing market for recycled products. According to


market studies that have been issued, the need for recovered paper is
constantly increasing. In order to be accepted, it needs to be free from
impurities and high levels of moisture. Prices are influenced by the

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fluctuations in the international market. Typically it can be sold for 35 - 170 € /


tone depending on the quality.

4.2.3.4. Glass

Glass can be recycled many times without any negative impact in the final
quality. For that reason, it is considered as one of the most environmental-
friendly materials. Glass components in M.S.W. consist of bottles, broken
glassware, light bulbs and other items. Restraining factors for glass recycling
are the different quality and colour and the collection cost.

In Greece, there is only one facility that can absorb glass scrap. The main
requirements are:

- Glass should be free from impurities

- It should be sorted by color

- Glass products should have the same quality meaning no porcelain or


crystals.

Prices reach up to 30 - 50 € / tone depending on the degree the


aforementioned requirements are met.

4.2.3.5. Plastic

In Greece plastic recycling rate is low compared to other recyclables for the
following reasons:

- There are many different qualities and types of plastic with various
physical characteristics and chemical composition
- It is difficult to recognize the different types of plastic resins
- Plastics contain a lot of impurities since most of the packaging is used for
food.
- High recovery cost

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Mainly PET and PE plastics are being recycled. Products are geotextiles,
ropes, bins, pots and other. There is no interest for mixed plastic waste since
there is no possibility to utilize it in Greece.

The requirements for plastic are:

- To be sorted by type
- To be free from impurities like organic waste

The price per tone varies depending on the quality of the material and lies in
the range of 80 - 350 € per tone.

4.3. LANDFILLS

4.3.1. STATE OF THE ART LANDFILLS

Regarding the disposal of waste 65 landfills are currently operating in Greece.


Most of them will be illegal after 2012 since it will not be possible to declare
them as residue landfills. In total 32 sanitary landfills are constructed and the
environmental impact assessment studies for 41 are being issued.

4.3.2. UNCONTROLLED LANDFILLS

One of the main goals included in the N.W.M.P. was to close all illegal landfills
by 21/12/2008 which was the deadline given by the European Court when
Greece was convicted for that matter. This target was not achieved.

The Joint Ministerial Committee estimated that from a total number of 1.102
illegal landfills, for which Greece was convicted in 2005, 806 have been shut
down, 206 are currently being restored and by the end of the year only 16 will
remain active.

For every one of these 16 illegal landfills fines of 34.000 euro/day will be
imposed. That means 544.000 euro/day.

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Since 2005 evidence shows that new illegal landfills were created and the
current number is estimated to around 492.

4.4. POOR WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES – IMPACT TO THE


ENVIRONMENT

Scope of this chapter is to provide information of the impact to the


environment deriving from poor waste management practices.

Poor waste management practices are identified as those that do not conform
with the current European and national legislation. Since waste treatment,
recycling operations and collection of waste are important elements of
sustainable waste management the impacts of uncontrolled landfilling and
landfilling of untreated waste will be assessed.

One of the main environmental problems associated with landfilling of waste


are the emissions of CH4 due to the presence of biodegradable waste. The
methane emitted in landfill gas is the main greenhouse gas impact of MSW
management. During 2007 around 75% of the waste related greenhouse gas
emissions in the EU-15 were CH4 emissions from landfills.

In the following diagram the emissions deriving from solid waste disposal on
Land during the years 1990-2007 are presented.

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Figure 6: Greenhouse gas emissions due to solid waste disposal on Land

Source: Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2007 and inventory
report 2009. Submission to the UNFCCC Secretariat

Although a decrease can be observed between some years the total amount
of emissions is constantly increasing due to the amounts of biodegradable
waste ending up in controlled and uncontrolled landfills.

Since no significant measures have been taken in order to divert bio-waste


from municipal waste through pre-treatment the situation is expected to
remain constant during the next five years.

After that time and depending on the progress of the future planned waste
treatment facilities the emissions are expected to decrease.

Additional environmental impacts due to the existence of uncontrolled landfills


and landfilling of untreated waste are the following:

ƒ contamination of soil and water (especially heavy metals are trapped in


the soils beneath dumpsites)

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ƒ contamination water may occur when leachate from an landfill, via flow
paths (on or under the surface), reaches groundwater or surface water.
ƒ Fauna in and around dumpsites may be impacted either by direct
consumption of the solid waste, or by consumption of contaminated
plants and/or animals, or as a result of leachate effects on groundwater
and surface water
ƒ Plants near open dumpsites can be impacted directly by the waste or
water from leachate.

4.5. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE

In the following chapters, the waste management infrastructure of each


Region will be presented in the form of tables, which include all the waste
management works described in the R.W.M.P. as well as the latest
developments. The data aims to give an overview of the existing and future
works. For the understanding of the tables the following should be taken in
consideration:

¾ Numbers inside a bracket () give the number of facilities in operation.

¾ For landfills squared brackets [ ] indicate small landfill sites that are
usually constructed for small islands or isolated areas. In the «planned
sanitary landfills» field brackets () indicate an existing landfill that will
have its capacity increased.

¾ For waste treatment plants brackets () indicate source separated


organic treatment units.

4.5.1. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN ATTICA

The Attica Regional Plan was approved in 22/2/2006.

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Figure 7: Attica Region

Table 19: Solid waste management plan in the Region of Attica

Prefecture Attica
Administrative Areas 2
Operating sanitary landfill sites 1

Planned sanitary landfill sites 2, [2]


Planned inert waste landfill sites 5
Operating waste transfer stations 11
Planned waste transfer stations 12
MRF (4)
Operating Waste treatment plants 1
Planned waste treatment plants 3, [3]

For the biological treatment of source separated biowaste three treatment


plants will be constructed. Two of them will have a capacity of 40.000 tones
and one 80.000 tones.

4.5.2. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN CENTRAL GREECE

The Central Greece Regional Plan was approved in 22/12/2005.

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Figure 8: Central Greece Region

Table 20: Solid waste management plan in the Region Central Greece

Prefecture Voiotia Evoia Eurytania Fthiotida Fokida


Administrative Areas 2 4 1 3 1
Operating sanitary landfill sites 2 2 0 2 0

Planned sanitary landfill sites - 1, [1] 1 1 1


Planned inert waste landfill sites 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+
Waste transfer stations 0 5 1 2-3 1-2
MRF (1) 0 0 (1) 0
Operating Waste treatment plants 0 0 0 0 0
Planned waste treatment plants 1 1 1 1 1 [1]

Apart from the commingled waste treatment plants, separation at source for
organic waste and construction of biological treatment units is also included in
the Regional Plan.

4.5.3. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN PELOPONNESE

The Peloponnese Regional Plan was approved in 10/2/2005. The following


table refers to the current Regional Plan which will be revised in the upcoming
months.

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Figure 9: Peloponnese Region

Table 21: Solid waste management works in the Region of Peloponnese

Prefecture Argolida Arkadia Korinthia Lakonia Messinia


Administrative Areas 1 1 3 1 1
Operating sanitary landfill sites 0 0 1 0 0

Planned sanitary landfill sites 1 1 1 1 1


Planned inert waste landfill sites 1 1 3 1 1
Waste transfer stations 8
MRF - - (1) - (1)
Operating Waste treatment plants - - - - 1*
Planned waste treatment plants 1inter-regional plant -

*The M.B.T. Plant in Kalamata stopped operating and currently there are
thoughts to resume its operation.

4.5.4. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN CRETE

The Crete Regional Plan was approved in 21/2/2006.

Figure 10: Crete Region

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Table 22: Solid waste management works in the Region of Crete

Prefecture Irakleion Chania Rethymnon Lasithion


Administrative Areas 5 4 1 2
Operating sanitary landfill sites 4 4 1 2

Planned sanitary landfill sites (3),2 [1] (1),1 (2)


Planned inert waste landfill sites 5 4 2 2
Waste transfer stations 3
MRF (1) (1) - -
Operating Waste treatment plants - 1 - -
Planned waste treatment plants 1, [1] [1] - [1]

For the whole Region a waste treatment plant with energy recovery is
scheduled to be constructed.

4.5.5. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN NORTHERN AEGEAN

The Northern Aegean Regional Plan was approved in 07/04/2006.

Figure 11: Northern Aegean Region

Table 23: Solid waste management works in the Region of Northern Aegean

Prefecture Chios Lesvos Samos


Administrative Areas 2 2 4
Operating sanitary landfill sites 0 1 2

Planned sanitary landfill sites 2 2 2


Planned inert waste landfill sites 1 2 2
Waste transfer stations 1 5 0
MRF 1 1 1
Operating Waste treatment plants - - -
Planned waste treatment plants [1] [2] [2]

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4.5.6. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN WESTERN


MACEDONIA

Figure 12: Central Macedonia Region

Table 24: Solid waste management works in the Region of Central Macedonia

Prefecture Kozani Florina Kastoria Grevena


Administrative Areas 1
Operating sanitary landfill sites 1 - - -

Planned sanitary landfill sites


Planned inert waste landfill sites 10 for the whole Region
Waste transfer stations (5) (2) (1) 2
MRF (1) 1 1 1
Operating Waste treatment plants - - - -
Planned waste treatment plants 1 - - -

4.5.7. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN EPIRUS

The Epirus Regional Plan was approved in 10/01/2005.

Figure 13: Epirus Region

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Table 25: Solid waste management works in the Region of Epirus

Prefecture Ioanninon Prevezis Artas Thesprotias


Administrative Areas 1 1 1 1
Operating sanitary landfill sites - 1 1 -

Planned sanitary landfill sites 1 - - 1


Planned inert waste landfill sites 1 1 1 1
Waste transfer stations 4 2 2 -
MRF (1) - - -
Operating Waste treatment plants - - - -
Planned waste treatment plants 1

4.5.8. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN WESTERN GREECE

The Western Greece Regional Plan was approved in 10/01/2005.

Figure 14: Western Greece Region

Table 26: Solid waste management works in the Region of Western Greece

Prefecture Ileias Achaias Aitolokarnania


Administrative Areas 1 4 4
Operating sanitary landfill sites 0 3 2

Planned sanitary landfill sites 1 1 2


Planned inert waste landfill sites 1 1 1
Waste transfer stations 2 4 4
MRF 1 (1) 1
Operating Waste treatment plants - - -
Planned waste treatment plants 1, [1] 1, [1] 1, [1]

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4.5.9. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN SOUTHERN AEGEAN

The Southern Aegean Regional Plan was approved in 24/04/2008.

Figure 15: Southern Aegean Region

Table 27: Solid waste management works in the Region of Southern Aegean

Prefecture Kyklades Dodekanisa


Administrative Areas 11 15
Operating sanitary landfill sites 6 6

Planned sanitary landfill sites 16 9


Planned inert waste landfill sites 15 12
Waste transfer stations 4 1-3
MRF - 1
Operating Waste treatment plants - -
Planned waste treatment plants 1 1, [1]

4.5.10. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN CENTRAL


MACEDONIA

The Central Macedonia Regional Plan was approved in 22/12/2005.

Figure 16: Central Macedonia Region

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Table 28: Solid waste management works in the Region of Central Macedonia

Prefecture Imathias Thessalonikis Kilkis Pellas Pierias Serron Chalkidikis


Administrative Areas 1 2 2 3 2 1 5
Operating sanitary landfill
sites 0 1 1 1 2 1 1
Planned sanitary landfill
sites 1 2 2 (1),2 0 1 (1),4
Planned inert waste landfill
sites 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Waste transfer stations 2 7 1 1 2 2 1
MRF 1 (3) 1 1 (1) 1 1
Operating Waste treatment
plants - - - - - - -
Planned waste treatment
plants 1 2 1 1 1 1 -

4.5.11. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE IONIAN ISLANDS

The Ionian Islands Regional Plan was approved in 28/07/2006

Figure 17: Ionian Islands Region

Table 29: Solid waste management works in the Region of Ionian Islands

Prefecture Zakynthos Kerkyra Kefallonia Leukada


Administrative Areas 1 1 1 1
Operating sanitary landfill sites 1 1 1 1

Planned sanitary landfill sites (1),1 (1),1,[4] (1) 1, [2]


Planned inert waste landfill sites 1 1 1 1
Waste transfer stations 1 2 2 1
MRF (1) (1) - -
Operating Waste treatment plants - - (1) -
Planned waste treatment plants [1] 1 - [1]

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4.5.12. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN THESSALY

The Thessaly Regional Plan was approved in 8/11/2006

Figure 18: Thessaly Region

Table 30: Solid waste management works in the Region of Thessaly

Prefecture Karditsa Trikalon Larisas Magnisias


Administrative Areas 1 1 1
Operating sanitary landfill sites 1 1 1

Planned sanitary landfill sites 1 4 1


Planned inert waste landfill sites 1 1 1
Waste transfer stations 3 2 3 2
MRF (1) - (1) 1
Operating Waste treatment plants - - - -
Planned waste treatment plants [1] [1] [1]

4.5.13. REGIONAL PLANNING - WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE IN EASTERN


MACEDONIA - THRACE

The Eastern Macedonia-Thrace Regional Plan was approved in 21/11/2006.

Figure 19: Eastern Macedonia – Thrace Region

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Table 31: Solid waste management works in the Region of Eastern Macedonia – Thrace

Prefecture Evros Xanthi Rodopi Kavala Drama


Administrative Areas 1
Operating sanitary landfill sites 1 1 1

Planned sanitary landfill sites 1 for the whole Region + [1] for the Island of Samothraki
Planned inert waste landfill sites 1 1 1 1 1
Waste transfer stations 6 1 2 4 2
MRF 2 1 1 1 1
Operating Waste treatment plants - - - - -
Planned waste treatment plants

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5. FINANCIAL ISSUES

5.1. WASTE COLLECTION

Municipalities are responsible for waste collection and street sanitation. In


order to finance these activities, fees are imposed to the citizens. The main
characteristics of the fee system will be described.

Setting the sanitation fees

Fees are charged depending on the total. surface (indoor and outdoor) in
sq.m of the building

Fee Collection

Α) Through the electricity bill and later attributed to the Municipalities by the
P.P.C.

Β) Municipalities with their own financial department can be exempted from


the rule and separate the collection and sanitation fee from the electricity bill.

Setting the charging coefficient

Α) A charging coefficient € / sq.m. is set for residences and charity


foundations exempting private clinics

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Β) A charging coefficient is set for other indoor activities (shops, industries,


workshops and other facilities)

Nature of the sanitation fees

As described in the Law the fees are imposed in order to finance the
sanitation activities and not for profit purposes. Municipalities make every year
cost estimations and thus the fee per sq.m. is being defined.

Collection cost varies depending on the geographical data and the equipment
used. Usually it amounts over 80 €/tn.

5.2. WASTE TREATMENT /DISPOSAL

As mentioned before many municipalities disposed their waste in uncontrolled


landfills, so that no gate fee was charged and the total cost for waste
management included only collection.

In the existing sanitary landfills the gate fee lies around 25-30 €/tn while the
cost for processing waste in the existing M.B.T. facilities is more than 40 €/tn.

5.3. EC AND NATIONAL FUNDING

The operational program ‘’Environment and Sustainable Development’’


(E.S.D. 2007-2013), was submitted in September 2007 and was approved
during October – November 2007. The program consists of eleven priority
actions. Solid waste management is included in Action 4 (Soil Protection and
Solid Waste Management) which aims to protect public health, soil and
underground water from the pollution caused by uncontrolled dumping of solid
waste.

Together and in accordance with the regional action programs, the necessary
infrastructure, to divert the biodegradable fraction of M.S.W. from landfills
towards M.B.T. facilities or other treatment units that are described in the
Regional Plan, will be financed. The E.S.D. program mainly with Cohesion

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Funds and resources from the European Funds for Regional Development
(E.F.R.D.) that will be granted through Regional Operating Programs (ROP)
will cover the costs for the construction of transfer stations, treatment units
and landfills including the costs for sanitation of all registered uncontrolled
dumpsites throughout the country. Additionally with funds granted through
E.S.D. and R.O.P. and in compliance with the EC directives, uncontrolled
dumpsites of hazardous waste, for which no legal framework exists, will be
sanitized. Actions and infrastructure for the management and storage of
hospital waste in all Regions will be also covered through the E.S.D. program.

Priority will be given to actions described in the regional solid waste


management plans. The total budget of Action 4 for Soil Protection and Solid
Waste Management reaches up to 288.995.000 Euro. The amount can be
divided according to the origin of the funds as follows:

• Public Funds: 289.995.000 €

• EC Cohesion Funds: 179.380.000 €

• National Funds: 44.845.000 €

• Other: 65.770.000 €

The EC Cohesion Funds can be subdivided depending on the purpose of the


action they were given for:

- Household and Industrial Waste 173.190.000 €

- Sanitation of industrial sites and polluted soil 6.190.000 €

It must be noted that funding of solid waste management infrastructure is also


provided in the regional operational programs. For the implementation of the
national development planning during 2007-2013 Greece was divided in five
geographical regions. A regional operational program was issued for every
one of them. These regions are:

¾ MACEDONIA – THRACE REGION

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¾ WESTERN GREECE – PELOPONNESE - IONIAN ISLANDS


REGION

¾ CRETE – AEGEAN ISLANDS REGION

¾ THESSALY – CENTRAL GREECE – EPIRUS REGION

¾ ATTICA REGION

The funding of waste management facilities and especially of treatment units


can be also carried through P.P.P. (Public-Private-Partnership) and
concession projects.

5.4. WASTE MANAGEMENT IN RELATION TO ECONOMIC SITUATION

In the following table, facilities scheduled to be funded from Structural Funds


and additional needs for financing are outlined.

Table 32: Funding from structural funds for waste management facilities in Greece

Allocated Estimated
Estimated
No of funds from Gap
Infrastructures Description budget
Plants Structural
(€ M) (€ M)
Funds (€ M)
Disposal New landfills 40 220 190
Rehabilitation existing landfills 400 300 240
Transportation Transfer Stations 80 120 100
Treatment Plants Attiki 8 500 144
MBT Patra 1 60 55*
MBT Hmathia 1 40 10
To be defined Thessaloniki 1 100
MBT Corfu Island 1 30
MBT Ilia 1 30
MBT Aitoloakarnania 1 30
Eastern 200
To be defined
Macedonia/Thrace 2 60
MBT Zante Island 1 10
MBT Fokida 1 10
MBT Serres 1 25

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To be defined Other treatment plants n/a 400


according to the RSWMP
Subtotals 1.935 939 996
* already committed

Based on the above-mentioned estimated budgets of the planned facilities it is


estimated that the additional funding (including national and/or private
matching funds) that is needed for the implementation of the basic
infrastructures foreseen in Regional Solid Waste Management Plans is
around 996 mio €. Funding for all needed investments is then not secured
from conventional sources (Public Investment Budget and Structural Funds),
thus new financial engineering methods and mobilization of the private sector
seems to be a one-way solution to close the funding gap.

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6. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

6.1. WASTE COLLECTION AND SEPARATION AT SOURCE SCHEMES

The main problems arising with waste collection and separation at source
schemes are the following:

- Municipalities use more personnel than really needed resulting in a high


collection cost that the citizens have to cover through the sanitation fees.

- Collection and transfer vehicles are usually many years in service


resulting in low availability and high maintenance cost. Municipalities do
not have the necessary funds to replace them and thus the operating cost
for maintaining the collection fleet is constantly rising.

- The implementation of separation at source schemes will cause the


collection cost to rise. The municipalities are not able to cover that cost.

6.2. WASTE TREATMENT

In order to operate a waste treatment facility, specialized personnel is needed.


The plants that are currently in operation in Greece were constructed a few
years ago and there is no experience in handling problems and other
emergency situations.

Special mention should be given to the Kalamata plant where many problems
arose during its operation. These problems were the insufficient planning of

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the mechanical sorting line and the aeration system in the biological treatment
hall as well as the absence of a central control system. The operating
authority was not qualified leading into overloading of the capacity and bad
maintenance. As a result of the insufficient planning, there was no available
landfill to dispose the residues and as a result, these were dumped in a
nearby land parcel causing thus significant odor problems.

All the existing treatment plants have problems finding a way to utilize their
secondary products which leads to extra disposal costs instead of revenues.

6.3. WASTE DISPOSAL

As mentioned before, there are still many uncontrolled landfills in operation


throughout Greece, since the construction of sanitary landfills stumbled upon
the dissatisfied local people that were opposed to the realization of the works
within the borders of their municipality. This fact has caused major delays to
the implementation of the RWMP.

The sanitary landfills in operation are not fully conformed with all the
regulations contained in the Landfill Directive, while their personnel is
insufficient in order to fulfill all the obligations derived from legislation and refer
to operation and environmental monitoring.

6.4. PUBLIC ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS

In the last few years an increase in environmental awareness regarding waste


management and recycling has been observed. The low acceptance of waste
treatment plants, especially when it comes to deciding the area which will host
the plant, is caused due to lack of communication between the local and
regional authorities and the local population.

The expected formation of local W.M.A. will be combined with programs that
will aim to inform the public opinion in order to increase the acceptance of
solid waste management facilities.

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7. CONCLUSIONS

While in many member states the main goal is to reduce waste generation
and to increase recycling and recovery rates, in Greece the main problem that
needs to be solved remains the uncontrolled disposal in illegal landfills in
order to avoid penalties imposed by the EU.

Apart from batteries, recycling rates of other waste streams are lower than the
EU average. Nevertheless it must be noted that significant steps have been
made both in the fields of the organization (Introduction of Waste
Management Authorities) and management of waste (closing and restoration
of uncontrolled landfills, construction of sanitary landfills).

Regarding the legal framework a number of E.U. statutes were implemented


and an increase of environmental consciousness is being observed.

Until recently the cost for managing waste in Greece was low compared to
other countries since it included only collection and disposal.

The allocation of fee to the citizens is done depending on the surface of the
building. The sanitation fee is paid together with the electricity bill. As a result

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citizens cannot evaluate the quality of the services provided by the


municipality and no motive to reduce the waste quantities is being offered.

The cost for managing solid waste is expected to increase since modern
facilities will be constructed. This will be a good opportunity to change the way
fee for solid waste is allocated and the establishment of W.M.A. throughout
the country will help towards that direction.

Although Greece has fulfilled its obligation in establishing a National Planning


for Biodegradables, the policy and actions that will help towards the diversion
of biodegradable waste from landfills are not set.

Judging from the existing waste treatment plants (Kalamata, Ano Liossia,
Chania) and the R.W.M.P. the main trend concerning waste treatment is the
construction of M.B.T. Facilities. Waste incineration is slowly gaining in
acceptance as well.

On the contrary, actions promoting home composting and separation at


source of the organic fraction do not seem to be favored as a solution by the
responsible authorities even in rural or semi urban regions. It is very important
to establish such actions in some areas in a pilot scale. The Prefecture of
Karditsa where recycling programs are successfully implemented and a big
amount of organics is produced could be such an area.

The overall delay observed in planning waste management facilities is due to


the long time needed for the preparatory studies, acquisition of the necessary
funds and permission to build. Also judging from the operation of the so far
constructed M.B.T. facilities the diversion target of 2010 will be very hard to
achieve.

Indicators of Progress

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The number of bibliographic references used, number of internet sites used,


number of case studies/research studies considered, number of competent
authorities contacted, number of site visits are presented in the following
table.

Table: Indicators of Progress

Indicator Number

Bibliographic references 14

Internet sites 22

Case studies/Research studies 1

Competent Authorities contacted 4

Site visits (or meetings on site) 2

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8. REFERENCES

Bibliographic references

1. Regional Waste Management Planning of Attica,2003


2. Regional Waste Management Planning of Epirus,2003
3. Regional Waste Management Planning of Central Macedonia,2003
4. Regional Waste Management Planning of Peloponnese,2003
5. Regional Waste Management Planning of Eastern Macedonia -
Thrace,2003
6. Regional Waste Management Planning of Western Greece,2003
7. Regional Waste Management Planning of Thessaly,2003
8. Regional Waste Management Planning of Northern Aegean,2003
9. Regional Waste Management Planning of Crete,2003
10. Regional Waste Management Planning of Western Greece,2003
11. Regional Waste Management Planning of Ionian Islands,2003
12. Regional Waste Management Planning of Southern Aegen,2003
13. Regional Waste Management Planning of Central Greece,2003
14. Data base on operating sanitary landfills published by the Ministry of
Environment , Last update 5/6/2009

Internet Sites

1. Attica Region www.attiki.gov.gr

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2. Epirus Region www.epirus.gov.gr


3. Central Macedonia Region www.kentrikimakedonia.gov.gr
4. Peloponnese Region www.peloponnisos.gr
5. Eastern Macedonia – Thrace Region
www.anatolikimakedoniathraki.gov.gr
6. Western Greece Region www.ditikiellada.gov.gr
7. Thessaly Region www.thessalia.gr
8. Northern Aegean Region www.northaegean.gr
9. Crete Region www.crete-region.gr
10. Western Macedonia Region www.westernmacedonia.gr
11. Ionian Islands Region www.ionianislands.gr
12. Southern Aegean Region www.notioaigaio.gr
13. Central Greece Region www.stereaellada.gov.gr
14. National statistical service of Greece www.statistics.gr
15. Hellenic Recovery Recycling Corporation www.herrco.gr
16. Alternative Management of ELV www.edoe.gr
17. Appliances Recycling S.A. www.electrocycle.gr
18. Ecoelastika S.A. www.ecoelastika.gr
19. Afis S.A. www.afis.gr
20. ELTEPE www.eltepe.gr
21. Ministry of Environment www.minenv.gr
22. Eurostat
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home
23. Environmental Protection Agency – Greenhouse gas data viewer

http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/PivotApp/pivot.aspx?pivotid=475

Case studies/Research studies

1. Analysis of the composition and the physicochemical parameters of waste


in the Attica Region, Case Study Final Report, March 2008
2. Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works (2006),
National reporting to the fourteenth & fifteenth sessions of the commission

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for sustainable development of the united nations (UNCSD 14 – UNCSD


15)
3. EEA, 1998a, Europe’s Environment: The Second Assessment, Chapter 6,
European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.
4. Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2007 and
inventory report 2009. Submission to the UNFCCC Secretariat

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