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Music Education - Introduction - Scope, organisation, aims - Outcomes - Conclusions PART II Institutional profiles and Sound Links Pilots - Introduction - Case studies / Pilots: Conservatory of Amsterdam Pilot Musikhochschule Basel Birmingham Conservatoire Rhythmic Music Conservatory, Copenhagen Pilot Dartington College of Arts Pilot Sibelius Academy, Helsinki Irish World Music Centre Pilot
School of Oriental and African Studies, London Malmö Academy of Music Pilot Rotterdam Conservatory Pilot World Music Centre, Serpa Pilot - Conclusions PART III The Higher Education Climate - Introduction - Developments and Mechanisms General Developments in Higher (music) Education Credit Systems Degrees and Transferability of Qualifications Professional Development - Funding Mobility Student Mobility Mobility Programmes Grants and Funds - Market and Employment Record trade Festivals and concerts Press
Education EPILOGUE By Peter Renshaw, project moderator APPENDICESSound Links ± Full Report 2 Why Sound Links ? By Huib Schippers IntroductionSound Links ± Full Report 3 Introduction The awareness of the relevance of cultures with origins outside of Europe started to be clearly felt during the 1980s, after several decades of intensive exposure through migration, media, and travel. In the performing arts, the number of plays, concerts and dance performances with nonwestern background or influences increased dramatically. At first, social motives played a key role in this development, acknowledging and accomodating reflection of extra-European cultures. But gradually, the artistic relevance of µ world arts¶ became more of a leading principle. More recently, market arguments started playing a role as well. By 2000, the CD turnover of world music was estimated to be over two-thirds of that of western classical music, and the drastic changes in ethnic background in many European cities
have created the need to re-address the issue of target audiences. Not surprisingly, the effects of these changes have been slow to enter into higher arts education. Institutions for higher arts education, by their very nature in terms of background, brief, expertise, and structure in terms of organisation and personnel, tend to be rather conservative. In fact, the amount of activity in this field that has actually been developed over the past two decades is a real indication of the readiness of a substantial number of institutions to embrace new impulses. In terms of music, initiatives have been realised in a number of shapes and approaches, ranging from incidental workshops with guest teachers to full-fledged degree courses. Initially, exchange between initiatives was very limited. From the early 1990s, a number of institutions involved in cultural diversity started meeting biennially in the informal µTeaching World Music¶ (later µCultural Diversity in Music Education¶) network, and the subject became increasingly prominent during conferences of the International Society for Music Education (ISME), the European Association for Music in Schools (EAS), and the Association Européenne des Conservatoires, Académies de Musique et Musikhochschulen (AEC). The latter ran a project called µMusic Education in a Multicultural European Society¶ in 2000-2001, which can be seen as a precursor of this project.
What has been lacking, however, is a fairly comprehensive, in-depth overview of actual practice in terms of frequency, size, and issues concerning approach and content, which could serve as a basis for further developments and transnational co-operation. For these purposes, Sound Links was conceived. A succesful application was made to the European Commission programme Socrates 6.2.. Rotterdam Conservatoire, the institution with perhaps the most comprehensive experience in this field, was designated as lead partner. Six other partners committed themselves to the project as part of the core team and organiser of a pilot project in the context of Sound Links: Music Academy Malmö, Irish World Music Centre, Dartington College of Arts, Rhythmic Music Conservatory, Conservatory of Amsterdam, and World Music Centre Serpa. Drs. Ninja Kors was attracted as researcher/project manager for Sound Links, while Peter Renshaw accepted to be moderator for the pilots. Sound Links was defined with three major aims: · undertaking a survey on culturally diverse music education provisions at a number of institutions in Europe, in order to analyse existing practice in cultural diversity, looking into programme content and level of multicultural approach, training structures and credit transferability, availability of
internationally recognised qualifications in connection with labour markets and student funding schemes. · realising a series of well-defined and targeted pilot workshops for music students from the partnership, based on the initial results of the survey, identifying the potential for joint curriculum development that is transferable within a set network of institutions, and used to develop a number of changes and adjustments, based on the exchange of existing expertise in the partner institutions, leading to the enhancement of cultural diversity in music education provision. · creating a concise, accessible document with a number of key issues in realising cultural diversity in higher music education for individual development and transnational co-operation, targeted at music students, curriculum developers and decision-makers on music education policies. The general results of the survey can be found in Part I of this report. In Part II, we present an in-depth account in the form of case studies of the actual practice of cultural diversity at eleven institutions,Sound Links ± Full Report 4 including the organisers of the six pilots. The reports of the pilots follow the case studies, in order to create a clear context for each. Part III describes aspects of the Higher Education climate in Europe
project director Terminology The rise of cultural diversity in music education has also caused a major confusion in terminology. that promises to become one of the major developments in European higher music education over the next few decades. credit transfer. or to people (especially a mix of ethnicities). Below we outline the meaning of the three most common terms. professional development.which are relevant to further development and co-operation in the field of cultural diversity. Cultural Diversity . Most commonly refers to content (music from various cultural backgrounds). but can also refer to . As the field is quite dynamic. Finally. Drs. such as degrees and qualifications. Huib Schippers. there are no absolute definitions. but the approaches below are becoming quite widespread and will be our reference for the purpose of this research project. as a separate document. and practice and mechanisms for staff and student mobility. we have prepared a tenstep µ toolkit¶ for those wishing to (further) develop activities in cultural diversity. This document can be seen as a summary of the content of the entire project. and an accurate reflection of the state of practice and thinking in a field.a neutral indication for the presence of more then one culture in any given situation.
In some contexts only refers to mixes and fusion.Sound Links ± Full Report 5 Survey Cultural Diversity in Higher Music Education Part ISound Links ± Full Report . dominant cultural reference). For music education. this concept has a meaning akin to cultural diversity.different approaches to music making or systems of transmission and learning World Music .in its most general use. More specifically. but now more commonly used to indicate both this and the numerous distinct traditions across the world. Portuguese and Spanish.com. French.generic term usually referring to music originating outside the Euro-American cultural area. Multicultural . the definition µmusic that has taken root outside of its culture of origin¶ has proved useful. it can refer to an approach to cultural diversity where various cultures exist together without much contact between them. The full text of the Sound Links report can also be found on the Sound Links website: www. The text of the accompanying practical guide µFrom Policy to Practice¶ is also available on the website in English. as distinct from monocultural (with a single. German.cdime-network. intercultural (a voluntary meeting of cultures with a focus on product) and transcultural (a total merging of content and underlying values).
Not only do we see activity at institutions which for a long time have profiled themselves in this area. The Conservatoire de Paris has an accomplished Indian sitar player on its staff. but many others have developed some kind of initiative in this field. organisation and aims In three stages. the results of a broad survey of this field present a different picture. Sibelius Academy in Helsinki. and the Escola Superior de Musica de Lisboa runs pilots to introduce world music in its teacher training programme.6 Survey cultural diversity in higher music education Introduction While it is easy to regard the world of higher music education as a conservative fortress for the musical heritage of European culture in the 18th and 19th century. Cultural diversity in the form of world music has already become part of the courses offered at a large variety of institutions all around the world. or the School of Oriental and African Studies in London. such as Rotterdam Conservatoire. The information gathered offers strong indications of a growing and diverse practice. the Conservatorium van Brussel works with gamelan. over 500 institutions for music education were approached for information. Scope. .
Although the method has obvious limitations in terms of representativity and completeness of data. there are many courses containing elements of world music that do not appear in the brochures. such as brochures and study guides. The Excel chart in appendix 1 reflects the result of this survey. the results were interesting. without stating the purpose of the request. Particularly for West-European countries this led to a wide selection of institutions. A cross-section of conservatories was selected: two institutions in every country were approached. In addition. Information was gathered exclusively through written documentation. even if we allow for a correction for the initial selection. supplemented with other institutions known as authoritative or potentially interested in the field of world music or otherwise. follow-up research demonstrates that in addition. indications of world music courses were found in almost half the course brochures. That is relatively high. .Stage 1 The first stage consisted of analysing 100 course brochures that were gathered anonymously. sometimes complemented with web sites. In this more or less random survey of 100 institutions for higher music education all over the world. Its main target was to get an impression of presence and volume of world music at institutions for higher music education world-wide.
These vary from world music degree courses to occasional project weeks. policies.) Outcomes Almost half the institutions (49%) researched in stage 1 (appendix 1) have developed world music activities in some form.Stage 2 The second stage was much more specific. their place in the curriculum. A questionnaire (appendix 2) was developed focusing on activities realised in the field of cultural diversity. activities planned and issues regarding the institutional organisation itself. and methods of teaching and assessment.have been included in this survey as case studies illustrating various approaches. the use of expertise and resources. ISME and AEC led to 59 returned questionnaires: sufficient to draw conclusions about a number of aspects of this work. Most of the institutions in this category have been visited and/or spoken to on a number of occasions. Out of twenty institutions mapped out in detail in this way. Stage 3 The third stage consisted of an in-depth questionnaire (appendix 3) about the actual practice of world music activities. Concerted efforts to distribute and receive back an initial questionnaire by LOKV. (See part II of this report. initial descriptions of eleven ± seven Sound Links project partners and four additional profiles . WMC. Most of .
Obviously. Fifty of the institutions that responded to the first questionnaire (stage 2 of the survey) already have realised activities in the field of cultural diversity. but have expanded their activities to pop. this can not be interpreted as an indication that 93% of conservatoires have or want world music. Although questions relating to this subject were only asked to part of the institutions. Five who have not are planning them. This stands to reason: most conservatories haveSound Links ± Full Report 7 started out as institutions for classical music.the institutions (67%) offer classical music courses. the participation in international networks may be an additional indication. The first signs show that those who participate in networks have a tendency to be more open-minded towards cultural diversity (15 out of 20). jazz and world music. A large number of institutions that offer jazz and pop. Four institutions indicated to concentrate solely on western music. The same ± although in a lesser degree ± can be said about the institutions that offer music education: 60% also include world music activities. also offer world music: about 67%. This indicates that those institutions that are open to innovation and new ideas. Both mailing and response have inevitably been . have a more welcoming approach towards other musical cultures. and have a greater need for international exchange.
the results of the questionnaire are represented in a spreadsheet: first realised. followed by optional modules. Degree courses in which world music has been integrated seem to be the most common format chosen.biased towards those interested in the subject. In most cases. only the 55 institutions with (planned) activities have been taken into account. then planned activities. and embedding world music in music-in-school and extra-curricular activities. extra-curricular activities. Only few institutions offer specialised degree courses in world music. On the following pages. . Activities realised Courses may be offered fully integrated in the existing curriculum. An underdeveloped area is credit-bearing summer/winter courses. This may be caused by the fact that few institutions offer this kind of courses structurally. Activities realised so far cover a broad range of approaches and cultural areas. and music in schools. but there seems to be a remarkable interest in developing courses in professional development. Approximately the same results can be found in planned activities. professional development courses for world music. In the following analysis. In addition. many institutions express the wish or intention of starting integrated approaches. these are courses in national folk traditions. but a number indicate interest in developing such courses in the near future. or apart from the regular programme.
or foreign cultures which are significantly represented in the population. such as Indian and Pakistani music in England. there is little evidence that .g. or separately.While most of the activities until now have been realised by the institutions independently and within the regular budget. This causes an increase in expected external financing as well. A clear preference cannot be pointed out. Cultural areas The cultural areas addressed in both realised and planned activities range from Arab countries and Africa below the Sahara. an institution offers musical styles from countries just around them or from indigenous peoples. Methods of Teaching While activities show considerable volume and a great variety of approaches. with particular emphasis on North Indian classical music and Indonesian gamelan. the Caribbean and Asian countries. Maori culture in New Zealand. the majority of the planned activities are planned in collaboration with other institutions and organisations. to Latin America. or from cultural groups represented in society. A colonial past may play a role in combination with this. Often. e. Asian music is very popular. although institutions tend to choose music from cultures with social relevance in the home country: either µneighbour cultures¶.
This includes styles of teaching without notation. The general picture is that in integrated courses western pedagogical models continue to be used. but almost invariably by inspiration coming from one department or even one person within the organisation.Sound Links ± Full Report 8 Points of entry Another interesting outcome of the survey ± particularly the interviews in stage 3 ± is how aspects of what is now often referred to as world music entered into the institution. The institutions consider the world music courses to influence principally the general musicianship of the . · feed the general curiosity that lies at the core of all great musical development and innovation. Driving forces are ideas that world music can · enrich students¶ musical understanding. This is generally not by force from above. while in practical courses in a single musical tradition. the traditional method of teaching is approached as much as possible. · inspire new approaches to methods of teaching. There are no clear reports of fruitful combinations and overlap of approaches. · prepare young musicians better for professional musical activity in the coming decades.the methods of teaching have changed significantly under the influence of cultural diversity.
which are continually influenced by music from other cultures. Policies and student population . it may develop in a wide variety of approaches. Other common points of entry are pop. rock and jazz. The two areas expected to be least affected are notation skills and principal instrument performance. and finally contemporary composition. where concepts from other cultures are often used. The benevolent µTrojan horse¶ effect of world music activities is remarkable. Once the expertise enters the institution. cultural diversity (in the sense of ethnic background) is most evident. In their work field. If we look at the practice. as can be seen in the case studies in this report. percussion. Latin America and Asia. without concentrating on a single instrument. other individuals and departments tend to get interested. we see that world music most commonly enters through the training for music teachers in schools or the community. In fact. The explanation for this can be found in the fact that most of the courses offered or to be offered are general world music or ethnomusicology courses.students. where we generally find a great curiosity for the great rhythmic traditions of Africa. This does not have to lead in any way to full-fledged world music departments.
Conclusions It is apparent that activities realised so far cover a broad range of approaches and cultural areas. Since all of the respondents were European institutions. professional development courses for world music. This can largely be attributed to the presence of many Asian students of classical western music. But from stage 3. In addition. many institutions have the wish or intention of starting integrated approaches. The survey has yielded little evidence of credit-bearing summer or winter . Only few institutions offer specialised degree courses in world music. 17 out of 28 institutions indicated having a specific policy to include cultural diversity in the recruitment of staff and students.Of the European institutions that were asked specific questions about policies. particularly at the University of Vienna. and embedding world music in extra-curricular and music-in-school activities. but a number indicate interest in developing such courses in the near future. music in schools and optional modules. it transpired that many institutions have more implicit then explicit policies in this field. the majority of students who took part in the world music courses were European. Degree courses in which world music has been integrated seem to be the most common format chosen. followed by extra-curricular activities. A remarkable number came from Asia.
to Latin America. Obligatory credit bearing modules 5. foreign or indigenous cultures. We can see that cultural diversity has become an artistic reality in a substantial number of institutions throughout the world. although institutions tend to choose music from cultures with social relevance in the home country: either µneighbour¶. But at the same time. Occasional optional workshops and events from outside 2. Regular optional workshops with credits 3.courses in world music. which are significantly represented in the population of the country. A clear preference cannot be pointed out. The cultural areas included in both realised and planned activities range from Arab countries and Africa below the Sahara. but a growing interest in professional development. Structural attention for cultural diversity in some courses 6. the Caribbean and Asian countries. The activities do not necessarily lead to new approaches to teaching methods across the board. Optional credit bearing modules 4. we have to establish that the development is still in its early stages. Structural attention for cultural diversity in all courses . On the basis of the findings. we can distinguish an eight-step development:Sound Links ± Full Report 9 1.
Acknowledging cultural diversity in teaching methods and approaches 8.7.Sound Links ± Full Report 10 Institutional profiles and Sound Links Pilots Conservatory of Amsterdam Pilot: Beyond banging drums ± African percussion as an instrument for reflection Musikhochschule Basel Birmingham Conservatoire Rhythmic Music Conservatory Copenhagen Pilot: Cuba in Copenhagen ± Inspiration and confrontation Dartington College of Arts Pilot: Preparing students for working in a culturally diverse community Sibelius Academy. Helsinki Irish World Music Centre Limerick Pilot: The carnival model in community settings School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS). London . Reflecting cultural diversity in organisation entire institution Most institutions that have developed activities are around stages 5 and 6. The most profound response to the realities of cultural diversity is yet to come.
Malmö Academy of Music Pilot: Welcoming students to a diverse world Rotterdam Conservatory Pilot: Adapting teaching styles to new situations World Music Centre Serpa Pilot: µConfrontera¶ ± Exploring the borders of Christian and Islamic arts Part IISound Links ± Full Report 11 Introduction This part can be considered the core of the Sound Links project. detailed profiles have been compiled on the position and practice of cultural diversity in the six Sound Links partner institutions. In order to provide optimal insight into the actual workings of cultural diversity in various institutions we have chosen two. and another four institutions across Europe. For . which were selected from the survey described in part I as particularly active or representative of a particular approach. It contains some of the most in-depth action research into the actual working of cultural diversity in institutions for higher music education realised to date. complimentary approaches: · On the basis of an advanced questionnaire. the lead partner. research trips and live interviews.
which can be seen as the summary of the key outcomes of the entire Sound Links project. relevance to the teaching and learning climate. which aims to have cultural diversity actively accessible for future performers. content and organisation. In a separate paragraph. reactions. composers and teachers alike. the practical relationship is indicated between the outcomes and lessons learned from each pilot to one or more issues in the ³From Policy to Practice´. Student Mobility. Evaluation and Assessment. · For the seven institutions that participated actively in the pilot programme of Sound Links.each of these eleven institutions. a general introduction to the national higher (arts) education situation and the institution is followed by paragraphs on Music Degree Courses in general. the institutional profile is followed by a description of the pilot: aims and objectives. provided a well-prepared context in terms of content and methods of teaching for an introductory course in African drumming. The profiles and the pilots show a great variation of approaches and µareas of intervention¶: The Conservatory of Amsterdam. observations and evaluation. Cultural Diversity in the institution. Copenhagen Rhythmic Music Academy realised an intensive confrontation with music and teaching . relevant General Developments in the Institution and specific policies relating to cultural diversity.
presented a model for Community Arts projects based on Brazilian festival music. Malmö Academy of Music organised an introductory week for all new students to emphasise the importance of cultural diversity throughout an institution that has realised a striking µ total immersion¶ programme primarily aimed at future music teachers. which naturally includes models. which has focused on developing master¶s courses on and beyond Irish music. Dartington College of Arts placed a community project in co-operation with a local organisation in the context of degree courses in contemporary music. hands-on study trip for students to the intersection of Christian and Islamic culture as a forerunner to establishing an international campus for world music in the area.styles from Cuba in the context of an academy that aims at naturally including cultural diversity in the training of high level teachers of jazz. participated with a life-long learning project for professional world musicians wanting to become teachers. The Irish World Music Centre. World Music Centre Serpa realised an interdisciplinary. pop. . approaches and content from other musical cultures. with specialised degree courses in five specific world music traditions. and world music. Rotterdam Conservatory.
and make well-informed . an external moderator. From Sound Links. all pilots were discussed extensively with the entire Sound Links group as well (see table overleaf). Throughout the project. but rather a study that addresses both the joys and complications of cultural diversity in actual practice.All pilots were conceived and organised from within the institutions themselves.Sound Links ± Full Report 12 These discussions are reflected in ³From Policy to Practice´ and the conclusions of the case studies and pilot descriptions. and an observer from one of the partner institutions to ensure objective and critical reporting. in which six aspects of cultural diversity identified as particularly relevant to contemporary thinking on cultural diversity in the context of higher music education. Before and after their realisation. each project was monitored by the project manager. This spirit of openness and the active participation of all partners have enabled the Sound Links team to create a picture that will enable policy makers and other institutions with similar interests to gain a unique insight into real-life approaches to cultural diversity within the institution. it was emphasised that the goal was not to present a naive promotion document. are approached from a different angle. as well as a real exchange of ideas and examples of good practice.
Bergen Pilot 5 October 2002 Rotterdam Conservatory Rhythmic Music Conservatory. London Pilot 3 May 2002 Irish World Music Centre Malmö Academy of Music Pilot 4 May 2002 Dartington College of Arts Conservatory of Amsterdam Digital meeting June 2002 Internet Sound Links partners Presentation August 2002 ISME World Conference. London Sound Links partners Presentation November 2001 CDIME conference. Copenhagen Dartington College of Arts Meeting 4 November 2002 Rotterdam Conservatory Sound Links partners Table: Project planning Sound LinksSound Links ± Full Report 13 . Date Location / organiser Visiting institution Pre-pilot March 2001 World Music Centre Serpa Meeting 1 April 2001 Rotterdam Conservatory Sound Links partners Meeting 2 June 2001 Conservatory of Amsterdam Sound Links partners Pilot 1 August 2001 Malmö Academy of Music Irish World Music Centre Pilot 2 November 2001 Conservatory of Amsterdam World Music Centre Serpa Meeting 3 November 2001 SOAS. Copenhagen Pilot 6 October 2002 Rhythmic Music Conservatory.decisions on whether. how and where to deal with this force in the world of music education in their own environment.
Cultural diversity entered into . guitar students received flamenco lessons. Before that. the institution started making conscious efforts for the cultural diversity within the institution to reflect that of the city ± with 47% of the population and 66 % of youth in schools of non-Dutch origin.Institutional Profile: Conservatory of Amsterdam Broad perspective as a tool for the artistic and labour market Introduction The Conservatory of Amsterdam is part of the Amsterdam School of the Arts. a strong jazz department became part of the institution. popular Brazilian music featured in the training of jazz vocalists. A major development was the µinterculturalisation¶ of the Music in Schools curriculum. and composition students were introduced to South Indian rhythms and ragas. This entailed bringing aspects of cultural diversity to a minimum of 10-15% in all subjects in the curriculum. world music had already entered various departments µthrough the back door¶. From about the same time. There was a samba ensemble in the percussion department. Through a merger with the Hilversum Conservatory in 1996. an innovation project supported by the Dutch Ministry of Education from 1996-2000. It has a long tradition and excellent reputation in the field of teaching classical music to a fairly international student population.
The Conservatory of Amsterdam has over 1000 students: 500 follow the first phase classical music. and music theory. It is his task to ensure the stimulation and implementation of cultural diversity in all departments of the conservatoire. composition. At the moment. these directions have 75 students each. In addition. choir. A formal process of aligning these two phases with the BA/MA structure (which the European Ministers of Education embraced in the Bologna treaty) is in progress in the Netherlands. an µintercultural coordinator¶ was appointed for the entire institution. orchestra or brass conducting. while another large group follows compulsory courses with world music components. a second phase for the exceptionally talented adds another two years of study. In the second phase. After the completion of the Music in Schools project. Music degree courses in general In the Dutch higher music education system there is at present only two degrees: in music and music education. about a quarter of the students have registered for electives with world music content. there are 40 µyoung . and 300 jazz.the meat of the curriculum. The first phase consists of four years of 1680 hours of study a year (42 credits). This can be divided into instrumental majors. and the related skills are expressly mentioned in the criteria for obtaining the degree. opera.
optional for all others) ¸ world music in project weeks ¸ study trip to West Africa for students education and jazz ¸ course Contemporary music through non-western techniques Related to sections / departments . At present. Fees for EU students are about ¼ 1300 per year.talent¶ students. a continuing education programme aimed at music school teachers that was developed in the 1990s is based on transcultural approaches to learning. many culturally diverse activities are offered to students and new activities are in development. The activities can be divided into three groups: Accessible for all students These activities are accessible for students from all sections: ¸ performance courses (³free space´ during 3rd and 4th year) ¸ introduction to world music and musical culture (elective course)Sound Links ± Full Report 14 ¸ first year choir (compulsory for first year classical. the Conservatory of Amsterdam does not develop summer/winter. the annual fee is ¼ 1700. and 100 in the preparatory year. However. Cultural diversity in the Conservatory of Amsterdam Currently. professional development and extra-curricular activities with a focus on world music. for nonEU students and students over 30.
study trip (to Gambia or Senegal) ± Highly integrated into regular programme. Individual level . education These programmes are still in development. kora in harp lessons. theory. Series Meet the Masters. methodology. Classical A guest teacher is invited during main-subject lessons or group lessons. Brazilian Música Popular. especially Indian music. Activities for the education department will officially start September 2002. cross-over groups. Theory students have the opportunity to deepen their knowledge at the ethnomusicology department of the University of Amsterdam. Choir & orchestra conducting. specialisation secondary education. Musical tradition often linked to main instrument: bansuri in flute lessons. Elective Introduction to world music. but they are already taking place. workshops. Otherwise on request by teacher. Theory and history All first year students learn about the Javanese tonal system and get hands-on experience with the instruments. Intercultural history module is offered as an elective. Musical traditions offered in a broad range. placements. Jazz Latin percussion. flamenco group Composition Students choose to do a composition assignment linked to a certain musical tradition.Music in Schools Ensembles.
the management team approved a policy paper that paints an ambitious picture of the future of world music within the Conservatory of Amsterdam.Students can file requests for certain activities. Evaluation and assessment Students are evaluated on the basis of aural and written exams. Cultural diversity affects the musical reality. He uses a wide network within the community in the Netherlands as well as abroad to secure the quality of the teachers. such as second-subject courses in non-western traditions. It raises . The culturally diverse courses and events are under constant evaluation by the intercultural co-ordinator. In the latter. Regular evaluations by staff and students of innovations within the institution take place. In the long run. or deeper academic training at the University of Amsterdam. but not as often as the intercultural co-ordinator wishes. guest specialists in non-western traditions may also play a part in the student assessment. General developments and policy within the institution In November 1999. the Conservatory hopes to develop strong links with other institutions for trimester abroad programmes and intensive study trips. The basis for the document is the idea that cultural richness in society is audible in music. as well as on their practical work in classroom traineeships.
While many of the initiatives in this field come from students and teachers. composing and performing as learned at a conservatoire to this new musical reality. .important questions on how to relate teaching. This goes for teachers as well although there is some opposition from this group. The Conservatory consciously chooses not to make a separate world music department. to keep up with current developments. but to integrate cultural diversity into the existing curriculum. as well as policies aimed at recruiting a greater number of talented teachers and students with non-western backgrounds. but takes an active interest in them from his own background as a conductor. and to use in the constant innovation of the institution. The artistic director is not directly involved with these developments. It has an explicit policy to integrate and create room for world music in the existing curricula on the basis of artistic arguments.Sound Links ± Full Report 15 Many students in the school support cultural diversity and take it as a matter of course that it should be in the curriculum. it is also the staff (artistic director and co-ordinators) who feel that cultural diversity is an important tool to connect the institution to society. and support and facilitates where necessary.
Involvement in the CDIME (Cultural Diversity in Music Education) network as well as the Sound Links project are important elements in this development. and . the Conservatory aims at strengthening the link with society by concentrating more on community activities. Another aspect that Amsterdam will focus on is educational projects and productions that deal with transferring (world) music. Some teachers feel that world music in the institution is a threat to their own practice and unnecessary for their students. The Conservatory of Amsterdam is also looking into firmer connections with other intercultural educational programmes in the School of the Arts. but this does not necessarily mean that they are willing to be involved in practising it. but also in jazz.especially in the classical department. A working group has just been installed to examine this area. Future In the near future. This will result in more academic support for the intercultural education. In the student group. there is a lot of interest in world music. since it provides useful contacts on a high level. The world music programme in the departments of school music and educational sections of jazz and classical will have a prominent position in the new lectorate arts and cultural education.
This report describes one of these courses. Pilot project: Conservatory of Amsterdam Beyond banging drums ± African percussion as an instrument for reflection Introduction The Conservatory of Amsterdam has a large number of non-western music courses on offer for its students. as well as on the place of this course within the institution. Another point of interest is the difference in . This group was mixed. which served as a pilot project for Sound Links: Djembe sessions ± teaching and learning African percussion. running parallel for ten weeks. The course period ran for ten weeks from September to November 2001. as well as music education students.responding to the demand for better and more world music education within the city of Amsterdam. The project consisted of two African percussion (mainly West African djembe) courses by the same teacher. there were music performers from various departments. The focus of this report is on the methodological impact of the course on the students and teacher. the first trimester of the academic year. Two groups of about 10 students each were involved. The second group was more advanced and was made up of students further in their study career. who had some experience with African percussion. The first group consisted of first year students of the music education (music in schools) department.
the artistic director. Training of skills. and other staff involved with bringing cultural diversity further into the institution. callandresponse. · rhythmic training. The outside observer on this project was Huib Schippers from the World Music Centre. recognition of rhythmic codes · use of body in making music 3. questions of authenticity in playing and learning · use of notation. Testing various forms of transmission. This concentrates mainly on two fields: . Aims & objectives. Transfer of skills. the intercultural coordinator. familiar with djembe). These deal with: · combining analytic and holistic approaches · use of context. the teacher. The Conservatory wanted to know how far the students could be trained within 10 lessons.perception by two groups: beginners (first year students) and µadvanced¶ (second year and higher. The observers spoke with the students. sense of timing and pulse · physical memory · group communication and interaction: solo/improvisation ± accompaniment. His speciality is methodology. place in curriculum The project had a number of objectives: 1. µfixed music¶ · working in groupsSound Links ± Full Report 16 2.
Reflection on methodology and development by students. Music in schools students do not have µfree space¶ in their curriculum. but continued the lessons throughout the year. These courses result in one credit for the whole series. The second group had the course as an elective. During their first study year. It is taught in private settings and public . these students are offered three musical styles in the µworld music¶ range: west African drumming. and other staff. This is part of the µfree space¶ that the curriculum holds for all students: they are free to spend it on the subjects they choose themselves.· transfer to playing of other instruments and music making in different traditions · transfer to third party. They received 2 credits for the whole year. Content The djembe is an instrument that is by now well known in the Dutch cultural landscape. the course was compulsory. Javanese gamelan. Experts estimate that there are 2000 to 3000 of these drums in the Netherlands. in the way of workshops or projects (in the case of the second group) 4. This group did not stop after ten weeks. For the first group. teachers. The students were required to have some experience with West African drumming. The students involved in this class used the course as an addition to their regular programme. and Caribbean and Surinam music.
This could clearly be seen in the second group. The students are quickly able to make distinctive sounds and play rhythms without very complicated techniques. and also on the matter of transferability: what elements from another culture can be transferred to western practice. The Conservatory intends to take this direction of community music more often. especially in Amsterdam. and vice versa. This gives an interesting perspective on physical transmission in general. such as jazz and pop music. as are the attitudes towards playing and listening. when they will be required to set up a workshop or project involving djembe drumming. An advantage of West African drums in the curriculum is the connection with other musical styles.music schools. in which two jazz students took part. and concerts are organised regularly. They had a strong connection with the music and could relate to the rhythms. This familiarity was one of the reasons for choosing the instrument for the first beginners course. Teaching . The advanced group will test these issues in practice at the end of their course. to bridge the gap that exists between the institution and the society that surrounds it. The traditional teaching and learning styles of djembe are very different from western traditions. The advanced group was already familiar with playing the instrument. The playing techniques are also quite accessible at first.
where it can not be taught in the traditional way. The teaching methods in the two groups did not differ much. but in the advanced class it was more refined and emphasis was more on timing and playing together. He takes care in introducing new techniques to conservatoire students. This means he is familiar with both teaching styles. . European and African.Sound Links ± Full Report 17 He was taught djembe in the African way. Some twelve years ago. and increased polyrithmic complexity through use of dun-dun drums. because he first wants to understand them thoroughly himself. It is up to the teacher to find a format for bringing across the essence of the music and the skills to a different kind of student in a different context. He is especially interested in teaching methods and transferring African music to a European audience. he came into contact with African percussion. The djembe classes were taught by Victor Oskam. His background is in western percussion. The teaching methods used in this course were like a distillation of the methods Victor usually adopts in classes. solo playing / improvisation. which he has been teaching at the Conservatory.The matter of teaching rests greatly on recontextualisation: music from West Africa is brought to a completely different surrounding. which is why the Conservatory is interested in his teaching.
gaining confidence to play and use them. The plan was kept very flexible. The teacher found that this pilot project for him was an opportunity to reflect on his teaching methods and approaches. but in another form it can be placed in a different context. trying out the effectiveness of each. because the aim was to see how far the students would get in the end. This learning process begins at birth and is therefore impossible to recreate in the classroom. they become familiar with the rhythms and the principals underlying them. This method can be seen as a recreation of a setting in an African village. At the end of the term. where music is learned and absorbed first without the instruments but through listening and moving (dance). he used techniques he developed himself such as µclapping and stepping¶. The students stand in a circle and co-ordinate clapping their hands with the movement of their feet. Before the course he made a plan of how it would be set up and what he expected to be the outcomes. Apart from standard (African) demonstration. imitation and repetition. possibly in a follow-up course: .The teacher used various teaching methods. some attention was paid to subjects for further development. In the last two lessons. like walking. By doing this for a certain period of time and changing the patterns. the first year students had received very basic training.
and it added to the pleasure of making music. They understood the teaching methods and found them very useful and effective. Their reactions were critical and reflective. teaching and learning. One of the key elements that students took from the djembe course was a more physical approach to music making than usual. where listening to each other is as important as participation.improvisation and solo playing. Their attitude towards nonwestern cultures was very open and they understood the value of the courses for their development as a musician. An important aspect that came up was group learning: making music as a group was perceived as an inspiring setting. and cultural diversity in their own institution. Learning In two sessions. They were often surprised by the use of physical memory and incorporation of musical patterns while making music. the student groups had the opportunity to give their views on the course. They connected this way of making music to the subconscious. They suggested more frequent use of a masterclass format. Playing as a group gave a feeling of security and support. Especially the first year students commented on the lack of group learning in the Conservatory. This could be used as a way of reaching a . and at one point even to meditation aided by the repeated patterns.
The layered structure and building-up of rhythms was new. They were afraid they would forget the rhythms if they did not write them down.state of balance and inner stillness from which music was created. West African music is mainly cyclical. as well as a more melodic approach to percussion-based music. in the advanced class. However. observations. evaluation . which led to a few objections from the music education students. This required a different way of learning things too. the students were more immersed in the music and could remember the rhythms quite easily. Learning was practice-based and no notation was used. so there was constantly a structure to build on. It helped that they learned the music collectively.Sound Links ± Full Report 18 Reactions. this fear is not without foundation. In the case of this short course. which is quite different from the usual linear perception of rhythm and melody used in the western tradition. The balance between mind and body was an object of discussion and touched upon the issue of analytical versus holistic approaches to learning. the students discovered a new way of creating and experiencing music. From a musical point of view. remembering a rhythmic pattern by its intrinsic melody.
but with a strong theoretical and visionary background. One of the conditions is that the courses are of high quality. Quite a few members of the staff are dedicated to the matter. The intercultural co-ordinator is constantly involved with finding the right tutors for the students. and they are supported from above as well as below. The students see the need for cultural diversity in their training and come with own initiatives. the level of music making must also be . Not only should the students gain transferable skills from the courses. This µdrive¶ has led to a solid presence of world music in an institution that is traditionally based on the performance of western classical music.The Conservatory of Amsterdam has a very energetic approach to cultural diversity. it is important to µdefend¶ the integration of world music into all sections. Being in an institution that concentrates traditionally on classical excellence. An important issue is transferability of skills. The Conservatory is currently dealing with a number of important issues that arise from the integration of cultural diversity. it is not perceived as a threat as long as it is clear how students benefit from these activities. The integration is done by practical work. The current way of doing this is successful: by integrating culturally diverse practice and electives into the curriculum in dialogue with staff and students.
The ethnic make-up of the city requires musicians that can be flexible in their approach to musical culture and context. Through various musical influences and creativity. curiosity is the first step in discovering your own style. it provides students with a broad range of musical input and skills. the Conservatory of Amsterdam will be concentrating more on its connection to society around it. but rather musicians who teach and/or perform.high. It is in this question of breadth versus depth where the Conservatory is constantly finding its balance. the Conservatory does not aim at training high level performers in world music traditions ± by offering world music courses. In the future. . students make their own musical language that allows them to become not only music teachers or performers. As one of the students in the first group remarked. The Conservatory is regularly involved with international projects and networks. requires them to make their own musical identity. However. The broad professional profiles that students are training for. This process requires an open mind from the students as well as the institution. Amsterdam is looking outwards without losing sight of what is happening inside the institution.
Amsterdam Conservatory is currently investigating the implications in methodology of world music traditions entering the institution. for example a western institution for music education. With the growth of cultural diversity in higher music education as a whole. and the management acknowledges the need for a strong support structure. Specific commissions. Not only have many members of staff become involved. Usually the traditional method of transmission can no longer be used in the new context. the aspect of methodology will become even more prominent. On the other hand. there is also a special cultural diversity co-ordinator.Sound Links ± Full Report . many things change. Support structure The artistic director of Amsterdam Conservatory takes an active interest in all culturally diverse activities. the western teaching methods are not always suitable for every kind of music.Relevance of the project to the key issues identified in Sound Links µFrom Policy to Practice¶ Methodology When musical traditions are moved into a different context. are set up for important issues such as methodology. consisting of staff members from many departments. A great deal of research remains to be done. This support structure ensures optimal sustainability for activities in this field.
Especially in the Music in Schools department. Since 1980. and stimulated throughout the programme. work. where they live. An open attitude towards all kinds of musical cultures is a prominent feature in the curriculum.Sound Links ± Full Report 20 Institutional profile: Music Academy Basel. eat. the aspect of multiculturalism is found to be very important. In 1994. Switzerland World music as liaison across levels of education Introduction Teaching world music has a tradition of more than 25 years at the MusikAkademie der Stadt Basel. In 1976. a class for Balinese gamelan at the Musikhochschule of the Music Acadamy was formed. and has tried to adjust its approach to this new every-day reality. socialise and make music.19 Openness Amsterdam Conservatory is surrounded by a multicultural city in which people from all around the world find their place. The Conservatory is very much aware of this. . regular classes for the Japanese flute shakuhachi and North Indian vocal and instrumental music are held. the various activities in the field of world music were concentrated by the formation of the Studio für Aussereuropäische Musik (Studio for Extra-European music).
(World) music courses The Musikhochschule gives degrees in music education. the MusikAdademie also has a music education department. which provides music lessons for lay people and is currently most successful. specialising in Early Music. The school in fact consists of four institutions: the Musikschule. Although none of the world music courses lead to a formal degree. workshops and concerts. the continuous availability of the main teachers of Indian. concert performance. an institution of higher music education. the Studio for Extra-European Music was formally an independent department in the MusikAkademie.Often referred to as SAM. the Studio for Non-Western Music has a special position within the Music Academy. the Musikhochschule. . world music is represented in the modules General Music Studies (1st year). but positions itself as a liaison µbetween¶ these departments. it has become part of the Musikschule (music school). and the Scola Cantorum (SCB). providing both education in primary schools and teacher training. Integration into existing courses In the Musikhochschule. Balinese and Japanese music allow motivated students to reach a high level. Until 2002. and solo performance. providing world music in the curricula of the four institutions as well as organising its own classes. Now.
a seminar on theory and practice in ethnomusicology and a workshop week where all workshop activities are concentrated. enabling learners to achieve a level of some proficiency on the instruments of their choice. with Swapan Chaudhuri. and a class for North Indian vocal music. gamelan. activities like a trip to Bali for young gamelan players are organised. North Indian music). A special position amongst the workshop activities is taken by the annual master classes by Indian sarod maestro Ali Akbar Khan. Brasilian dance (Orixas). Persian percussion (Tombak) and Indian Tabla. One of the acknowledged grand old men of Indian classical music. two classes for Balinese Gamelan (children and adults). It strives for returning workshops. In addition.Music History (2nd year) and Instrumentology. In the 3rd year students are encouraged to follow one of regular courses SAM is offering (shakuhachi. Within the frame work of the Musikschule there exists a class for Shakuhachi. Korean percussion (Samul Nori). Ali Akbar Khan has made room in his touring . one of the foremost tabla players. Other activities SAM organises regular workshops in Balinese dance. In the Schola Cantorum SAM offers courses in modal improvisation for students of Medieval Music.
schedule to visit Basel 15 times so far for a one-week intensive course for 50-100 Indian music students from all over Europe. Evaluation and assessment As the world music courses are not part of the formal educational structure of the institution. in order to change from Konservatorium . There are no written criteria for this. The Studio has however kept its own budget and is now better represented on the Board of Trustees of the academy. The Musikhochschule is going through a process of validation. but it also made the Studio vulnerable: a freefloating structure is in constant danger of being blown away in the next cost-saving round. The Studio has not lost its function as liaison for world music activities between the departments. and feedback is given verbally by the world music specialists themselves. Its independence looked good in theory. evaluations are generally only done by the teacher. The workshops are realised together with the Ali Akbar College of Music in Basel. Integration into the Musikschule means more security. when it was incorporated into the Musikschule (music school).Sound Links ± Full Report 21 General developments / policy within institution The Studio fur Aussereuropäische Musik has been an independent institution within the structure of the Music Academy until 2002.
There are no formal policies regarding cultural diversity. Operating in emphatically multicultural surroundings.to a EU-compatible Musikhochschule. Activities do not take place at the heart of things. mostly thanks to the commitment of the leading figures in SAM to preserve the department. . Courses involving a wide variety of world musics have until recently been realised from the level of single modules to entire degrees. Birmingham Conservatoire has for a long time responded actively to the challenges of cultural diversity. The process will consist of two rounds of validation by a Swiss and an international board. At the moment there are no new initiatives to strengthen the position of world music within the Musikhochschule. but more on the fringes.Sound Links ± Full Report 22 Institutional profile: Birmingham Conservatoire Responding to new musical realities Introduction World music at Birmingham Conservatoire has always been regarded more as a dynamic influence on contemporary music and composition rather than as research-based ethnomusicology. a crossdepartmental Studio secures continuity and distribution of activities. recent developments under new management show a shift in attitude towards cultural diversity within the institution. However. making this area (and SAM) vulnerable within the institution. However.
Elective modules include world music traditions. but focusing on jazz. academic studies. as a sound technician. it is specifically mentioned that the subject matter is Western classical music. giving them opportunity for specialisation in: performance / composition. · BMus (Hons) Jazz This four-year course is the same as above. The course. · BSc (Hons) Music Technology Students are trained to work in a recording studio. consists of practice supported by academic work. composition or world music. which takes four years. teaching. postgraduate. Duration: three years. research and Junior school levels. or community music. Apart from . or working in multimedia projects and digital broadcasting and publishing of music. During the last year the students embark on a project. Postgraduate · PGDip in Music This postgraduate course offers specialist study in performance. The following degree courses are specified: Undergraduate · BMus (Hons) In the description of the course.Music degree courses in general Birmingham Conservatoire offers courses at undergraduate.
2 years part-time). World music traditions are not mentioned as possible subjects. Opera Performance. students receive support lectures. and other areas of particular interest in the conservatoire context. and Vocal Performance.45 hours of specialist tuition during the course of the study (1 year fulltime. · MPhil and PhD PhD proposals are welcomed dealing with ³(«) questions relating to the practice and philosophy of musical performance and composition. but a fourth option of specialisation is available: musicology.´ The MPhil degree of one year gives good access to the PhD programme. for world music in the subject of ethnomusicology. The course is available in one of five divisions: Instrumental Performance. · MA in Music The one-year MA course resembles the PGDip. . There are different modes of assessment available for non-western performance practice. Half the amount of study credits will give students a postgraduate certificate in music. An MA is regarded as a good preparation for a research degree programme. · DPS The Diploma in Professional Studies is only accessible for exceptionally talented students of music performance. Piano Accompaniment. Opera Repetiteur.
Academic study was combined with a practical hands-on approach to West African music.Cultural diversity in Birmingham Conservatoire World music was established as a core subject in the undergraduate curriculum in 1989. For some time. and very few university departments and colleges. taught world music. The course is now waiting to be revalidated.Sound Links ± Full Report 23 gospel singing. when the course was revalidated. English Folk. Birmingham Conservatoire has had a BMus Raga Sangeet (Indian music) programme on offer. along with its recruitment and marketing strategies. After initial resistance from some departments these activities were gradually accepted and welcomed by many staff. Indonesian gamelan and Hindustani classical music. Brazilian samba batucada. . The module provided an introduction to different musical cultures and was generally found to be useful especially for the majority of the students who have gone through rather µmonocultural¶ school education. when no other conservatories in the UK. There are now plans to replace the module with an introduction to ethnomusicology (2 or 3 lectures) as part of second year history. A core module on world music was part of the BMus programme until 2001. This course has been cancelled after application numbers fell below target for two successive years.
world music is included in composition courses and workshops. On the whole. solo and accompaniment or a recital. For a great number of years. For example. who have written criteria for this. In these cases. as well as special projects such as the Music Extra Week ± a project week for the entire school. General developments / policy within institution Formal policies regarding cultural diversity have been adopted at Birmingham conservatoire. by means of marks. A member of Conservatoire staff has been assigned to co-ordinate all world music subjects and ensembles. Academic modules are assessed by written work. mainly in the School of Composition and Creative Studies. The formats of assessment for world music include group assessment. there has been a multitude of activities in place. Although . world music is formally mentioned in the objectives. Evaluation and assessment World music subjects are assessed by a teacher or a panel. mostly non creditbearing. The students receive feedback in written and/or verbal form. except for the world music specialists from other cultures. teachers do not yet use nonwestern methods of teaching in the training of students. seminar presentations and aural tests.Current activities in the field of cultural diversity are mainly in the optional subjects. World music is integrated is some subjects and modules. available for all students.
world music was in some cases firmly established within the programmes. Copenhagen World music in the context of training µrhythmic¶ musicians Introduction Denmark has a tradition of summer music seminars on Danish µfolk highschools¶. creating a place for jazz. It is meant as an orientation. It was from this concept ± and from the simultaneous development in the Danish evening school system ± that the idea for a conservatoire for µrhythmic¶ (mostly Afro-American) music emerged. After some years it was established . pop and ultimately world music in the educational landscape. These summer seminars have been important for the development of Danish music and music groups.Sound Links ± Full Report 24 Institutional profile: Rhythmic Music Conservatory. which was originally initiated by Grundtvig. Although it is part of the Danish adult education system. recent developments have shown that the institution will need sufficient staff and financial support to keep the activities as a significant part of the overall programme of the institution. and the kind of music offered at those schools changed into the same direction. In the seventies the summer schools acquired a more political and contemporary approach and atmosphere. this form of education does not provide students with a diploma. a broadening of mind or µaftereducation¶.
within the existing structure of traditional conservatories. and most candidates will eventually work both as professional performers and teachers. it was separated from the established classical education right from the start. and not the ministry of education. there are two 1-year diploma courses for musicians and music teachers. That does not mean insufficient attention is paid to artistic development: all students obtain high level performing skills. only 20% concentrates solely on performing. a new 3-year sound technician course (ST). . as the RMC falls under the authority of the ministry of culture. 80% of the students follow teacher training courses. As a result of its complex and different history. A study at RMC does not lead to an official academic degree or title. and from 2000. A new professional 4-year education music and movement teacher (MMT) was introduced in 1998. of which 500 are contact hours. with an emphasis on music education. Music courses There are three main educational directions: core activity is the 4-year education of music teachers (MT) and 5-year musicians/singers diploma education (MS). All courses require the same study load: 1500 hours a year. primarily as a high-level pop/rock/jazz school. The Rhythmic Music Conservatory (RMC) opened in 1986. as well as its musical content. Apart from these courses.
. etc. Apart from this. world music is mainly practised during project weeks every year. which focus every time on a different geographic area and musical culture: Cuba. RMC does not offer specialist programmes in world music traditions. but rather integrated than presented as a separate field of study.Graduates are qualified to teach in music schools. Students show a growing interest in world music. but the programme will still include general subjects. Nashville. Most teachers involved in world music in the institution also make use non-western methods of teaching in their classes. because of their origins. For teaching in formal education in Denmark ± like in most countries ± one needs a degree from teacher training college (for primary and secondary schools). Brazil. jazz and world music) are considered multicultural (or intercultural) in themselves. The amount and manner of attention paid to world music seems more or less dependent on the teachers. Students have the possibility to specialise after the second year. university or conservatory (for higher education). Cultural diversity at RMC RMC offers only general programmes. rock. Most of the traditions taught at RMC (pop. not focusing on a specific musical tradition. Louisiana.
Student placements are mainly in the music schools. Africa (Ghana. Brazil. RMC takes part in international networks. Internationalisation is mainly a matter of informal contacts and serves to make deals with individual institutions. With regard to studying in non-western countries. and only a small percentage will study in higher education ± the percentage in music education is even smaller.RMC does not have an active community programme. or another with Turkish musicians. as are the project weeks. There is an immigrant community in Copenhagen. It is difficult to come into contact with immigrant groups and musicians. but it is relatively small compared to other European cities and RMC is not influenced by the groups of µnew Danes¶. Cuba. and mainly to the US. There have been projects to make a connection with Islamic culture. and other Nordic countries. Outgoing mobility is limited. South Africa). For example a project week that focused on music from the Middle East. Teachers¶ own networks are important for this. They usually do notSound Links ± Full Report 25 go to music schools. but there are few to . aligning study programmes is often a bottleneck. where they teach ensembles and instruments. Student mobility 15% of RMC¶s students are from abroad.
and students seldom take courses or semesters at European conservatories outside of Scandinavia. This was mainly a way of meeting the requirements for the Ministry of Culture. For incomparable and extra modules. Therefore studying abroad for most RMC students means studying longer. Students can also take their grants from the State Educational Fund with them. so there is a strong connection with the home town context. Now there are . In other words: there is a lack of suitable modules. Teaching and Learning At its initiation. RMC constructed a curriculum that resembled those of classical conservatories in Denmark. a mechanism for funding study abroad is in place. For RMC a problem with study abroad is that hardly any country or institution pays as much attention to pedagogical/didactical training as RMC. For comparable modules abroad students can take money reserved at RMC with them. Language and usefulness for Danish teaching situations and professional practice are relevant as well: many students live in Copenhagen and work as teachers and performers during their study-time to gain experience. Technically. they have to find additional funding.no applications for Socrates/Erasmus as the RMC only entered the Socrates programme this year.
new ideas and initiatives.developments towards more appropriate forms of teaching. students will be working with ensembles in. Reflection on students¶ learning and teaching is largely missing. both learning and teaching. The institution is now finding ways to accommodate this and create room for reflection. but at the moment staff is working on extending this time to the second to fourth year. Professional development for the teaching staff ± educated in classical institutions or at RMC themselves ± is vital in this process. Many modules in RMC are practice-based. More time is devoted to this approach than to theoretical teaching. there is often a lack of financial means to involve them in the development of the teaching process: longterm planning. . mainly as result of change in funding policies from the Danish Music Council. since the RMC has its own origins in this area. At the moment activities in this department have been toned down. for example band-based learning. forms that are uncommon at classical institutions. It seemed like a natural step to include continuing education. student-centred learning. However.and outside the institution. During these years. Discussions about these processes take place in the third year. RMC has had a continuing education department since 1995.
many conservatories in Denmark followed and included rhythmic music into their curriculum in some form. Its artistic focus also creates ample opportunities to create links with . and not making connections. The advantage of having a separate position from classical music institutions is that the RMC is free in choosing its own forms. The students are individually assessed by a teacher panel in exams including written. according to the type of exam. verbal. All exams are described in the curriculum. However. When state funding was made available for RMC. methodologies and content. pass/fail or grades feedback. something that is done mainly through the project weeks. The RMC has no formal policy regarding cultural diversity.Evaluation and assessment RMC only assesses courses in the core curriculum.Sound Links ± Full Report 26 General developments / Policy within institution Before the founding of RMC. it takes constant effort and development to avoid µtunnel vision¶: not seeing and/or understanding what others in the field are doing. Its musical content ± rhythmic music ± gives many entry points for inclusion of world music traditions in the programme. although they are still mainly focused on classical music. the introduction of rhythmic music into higher music education was very slow in Denmark.
it included some theoretical elements into the programme and invited a Cuban ethnomusicologist specialised in the field of Afro-Cuban music. student exchange. Copenhagen Cuba in Copenhagen ± Inspiration and confrontation Introduction Every year the Rhythmic Music Conservatory in Copenhagen organises a week around the music of a specific geographical area for all its students.various groups in the Copenhagen community. In the past these weeks have led to study abroad. and new ensembles ± apart from improving the institution¶s library and teaching resources. . Pilot project: Rhythmic Music Conservatory. the central theme was the music of Cuba. In 2002. The set-up of the Cuban music week was different from earlier years: since the academy wishes to increase background knowledge and reflective thinking of students and staff. There is no such subject available in Denmark. but there is no real connection with community work. Students and staff take part in Copenhagen¶s cultural life by performing and teaching. but RMC is considering to develop a similar effort ± for example by a community music training programme for its students. The main aim of the music weeks at RMC is to bring students into contact with a different kind of music in order to broaden their experience and interest in music.
which was compulsory for all students. a lecture by Olavo Alén.Another new aspect was the inclusion of dance. Since absence means that you have to double the entire year.30 AM to 5 PM comprising of a welcome concert. all students were present at their classes. Masterclasses were on the following instruments: piano. and dance lessons. It is not possible for the institution to regulate student attendance with credit points. In the evenings there were concerts and jam sessions. Volunteers from Copenhagen were brought in as interpreters for all ensemble training and masterclasses. Content & organisation Attendance during the Cuban music week was compulsory for all students from the 1st to 4th year. . Students were divided into two groups with a schedule from 9. masterclasses. but especially band practice. Since Cuban music requires especially those two instrumental groups. Two years of preparation by a latin music expert with contacts in Cuba preceded the visit of 17 musicians and 3 dancers. since they do not give out degrees and do not use credits. some 5th year students and graduates were brought in to complete ensembles. RMC does not have many students for percussion or wind instruments. All classes during the music week were taught by Cuban musicians. flown over to Copenhagen especially for this week.
but the teacher stopped this as much as possible by slowing down and giving the students the opportunity to µwatch and do¶. In some cases. etc. this added confidence to their playing. the teacher would get up and sing or dance.bass. taught all classes during the music week. trumpet. The Sound Links observers attended masterclasses by Luis Abreu Hernandez. Then the rhythm would continue. the teacher would use non-verbal signals to communicate with the students. trombone. students tried to get around the teacher¶s method by explaining things verbally. observations. A lot of time and money had gone into selecting the . Reactions. At a certain point all students had the opportunity to add something to the rhythm: improvisation. drums. If everything was going well. gestures. saxophone. Apart from fun. and clarinet. violin. In case of mistakes. vocal. aided by interpreters.Sound Links ± Full Report 27 Teaching & learning The Cuban musicians. who taught conga rhythms to eight percussion students. percussion. Teaching consisted primarily of imitation: the teacher would play the whole rhythm and the students repeated it back to him. guitar. evaluation The pilot project in Copenhagen was well-organised. words.
and setting up the programme. it must be considered what the benefits of this week will be for the students. it also creates a distance between teachers and students and loss of connections between the various musical cultures taught at RMC. and indeed the whole institution. he also took care of the musicians during the week. Not only did he prepare the project. However. or even present during the Cuban music week. an external expert in the field of Cuban music was brought in. negotiate and arrange the visit. How does the institution ensure sustainability of the results of the Cuban music week? What will happen when the Cuban guests have left and the Academy stays behind with enthusiastic students and a stocked up library? Earlier experience at RMC has shown that the greatest effect of world music weeks lies in exchange and contacts. staff. They did not come into contact with the Cuban musicians. When taking into account the costs. one can argue that the lasting effects could be increased. The opportunities for staff and students to reflect on the effects of the . freeing students from other responsibilities. Since the RMC did not have the necessary expertise to select the teachers. Most of the regular teaching staff was not involved. Not only is this a missed opportunity for professional development of teaching staff.teachers. The dancers had a separate co-ordinator.
Both students and teachers should be aware of (and prepared for) the situation of cultural encounter they are in. but not trained as teachers. . The Cuban musicians were often accomplished musicians. RMC is currently looking into the development of its staff and the whole institution. learning. Relevance of the project to the issues identified in Sound Links µFrom Policy to Practice¶ Methodology The Cuban music week at the Rhythmic Conservatory in Copenhagen was for many students a confrontation with different ways of teaching than what they were used to in their institution. and these considerations will be taken into account. communication problems occurred during classes.Cuban music week on their teaching. and further development is likely to be lost. This can have serious consequences for the atmosphere and also the effectiveness of the practice sessions. Combined with an inevitable language barrier. Staff involvement Activities in the field of cultural diversity in institutions for music education usually do not involve other teaching staff than necessary. This is unfortunate because it presents many opportunities for professional training and staff development. for example meeting new musical traditions and ways of teaching.
Dartington College of Arts adopts an approach based on . There is a substantial danger that the experience will be very superficial. often teaching staff is on part-time contracts with limited hours for teaching. to be able to attract high quality musicians from the country of origin. However. funds need to be made available for this purpose. in the end the students only spend one week with these musicians. To make these efforts sustainable.Sound Links ± Full Report 28 Sustainability The students of RMC come into contact with world music traditions at least once in every year. and will not yield a deeper understanding of the musical culture. The institution has decided to spend a substantial amount of money on these projects. If professional development is not a paid contractual obligation.However. and the learning experience is not continued afterwards when they go back to their regular schedule. students need to come into contact with other musical cultures more often.Sound Links ± Full Report 29 Institutional profile: Dartington College of Arts World music as a given in comtemporary music Introduction Regarding cultural diversity in music education.
in the chosen format. however. After spending time in India to work on an innovative project in agricultural innovation. as the fruit of a meeting between an American heiress and a British visionary. Indian music and African music. it could not be run on a cost-effective basis. extensive room has always been reserved for innovative approaches to arts and arts education. which functioned until 1990. which they thoroughly renovated. they established a liberal arts college in an impressive medieval manor house that was built for the half-brother of Richard II. with courses in Japanese shakuhachi. The interest and some activities in world music have remained.the study of contemporary music ± meaning all genres and styles relevant today. World music is integrated into the teaching of all BA and MA courses and is (to some extent) variable. gamelan. Unfortunately. As part of this major endeavour. depending on staff availability and student interests. Dartington College of Arts developed a substantial world music department. without making hierarchical value judgements. Dorothy and Leonhard Elmhirst returned to Devon with the aim of reviving rural life in the face of the adverse effects of urbanisation. At the College. Music degree courses in general Duration study load per year ECTS . Dartington College of Arts was founded in the early 1930s. so the department was discontinued.
Dartington accepts virtually all instruments for practical study. While in the µold¶ system there was more flexibility and choice for the students. or specific modules/ programmes in world music as part of existing degree courses. The content and effectiveness of the modules is expected to increase. As a consequence.BA Honours in Music 3 years 1200 hrs 3 x 60 BA Honours in Music (Performance) 3 years 1200 hrs 3 x 60 BA Honours in Music (Composition) 3 years 1200 hrs 3 x 60 BA Honours in Music with Arts Management 3 years 1200 hrs 3 x 60 MA in contemporary music 1 to 2 years 1800 hrs total 90 M Phil 2 to 3 years Ph. Balinese Gamelan. students follow only half the number of modules but will receive more in-depth education. some quite specifically world music e. there will now be more room for reflection and discussion.g. Samba. It also has a range of ensembles. D. Ghanaian . All students must take either Performance or Composition practical modules. Minimum 5 years From the academic year 2003-2004. World Music in the degree courses Dartington does not offer specialist degree courses in world music. the study load per module will double from 10 to 20 credits (ECTS). courses.
Students can also take a 'Negotiated Project' . It examines what music was and is for various cultures.Sound Links ± Full Report 30 BA second year. to develop their playing of Ghanaian xylophone. mostly historical. such as instrumental education. This is Dartington¶s version of a 'history' course.which some students use e. and practical workshops.g. It takes an ethnomusicological approach. pedagogical classes. Ethnomusicology is offered some years as one of the musicology options. world music can be found implicitly throughout the curriculum. and others which often include some world music/instruments e. Elective modules offered to all students of the college (theatre. asking questions about the function of the music within the culture as well as examining the musical constructions. Students can take 'Ensemble Studies' as one of their modules. choral work. the accent lies on integration of world music in most key subjects. which includes folk and world music. music theory. for example: BA first year: Modules dealing with 'Music in Time & Place'.g.drumming/xylophone. free improvisation. and how we can know about it. performance writing . visual performance. several ensembles on offer play world music. As the focus of the entire institution is contemporary arts. In this way.supervised but not taught directly .
MA work follows this same pattern. They have to do a project off the campus. including essay writing. and Argentinean Tango. there is a range of modes of assessment. working with local people/music. a piece of written research and a final practical module. Students mostly choose the area of work themselves this year. West Africa etc. the famous Dartington International Summer School. which has been running for over 50 years. professional development and extra-curricular activities world music does not feature prominently.g. oral assessments. performance. flamenco music and dance. or by researching an relevant area. BA third year. presentations. project logbooks (evaluations). There is a considerable emphasis on students being able to communicate in a variety of forms/media and being able to present a detailed critical . with students choosing the focus of their work with staff tutorial input/support. Evaluation and assessment At present. However. by locating their project in India. African and Gospel choir. Balinese gamelan.as well as music) include cross-cultural work and modules such as 'Investigating Culture'. typically features courses in African drumming. Other courses In Summer/Winter courses. A significant number of students choose to include an area of world music in their final year e.
staff teaching a module are responsible for seeking feedback from the students on the module and writing this up. contributing to the work they submit and enabling them to identify skills learnt through the module. for a variety of reasons. . Currently. The student can still pass this module if they can show how they managed the project positively.evaluation of their work. Dartington is trying to improve the course/programme evaluation. but also providing answers to the sorts of questions teachers want to ask to be able to evaluate the course. Staff at Dartington also try to identify the forms of learning and the specific skills that they expect students to develop and offer a great deal of formative evaluation/assessment. For example. redirecting the project and understanding what they have learnt. Dartington is trying to develop ways of enabling students to evaluate their performance within a module. This is seen as something of an imposition. a course that relied heavily on written essays. For example. a student may set out on a project which has been quite well planned but. At present. goes badly wrong. showing appropriate planning and evaluation. but only assess the student in that skill once summatively. in addition to all the other work staff must also do. would constantly assess mostly the ability of the student to communicate in writing. even though they were on different topics.
Sound Links ± Full Report 31 Pilot project: Dartington College of Arts Preparing students for working in a culturally diverse community Introduction The pilot consisted of a series of workshops. Since the Dartington students also face similar issues when doing workshops. working with students from Dartington College of Arts and staff from the Music Zone. A general urge to avoid cultural hegemony has led to integrating world music into the existing curricula. Staff from the Music Zone were not only brought in to share their experience and expertise. these two groups were joined together into one . while others had good communication skills on an individual level but did not know how to handle a group.General developments / policy within institution Dartington has explicit policies stimulating cultural diversity in the curriculum. During the course. and adjusting the form and organisation of the educational programmes to students with culturally diverse backgrounds. Some were trained as teachers but found it difficult to leave the classroom behind in a totally different setting. but also because many of them lacked the skills to work for a broad group of people. a community music initiative in Plymouth. which was offered as an elective module. the students were trained in developing and delivering a workshop.
Initially the Music Zone was funded by an anonymous benefactor. The Music Zone realises 35 after school activities every week. instrumental tuition. drawn from both Dartington . Children can hire an instrument for a very low sum. issues of cultural diversity were part of the programme. The main focus was on developing workshop skills.course. (African) percussion groups. In three years time almost 1200 people have participated. and a brass band. Aims & objectives The following aims were defined for the project: ¸ To offer development in workshop skills to potential workshop leaders. All activities are free of charge. for example: fun music workshops as a first encounter with music making (boomwackers). The Music Zone (Plymouth Education Action Zone) Plymouth Education Action Zone is a project working with children from a socially and culturally deprived area of the city of Plymouth in the south of England. music technology labs. Music Zone orchestra. but in July 2002 it was awarded a substantial grant by the National Foundation of Youth Music. Part of this is the Music zone. a significant engagement in music. Activities are. The average now is 100 children a week. offering extracurricular music experiences using a range of musical styles.
but awareness of the context and audience are included implicitly in the project set-up. in relation to an examination of the needs and aspirations of the pupils in the Music Zone These were linked to the following objectives: ¸ To examine and develop generic workshop skills for the participants. those they may need to acquire. to examine the range of skills.College of Arts and the Music Zone ¸ To provide the opportunity for the workshop participants to examine the range of skills and support they have to offer.Sound Links ± Full Report 32 . interests and aspirations of pupils Cultural diversity is not formally mentioned in the aims or objectives. within the context. and the methods of acquiring and developing these ¸ To inform the participants about the aims of the Music Zone and. working in mutually supportive groups ¸ To enable participants to identify the skills and understandings they have to offer. in particular Ú an understanding of workshop planning and delivery Ú to gain confidence by developing and delivering a workshop within a supportive setting Ú to acquire and understand tools for evaluation and the ability to use these for continuing development Ú to deliver workshops in the Music Zone.
During the second phase of the project. the workshops differed greatly. and some issues of context and culture were addressed by practical as well as theoretical materials. In the end. the students had to develop and deliver a workshop in the Music Zone in Plymouth. They worked in small groups of two to four students.Content & organisation. Twelve students were drawn towards the subject. The following projects were realised: · Computer composition with two groups of children (age 14-16). place in the curriculum Workshop Development was offered as a credit bearing optional course for all second year students. followed by a Saturday during which they delivered workshops to each other. as well as exploring their creativity with music and computers. The students received three classes of three hours each. The day ended with an evaluation session of all the workshops. There were two phases in this project. The goal was to give the children some IT experience. The students first . In the first phase the students were presented with an introduction to workshop development. mainly because of interest in educational processes and the working field. These workshops were then discussed by the whole group. supporting each other and providing critical evaluation.
Both partners agree . This did not work so well. and playing the guitar. concentrating on performance aspects and confidence in moving with music. · Workshops in vocal and movement skills. The workshop leaders tried to link on to the current R&B trend by taking gospel music as a starting point. · Introduction to wind instruments in primary schools in Plymouth. The organisation was in the hands of Dartington College of Arts and the Music Zone. This project was visited by the Sound Links representatives. blowing techniques and sound principles. The students who made this workshop were the only ones who developed a teaching package. which is why the students studied R&B for a week themselves and then went on with an R&B workshop. · Song session of rock and pop music to learn more about form. The target group consisted of high school girls (age 14-16). · Teaching children (age 14-16) about composition through learning a piece of rock music. techniques. After a presentation about available instruments. developing the existing skills of the children and making new compositions with them. the children could have a go at the instruments themselves. and then mainly guided the pupils in their own attempts.gave a quick demonstration of the possibilities.
´ Issues of cultural diversity and relating to context were included in the course.that this partnership could be stronger and more balanced. and Dartington College could provide opportunities for professional development and improvement of musical background. As the director of the Music Zone remarked: ³Playing your instrument well will inspire people. The freelancers of the Music Zone would be unable to accept work during courses so it would effectively cost them money. Teaching. not only to show the artistic potential of the . The Music Zone could serve even more as a platform for placements and student projects. which would benefit both parties. Dartington College is not in a position to offer the courses for free. The aim was to teach students to look for what the people in the workshops and community want and need. If you don¶t. and what they themselves had to offer. you become a social worker and you lose sight of the artistic value of your work ± and yourself. For example: an African music and dance style was adopted during the first day. learning The main focus of the course was on skill-building. Attention was also paid to the level of their musical work. nor can the Music Zone pay for the study hours of its employees. The main challenge in strengthening these partnerships lies with funding.
They were also the only ones capable of articulating their response.tradition. adjusting attitude. but also to put the students off their guards. giving . equals 100 hours of work) the aims of the course had to be narrowed. Because the course took place over a short period of time. and bore only five ECTS credit points (an indication of the study load. appearance and content to the situation at hand. Only two students (working on the vocal and movement workshops) were able to show they had responded intelligently to the challenges of the context of their workshops by. Another aspect was discussions about riots among ethnic groups that had taken place not long before. This made issues of cultural diversity an actuality ± and close to the students¶ own lives.Sound Links ± Full Report 33 However. for example. they felt the same as many people in the community may when they first encounter music making. It is therefore unclear how far elements of cultural diversity and context were integrated and effective in the teaching and learning processes. at the evaluation session the students did not demonstrate convincingly that they were able to integrate aspects of cultural diversity into their own work. or how far the students were encouraged to form their own ideas about this. By encountering a musical form that they were unfamiliar with.
limiting the time and energy students were able to devote to this project. introducing them to concepts and practices in workshop delivery to community groups. Additionally. However. the students were involved in many courses at the same time. Although they received regular tutoring. but with more room for in-depth study in each of them. . In Plymouth there is relatively little ethnic diversity. Previous experiences from Dartington staff has shown that in the first module students begin to develop their awareness. Students received weekly classes. reception and approach. schools in a socially deprived area. The students were given a certain amount of responsibility for their own learning situation in the Music Zone in the second phase of the course. In a review of its current provision. from 2003-2004 Dartington will offer a smaller number of options. it feels that the difference in socioeconomic background provides sufficient variety of input. The target groups in Plymouth consisted of children in the Education Action Zone.the students less room to become aware of and/or articulate the concepts. this module is followed by another in the next year of study. Dartington College makes a clear distinction between cultural diversity and ethnic diversity. almost all children have an English cultural background. In cases like the pilot project.
evaluation The first part of the project took place entirely in Dartington. Staff from . explaining the technical principles of their instruments. Afterwards the children could have a go at the instruments themselves. In attitude and methodology. but the students could have used more time with a mentor helping them to identify and observe issues and formulate appropriate responses. The Sound Links commission observed this very clearly during their visit to a workshop in a primary school in Plymouth. Observation. rather than using the new input they received during the course and from the Music Zone staff. except for their own experiences when they learned music. For budgetary reason this could not be realised.there was insufficient time in this course for appropriate mentoring by staff from Dartington College or Music Zone. when placed under pressure they tended to use this role model from their own music learning as reference material in the development of their workshops. Typically for learners. Therefore they had not seen any action there which could have served as an example. this could have been a music class thirty years ago. and many of the students did not see the work of the Music Zone until they started working on their own workshops. Students introduced children to wind instruments by standing in front of the classroom.
However. this same group of students had prepared teaching materials to leave in each school. On one hand the students would have opened up their own creativity earlier in the project.both Dartington and the Music Zone were disappointed by the presentation. If the students had been taken to the Music Zone first. not many Music Zone workshop leaders were able to participate in or were committed to the course themselves to gain more insight into their own work. On the other hand it would have been hard for them to recognise the issues that were involved. The mutuality of the partnership between Dartington College and the Music Zone was partly lost. Although the Music Zone contributed greatly to the course by providing expertise and placementSound Links ± Full Report 34 opportunities. or the skills of the workshop leaders. and the fact that there was not a greater commitment to innovation and experimentation. The planning of the project (and the choice for situating the first half in Dartington) were dependent on organisational and logistical circumstances. showing good awareness of another common issue in workshops where specialists fly in and out without a commitment to establishing a sustainable practice. there would have been different consequences. Their absence was felt in decreased .
As was mentioned before. giving them a choice between training and ± in a way ± making a living. Dartington College of Arts has a clear view of the position of cultural diversity within the institution and the curriculum.exchange of ideas and practice with the students. However. A course like this pilot is a good way to start and shows opportunities for all partners: the College. the Music Zone. These concepts take time to be understood by students. or people evidently from another culture. the main reason was money: µSchool¶ took place during normal working hours for the freelance musicians. the students. Dealing with less apparent differences of culture contained within our society is more difficult to grasp and address. Forming intensive partnerships with organisations such as the Music Zone is therefore important. music. not only does it include artistic differences. Cultural differences can be immediately apparent when student are faced with unfamiliar. and even more to be articulated through a theoretical framework. The College has a broad perception of cultural diversity. and the children in Plymouth. more time to be incorporated in their work. . musical diversity has proved its value especially in community settings. but also diversity in class and socio-economic background. instruments. The College includes issues of the context of music and musicians.
whether these concernteaching methods or globalisation. it can not be expected of them to fully understand all the issues. The distribution of tasks and responsibilities should be clear from the beginning. it is important to have equal commitment and involvement from both partners. for both students and staff.Sound Links ± Full Report 35 Institutional profile: Sibelius Academy (Continuing Education Centre).Relevance of the project to the key issues identified in Sound Links µFrom Policy to Practice¶ Making connections The Dartington pilot has shown the advantages and challenges of partnerships with organisations outside the institution. To maximise a partnership like this. While it is certainly wise to involve them as soon as possible during the course of their studies. Both organisations have a lot to offer in terms of training opportunities and experience in different fields of music education. This will take time and at least several hands-on encounters during the years they spend at the institution. Helsinki . and an joint evaluation helps to ensure sustainability. Aims and targets The full implications of cultural diversity is not something that most students grasp from the first moment.
It has extensive departments for performance. music education. which gives students the opportunity to participate in a wealth of subjects outside their main area of study. The Sibelius Academy Continuing Education Centre provides supplementary training in the field of music to over 2000 students a year. Sibelius Academy also includes a Junior Academy for talented young people. The Continuing Education Centre organises a wide choice of long-term programmes and diplomas. The institution is generally well-funded by the Finnish government. folk and jazz. expert services and master . composition and music theory. The aim is to give professionals new stimuli. World music mostly plays a role in the folk music and music education departments. development projects. and is well connected through numerous networks and cooperation projects and agreements. research. such as folk music. The institution is world renowned.Folk music and cultural diversity in life-long learning Introduction The Sibelius Academy in Helsinki is the only music academy in Finland at university level. Its main principle is to promote lifelong learning. increase their preparedness to cope with change related to music and to provide them with opportunities for artistic regeneration and renewal. In addition to instrumental studies students can receive instruction in other areas.
The duration of this course is at least six years. church music. . Music degree courses in general The Sibelius Academy itself offers a number of degrees in music: · MMus ± This degree is at university level. All the Open University trainers are teachers at the Sibelius Academy. at a time that the artistic reality and relevance of world music was not broadly acknowledged. minimum of two years) and Doctor of Music (160 credits. which operates within the Continuing Education Centre. arranges open access courses for the public at large. · BMus ± The study load is less: 120 credits. minimum of three years) Degree programmes are available in the following subjects: classical music. The Open University. jazz. To complete this course. The rationale for including courses dealing with cultural diversity in a continuing education department is obvious: many musicians and music teachers were trained a decade ago or more. · Postgraduate degrees include Licentiate (100 credits.classes. folk music. Consequently. professionals find themselves faced with challenges ± on stage or in the classroom ± they were not given the instruments to deal with during their initial training. students must obtain a total of 180 credits.
folk song. opera singing. and arts management (only Master¶s). folk music traditions from Europe and other parts of the world. Studies concentrate on main instrument and ensemble playing. Students may specialise in music making. The Folk Music Programme keeps an eye on modern ethnic music. music technology. The musical bases of the programme are the Finnish and global folk music traditions. This study programme trains folk music performers. teachers and researchers in traditional music playing and different styles of singing. It is also possible to take a research-based Master of Music degree in this degree programme. composition and music theory. new music.music education. The key object however is to create own. Students are introduced to Finnish instruments. folk dance and folk music teaching or research. Students from the folk music department have for the most part continued their working career as . Teaching emphasises the closeSound Links ± Full Report 36 relationship between the theory and practise of folk music. Folk music studies have been offered by the Sibelius Academy since 1983 and the degree programme trains students as performers. Specialist degree courses in world music The Sibelius Academy offers a degree programme in Folk Music. teachers and researchers of folk music. orchestral and choral conducting.
The demand for folk music teachers in. mostly professionals working as teachers. Work opportunities are predominantly project based: folk musicians are often needed in theatrical productions and cross-disciplinary performances. and Finnish traditions. The courses include general and western oriented programmes. Attention is being paid to cultural diversity at a more structural level within the music education and folk music departments. North-European. Open University As part of the Continuing Education Centre. WestAfrican. as well as parts involving the cultures of Latin American.musicians (performers) or teachers. many choose to take lessons in Finnish folk music or African percussion as an elective. and very emphatically in a number of courses in the continuing education department. Greek. Courses and study programmes at the Continuing Education Centre: The Sibelius Academy Continuing Education Centre concentrates on teaching music related subjects to adults. all courses are open to all students at Sibelius Academy. Gamelan. for instance. Specific modules/programmes in world music as part of existing degree courses In principle. Three of these are . Open University studies offer study programmes that are represented in the Curricula of various departments of the Sibelius Academy. Irish. Turkish. various music college around Finland has been growing rapidly. In this way.
or a concert. peer review. solo & accompaniment.Music Pedagogy The duration of these courses varies from some days to 3 years. It aims at realising: · specialist courses created in World Music: in Folk Music.Introduction to World Musics . some courses in Church Music Departments . Continuing Education. recital. .emphatically µworld¶ oriented. and sometimes a panel. Music Education. Evaluation and assessment World Music courses are assessed by the teacher. Students receive feedback in written and verbal form. General developments / policy within institution Sibelius has outspoken policies relating to cultural diversity in a number of areas. Study loads vary from one to 120 credits. the majority or programmes yields from 5-20 credits.Latin American Music . The formats of assessment for world music can be group. as well pass/fail or marks. self assessment.West-African Drums . individual.Jazz-music .Music Theory and Solfège .The History of Western Music .
attracting 21 full-time postgraduate students within 18 months. and as of yet no staff development programmes focusing on cultural diversity have been realised. Then it started growing rapidly.Sound Links ± Full Report 37 Institutional profile: Irish World Music Centre Master¶s in the context of Irish tradition Introduction The Irish World Music Centre is part of the University of Limerick. Initially the Centre concerned itself with research and innovation in Irish and Irish-related music world wide. Music Theory.· integrating and creating room for World Music in existing curricula. It was set up in 1994 on the arrival of Mícheál Ó Súillebháin to take up position as the new Chair of Music at the university. Music Education. curriculum development has been done for years ( beginning late 1970s) in: Folk Music. gradually developing as optional studies in Soloist Studies. In 1995 the University of Limerick closed a lucrative sponsorship deal for the Irish World Music Centre with Toyota Ireland. Church Music · teachers with different cultural backgrounds as guest lecturers/musicians in various departments There are no specific educational programmes aimed at students with culturally diverse backgrounds. . Continuing Education.
One semester can be spent off-campus on a Study Abroad programme. students record CDs and videos. the main focus is on Irish music and dance. For example. Duration: 4 years. The MA in Ethnomusicology is a taught postgraduate degree in the academic study of traditional music. As the name suggests. Students also engage in vocational studies directly relevant to traditional music and dance. Academic studies relevant to their performance skills are also included in the study programme. for which the Irish World Music Centre has been identified as a centre of excellence in music and dance. . The institution has a community outreach programme and works closely with artists in residence on and off campus. The degree is designed primarily to develop the performance skills of students. Students are encouraged to develop second performance skills ± making them more versatile as performers. To do this. There is currently an initiative underway to develop an Irish Academy of Performing Arts with branches in various parts of Ireland. Music degree courses in general The BA in Irish Music and Dance was introduced in 2002. they work with visiting and resident tutors.IWMC is dedicated to performance and research education in the performing arts of music and dance. and write business plans.
cello and double bass. This MA was conceived in association with the MA in Ethnochoreology. rehearsal and the study of style to encourage idiomatic performance is designed to achieve a high level of technical proficiency in plainchant. Duration: 1 year. This study is . The programme offers tuition in violin. viola. Performance tuition through practice. including two optional streams of specialisation.The course caters to the expanding international interest in Irish Traditional Music and it also acknowledges the growing significance of ethnomusicology as an academic discipline. but guest lecturers and artists-inresidence provide additional instructional support. Chant performance provides advanced tuition in the performance of Western Medieval Plainchant. Duration: 1 year (or 2 years) The MA in Chant and Ritual Song is a full-time programme of study. Both programmes are taught primarily by members of the Irish World Music Centre. The programme is offered in association with the Irish Chamber Orchestra. full-time programme which may be extended over two years at the discretion of the course leader and studio masters. as well as in the repertoire of string chamber orchestra and ensemble. The MA in Classical String Performance is a one-year.
The MA in Irish Traditional Music Performance is a full-time programme designed to provide advanced tuition in the performance of Irish traditional music. The IWMC¶s educational outlook combines conservatoire music training and academic scholarship. Entry to the course is adjudged through an audition and in-depth interview process with a panel of experts from the fields of psychotherapy. Irish religious song and liturgical choral music. as well as an introduction to one additional religious vocal repertoire each year. ethnomusicology. Duration: 2 years. Critical examination of repertoire sources and styles . Ritual song is an academic programme. ritual studies and liturgical theology. students are not expected to be vocal specialists.Sound Links ± Full Report 38 The MA in Music Therapy is the only degree in Ireland leading to a professional qualification in music therapy. These repertoires include chant. As the programme is strongly rooted in the academic study of ritual and ritual song traditions. designed to examine a number of religious vocal repertoires from the perspective of anthropology. music therapy and music performance. full-time. Duration: 1 year.augmented by academic work.
The MA in Dance Performance is a full-time postgraduate programme. seminars. as well as an examination of modern vocational non-performance skills such as music business and music technology. The MA in Community Music is a full-time postgraduate programme. It is aimed at musicians who already have a level of self-expressive skill and who wish to enhance their talent while developing the abilities they need to facilitate the expressive work of others. It facilitates two independent streams of dance.of performance. Duration: 1 year. form an essential part of the programme content. The Graduate Diploma in Education (Music) is a full-time postgraduate initial teacher education programme designed to meet the needs of graduates who wish to become teachers of music in secondary . Although independent. interactivity between these two dance genres is facilitated in the form of shared workshops. Duration: 1 year. The programme offers a comprehensive grounding in the skills and knowledge needed to function as a successful community musician in a range of context. Irish traditional dance performance and contemporary dance performance. Duration: 1 years. and electives.
The history of each component is explored but there is an emphasis on their modern context and development. There are two festivals with a culturally diverse . Duration: 1 year. and harp music ± are catered for within the confines of this course. Holders of the Graduate Diploma are equipped to teach Music at both senior and junior cycles. The programme includes lectures.schools. for example the ritual and chant course. It is aimed at anyone with an interest in music or in Irish culture in general. The course Irish Music Studies is designed as an introduction to the world of Irish traditional music. It has an intensive and practical content for which university credits are available. workshops. dancing. the Irish World Music Centre has a strong focus on Irish music in most of its programmes. The four main divisions of Irish traditional music ± instrumental dance music. Musical traditions from other cultures are sometimes integrated in the programmes. fieldtrips and concerts. called Blas. or community music. Cultural diversity in the Irish World Music Centre As the name suggests. tutorials. song. The Irish World Music Centre also offers an international summer school. No previous knowledge of the subject is necessary and neither is any knowledge of music assumed. for traditional Irish music and dance.
descriptive documents. which are distributed voluntarily and completed voluntarily by students. Student work isSound Links ± Full Report 39 blind double marked internally and also reviewed by the external examiner.focus: Sionna (traditional music) and Anaíl De (sacred music). The majority of asylum seekers come from Africa. The number of nonIrish people in Limerick is extremely small but has grown rapidly since a policy of dispersal saw the arrival of the first asylum seekers in April 2000. as well as end-of-year performances and dissertations. The university also has a Dean of Teaching and Learning who monitors standards within the university. Most are housed in a number of hostels around the city and are catered for through a policy of direct provision. Teacher assessment takes the form of qualitative. mostly from Nigeria. It is unclear how the standards for the Irish World Music Centre are defined. and Eastern Europe. Another group with a distinct cultural identity are the Travellers. Evaluation and assessment Students are assessed for each module of study through a combination of continuous assessment. All programmes offered by the Irish World Music Centre must be approved by the Academic Council of . end of semester papers and performances.
New York. The external examiner visits the Centre each year and reviews course structure. an external examiner is appointed to each programme. which facilitates an exchange of students and staff between both locations. The Centre has recently developed a Scottish ± Irish exchange programme. Sponsorship from that country has linked the institution into a 3-year plan with Ithaca College. General developments and policy within institution For a number of years.the University of Limerick. A number of European students also take part in this. MA programmes have a stronger academic . Recently. In addition. a BA programme has been added to the programme: Irish World Music and Dance Studies. Another link with North America is the Junior Year Abroad programme. It has also been involved in exchange with Hungary. a performance-based exchange of traditional European musics. and the Sionna-festival of traditional music from around the world. The course focuses on developing performance skills. IWMC has only offered MA and diploma courses. Other European-funded projects include Eurotrad. modules and student assessment and is often also part of the assessing board for final presentations. and academic modules are also included. Student mobility The IWMC has strong connections with the United States.
The work of this amateur writers group consisted of putting their own poetry to music. The workshops included song writing. Belltable Arts Centre · Elikya. Congolese Male Choir These groups took part in a total of eight workshops each between February and May 2002. Future plans now involve the introduction of performance-based doctoral research.focus. working with four community groups in Limerick: · 6th class Seasíal Gaelscoil (Irish language primary school) · Bruff Youth Group. percussion and composition. . The course aimed at providing the students with practical hands-on work. There were four students. Limerick Youth Services · Age and opportunities programme. plus two workshops for all groups together. Pilot project: Irish World Music Centre The carnival model in community settings Introduction The pilot project at the Irish World Music Centre was an elective course for the students of the Community Music programme. other groups led by the students also made their presentations. The process ended in a performance during the Community Music Festival in Limerick. At the festival. These groups were: · Clogh Writers.
· Scoil Chriost Rí. In addition there was a presentation by Comh Cheol. Limerick. · Sixmilebridge Variety Group. and then wrote a musical drama to incorporate it. . body percussion and drumming pieces. The members of this youth group (age 11-15) worked on writing songs. They received guidance. a women¶s choir consisting of travellers and refugees/asylum seekers.Sound Links ± Full Report 40 · Down Syndrome Association. 5 to 25 years old. The association is a self-support groups for parents with children with Down Syndrome. but in principle were responsible for managing the whole process: maintaining contact with their target groups. The children of this primary school composed their own song. as well as well-known pop and spiritual songs. working on making a theatre production together. coordinating the final event. Their programme included an exchange of Irish and Nigerian songs. Aims and objectives The primary aim of the course was to provide students with skills to organise and lead community music projects. The member of the Song and Dance group are children. Teamwork and self-expression were important elements in the process. developing the artistic content.
The leader is there not to teach in the traditional sense or to rehearse an existing piece.etc.g. the Congolese asylum seekers) that they were not familiar with themselves. This served as a basis for working with the community groups. By combining different age groups and one group with a culturally different background. Lee Higgins. then introduced his students to Brazilian carnival street drumming techniques. but to provide opportunities to create and discover musical skills and creativity already . the students also gained experience in working with diversity. and to create new pieces with them. This structure (not the same musical content) was then used by the students to work with four different groups. Content and organisation The project effectively ran from February to May 2002. but preparations started in September 2001 when the Irish World Music Centre located interested community groups to work with. In addition they encountered musical input from the community (e. Carnival street drumming is not only an interesting musical form to work with in groups. the music and its learning process also represent a usable social structure. One of the main principles behind community music is that the input received from the participants forms the basis for the outcomes. The main tutor of the course.
observation. there are no formal policies relating to . evaluation Cultural diversity at the Irish World Music Centre is included implicitly into the regular courses. would be very much applicable in its community music settings. Although they received some tutoring. only the four students of the Community Music programme responded. The course was in more than one sense a total confrontation and a challenge for the students. The course leader also held a position at Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts.present in the participants. working with very different groups in the community. As a result. a variety of musical styles and particularly teaching methodologies. They were expected to take responsibility for almost everything themselves. While cultural diversity will not naturally flow out of the cultural make-up of the city of Limerick. In his absence some support was given by the head of the Music Education programme. Teaching and learning The course was offered as an elective to all students of the Irish World Music Centre. for example through repertoire or ultimate target group. Due to an increase in his responsibilities there and his personal situation at the time he was unable to travel to Ireland very regularly. In the end. Reactions. they indicated that they could have used more guidance in the process.
the subject. This was also the case in the MA Community Music programme. Given the nature of the subject (community music), staff and students indicated that they regarded cultural diversity as an intrinsic part of the programme. An example of this was found in two collaborative composition workshops involving Congolese asylum seekers.Sound Links ± Full Report 41 It would appear that the Sound Links pilot could have paid more attention to issues connected with cultural diversity. This is particularly unfortunate because of the opportunities cultural diversity has to offer for a course and an institution such as this. The Irish World Music Centre is in a position to make interesting and rewarding connections and partnerships with other cultural groups and organisations in Ireland and abroad, perhaps even more so with its own musical focus of Irish traditional music as a starting point. Relevance of the project to the issues identified in Sound Links µFrom Policy to Practice¶ Support structure A strong support structure is necessary for cultural diversity to survive in an institution for higher music education. European conservatoires are usually built around the classical music tradition, or at least
western music. But culturally diverse approaches often take a different angle. In order to survive in this environment, it needs to be sure of sufficient back-up. The leaders of the institution need to be aware of this, and make sure that the efforts in the field of cultural diversity are not lost. This means the allocation of personnel ± time and money ± but also creating opportunities for activities in this field to develop. Community The Irish World Music Centre has strong connections with its surrounding community, and has recently established a link with the local asylum seeker centre. Connections of this kind are usually vulnerable. The population of the centre can change rapidly and it can be hard to establish in-depth communication with its inhabitants, but also with the organisation itself. To make the connection worthwhile for both partners, an institution needs to be prepared to pay special attention and effort into establishing and maintaining the link.Sound Links ± Full Report 42 Institutional profile: School of Oriental and African Studies, London Bringing together research and performance Introduction The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) is part of the University of London and was formed
in 1916 as School of Oriental Studies. The school has research programmes, and undergraduate and postgraduate teaching programmes. It focuses on the languages and cultures of Asia and Africa (in both their historical and modern forms), and on the social sciences and humanities, including music. Research and education are closely linked. The Department of Music at SOAS has two basic objectives: first, to provide training of the highest possible standard in the academic discipline of ethnomusicology; second; to provide in-depth understanding of the musical traditions of Africa and Asia, including the wider cultural context. The Music Department has gradually come into existence within SOAS. What started out as a small section grew with the increase of public interest in cultural diversity and Oriental and African music, as well as the growth of SOAS as a whole. SOAS could take on more staff, and published more frequently. Teaching staff has increased from 3 lecturers in 1990 to 7 in 2002, plus performance teachers, postdoctoral fellows, etc. At the moment, research and teaching are ranked µexcellent¶ in the UK¶s Teaching Quality Assessment and Research Assessment Exercise. The Department of Music at SOAS is linked with King¶s College (University of London), Zimbabwe
College of Music, Kathmandu University, and China¶s Music Research Institute in Beijing. SOAS students may take selected courses in western music at King¶s, and King¶s students may take courses in ethnomusicology/world music at SOAS. At the moment a link with the Institute of Education (in the adjacent building) is in development. In September 2002 the Department of Music became home to the AHRB Research Centre in cross-cultural Music and Dance Performance. Music degree courses SOAS offers a number of degree courses, some of which can be combined with other subjects. Degrees Duration in years BA Music Studies (single subject) 3 BA Music and other subject 3 or 4 MMus ethnomusicology Fulltime: 1, Part-time: 2 or 3 MPhil ethnomusicology Minimum 2 Ph.D. ethnomusicology Minimum 3 A MMus programme is proposed to start in 2003, and will have a duration of one (fulltime) or two (parttime) years. Annual tuition fees for students from the UK and other EU countries are around ¼ 1664 for undergraduates and ¼ 2805 for Master¶s students, while for non-EU students the fees are around ¼ 12924
for both undergraduates and postgraduates. At present there are approximately 50 undergraduate, 25 MMus and 20 PhD students registered for Music degrees, with many non-Music student also enrolled in Music courses. SOAS runs over 30 courses in world music annually, some compulsory for particular degrees, and some optional. The cultural areas involved are Africa (below Sahara), East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia (mainland and islands), Middle East (Turkey, Persia, etc.), Central Asia, Jewish Diaspora (Ashkenazy, Sephardic, Oriental, etc.), and Caribbean (particularly Afro-Cuban). While lecture and seminar courses predominate, performance is becoming an increasing focus. Performance courses taught within the School include at least one instrumental and/or vocal tradition for each geographical area; during their first year, undergraduates must follow one or more of these courses asSound Links ± Full Report 43 a group. Master¶s students and non-first-year undergraduates may also elect to study other Asian or African (or diasporic) performance traditions, subsidised by SOAS. The London area has a rich population of qualified teachers for a wide range of such traditions. With new Research Centre (see below), there will be even more resident musicians from Asia and Africa, some of whom will also teach
performance. In recent year SOAS has been hosting non-credit intensive summer workshops in Indian vocal music (in co-operation with the Asian Music Circuit) and klezmer (in co-operation with the Jewish Music Institute). Other summer offerings are contemplated, and shorter workshops in a variety of genres are offered during term-time as well. Assessment and Evaluation Entry requirements for music courses at SOAS are fairly high. Students need to be well-trained in (mostly) western music, or have an equivalent qualification for other traditions. Entry requirements for two-subject courses are more flexible, some evidence of musical skills is needed. For the Master¶s programmes, requirements vary. There are written criteria for the assessment of each world music course. The students receive feedback on all essay submissions and may consult lecturers as necessary. The practical courses are assessed in group or individual format, as the musical tradition requires, e.g.: tabla will be individual, Javanese gamelan will be ensemble. Performance courses also include a non-performance component of some kind but are primarily assessed on performance. The world music courses at SOAS are assessed within a national system (with peer review and
professional review) as well as by an internal review programme. world music has never had to fight for its rights. and each programme has an external examiner. Western music is perceived as a fringe activity and offered in another institution. Feedback from the students is gathered in various ways. but the response is usually very low. but seldom within the sphere of influence of the 19th century tradition of academia separated from practice. A questionnaire is distributed annually to all students. contrary to other institutions described in this research. This environment. which still dominates most universities on the European mainland. King¶s College. combined with teaching and research that was rated excellent by national standards. which is often found in American universities. SOAS has the advantage that cultural diversity and world music is implied by the institution and takes first place. mainly during tutorials. General developments and policy A commitment to cultural diversity is ensured by the very nature of the institution. . Courses all have two examiners. ensures high level education in world music subjects. This means that. SOAS has a unique position in Europe in the sense that it actively invites practice within an academic environment. which includes non-music and music staff and external assessors.
the building and other facilities were never intended for this kind of education. and Master¶s students in particular will be involved in the Centre¶s activities. University of Surrey. and the School of Arts. which is funding the Centre. The Centre¶s various research projects will see a number ofSound Links ± Full Report 44 visiting artists in residence. and Labannotation to study dance. Despite an excellent collection of musical instruments. and using computer imaging. University of Surrey Roehampton.The weakest point at the moment is a result of the fast organic growth of the Music Department in the past 10 to 15 years. The AHRB Research Centre will bring together ethnomusicology and ± choreology. graphics. Some advanced are being made as a result of funding for the AHRB Research Centre (see below). documenting the findings in booklets and CD¶s. or computers equipped for music study. This means that there are no soundproof practice rooms. AHRB is the Arts and Humanities Research Board. exploring the validity of applying western analytical techniques to Asian traditions. Recent developments In September 2002 the Department of Music became home to the AHRB Research Centre in crosscultural Music and Dance Performance. in partnership with the Department of Dance Studies. undertaking a number of interrelated projects like resident performer-researchers. .
unique profiles. young performing musicians tend to develop a µmultiple competence¶ (including cross-cultural approaches. Focus on world music may become such a distinguishing profile. there is an ongoing strong competition in Sweden between institutions for higher education.Sound Links ± Full Report 45 Institutional profile: Malmö Academy of Music Total immersion as an impulse for music teachers Introduction In Sweden.This is part of a general trend to upgrade the practical component of Music at SOAS. and mixing musical styles ± but also educational and community work). resulting in a development towards clearly defined. and teacher training courses for teachers and performers without a recognised diploma is felt strongly. but in the introduction of a course on the music business and in a growing number of student projects relating to such practical matters. playing several instruments. they enlarge their employability considerably. Thus. As a result. As in other Scandinavian countries. seen not only in the increased offerings in performance. students show a growing interest in being educated more broadly. instead of holding on strictly to their original specialism. Cultural diversity is considered an issue . Nationally ± and specifically in Malmö ± the necessity of intercultural training for western teachers.
The Academy has been active in cultural diversity for almost ten years. very interesting initiatives have been developed. Music degree courses in general Swedish conservatoire students obtain a Master¶s degree ± Education students after four years. Malmö Academy of Music is part of the University of Lund.of growing importance at all Swedish (and Nordic in general) institutions for higher music education. . This can lead to major steps in understanding different approaches to music and musical transmission. This is one of the main reasons that Malmö Academy has started a campaign to bring the existing departments (Music Education. One of the conditions of a broader approach to musical styles and professions is that the education of new musicians should be broad as well. although most of them feel they have insufficient knowledge and experience and are uncertain about what to do. Especially the students in the Music Education department are frequently confronted with culturally diverse elements during the course of their studies. Music Performance and Church Music) closer together. Several conservatories include well-prepared µtotal immersion courses¶ (a confrontation with other cultures on the terms of the receiving country) for students in Gambia ± originally initiated by Malmö Academy of Music. Still.
from graduate to post-graduate. The future MA (or MMus) might then be linked to the actual 5th year.Sound Links ± Full Report . Generally speaking. World music is included in the objectives for a number of courses and programmes. Individual requests have led to extra-curricular modules. Cultural diversity in the Academy of Music At the Academy. In some instrumental education departments ± notably flute and percussion ± attention is paid to cultural diversity as well as in composition. with the probable result of arriving at an internationally recognised Bachelor¶s degree. such as µMusic and Society¶ and ensemble playing. this does not correspond to the AngloSaxon equivalent. but can be seen as complementing the regular programme. Both the Performance department and the Education department in Malmö offer undergraduate. as well as additional university courses and continuing and advanced education courses. especially the total immersion course in the Gambia (see below) has had influence on all educational programmes. However. a number of activities regarding cultural diversity take place. These activities are not fully integrated into the curriculum (although some are compulsory). The Academy has no specific world music degree courses. graduate and post-graduate programmes. The system is being discussed nationally these days.Performance students after five.
This is done on a voluntary basis. with a large percentage of Music Education students participating. The Academy will therefore continuously evaluate the course. as a result of both experiences of previous groups and increasing multicultural experiences within their own Swedish context. South America. Malmö Music Academy has been sending two groups of students (mainly Music Education) to Gambia every year for a µtotal immersion course¶. All students have workshops with musicians from different cultural backgrounds full-time for two weeks. Until now. Studies at home Since 1992.46 Gambia course For the past 10 years. there have been musicians from Africa. the Academy will consider replacing the Gambia course by another form. the students learn . This means the cultural shock is not as powerful as it used to be. staff have noticed that students are better prepared now than during the first editions of the course. During the project. Sending students to the World Music Centre (see profile) has been mentioned as a possible alternative. During the first week. all students are involved in a project called µstudies at home¶. Arab countries and India. If the results are decreasing.
the Academy organises project weeks with multicultural content. These weeks include various lessons. World music . Malmö has developed a µworld music school¶ with a primary school in a part of town with a strong variety of ethnic backgrounds. a workshop is implemented in a secondary school. the people and their habits. For further description. There are no written criteria for this. Project weeks In addition to the regular programme. In relation to this. songs and dances. workshops and concerts. see pilot report . together with the pupils there.about the instruments. During the second week. Students are assessed by their teacher and they receive verbal feedback on all results. the country and history. World Music School As one of its outreach programmes. In 2001. Evaluation and assessment Evaluation and assessment at Malmö Academy is fairly conventional. Introductory week All students receive an introduction to the institution the week before classes start in September. Participation is compulsory for all students. this was done for the first time with world music content as a major part of the programme. a course has been developed to train µworld musicians¶ to teach in Swedish settings.
which . Student mobility Student exchange. finding a job as a music teacher with a foreign degree is not without difficulties and additional courses at conservatories may be necessary for professional recognition. coincidental student requests. is more common in the Performance department than the Education department. The internal credit system has been based on 40 credits a year. mainly based on the Nordplus. Tempus and Socrates programme. It is difficult to find suitable educational courses abroad. The main reason is that the official demands to teacher training students are more fixed and nationally determined than professional demands to future performers. The students involved in the Gambia project have to write about their experiences. ECTS is used. the music teaching profession is narrowly defined (as in many other countries). the Education department is interested in internationalisation. However. meaning 40 full-time weeks of work.specialists are involved in the assessment of world music modules. This system can easily be translated into ECTS. with mobility as an integrated part of it instead of the result of varying. In order to facilitate student exchange. In Sweden. The manager of the Education department would prefer the future profile to become international from the beginning.
Pilot project: Malmö Academy of Music Welcoming students to a diverse world . it has not had much opportunity to spread further. Cultural diversity is in danger of becoming marginalised because the activities are driven by only a few people. this advantage may now slow the institution down in its development. but because of the differences that exists between the Education and Performance departments. It has been forerunner for many years. The institution is aware of this. This will then reflect a practice with an emphatic commitment to doing justice to cultural diversity in both the Performance and Music Education departments. World music entered the institution through the Music Education department. However. as can be seen from the pilot project for Socrates Sound Links. Although there are no formal policies relating to cultural diversity in the Malmö Academy of Music.is based on 60 credits per year. especially with the Gambia course.Sound Links ± Full Report 47 General developments and policy within the institution Malmö Academy of Music gained a prominent position in the European landscape of cultural diversity in higher music education in the 1990s. there are plans to formulate these in the near future.
During this week. but it will be organised every year from now on. the workshop leaders came from outside the organisation. For the musical activities. This project was a separate event in the academic year. two of which were merged for the gospel choir. The organisation was in the hands of regular staff. the students were offered musical activities. Participation was compulsory for all first year students. The student group was divided into four equal parts. They also received a practical introduction to various aspects of studying at the Academy. such as library study and ergonomy. the teachers and students prepared a concert together. This report reflects on the way cultural diversity is presented to the fresh first years. which occupied the first week of the academic year. where the accomplishments of all groups were shown.Introduction The pilot consisted of an introductory week for first year students of the Academy of Music. regardless in which department they were going to study. the function it has to . the students were divided into three groups: ¸ West African drums and dance ¸ Zimbabwean marimba ¸ Gospel choir At the end of the week. The students received no credits.
the Heads of departments of Education and Performance. the first meeting for the staff was also organised together for the first time in five years. Until now. Church Music. The pilot was attended by Ninja Kors (researcher) and Peter Renshaw (moderator). the outside observer on this project was Lee Higgins from Irish World Music Centre and LIPA (Liverpool Institute of Performing Arts). and the question of durability. He is involved with community music and has extensive experience with leading workshops.fulfil. Aims & objectives The aim of this project was twofold: 1.Sound Links ± Full Report . but mostly without culturally diverse content. the workshop leaders and the internationalisation officer. Introductory weeks have been organised before by the Academy. two advanced students who have been involved in the Gambia project. In addition. they were separate for each department: Music Education. Music Performance. To gain social cohesion within the student groups and within the institution. the teacher of Music & Society who is also involved in many of the multicultural projects. By enhancing social cohesion among the student population. the Academy hopes to solidify the base for unity within the institution. The observers have spoken with the Head of the Faculty Organisation Performing Arts.
By offering cultural diversity very early in the course of their studies. To introduce cultural diversity to the students at an early stage in their studies at the Academy. Content & organisation Cultural diversity was used in this project mainly as a tool: it provided the required conditions for social . Cultural diversity will return during their study career.48 2. As one of the department heads remarked: ³After five years of study. because it is still susceptible to change. contributes largely to their expectations of the Academy as a whole. This new generation of students is immediately involved in world music activities. especially in the Music Education department. Important in both these aims was the fact that the target group consisted of first year students.´ An added advantage is that the impression first year students get in the introductory week. which makes it easier to return to this kind of activities later on. the students are made aware that it is a natural and logical part of studying at the Academy. This group is ideal for new situations and experiments. These students are open to ideas and not yet set in their ways. thus stressing the importance of this area to the institution. a project like this would be a disaster.
Teaching . ergonomy. This lessened the barriers for socialising and inter-departmental contact. the students did not only receive an introduction to unfamiliar musical forms. The Academy had experience with these traditions from earlier projects.cohesion within the group. no one person had an advantage over others. let alone accomplished. The various teaching methods employed by the workshop leaders are dealt with in the next paragraph. and also with the people teaching them. such as use of the body and playing without notation. By using these traditions. and gospel choir. but also to unfamiliar ways of learning them. The musical traditions also embodied different approaches to teaching and learning music. there was little chance that the students were already very familiar with them. Three musical traditions were offered that have a strong social component as they represent music making in a group: Zimbabwean marimba. West African percussion and dance. etc. The non-musical courses were solely concentrated on practical matters: library introduction. and the element of competition was largely removed. but for many of them it is an unusual activity to take part in. Choir singing is something well-known to the participants. By using mainly non-western traditions. These courses are not included in this evaluation. In this way.
and moving more freely while playing. The students frequently moved to a different instrument in the orchestra and supported and helped each other. but each tried to emphasise the social aspect of making music together. Most striking was the energy that this teaching style generated among the performers and audience. Gospel choir . None of them are on the regular teaching staff. The teaching styles were quite divergent. She included some dance in the performance as well. Several times a year they are contacted to do projects. led by Peta Axelsson from South Africa. Marimba The aspect of communal music making was most obviously present in the marimba workshops. The concept of pleasure in making music was definitely brought across. such as the multicultural weeks. Although there was some reference to the African practice and meaning of marimba playing. One was a former student.The Academy had done earlier projects with two of the workshop leaders. the course was not built around this concept. She involved the students by making them use their bodies for musical memory and rhythm. It served to put the songs into context for the players. She used very little notation for memory support and not at all while actually playing.
Both come from Guinée and they have been working together for some time. the workshop leader. This could easily be observed: the style she used for conducting the gospel choir was very µwestern¶ and differed little from the usual practice at European conservatories and choirs. both for drumming and dancing. she did notSound Links ± Full Report 49 encourage the students to move or physically approach what they were doing with the music. They claim their teaching style has changed little since coming to Sweden. imitation. They have been involved in the µtotal immersion¶ courses in Africa and encountered Swedish students there. The African influence on their teaching could best be seen in the final presentation: the students presented a short story. It consisted largely of demonstration. has graduated from the Music Education department of the Academy. and repetition. This was also apparent in the presentation.Almaz Yebio. She learned most of her teaching methods there. told through drumming and dancing ± a form not . Although she herself moved a lot while teaching and conducting. Notation was used during practice and even ± in some cases ± in performance. West African drums and percussion There were two teachers for this workshop: Soriba Touray (drums) and Max Soumah (dance).
uncommon in West Africa. However. there is little difference between the various groups. There is little difference in the . it should be kept in mind that the respondents were first year students and new to the institution. there were western aspects as well. the choir group is the only group who felt it experienced a new approach to melody. as opposed to djembe or marimba. One of the most obvious was in the part of the presentation where the students were given the freedom to express themselves through dance. except in how they feel they benefited. The use of the voice in this gospel choir is not considered a new instrument or playing technique. In the response from the students. When analysing these. The teaching style and presentation may have had African elements. but also on the way they are taught. Learning Information about the students¶ response was obtained through a questionnaire. These aspects are partly dependent on the musical style. They did not have any experience with teaching and learning in tertiary music education. circus-tricks. many of them used their own dance styles: disco. etc. the observers saw far less use of the body in making music than in the two other classes. The model for student questionnaires for Sound Links can be found in appendix 4. ballet. The students also picked this up. In the gospel choir.
Only in the djembe & dance class did the Music Education find more ways to benefit from the workshop. This goes for the connection between departments too. This could be seen as a lost chance: the benefits for the general musicianship of students can be great. However. It is questionable if the impression from this one-week event will last without consistent. Reactions. world music was used for social purposes rather than artistic value. . observations. well-planned follow-up. An introductory week such as this is commendable in its aim to drawing students¶ attention to world music in higher music education.responses from Music Education and Music performer students. evaluation Malmö Academy of Music has been a forerunner in the field of cultural diversity in higher music education for many years. expertise and activities have not yet spread throughout the institution and cultural diversity is in danger of staying in the fringes. It has now come to a point where it feels the need to reevaluate its position in order to make the next step toward integrating cultural diversity in the institution. but need to be emphasised and encouraged. Knowledge. Other world music activities are organised as fairly separate events and do not find a connection to the rest of the institution or the world outside.
cultural diversity was partly used as a tool for social purposes. rather than for its artistic content. In the case of Malmö Academy. the institution concentrated mainly on this aspect. as well as dance. Sustainability The students enjoyed a full week of participation in musical styles and traditions. in order to make the impression sustainable. This was clear from the beginning of the project. and everything ±Sound Links ± Full Report 50 ranging from teachers to the programme ± was selected or designed for this purpose. well-planned follow-up during the years to come. This gives them an indication ± and perhaps even a taste ± of what is to come during their studies at the Malmö Academy of Music. However. In the evaluation. sometimes it can not be defined as a subject as such.Relevance of the project to the key issues identified in Sound Links µFrom Policy to Practice¶ Aims & targets While cultural diversity can be seen as a real part of an institution¶s programme. Staff involvement . they would normally not be involved in. or an aim. a description of its content. this involvement needs to be continued with a consistent. It is often an indication of the chosen approach.
Cultural diversity entered the institution in Malmö because of commitment from a number of staff who were not only interested in world music traditions. In 1999. In 1986. they also play a major role in sustaining it. . These enthusiastic people are still the ones who are mostly carrying the load of the culturally diverse activities. theatre and dance. Rotterdam Conservatory is one of the four major Dutch music academies. which changed the name of the institution to Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans (Academy for Music and Dance). the Rotterdam Dance Academy was also included in the merger.Sound Links ± Full Report 51 Institutional profile: Rotterdam Conservatory Specific world music traditions as main degree subjects Introduction Founded towards the end of the nineteenth century. So while people are vital in the introduction of cultural diversity into an institution. There is a danger that when they leave the institution. the conservatoire merged with other institutions for higher arts education into the Hogeschool voor Muziek en Theater (Academy for Music and Theatre) thus combining music. but also saw the need for the institution to adjust to the multicultural realities of the society that surrounds it. cultural diversity leaves with them and there is no other member of staff to take over the torch.
Argentinean tango. many with a . Indian music. flamenco.One of the conservatoire¶s main assets is an open mind towards progress and new initiatives that follow the developments in society. Latin. Indian music and Latin American music. At the time it offered education for flamenco guitar. Apart from the classical department. music theatre and music production. Argentinean tango was added to the curriculum. and later students of the MA or MMus programme. The centre is currently involved in a number of projects. These ten contain about half the conservatoire students. Rotterdam was the first conservatoire in the Netherlands to open a section devoted to jazz and pop music (µlight music¶) and from 1988. In 2001. students have the possibility to obtain a degree as pop music teacher. This centre will become especially interesting for second phase students. In 1978. followed by Turkish music in 2000. pop. the following ten sub-faculties for undergraduate and postgraduate studies are currently available: jazz. composition & arranging. Rotterdam Conservatory created a separate world music department. Turkish music. which was opened in 1990. The Pop curriculum was completely restructured in 2001. which provides a more academic focus to the overall programme. In 1994. the Conservatoire opened a research centre.
a number of graduate and postgraduate courses is offered. Rotterdam Conservatory offers both these courses in music. Within the next few years. In 2002. as agreed in the Bologna treaty. The study programme leaves a great deal of room for an individual approach.strong world music focus. Music degree courses in general Since 1994. e. This restructuring will have implications for the educational structure of the institution. Each of these graduate degree courses is described below. Students have the opportunity to study part of the time abroad in the culture of origin of the musical style or at other leading conservatories. Postgraduate courses currently entail a continuation of the first phase. a centre for development was added. the courses at Dutch conservatories consist of two phases: the first phase (graduate courses) with a four-year duration of study and the second phase (postgraduate) which has a maximum study duration of two years. Specialist degree courses in world music In the world music section of the conservatoire. . focusing mainly on curriculum development. the educational system will be transformed into the BA/MA structure. primarily directed at fulfilling the development as a performer.g. the development of new teaching and learning materials making use of new media. as well as a special teacher training programme for music in schools (graduate).
and voice. and their impact on North-American jazz. Lessons in the main subject instrument form the core of the study programme. Latin jazz and Brazilian music. or Latin jazz. rhythm training and solfège. There are theoretical lessons in music theory. The main subject lessons concentrate more on gaining insight into various compositional forms and their accompanying rhythmical structures. and to develop knowledge of and feeling for the clave in different traditions. merengue. and emphasis is on technique and interpretation. Different Latin styles are offered in the ensemble workshops. This intensive training is enriched by masterclasses from internationally renowned specialists. The courses are intended to raise the technical level in music. Learning to . drums. percussion. such asSound Links ± Full Report 52 Cuban music. piano.Teacher training subjects such as educational psychology and teaching methodology are included in all study programmes. Cuban and Brazilian music form the main focus of the study. In the main subject lessons students work on optimal mastery over their instrument. Latin American music Instruments taught include: bass. including Paco Peña. Flamenco Different guitar traditions of flamenco are on offer.
tabla.accompany singers and dancers forms an essential component of the study. In the music history and cultural history courses the cultural context of Indian music is studied. the countryside milonga. double bass. guitar. sarangi. the candombe and the valse criollo. The Indian music sub-faculty concentrates on North Indian classical music. In sangat ensembles students build up experience as soloist and accompanist. The tango orchestra OTRA plays a central role in the course. They take practical theoretical subjects such as Indian music ear training. gaining mastery over the instrument is stressed. piano. In the main subject lessons the focus is on technique and interpretation. Students receive an intensive training in playing the tango. sarod. In individual lessons. In the theoretical subjects. sitar. Argentinean tango Instruments: bandonéon. the city milonga. violin. cello. voice. a great deal of . violin. Indian music Instruments: bansuri. Indian music theory. Master classes from internationally renowned specialists such as Hariprasad Chaurasia form an important part of the course programme. Master classes by internationally renowned specialists such as Gustavo Beytelmann form a substantial part of the course programme. tala and western music ear training.
voice. tar. darbuka. This may be on a voluntary basis. or by design. music-theoretical subjects and teacher training form an important part of the course programme. All students participate in the saz orchestra. instrumental side subjects. but also piano and guitar. A number of . Knowledge of repertoire covers the broad area of traditional and classical Turkish music. playing in ensembles. kemance. students in other parts of the institution are also exposed to cultural diversity. bendir and kudüm. pop. World music within the institution With the widespread presence of world music expertise in the institution. The Turkish music course provides training in the combined main subject baðlama/voice. davul. as is the case for the introductions to world music for all students in the jazz. Instrumental side subjects include tanbur. kaval. Students are expected to take part in various ensembles of the conservatoire. and world music department. study the history of world music in general and Turkish music in particular. Master classes by Talip Özkan. Students get introductions to educational psychology and teaching methodology. melodic and rhythmic analysis and the making of arrangements. Turkish music Instruments: baðlama (saz).attention is paid to transcriptions. for instance by participation in world music ensembles by classical music students.
at present Rotterdam is not involved in organising Summer/winter courses. The weak point of separate world music programmes is that there is constant danger of new µmonocultures¶ within the institution. a new initiative has been developed to prepare young students from different ethnic backgrounds to receive professional musical training. thus assuring quality within the institution and credibility for the world outside. World music traditions are fitted into the classical structure of music education and take on the same closed and sometimes defensive attitude. Structural integration of world music in other subjects/modules takes place on an incidental basis. Although there are plan.world music subjects are offered as optionals for all students. but students and teachers do make use of the opportunities for connections or cross-overs. professional development. or extra-curricular activities.Sound Links ± Full Report 53 Other courses In 2001. The strength of specialist world music programmes is that the whole curriculum can be built around a specific musical tradition. Education . All courses ± including pedagogy. and theory ± are focused around the main subject. The artistic leaders of the world music programmes are all well-known and respected masters of their traditions.
There are special requirements for the entrance examinations. The Conservatory is currently developing a modular curriculum that should enable more flexibility for the students. Compared to e. popular music. world music holds a small share in music practice in society and is also not always taught at music schools. Evaluation and assessment Students in the world music department are assessed in practical skills and theoretical understanding from the perspective of the musical tradition they have specialised in by a panel of experts in that tradition. and demonstrate considerable improvisational skills. with limited room for moving outside the fixed path. This results in higher risk taking .Teaching is at a high level. but will have to prove a thorough understanding of melodic structures underlying his music. This means that an Indian music student can not fail on defective understanding of western harmony.g. Preparation for the conservatoire is therefore often relatively weak. So far this has not been the case. The curriculum until now has been fairly straightforward. but education at Rotterdam Conservatory could be more structured didactically ± and perhaps even more adventurous ± if co-operation with other sections (and the dance academy) would be more common.
during entrance assessment. General developments / policy within institution Cultural diversity is included in the formal policy document of the Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans. Indian music draws a mixed group. The Conservatory deals with this partly by offering longer and more intense preparatory training for world music courses. Kiezen is Winnen (Choosing is winning). but Turkish music is peopled by Turkish students. It also houses the co-ordination for the Cultural Diversity in Music Education (CDIME) network. and specifically the world music department. Due to its unique position in Europe. working group Flanders-Netherlands. and estimations of development in the following years. the world music department is very popular as a µhost¶ institution for exchange students. ELIA and AEC. ISME. such as Socrates. It is one of the partners in the European Association for International Education (EAIE). So far the flow of students towards world music programmes has been satisfactory. is . The Conservatory. Lack of interest from students to go elsewhere for a certain period of time sometimes puts pressure on the department¶s budget. Internationalisation Rotterdam Conservatory plays an active role in international projects and networks. although the flow tends to be narrow in terms of student backgrounds: latin music is studied by white people.
Sound Links ± Full Report 54 In addition there is constant attention for the interculturalisation of additional subjects such as music history. Contact with other institutions and experts in these areas is vital ± reason for participation and co-ordination of Sound Links. and raise their awareness about their own place in these processes. the Conservatory chooses to do both: the development of a new study course (world percussion) and constant attention for interculturalisation of subjects such as music history.constantly developing and exploring its chances and challenges in this field. and also of teaching methods. Pilot project: Rotterdam Conservatory . and methodology. and organisation of events such as a miniconference on world music teaching and history (Worlds of Music in March 2002) and hosting the ISME Community Music Activities seminar in August 2002. The students bring in their own specific musical tradition. Currently. World percussion starts in September 2001 and is based on the latin percussion programme. In 2001. as a main subject. A recurring issue is that of broadening versus deepening the current programmes. pop and world music sections: Transmission is designed to introduce students to various ways of teaching and learning music from a transcultural perspective. such as West African or Arab percussion. a new subject has been added to the curriculum that is compulsory for all students of the jazz.
Adapting teaching styles to new situations Introduction In the Netherlands. for a large part in music schools and arts institutions. but lack formal training in methodology and didactics. Since the initiation of the course. The increased demand for qualified world music teachers has lead to the initiative of the training course for world musicians. Moreover. The institution wishes to see how a contract course of this kind for professional development can be embedded in the Conservatory. the course served as a model for possible contract education at the . From 1992. It is now possible to receive a degree in for example saz or world percussion ± something that was not available before. It was felt this training had to be placed in a higher education context. many musicians work as world music teachers. since only few of the musicians hold the required qualifications. The present training was organised by Rotterdam Conservatory. Employment in these institutions is often based on trust. and serves as a pilot project for Sound Links. The reason for this is that many are excellent musicians with much experience in performing. the range of musical traditions on offer at the Conservatory has increased. a number of initiatives in this direction were realised by the Netherlands Institute for Arts Education.
What is absolutely necessary and what takes second place? · How does a pupil learn to play music? Different ways of learning are shown and explained with the aid of a common model. Successful completion of the course will lead to a µbenoembaarheidsverklaring¶ (certificate for employment). Content The key issues addressed in the course can be described by way of a number of questions: · What does someone do when he/she plays music? With assistance of an elaborated cybernetic schedule it is explored what skills and knowledge someone should possess to be able to play music. Much attention is . so that ± although this is outside the aims of the course ± a mutual fertilisation could take place.World Music Centre in Serpa. giving musicians the legal certification to teach at a public music school.´ This means that during the course western and non-western methodologies were compared. without trying to make them uniform. Aims & Objectives The aim of the course is formulated as follows: ³Training will be focused on making the different traditions explicit and fitting them into the Dutch situation. Portugal. The western music methodology can in this way be enriched with methodologies from other cultures.
· What kind of music teacher are you? Different teaching styles are explained: leading or following. · What educational learning situation do you use? There are many different working forms: transmission (teaching). the used style is dependent on pupils and aims. exchange (finding it out together).Sound Links ± Full Report 55 Teaching & Learning The course took place in three intensive weekends spread over a period of ten months.given to learning in a group (with or without guidance) and studying at home. focused on process or end result. the participants (all of them practising musicians) were not allowed to take on work as performers or teachers. There is no µbest¶ teaching style. They stayed at one location together with the teachers to ensure maximum concentration and exchange of ideas. Teaching styles are explained with recorded videos. During these. As a final assignment after the third weekend. · How do I shape my education? .Possibilities are presented with examples. the participants each . describing and analysing their own teaching and learning situations. In between the weekends the participants had to make assignments. or exploring (giving closed and open exercises).
In the afternoon. and working with groups. During and after lunch. concrete musical and instrumental goals in chronological order and in phases. and learning materials to be used. working with primary school children (this had to be cancelled). After dinner the participants received a lecture about world music . materials and learning activities. and they received more information about the knowledge that was required for the last assignment.make a working plan or method in which he/she describes how he/she would shape his/her education in a Dutch music school. the Sound Links observers invited the participants into a discussion about world music education. In the essay the following points of attention should be taken into consideration: general goals. followed by an instrumental demonstration of Moluccan guitar and singing. organisational conditions for the music school in which the method is used. These were then discussed. A video of a music lesson by Sean Gregory from Guidhall School in London was shown and discussed before lunch. working forms and grouping forms. Sound Links has observed the third weekend. The next day the programme started with a choice of three subjects: communication (role-play). which began on Friday evening with presentations of the short courses that the participants had designed. the participants had the chance to ask some questions to the teachers.
the participants had a choice between the following subjects: fear of failure in pupils. Earlier versions of the course had yielded publicity for this edition and many participants had contacted Rotterdam Conservatory themselves. In the Netherlands. sharing time not only during lessons and demonstrations but also during meals and informal gatherings. and provides room for . and use of notation in teaching situations. This gives everyone the opportunity to discuss the subject matter. Reactions. The rest of the time. was spent on organisational matters. until lunch. They were chosen for their expertise in the field of pedagogy and didactics. Music schools around the country brought in the other participants. the network for world music teachers leads to easy word-ofmouth communication. one guest teacher was brought in to give a broad overview of world music traditions. On Sunday morning.traditions. observations. learning problems in pupils. evaluation The course is set in a strong format: during the intensive weekends the participants stay together with the teachers. Three teachers were involved in the development and teaching of the course. Often they were already teaching there. During the weekend of the Sound Links observation. Only one of them is a regular teacher at Rotterdam Conservatory.
mainly djembe. The artistic level of the participants seemed to vary. The formal parts of the programme are also aimed at providing room and tools for (critical) reflection upon one¶s own and others¶ teaching.reflection. For organisational reasons. although the majority played West-African percussion instruments. Before the course. the result seems therefore lopsided ± the Conservatory gives out a certificate stating teachingSound Links ± Full Report 56 and musical qualities that some of the participants may not have. in practice the µbenoembaarheidsverklaring¶ gives course-graduates the same employability opportunities as . this proved to be inadequate and some of the participants¶ skills were below expectations. Although it is formally not the case. some of the auditions were cancelled. Issues connected with cultural diversity are not explicitly part of the programme. The participants were different in musical as well as ethnic background. and participants were accepted on the basis of their employers¶ (mostly music schools) judgement. the participants had to audition to prove their musical performance skills. Since all of them will receive their final qualification on the basis of their didactical learning at the end of the course. In a number of cases. since the course does not provide instrumental teaching.
Serpa . it is important not to lose sight of the fact that in higher music education.degree holders from the conservatoire. Relevance of the project to the key issues identified in Sound Links µFrom Policy to Practice¶ Quality When working with musicians from different cultures and traditions. teachers were placed in a position where they could keep their pride and self-esteem. Through the system of learning as a group experience. The standard criteria institutions in Europe use to assess their students. the student level should be high. with four years of ± mostly instrumental ± training at tertiary level. based on the interactions between current models of thinking on music education and the teachers¶ experience. Teaching methods The approach taken to the professional development of world music teachers. has proven to be of great value. the issue of quality can become more complex than usual. while a non-threatening growing awareness of teaching in new situations was created. in whatever tradition or programme. However. from entrance examinations to final performance. are no longer always valid and need to be adjusted to every situation.Sound Links ± Full Report 57 Institutional profile: World Music Centre.
providing facilities that simultaneously serve as a contemporary re-creation of various traditional settings of creating. The relevance of including this project in some detail lies in the way the concept of WMC addresses a number of the crucial issues raised in this report. performing. engaged in activities ranging from . More than 2000 students are expected to attend the campus each year. it does not exist yet in the physical world. and as a high-tech laboratory with a digital window on the world. research and performance in traditional and contemporary forms of music from all over the world. Asia.A campus with cultural diversity as starting point Introduction In this series of profiles. although plans for its realisation are quite advanced. education. Latin America. the United States and from throughout Europe. World Music Centre is being designed as a new performing arts campus in the heart of the Alentejo region in southern Portugal: the first institution exclusively dedicated to training. The World Music Centre campus aims to be an inspirational meeting place and designer learning environment for musicians and music from Africa. Unlike the organisations previously described. studying and handing down music. WMC occupies a somewhat exceptional position.
theoretical studies. educational theory and practice.one-week African drumming or Salsa classes to a range of professional courses including a complete degree programme in world music. new media and recording. western forms of music commonly taught at other institutions will play a role. World music within the institution By its very nature. policies and politics. Music degree courses in general WMC intends to give degrees in performance. such as world percussion or world pop. as well as courses that deal with a cluster of related instruments or styles. In projects and experiments. modular programs that cover five major areas of competencies expected from professional musicians: performance and creation. A wide co-operation and digital network should link WMC to the rest of the world. and management. various forms of world music form the core of the activities of World Music Centre. Thousands of visitors will also be approached to come to Serpa each year for concerts. Specialist degree courses in world music WMC aims to provide degree courses in specific traditions. festivals and other events. It has planned the entire curriculum in line with the thoughts of the Bologna treaty: transparent. in education and in classroom/community music. .
through workshops or modules designed for music practitioners at amateur levels or music . including musicologists. through specialist modules awarding professional credits. who seek to widen their profile to teach world music in their schools. WMC is being designed to cater for a broad range of audiences: Music teachers. Children. who wish to develop studies in different domains of investigation into world music. Other courses Apart from degree students. through the centre¶s world music programmes in the schools in the region. Amateurs. through community projects and on-campus programmes. it also can create a degree of isolation from the rest of the musical world. who wish to improve and complement their skills or become teachers. through specialist programmes or projects or through the full degree course. But at the same time. Professional musicians.but usually of secondary importance.Sound Links ± Full Report 58 Music researchers. This has one major advantage: it significantly lessens the threat of classical western models dominating all choices in terms of the organisation of education and training. performers or composers. ethnomusicologists and educationalists. through specially designed programmes and activities.
under expert counselling. new media & recording. will make up a specific course which may range from the occasional workshop for professional improvement to the full degree programme for performers or music . publications. Each set menu. research and development. from different ethnic. such as concerts. and management. who wish to widen their scope of skills and knowledge. theoretical studies.lovers. Education As stated before. or combination of modules. the combination of modules that make their own learning paths. cultural and educational backgrounds and with different interests and needs. educational theory and practice. policies & politics. Functioning in the form of a menu from which students can choose. Each of these areas will be reflected in the curriculum. WMC¶s activities will unfold in five main areas: performance & creation. which underline the broader cultural reach of the centre. The curriculum is structured into a variety of modules designed to provide a custom-built training programme for a wide range of students. this flexible training provision will allow student to progress along a number of years through sequential academic levels. but also linked to various professional and outreach activities. qualifications or professional profile they seek. conferences. to build up the skills.
an intricate modular structure has . contract-based structure will respond to the diverse needs perceived in today¶s cultural markets. This student-centred. In this way. established old masters. Many experienced figures have already expressed their desire to come and teach at WMC for shorter or longer periods of time. transferability of credits. and ultimately equivalence of qualifications. stimulating mobility. young artists and professionals from the music or music production field will form WMC¶s teaching body. Some will be at the campus on a permanent basis. others on a rotating basis or incidentally. creating an environment that prepares students for actual musical life. Specialists in different musical traditions and instruments. with recognised academic credibility. The training provision will not only integrate teaching and learning activities with other activities of the centre.teachers. In order to accommodate the variety of types and levels of students. acknowledging the fact that many professions need to be redefined and adjusted to new realities and to the trends identified for the future. it is also eminently suitable to receive students from other institutions for higher music education in Portugal or abroad. but will also take into account the different professional roles an individual may be called to perform throughout life.
such as peer assessment. Apart from mere international marketing. student portfolios and project reports in audio-visual formats. others once every two or four semesters or even incidental. policies and politics. some permanently. . theoretical studies. and management. educational theory and practice. The modules are divided over the five areas of activity mentioned before: performance & creation.Sound Links ± Full Report 59 Evaluation and assessment In addition to standard evaluation and assessment procedures. Research & Conferences. Every year. such as theoretical and practical exams (mostly in front of an audience). WMC intends to develop more contemporary forms. new media & recording. Design & Production of Educational Software. about 100 different modules across five areas of activities will be on offer at various levels. Internationalisation WMC is dependent on an international student population. Development of Teaching Methods and Materials.been designed. and External Projects & Consultancy. the organisation will build up strategic links with leading institutions in most European countries to facilitate student exchange through semester abroad programs and even joint curricula. These in turn relate to the other activities of WMC: Concerts & Events.
Confrontera had a strong intercultural content.General developments / policy within institution Apart from being interesting from an artistic and social point of view. Cultural and Artistic Education (CKV) is a compulsory subject at all secondary schools in the Netherlands. Pilot project: World Music Centre Serpa (realised in co-operation with Conservatory of Amsterdam) µConfrontera¶ ± Exploring the borders of Christian and Islamic arts Introduction The challenges of cultural diversity can be found especially in arts education. Particularly arts and music teachers in schools should be able to work from a culturally diverse perspective. with millions of music lovers now attending concerts and festivals every year. The interdisciplinary approach was an important aspect of the project. It explored the cultural heritage on the boundary between Christian and Moorish culture from . witnessing a CD-turnover that already approaches that of western classical music. The Music in Schools department of the Conservatory of Amsterdam. WMC views world music as a major emerging market. Major music shops are dedicating substantial shelf space to world music. Amsterdam Academy of Arts and World Music Centre organised the pilot Confrontera: a series of classes and a study trip to the Iberian peninsula.
The trip. and 9 arts students specialising in drawing. Confrontera was one of these activities.the Middle Ages. is an institution in development. Present activities consist of pilot projects in co-operation with institutions within Portugal. responsible for the trip to Serpa. This is why a connection with the young World Music Centre in Portugal is a logical step. Rationale & place within institution / programme World Music Centre is not yet established as an institution for higher music education.Sound Links ± Full Report . World Music Centre. and accompanying course. The Conservatory of Amsterdam regards international co-operation as an important tool for innovation. It does not offer courses yet. Its aim is to become an international centre of expertise in the field of world music education. The student group consisted of 2 music performers. (For more information. and in other parts of Europe. see the institutional profile. especially in the field of cultural diversity. They received one credit. The starting point was present-day Europe as a society constantly in contact with other cultures over centuries. 2 from the department of arts and crafts. 9 music in schools students. was not compulsory for these students.) The pilot was developed in order to try out WMC¶s approach and to strengthen the links with Conservatory of Amsterdam.
These cultural encounters can be found in present day population. followed by oral exams and assignments.60 In Amsterdam. music and dance. striking examples can be found of confrontations between cultures: Arabic. visual arts. This programme is based on the following principles: · To familiarise students of various art disciplines with each others¶ professional field · To bring together students of various art disciplines to familiarise them with each others¶ artistic language · To teach students of various art disciplines to work together in a practical setting Content In the south of Spain and Portugal. in a place where churches and mosques have collided and merged. this educational pilot was part of a new interdisciplinary programme Reflection on Art (Reflectie op Kunst). This meeting between Christianity and Islam was placed in a historical as well as present day perspective. a study trip with closing debate. Classes . The course consisted of a series of eleven preparatory classes. which prepares education students for teaching in secondary education. Jewish and Christian cultures greatly influenced and shaped past and present traditions and art forms. and nine follow-up classes.
the Moroccan Jews. these themes were translated to the twentieth century: · from Zikr to Rai: exploring the music of the present day Arab (Moroccan) world · the writer Frederico Garcia Lorca as theme ± there are connections with Manuel de Falla. the folk traditions: gypsy culture. saeta · the above as much as possible in relation to North-Africa: the classical traditions (ArabAndalusian). and literature of the Iberian peninsula. architecture. The course focused on visual arts. General cultural history was grouped around the following subjects: · court. Granada) where visits to monuments.A number of classes was organised around the study trip. by Tony Gatlif). Cordoba. gnawa Through discussions and presentations. synagogue · apart from the classical arts. Berber music. and a flamenco workshop. concerts and dance performances were . museums. music. flamenco. American avant garde · Confrontera: the presence of groups and artists with different cultural backgrounds throughout Europe Study Trip After the first series of classes. gypsy music. Jerez. the students travelled to Portugal (Serpa) and Spain (Seville. mosque. During this period. the students visited exhibitions and films (Vengo. church.
· Workshop traditional folk music Cante Alentejo · Concert Arab music in former Arab palace Monday March 5. this part of the trip had to be cancelled. Full programme: Saturday March 3. a visit to the town of Mertola was planned in the morning. The organisation of the Portuguese part of the trip was in the hands of World Music Centre.complemented with practical workshops and research assignments. visited historic sites and attended a concertof Arab music in an ancient palace originally built for Arab generals. 2001 · Travel to Seville · Cathedral of Seville & Presentation working group Goya and the Goyescas · Antigua fábrica de tabacos & . In Serpa the students enjoyed a workshop of Alentejo polyphony. 2001 · Originally. Due to bad weather conditions. 2001 · Travel to Serpa Sunday March 4.
Córdoba ± overview of three cultures · City walk: synagogue. Plaza del Potro & Presentation working group Don Quijote. 2001 · Travel to Córdoba. 2001 · Museo Arqueológico · Museo de Bellas Artes Thursday March 8.Presentation working group CarmenSound Links ± Full Report 61 · Hospital de la Caridad ± paintings Murillo Tuesday March 6. through Roman Itálica · Museo Torre de la Calahorra. 2001 · Alcázar & Presentation working group New World in Casa del Océano · Travel to Jerez de la Frontera · City walk and Centro Andaluz de Flamenco & Workshop working group Flamenco · Flamenco concert Wednesday March 7. Jewish quarter .
2001 · Travel to Granada · La Cartuja Saturday March 10. The students were divided into working groups consisting of students from various disciplines. As a result they taught and learned from each other. 2001 · Cathedral · Capilla Real · Travel to Amsterdam The interdisciplinary character of the project was most apparent during the study trip. . This aspect made the trip an intense learning experience for all students and teachers. as well as an interesting meeting place of artistic professions. which were often practical. 2001 · Casa-musea Manuel de Falla & Presentation working group El sombrero de tres picos · Alhambra. A tutor-mentor was present at all times.Friday March 9. gardens of Generalife & Presentation working group Alhambra & Presentation working group Frederico Garcia Lorca Sunday March 11. The students received assignments.
The Arab palace at the edge of the historical town received special attention: the students worked on their sketching assignments there. The whole programme was compulsory for all students and concentrated on music and visual arts. and the pilgrims church. The medieval Moorish city centre and walls were visited. but it had to be shortened for organisational reasons. However. the archaeological museum. which was a weak point in the organisation ± the long journey from the Netherlands meant that there was much chance of delays. and in the evening there was a concert of Arab music. The visit to Serpa was planned at the beginning of the study trip. only one day. Originally the stay was planned for a longer period of time. planning Serpa at the beginning turned out to be a success concerning content. It was felt that the area had more to offer than can be seen and heard in one day. the students were immersed in the culturally rich history of the Iberian peninsula which gave them a framework for the rest of the trip. Evaluation & future .Serpa The visit to Serpa serves as an example of the interdisciplinary approach. Especially the concert was a success among the students. musically and as a moment where music was placed in its original context. Students and teachers alike found the trip to Serpa too short.
. cultural historical study trip ± that can be seen as classes and presentations on location. workshops (music. Student assessment took place during oral exams in the form of discussions in small groups. research groups with students. and the students¶ familiarity with the theme Confrontera. being present at a historical place. the richness of a meeting place of different cultures. but also got students thinking about multiculturality in present day society. debate about purposes and impact of the study trip. sketching sessions). feeling the genius loci.The educational strength of the project lay in the diversity of working formats: a series of preparatory classes with accompanying syllabus and other materials. In this way the theme did not only bring insight into an aspect of the European cultural history. When the group was back in Amsterdam. and a file of essays and artistic work. and follow-up classes dealing with the experiences gained during the trip. exploring each other¶s language and artistic landscape through conversations and presentations. the Academies organised a debate about the purposes and usefulness of an interdisciplinary study trip of this kind. An important outcome was the perceived inspiration that came from travelling together. the µalive¶Sound Links ± Full Report 62 activity of travelling as opposed to µinanimate¶ paintings and cathedrals.
For example: the theme of . but students need to come together as well. Confrontera is a comparatively large project. smaller modules with a comparable content can be developed and inserted into the educational programme at the Conservatory of Amsterdam and the Amsterdam School of the Arts. what teaching materials are available (or not).The importance and added value of a pilot like Confrontera can be summarised as follows. How does this work? How do we guide this process and assure its quality? What are the results of this approach? The experiences gained by this project gives insight and first directions towards new joint intercultural theoretical education (Reflection on Art) within the teacher education programmes in Amsterdam. A joint project between academies for higher education raises a number of questions: what subjects are suitable. with intercultural and interdisciplinary content. As a result of the experiences with this project. what are the practical and organisational challenges of a project like this? How is cultural diversity presented and dealt with? Not only teachers and organisations need to learn to work together. They should work more in groups. in what way and to what level do teachers work together. The project investigates in what way Cultural and Artistic Education (CKV) at secondary schools can be taught at high level.
in terms of content. as well as the relatively advanced approach towards cultural diversity in Amsterdam.intercultural meetings between artists in present day Europe can be connected to education about cultural dialogue in general. Relevance of the project to the key issues identified in Sound Links µFrom Policy to Practice¶ The pilot organised by World Music Centre and Conservatory of Amsterdam served primarily as a try-out for our models for analysis and description. It is in projects and courses like Confrontera that World Music Centre finds its strength in international partnerships. provided both institutions with an opportunity to try out a concept that seeks to answer some of the more profound challenges of actually shaping cultural diversity in music education. A subject such as this can be integrated into the existing historical programmes without much difficulty. Nevertheless. The wellestablished links between CoA and WMC. The concept of immersing the students in other cultures and confronting them with new notions of arts and music will be one of the foci of its education. it did address a number of the key issues of Sound Links Partnership . Another opportunity is the development of a new culture historical module in which regular historical knowledge (European history) can be interwoven with elements from various cultures.
Sound Links ± Full Report 63 Conclusions Much of the value of this part of the Sound Links project lies in the detail and the strategies applied to the challenges of cultural diversity in specific contexts and institutions. . using each other¶s resources. However.Confrontera has been an example of transnational co-operation and international student mobility between two institutions involved in higher music education. group work. Some of these go beyond the scope of part II. working groups. Methods of teaching The cross-disciplinary target groups of the project was combined with a large variety of appraoches to teaching and learning: formal lectures. workshops. there is a number of conclusions we can draw from the institutional profiles and the outcomes and lessons learned from the pilots. Due to the newness of the World Music Centre. field trip. it must be said that Amsterdam had to take over more of the logistics then was originally intended. and are summarised in ³From Policy to Practice´. Serpa had the on-site expertise and contexts to develop an interesting programme. discussion and reporting by students. literature study. Amsterdam was well equipped to select and prepare a group of students in terms of content and methodology for a cross-disciplinary study trip.
But there are six issues that arise from the research that deserve to be explored in greater depth. Cultural diversity and the structure and culture of an institution The Sound Links research has focused on the inclusion of and the conditions for fostering cultural diversity in institutions for higher music education. most initiatives in the field of cultural diversity seemed to reach only those students and staff directly involved with it. New musical influences can lead to new practices. The various approaches that are investigated in the descriptions and analyses of this report also show the consequences that cultural diversity can bring to the structure and culture of an organisation. can also be taken into account). It is striking to note that none of the projects directly promoted cultural diversity in the sense of widening opportunities by attracting people of various cultural backgrounds to the institution as students and staff (this is often defined on ethnic grounds. Moreover. while preferably the inclusion of cultural diversity should be felt throughout the institution. Instead. although other cultural differences. the projects focused on content (the inclusion of world music in the institution¶s programmes and activities) and transcultural modes of transmission. sometimes new . new performances. for example those rooted in socio-economic background or class.
including world and classical music. be it inside or outside the walls of our institutions. students need to be turned into . musical identity and creativity From discussions with staff and students of conservatoires we can conclude they encounter the influences and impact of multiculturalism every day. It was not always clear in advance how these new influences would affect the practices and social structures of an institution. However. These influences may originate from neighbours and fellow-students from other countries. Cultural diversity can be fitted into the regular structure of the institution. as an expansion or renewal of the existing programme. this is understandable: within a relatively short time. to expressions of mass-media and results of globalisation. Another approach is to model the educational structure into a more flexible and diverse environment to accommodate all kinds of music. From a narrow perspective of future employment.approaches to teaching and learning. conservatoires still seem to be almost inherently µclosed¶. Cultural diversity. The latter can lead to a more thorough and complex change of the institution¶s culture and organisation at all levels. Broadly speaking we have seen examples of two different angles. and new ± possibly different ± students and teachers in the classrooms and hallways.
it can be argued that every graduate of tertiary music education should be at home with the music he or she plays. but also be able to form his or her own musical identity. and limited but unambiguous theories.Sound Links ± Full Report 64 Cultural diversity as the basis for a new monoculture Many. By introducing students to new ways of creating and enjoying music. institutions often seem to turn to tried methods. standard repertoire for assessing quality and progress. we provide them with new tools to do this. As a result. high level performers. meeting the standards of concert audiences and the orchestras who will hire them. or indeed most of the institutions for higher music education in Europe were built and structured around a 19th century model for music teaching. This canon affects almost every aspect of the institution. one . with an emphasis on masterapprentice. analytical. and by making them feel at home with it (and this is possible at various levels).specialised. and harbours the risk of harming other important dimensions of conservatoire training: creativity. flexibility and powers of communication. Although little formal research has been conducted in this area to date. At the same time. the outcomes of Sound Links suggest that their flexibility in terms of creation and communication with an audience or in a teaching situation will be strengthened.
It is sometimes argued that the discrepancy between teaching and learning methods of different musical traditions is a sign that cultural diversity does not belong in these institutions. the presence of students from various countries and backgrounds. alternatively. the new musical tradition is fitted into the µstraight-jacket¶ of the institutional structure. the conservatoire should be a place to learn any kind of music. .way didactical teaching. but the complexity of the situation increases when a more diverse perception of music is introduced into the curriculum. the opposite can happen. Culturally diverse practices are often expected to break the rigidity of the 19th century model of teaching and learning in an institution. there is the risk of forming a new µmonoculture¶. or. it isolates itself. if we see conservatoires as the breeding ground for contemporary musical practice at large. Instead of the institution developing its flexibility and curiosity that would benefit all musical traditions. But especially in the case of tradition specific teaching. In many cases this model is still regarded as suitable for tuition in European classical music. and opportunities for practice and recording. it can be argued that with high quality teachers. this has happened to many classical music departments. In both cases. However. By the very nature and history of conservatoires.
Although opinions amongst experts in any particular field of music are mostly surprisingly similar. criteria are seldom uniform or specifically articulated. for example stage presence or interpretation. In higher music education. This may not be what an institution wanted to achieve by including cultural diversity in the first place. Cultural diversity and quality assessment Assessment of quality is always an issue of some complexity. rather than looking for connections and contacts. From the description and analysis of the Sound Links pilot projects. in every discipline of the arts ± including music. but treating a world music tradition the same as western classical music or as an emphatically distinct tradition. . although valid in its own right. there are no fixed criteria and many aspects in students¶ performances are implicit and not measurable.But this tendency can also be observed in pop and particularly jazz departments. the question remains: how do we define quality. They close themselves off from the rest of the institution. may lead to great opportunities for cross-fertilisation being lost. the same conclusion can be drawn. musicians of a certain tradition take on a defensive role and concentrate exclusively on their own field. In order to strengthen their position. Although the analyses are often clear.
Specific traditions of world music make the situation even less uniform. and attention is spent on asking the right questions as well as getting the right answers. In this way. are not always applicable in others. staff. This is because they were outside the field of genre-specific training. The main point is that the issue of quality is given more than slight consideration. flexible set of criteria needs to be developed for every situation. and the music was applied in an educational or community setting. etc.Sound Links ± Full Report 65 On an institutional and funding level. Quality is therefore based on the expectations and requirements concerning all parties involved: students. but also intelligent failure. intelligent (or successful) failure is often an important stumblingblock in the case of successful drop-outs: students who leave the institution to pursue a successful career . A new. This requires systems of evaluation in relation to process and context. institution. product and project. or in a different way. they could not always be universally applicable: on purely musical grounds.But even if the criteria were standardised. (as a product) many of the Sound Links pilot projects were below higher music education standards. not only success can be rewarded. Every aspect should be considered in the assessment: process. The areas and criteria that were always the same in western musical traditions.
in one or more countries. as can be seen in part III of this report. more and more facilitatory mechanisms have been put into place to secure its continuation. that is very difficult as they do not appear on the pay lists of symphony orchestras. and around the world. but in the predominantly free-lance world of many (pop and world) musicians. . Student and staff mobility is a growing practice in Europe. Openness. giving students the opportunity to µbuy¶ their education where they need it ± in one or more institutions. In many cases the (national) funding structures are shifting towards a model in which money is channelled through individual students instead of institutions. Cultural diversity and internationalisation As obvious as it may seem. Not only has the number of mobile students increased over the years. multiple influences are needed to achieve cultural diversity. curiosity and willingness to exchange experiences and ideas are important stimuli ± and in most cases even conditions ± for the success of cultural diversity in (higher) music education. Sometimes this can be resolved by proving employment of the student.cost the institution a large amount of government funding. Systems for credit transfer and transferability of qualifications make study abroad even more attractive.
At the beginning of the 1980s it was still largely the territory of alternative world travellers and ethnomusicologists. Multiple skills and knowledge of several musical genres or traditions are more and more valued. Sales figures and number of concert-goers and festivals indicate that the growth of world music¶s market share has not subsided. The same goes for students focusing on a career as a instrumental or classroom teacher. but in the 1990s it has become a mainstream phenomenon. It is this work field that we train our students for. community and employability The rise of world music in the music industry over the last decade is striking. particularly those who concentrate on becoming a performing musician. community music. Funding for students from developing areas of the world. like Latin America or Africa. Particularly in a field that perhaps combines the performance and teaching side to its fullest. is less abundantly available. Cultural diversity.Several funding bodies now exist to improve mobility of undergraduate students. These structures work particularly well within and between Europe and the United States. but also for postgraduates and teachers to conduct further research or pursue continuing professional development. In order to facilitate this . Community music is a wide field of musical practice in which the aspirations and abilities of the participants in the community take a central role. multimusicality is an important quality.
creative. All in all.Sound Links ± Full Report 66 The Higher Education Climate Developments and mechanisms ß Higher (music) education in the EU ß Credit systems ß Transfer of degrees and qualifications ß Professional development Funding mobility ß Student mobility ß Mobility programmes World music & the market n Economic scope & employment possibilities Part IIISound Links ± Full Report 67 . it seems that artistic. a community musician needs to be flexible. and consider the implications of their choices for their modus operandi and organisation at large. and able to deal with cultural diversity in an ethnic as well as social sense.creative musical process. demographic and market considerations are creating a situation in which all institutions have to formulate an intelligent response to the phenomenon of cultural diversity.
Introduction In this section.800 titles. poorly structured and/or outdated. then. demonstrating an environment that is complex. To begin with. but quite conducive to international co-operation in cultural diversity initiatives. In order to accommodate those requiring more in-depth information on specific subjects or countries. What the reader will find presented below. the amount of source material is staggering. The challenges are substantial. we have attempted to paint the backdrop for present and international initiatives and cooperation in the field of cultural diversity in higher music education. the information available is often contradictory. This part consists of three chapters: Developments and mechanisms describes the history of international co-operation in higher education . in most sources no distinction is made between the various areas of study. In addition. is an overview of the major strands of development in higher education over the past decades. the UNESCO databases on higher education alone list 23. extensive references to websites and publications have been included under each heading. For example. This part of the study makes no claims at being comprehensive. as such an effort is beyond the scope of Sound Links. so that significant deviations in the field of studying music are not readily identified. Finally.
the maze of degrees and qualifications is explored. In Funding Mobility. seeks to fathom the labour market for graduates of music degree programmes featuring aspects cultural diversity. (EU) government programmes to stimulate student (and staff) mobility are described. a first exploration of the wealth and complexity of funding programmes for international student mobility is presented. The final chapter. Next. information from . with emphasis on relevant EU initiatives since the 1990s. student mobility between EU countries across all disciplines is first explored quantitatively and qualitatively. In the next chapter. for which recent information in the specific area of music is available thanks to a recent project of the European Association of European Conservatoires (AEC). Although it is difficult to give an exact picture of the economic implications of an artistic area that is relatively new and as yet unstructured in terms of long-term employment possibilities (such as orchestras in classical music). some attention is given to Semester Abroad studies.over the past fifty years. It then proceeds to look at credit transfer systems. Then. and their (in)compatibility on the international market. with a focus on ECTS (European Credit Transfer System). Finally. Finally. we look at the developments around life-long learning and professional development. World music and the market.
sources in the market indicate a vast turnover in recordings and performances. With the institution of the European Union a new phase began. a new system of credit transfer amongst institutions for higher education was devised: ECTS. Other measures include the institution of NARICs (National Information Centres on the Recognition of Diplomas) and ENICs (European National Information Centres on Recognition and Mobility). 1999) signified a further step towards the recognition of higher education . In the late 1980s. supported by an audience of millions. European countries decided that diplomas leading to admission to universities had to be accepted as equivalent. The Lisbon Convention (effective as of Feb 1st.Sound Links ± Full Report 68 DEVELOPMENTS AND MECHANISMS History From shortly after the Second World War. there has been an immense movement towards internationalisation of education. From the 1950s. as well as substantial employment opportunities in education at various levels. In 1953. UNESCO also played an active part in the process of bringing higher education systems together. efforts have been undertaken to create greater coherence.
and Europe (including Israel. June 1999 (see appendix 5 for full text). Arab countries. A very important development with regards to the viability of international initiatives in higher music education is the recognition of the Anglo-Saxon BA/MA model as the European reference. Meanwhile. An abundance of websites illustrates the amount of activity and the importance the EU attaches to this field. the Mediterranean. representatives of six areas met in Paris: Latin America and the Caribbean. In September/October 1998.qualifications. with an undergraduate . institutional cooperation has been facilitated greatly with the ERASMUS/ SOCRATES programmes and the establishment of institutional contracts with the EU. with the purpose of linking networks so that they will have the same impact on the recognition of diplomas as the European network. This movement was strengthened by the outcome of the Bologna treaty. The rest of the world has been actively included in this process. Canada and Australia). the United States. The main objectives are: · adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees in European higher education · adoption of a system based on undergraduate and graduate cycles. Asia and the Pacific.
which means that music was either studied practically at a conservatoire. This. or theoretically at a university. They are now moving towards a structure that corresponds to a Bachelor of Arts degree of 3 to 4 years with relatively little research. most have now decided to abandon the influential ideas that caused this separation. formulated in 1810 by Wilhelm van Humboldt. followed by the option for a 1 to 2 year Master of Arts programme with a stronger academic focus. which makes it possible to create more individual learning paths. in combination .programmefocusing on vocational skills relevant to the European labour market. inter-institutional co-operation. there is still a rigid division between vocational and academic training. training and research In many European countries. At curriculum level. in which different parts of the study can be clearly identified and assessed separately. At government level. we see a move towards competency based programmes that are defined increasingly in terms of modules. and a more academically oriented graduate programme · establishment of a system of credits such as ECTS · promotion of student and teacher mobility · promotion of European Dimensions in curricular development. mobility schemes and integrated programmes of study.
where students from a wide variety of backgrounds become clients who sign a contract for an individual learning path ranging from a few weeks to a number of years. the student decides where he/she µbuys¶ ± parts of ± his or her education) will strengthen this development.with the European Credit Transfer System. Institutions that are quick to position themselves on the European market with unique products in the field of education and training are likely to benefit from this movement. professional development. These developments all point towards a model for higher education of the future. greatly facilitates students to follow part of their studies at an institution abroad. In a 1997 survey by AEC (European Association of Conservatoires). . A gradual shift towards funding models that are more student centred (i. and in-service training. At the same time. half of the conservatoires of Europe already expressed activities in this field. we see that especially amongst highly qualified professionals.e. awareness of the need for upgrading skills throughoutSound Links ± Full Report 69 their professional career has grown exponentially. Although only limited information is readily available about this relatively new area. we witness the rise of continuing education.
student numbers. and a section referring to specialised information. costing structures. reinforced and further . higher education has developed into a rich diversity of systems all over the world. Each chapter is divided in a general introduction.. General developments in higher (music) education Policies at international.. it is highly impractical to accommodate the increasing transnational traffic of students and qualified professionals. However appropriate this may be in the light of the individuality of different nations.In the next pages. concerted efforts to improve the situation have been developed for a number of decades at the highest level. For instance: there are currently no diplomas that are recognised at European level. As we have seen from the introduction. and professional development. the background to these views is sketched with extensive reference to policies and practice in Europe and beyond. The UNESCO World Declaration on Higher Education (1998) contains a number of relevant quotes: · ³The core missions of higher education systems (. degrees and equivalence of qualifications. Issues that are addressed are general policies. European and national scale In a turbulent history that spans many centuries. credit systems. sources and references. paragraphs on specific subjects.) should be preserved.
) should be viewed in a lifelong perspective.) The contribution of higher education to the development of the whole education system and the recording of its links with all levels of education. based on flexible entry and exit points within the system.´ · ³Diversifying higher education models and recruitment methods and criteria is essential. in particular with secondary education.) Learners (.... namely to educate highly qualified graduates and responsible citizens and to provide opportunities («) for higher learning and for learning throughout life. (. should base their long-term orientations on societal aims and needs.´ · ³There is a perceived need for a new vision and paradigm of higher education.. To achieve this goal. including the respect of cultures and environment protection. in particular in their reinforced relations with the world of work. (.´ · ³Higher education is part of a seamless system. which should be student-oriented.. competencies and abilities for . Developing entrepreneurial skills and initiatives should become major concerns of higher education.expanded. curricula need to be recast so as to go beyond simple cognitive mastery of disciplines and include the acquisition of skills. should be a priority.´ · ³Institutions and systems..
governments and parliaments. (. based on partnerships between higher education institutions and responsible state authorities. and for excellence in research and teaching. and with an appropriate professional and financial status. creative and critical analysis. independent thinking and team work in multicultural contexts..communication. teaching and learning methods.´ · ³Regional and international normative instruments for the recognition of studies and diplomas should be ratified and implemented.´ · ³Higher education should be considered as a public service.) This requires the development of appropriate planning and policy ± analysis capacities and strategies. community groups ± is required in order to set in train a movement for the in-depth reform and renewal of higher education. Clear policies should be established concerning higher education teachers.´ · ³A vigorous policy of staff development is an essential element for higher education institutions.´ · ³Close partnership amongst all stakeholders ± national and institutional policymakers. with stimulus for constant innovation in curriculum.. teaching and related staff. researchers. so as to update and improve their skills. students and their families. the media. theSound Links ± Full Report 70 world of work.´ .
Student numbers The Statistical Yearbook Education and Literacy 1999 of Unesco gives details up to 1997.156. 119 million young people (under 25). and 4 million teachers. But at the same time. the online database of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development): · ³To meet rising demand. Additional relevant information on participation and attainment can be obtained from Education at a Glance 2000. education systems are rapidly expanding to allow more people to study .000 students in 1997.The words of Unesco herald the Bologna treaty in many ways. But the practice in Europe is still far removed from this ideal: descriptions of educational systems in the EU countries are included in appendix 6 as an indication of this diversity. as do teaching staff numbers. Comparable statistics for the EU quote 11 million students. but it appears to refer to primary and secondary education only. 35 million students at secondary schools. Relevant for this research: · The world¶s total enrolment in tertiary education amounted to 88. Enrolment figures include tertiary education. Note: in the actual charts on file. particularly in the European academic space. The yearbook contains information on national education systems. a number of policies at national and institutional levels forebode a new order. figures are split up for different continents.
µmainly from public sources but with significant.´ · ³Today. on average.2 per cent in 1990 tot 5.´ ÿ ³Although education remains predominantly publicly funded. and in eight countries by more than 50 per cent. to enter tertiary programmes which lead to the equivalent of a Bachelor¶s degree or above.´ For example: ³Adults participate. gives global figures on government and private spending on higher education: · ³More is being invested in education¶. the OECD online database.´ Costs Education at a glance 2000. with average educational spending as a percentage of GDP rising from 5. an average of four out of ten young people are likely. public expenditure on education grew faster than GDP. for more than one year full-time equivalent in continuing education and training during the ages of 25 and 64.´ ÿ ³In 16 out of 18 countries.´ · ³The number of students enrolled in tertiary programmes grew by more than 20 per cent between 1990 and 1997 in all but five OECD countries.longer and to obtain higher qualifications.8 per cent in 1997. private contributions. during the course of their lives. and increasing. private spending is becoming more .
´ ÿ ³For every dollar spent by tertiary institutions. driven mainly by enrolment growth of 40 per cent over the same period. spending over the period 1990-1996 increased on average by 28 per cent. . at least some students are enrolled in every country in tertiary institutions that charge tuition and other fees. this spending appears to supplement rather than displace public expenditure. in public sources and about 23 per cent in private sources.important and accounts. the more is spent per student. Roughly.Sound Links ± Full Report 71 · The south and East of Europe. but enrolment even more so. followed by countries from northern and western Europe and Asia in the middle section.´ An article in The Chronicle (26 May 2000) on the OECD report includes a list of 1997 Spending per Student on Higher Education in 32 countries from the report. Overall. on average. we can say that: · The US and (a number of) Latin American countries spend relatively much. about 77 per cent of final educational funds originate.´ · ³The higher the level of education. other Latin American countries and the Philippines are low in the list.¶ µAt the tertiary level. for 10 per cent of initial educational funds. on average.´ · ³Spending on tertiary education has grown fastest.´ ÿ ³In all countries except Finland and Sweden.
A vast majority of these institutions have financial aid packages.000.000.394 (¼ 2.712) in Uruguay.000. A Newsweek Special 2000 International student edition: ³How to get into American universities´ has the following comments on degree course fees: in most EU countries. A survey that was conducted of undergraduate study programmes at 1024 US colleges and universities (with a total of nearly 6 million students).000 to ¼ 10. points at the following averages for the year 1999/2000: tuition and fees: ¼ 12. student fees are low (around ¼ 1000. the costs are considerably higher. the remaining costs are still ¼ 10.· Spending varies from $19.466 (¼ 19.349) at these undergraduate programmes are foreigners indicates that there is a .341) per student in Paraguay and $17. room and board: ¼ 5.000.000. For full survey see appendix 7. In American higher education. at an average value of some ¼ 10. in Portugal and Scandinavia) or absent (Germany). as in the Netherlands) very low (around ¼ 100. As these programmes apply mostly to the more expensive colleges.170 (¼ 2. More than 50% of the students at these colleges profit from these arrangements.458) in the Philippines and $ 2.787) in the US to $2. The fact that around 3% of the students (166. total costs of study: ¼ 17.000. Institutions for music education are generally directly funded by the government. Typical yearly contributions in Northern Europe range from ¼ 5.271 (¼ 22.
in about 15 European countries (incl.be) Activities of this European organisation include research and evaluation of international higher education co-operation.fairly affluent mobile student population. mobility and exchange. (Source: Special 2000 International Student Edition of Newsweek: µHow to get into American Universities¶). Recent evaluation reports by ACA are about µNational Policies for the Internationalisation of Higher Education¶ and µInternationalisation of NonUniversity Higher Education in Europe¶.aca-secretariat. The website contains a list of national member organisations. and are structured according to source. sources. · µInternationalisation in Non-University Higher Education in Europe¶ (via ACA website. sometimes also numbers of mobility programmes and scholarships these institutions offer). Specialised information. under µManaging Programmes and Conducting Projects¶) ³This project investigated the current state of international co-operation of higher education . and references The following sources provide in-depth background and information. see above. web sites and short description. International Academic Co-operation Association (ACA) (www. namely umbrella organisations like Nuffic (in the Netherlands) in the field of (co-operation in) higher education.
such as mobility or international curricula. Internationalisation in European Non-University Education. But there was up to now no single . see above) ³Research into higher education is still in its infancy. reports from each of the 18 countries were produced. detailed studies are by now available on particular issues. the preferred and neglected international activities. The aim was to produce more reliable information on the extent of international co-operation in the sector. and the particular opportunities and constraints for internationalisation in this type of institution. the two-stage project comprises 18 countries in the western and eastern parts of Europe. the Dutch and Flemish hogescholen. continuing education and institutionalisation.).institutions such as the German Fachhochschulen. the Scandinavian college sector. The papers from both phases of the project have now come out with the title Bernd Wächter (ed. curriculum reform.´ Note: publication appears to be out of print. focusing on such issues as mobility. Started in late 1998. · µInternationalisation in Higher Education¶ (via ACA site. Bonn: Lemmens. In a first stage. Based on these findings. ACA held an international expert seminar in Bonn in May of 1999. which took a crosscountry thematic approach. 1999 (ISBN 3-932306-35-X). However.
document. The themes of these essays are µThe role of the rector in the internationalisation of a university¶ (Professor John Kelly. from the first action programme in 1974 to the Sorbonne Declaration. the policies of the introduction and implementation of internationalisation. The study gives a comprehensive overview of the motivations for international co-operation. which brought together and assessed the findings in the various subareas ofSound Links ± Full Report 72 internationalisation. In late 1998 and early 1999. University of Oulu/Finland). Dublin/Ireland and Professor Lauri Lajunen and Terhi Törmänen. The study. . ACA Research Co-ordinator and Deputy Director Brigitte Hasewend. was produced by ACA Director Bernd Wächter. and it contains an analysis of the history of the European Union's involvement in educational collaboration. ACA produced a synthesis document on the whole range of issues and activities in higher education co-operation on a world-wide scale. which developed out of an earlier work that ACA conducted for the International Association of University Presidents (IAUP). in collaboration with Aaro Ollikainen. µThe export of higher education¶ (Jon Hagen. The study is complemented by essays on five individual areas of internationalisation in higher education. University College. the different cooperation activities.
Both parts of the work have now been published under the title Bernd Wächter (ed. 1999 (ISBN 3932306-33-3). University of Waikato. In the form of an analytical introduction.).. a typology of the diverse field. µThe marketing of higher education in New Zealand and Australia¶ (Professor Peter Oettli. a third section will trace the main milestones of the history of Europe¶s higher education associations and will attempt to develop. · Handbook on European Associations in Higher Education (information via website ACA ± see above): ³This project focuses on the growing number of higher education federations in Europe. Professor Volker Gehmlich. Director ACA. Den Haag/Netherlands and Djakarta/Indonesia). Fachhochschule Osnabrück/Germany) and µAssessing the Quality of Internationalisation¶ (Bernd Wächter. Internationalisation of Higher Education.´ Note: publication appears to be .NUFFIC. The core of the book will consist of some 30 to 40 portraits of the most relevant European associations (.. µFit for the global job market?¶. Hamilton/New Zealand).´ Note: publication appears to be out of print. for the first time ever. A second section will consist of shorter profiles of up to 100 education organisations from other continents or of global membership.). Bruxelles/Belgium). and beyond. Bonn: Lemmens.
org) Education at a Glance. · paying for education (µmore is being invested in education¶. but enrolment even more so¶). µeducation . Highlights give index numbers over · participation and attainment (µto meet rising demand.out of print. · study patterns (µnot all students who are enrolled always attend school¶. but their salaries often lag behind those of university graduates¶. education systems are rapidly expanding to allow more people to study longer¶. teachers are well paid in relation to average wages. µthe higher the level of education. µthe transition from education to work is far from easy¶). µsignificant numbers are studying abroad¶. and increasing. the more is spent per student¶. Labour and Social Policy Directorate (http://www. OECD Database. private contribution¶. OECD: Education.oecd. µwhile tertiary participation rates have risen steeply in many OECD countries. available on-line: print of highlights and of a summary of chapters. µand to obtain higher qualifications¶). µbetter educated adults are more likely to benefit from continuing education and training¶. µteachers are now mainly graduates¶. mainly from public sources but with significant. · the organisation of schools (µin most countries. not all who participate complete a degree¶. Employment. µspending on tertiary education has grown fastest. 1999.
See appendix 8 for Expected hours of training over the life cycle. from 1997. There are also links to tables and indicators (figures) that were included in the report. µbetter education brings significant rewards. usually with reference figures from 1990. in terms of employment and pay prospects¶). education systems find it more difficult to sustain the strong positive views that young children display towards science¶. Student Achievements. · outcomes of education (µwide variations in student achievement feed into unequal prospects in adulthood¶. Financial and Human Resources Invested in Education. Relevant tables and figures:Sound Links ± Full Report 73 Results in tables are split up into national results (OECD countries) and totals/averages. Individual. otherwise year mentioned. The summary of chapters deals with the chapters about Context of Education. Participation and Progression. Access to Education. The Learning Environment and Organisation of Schools.faces difficulties in keeping up with the development of information technologies¶). Social and Labour Market Outcomes of Education. The tables can also be viewed on-line. Percentage of 25 to 64-year-olds participating in continuing education and training and average . µwhile successful in raising levels of science achievement.
4) Other relevant graphs from the same source include: · Table C3.3b: percentage distribution of tertiary-type B qualifications between subject categories (1998) A new edition of the OECD Education at a glance has become available in 2002. gender and age group (1994-95) (Table C1.number of hours of participation in the previous year. The 2002 edition of Education at a glance is divided into four chapters: Chapter A examines the outcomes of education and learning in terms of: current output of educational institutions and educational attainment of the adult population.4: Expected years of tertiary education for all 17-year-olds. equity in educational opportunities and outcomes.3a: Percentage distribution of tertiary-type A qualifications between subject categories (1998) · Table C4. Sound Links has been unable to integrate the results into this report. by intensity of training.2: Graduation rates in tertiary education by type of programme (length and first or second degree) · Table C4. based on head counts and index of change · Table C4. . and the returns to education for individuals and society. the quality of learning outcomes and how this varies between schools and students.
different financing instruments. A.org/iau) Issues in higher education series. and cross-border movements of students. UN/Unesco: International Association of Universities (via Unesco site: www. entry to and participation in different types of educational programmes and institutions. the availability and use of information technology at school and at home. Print of the recent titles in these series with short descriptions and tables of content. classroom and school climate. learning beyond initial education. and teachers¶ working conditions. overall and at the different levels of education. Chapter D examines the learning environment and organisation of schools. in terms of: the expected duration of schooling. in terms of: student learning conditions. and how the money is invested and apportioned among different resource categories. the ways in which education systems are financed and the sources of the funds. participation and progression.Chapter B considers the financial and human resources invested in education.: Local knowledge and wisdom in higher education (2000).o.unesco. Challenges facing higher . in terms of: the resources that each country invests in education relative to its number of students enrolled and relative to national income and size of public budgets. Chapter C looks at access to education.
history. to be viewed on-line. the quarterly Journal of the International Association of Universities. government. philosophy. sociology. without description: East Asian Higher Education: Traditions and Transformations (1995) UN/Unesco: Higher Education Policy (www. Distance and campus universities: tensions and interactions: a comparative study of five countries (1999). The Mockers and Mocked: Comparative Perspectives on Differentiation. law. . Other titles. the focus of which may range from case studies of developments in individual institutions to policy making at systems and at national level. Convergence and Diversity in Higher Education (1996).html). economics.unesco. both theoretical and practice-based. (Issues from 1996). ³Higher Education Policy is an international journal for advancing scholarly understanding of the policy process applied to higher education through the publication of original analyses. Organising Innovative Research: the Inner Life of University Departments (1997).anthropology. Through this journal the International Association of Universities wishes to strengthen the exchange between scholarship and issues of practical administrative concern within the perspective of the disciplines that contribute to the study of this field .org/iau/hep.education at the millennium (1999). political science. public administration.
scholars. This directory is also available in the UNESCO Databases Cd-rom. policy analysis and the sociology of organisations. practitioners and administrators at all levels of higher education to have access to. whether theoretical.´ Unesco databases ³UNESCO produces about 90 bibliographic. sciences. and contribute to.) and factual databases in its domains of competence (education. projects. which involve explicit inter-system and cross-national comparisons.´ Relevant databases are: . The major criteria retained in the process of review and selection are the significance of the submission to decision-making and policy developmentSound Links ± Full Report 74 in higher education as well as its intrinsic quality.psychology. culture and communication). are particularly welcome. Since the study of policy in higher education draws upon a broad range of disciplines. The editorial board will give every encouragement to original contributions. The aim of Higher Education Policy is to provide a peer-reviewed vehicle of the highest quality for institutional leadership. keep abreast of. referral (directories. a cross-disciplinary methodology will have equal consideration. etc. Articles devoted to less reported systems of higher education and their evolution. conceptual or empirical in nature. the most advanced analyses available in this domain.
The IAU/UNESCO Information Centre on Higher Education co-ordinates the integration of the references from the different centres into the HEDBIB database. curriculum. Israel and Turkey (www. there is a list of national addresses/umbrella organisations in the field of education. administration. issues relative to academic staff and students. Regional Centres and Offices). higher education trends. . academic cooperation. Updated database (World Higher Education Database 2000) appears to be available on cd-rom only. the Association of African Universities (AAU). academic mobility and equivalencies of degrees.unesco. costs and finances.org/iau. the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). the International Centre for Distance Learning (ICDL) and UNESCO (Headquarters.cepes.· ENIC: references to national information bodies dealing with academic recognition and mobility in Europe. the Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU). teaching methods and learning processes. North America. HEDBIB is co-produced by : the International Association of Universities (IAU).ro/) · HEDBIB (Higher Education Bibliography): ³World-wide bibliography on higher education including references since 1988 on higher education systems.´ Internet: www. evaluation of higher education. planning and policy. specialised institutions.
on education. culture in South and Central Asia. · IBEDOCS: world-wide references to Unesco documents etc. · SIBID: reference with analytical abstracts to documents and publications of Government educational bodies of Central America and Panama. publications etc.· HEED (Higher Education in Europe): references to Unesco publications and documents. reports. publications etc. CD-ROM. published since 1986. e-mail. No site. . 6. published in Latin America and especially Ecuador · ROSTSCADOC: references to Unesco New Delhi Library acquisitions: documents.o. in the field of education. education. 17. Distribution: printout. social sciences.000 records · PROAPL: references to Unesco documents an publications etc. journal articles.800 records. online. on the organisation and development of education. Distribution: CD-Rom. Distribution: printout. · Study Abroad: Information on international and national scholarships and courses offered concerning post-secondary education and training in all academic and professional fields in 120 countries. books and manuscripts published since 1986 on higher education in Europe. on a. culture and communication in Asia and the Pacific · QUITO: references to Unesco documents. diskette. on education in Central America en Panama since 1980. just addresses/e-mails.
´Sound Links ± Full Report 75 Other relevant sources: . research and development. international co-operation and exchanges. (http://unescostat. 1970 and all years since 1970. · UNESCO statistical Data Bank: ³Statistical data on approximately 200 countries and territories on population. 1965. education at all levels. * Detailed information on individual institutions (general information. length of programme etc. book production.) awarded over 175 countries. student life. museums. scientific and technical manpower.´ Data cover years 1960. student life. translations. radio and television). academic divisions. archives.· UNDOC: reference. education and culture. culture and communication (libraries. since 1990.unesco. statistics). admission requirements.o. expenditure for education. cinema. * Major higher education qualifications and credentials (fields of study in which they are awarded.). published world-wide and especially in Africa and southern Africa on a. admissions. courses etc. to Unesco documents etc. newspapers and periodicals.org) · World Academic Database: ³Data on : * Higher education systems of over 175 countries worldwide (structure of educational system. admission to higher education and recognition of foreign credentials.
system of databases). that may be able to . addresses to more than 7.nl/gateway): includes list of relevant institutions + links: IAU (Association of European Universities). InterEdu (International Education Information Centre. DAAD etc. Unesco. eLib Electronic Libraries Programme. CIMO (Centre for International Mobility in Finland). Datalake (to search for universities and colleges world-wide). HEIR (The Higher Education Institution Registry. Yahoo! (Universities and colleges throughout the world listed by country).· Summary and complete text World Declaration on Higher Education (Unesco site) · Nuffic Gateway to« Higher Education World Wide (www. · The site also contains a list and links of institutions in the field of Internationalisation of Higher Education: AEGEE (largest European Students Association. British Columbia Centre for International Education. Council on International Educational Exchange (CIIE). Grants and loans from the European Union. a portal to higher education in Europe aimed at non-Europeans). Galaxy. OCLC (Online Computer Library Centre). ORTELIUS (The Data Base on Higher Education in Europe. Notably.nuffic.000 education institutions world wide). network of more than 200 locals in over 30 countries). there are a number of national umbrella organisations/contacts among these.
provide further information by country. · Articles on national developments in higher education systems. Eurostat. but in preparation. Key data on education in Europe. Excerpts in appendix 6. academic and professional recognition of qualifications and diplomas in several EU countries. their salaries and qualifications. European Large variety of EC websites. Published by European Commission DG Education and Culture. educational establishments and their degree of autonomy.be Á µManaging programmes and conducting projects¶) National · Web sites and reports European Union on higher education systems. particularly DG Education.aca-secretariat. The 292 page report (1999. Sets out the main features of the education system of 29 European countries. fourth edition. Information on website ACA (www. Not yet available. and provides recent national and occasional regional indicators covering population and employment. ISBN 92 828 8538 0) is currently available in English and French for 28 euro from the office for Official Publications of the European Communities. levels of study. teachers. Handbook on European Associations in Higher Education. As the articles come from a Dutch newsletter on higher education (published by Nuffic) many refer to the situation in the Netherlands .
25 Eccleston Place.g.and Dutch speaking Belgium. First Edition. and to mobility questions. London. In European countries (especially the Netherlands) sources often refer to the European introduction of the Anglo-Saxon model (bachelormaster system). Macmillan Reference. However. England. PUBLISHED BY: Macmillan Reference Limited.co. their institutions of higher education and. the Nieuwsbulletin for higher education and other dispersed info about developments in higher education and maybe mobility.Sound Links ± Full Report . ISBN: 0-333-75052-7 (Macmillan). London SW1W 9NF. the national bodies concerned with higher education. and Basingstoke: www. some articles on developments in Anglophone and German speaking countries and South Africa are included too. This volume is the result of a new partnership established between the Association of African Universities (AAU) and the International Association of Universities (IAU) to jointly collect and disseminate information on higher education in the continent.macmillan-reference. and addresses/umbrella organisations in certain countries. 92-9002-164-0 (IAU). New York. Grove¶s Dictionaries. The Guide contains details on the educational system of 46 African countries. · Africa: Guide to Higher Education in Africa.uk/Academic/ · Incidental copies of articles from e. 420 p. 1999. for each country.
by source of funds (appendix 9) · Table B1. by level of education.1c: Educational expenditure as a percentage of GDP for tertiary education. usually with reference figures from 1990. . · Table B1.2: index of the change in public and private expenditure on education between 1990 and 1996.1: Distribution of public and private sources of funds for educational institutions before (initial funds) and after (final funds) transfers from public sources. Employment.oecd.1d: Educational expenditure from public and private sources for educational institutions as a percentage of GDP by level of education. Labour and Social Policy Directorate (http://www.76 Costs From OECD: Education. by level of education · Table B2. from 1997.2: Percentage of students in institutions that charge tuition fees at the tertiary level of education. (different types of education.org) Relevant tables and figures: Results in tables are split up into national results (OECD countries) and totals/averages. · Table B1. otherwise year mentioned. including tertiary) · Table B2.
· Table B3. Education (general).elia. specific subsidies). Also: Zicht op kwaliteit. · Situation in the Netherlands: ÿ Beroepsprofielen Startkwalificaties.ahk. Arts/Culture International and Non-European. transfer and payments to other private entities. Europe. Arts / Music · List of Culture Contact Points en links to Ministries of Culture in Europe (http://europa.1b: Direct expenditure for institutions and transfers to the private sector as a percentage of total government expenditure (for tertiary education): split up into direct expenditure for institutions.eu. projectgroep Kunstvakonderwijs.int/comm/culture/contact-point). Den Haag (not in possession.nl/links/index. .. Events. ÿ Kunstenmonitor ± De arbeidsmarktpositie van afgestudeerden van het Kunstvakonderwijs 1996. Voorlichtingsdienst HBO-Raad. Funding. child allowances. financial aid to students (scholarships.html) to websites of ELIA member institutions in about 25 countries. request?) · Links on ELIA site (www. juni 1998. ontwikkeling van artistiek talent in het kunstonderwijs (Ministerie OCW 1999) + Plan van Aanpak Herstructurering Kunstvakonderwijs (OCW 1997) ÿ Copies of chapters book Selectie in het kunstonderwijs (OCW 1999). Arts Education & Training. Arts/Cultural Networks. student loans. Arts/Culture European.
music and development. distinguishes three different approaches of complete recognition of credits earned abroad. Essays/lectures/reports. · Music co-operation between Norway and the South (Oslo 1999). Approaches differ from institution to institution: · Complete recognition occurs when the student suffers no delaySound Links ± Full Report 77 · Complete recognition occurs when all the credits obtained abroad are converted into credits by the home institution · Complete recognition occurs when all the credits obtained for components that fit into the home . credit transfer between institutions was possible only on the basis of individual institutional negotiations. Nuffic. From 1988. An inquiry into the transfer of credit for study abroad (1994. the Netherlands Organisation for International Co-operation). politics and aesthetics. subjects: globality and dialogues across borders. Research. the EU has actively developed policies and mechanisms to improve this situation.Governments. networking and lobbying in SICA Magazine Credit systems Introduction Until the late eighties. · Articles about European cultural policy.
. methods and approaches of the partner institution. The same survey mentions the following factors as main obstacles to recognition: Insufficient information. This contact should be intensified as part of improved agreements for co-operation between the home and host institutions. The plan could be the basis for a recognition agreement that is drafted in advance of the study abroad period. also differences in academic calendars. · Good personal contact between the pertinent staff members of the two institutions. · Differences in content.institution¶s curriculum are converted into credits at the home institution. · Poor contact between the home and host institution. Network meetings and bilateral visits should be used more effectively for learning about the programmes. · Insufficient study planning. · Agreements about recognition made with a staff member of the home institution before departure. level and structures between programmes of the home and host institutions. Moreover. Departments and faculties should give their students more and better information about study components available at foreign institutions. the inquiry shows that a number of process elements and conditions expedite full recognition: · A clear study plan drawn up by the students before departure. · Lack of clear agreements and rules.
Europe The European Community Network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARIC) is an initiative of the Commission of the European Communities and was created in 1984. · Guidance of foreign students at the host institution: one staff member should be designated for this purpose. All participating states have designated national centres. teachers and researchers by providing authoritative advice and information concerning the academic recognition of diplomas and periods of study undertaken in other states. The network aims at improving academic recognition of diplomas and periods of study in the Member States of the European Community and other participating countries: EEA. the purpose of which is to assist in promoting the mobility of students. The network is part of the Community¶s ERASMUS programme. · Existence of a credit system at the host institution.· Agreements for structural co-operation with the foreign institution. associated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Cyprus and Malta. United States . which stimulates the mobility of students and staff between higher education institutions in these countries.
It increasingly matters to students that they earn maximum credit for an overseas experience as the costs of a college education increase. Unless students enrol a programme run by their own university, credit will mainly be earned by transfer. The home university evaluates the courses taken and decides whether to accept them and let them attribute to students¶ degrees, and how to put them on students¶ transcripts. Depending on the home university, credits can be earned in general education courses, electives, major and minor subjects and foreign languages. Many universities require a process of prior approval and will not accept any credit earned abroad that was not authorised beforehand. Factors taken into consideration are among other things number of contact hours, format of the course (lecture, seminar, lab, field study), level of the course, course outlines and reading lists, obtained grade.Sound Links ± Full Report 78 Different universities in the U.S. handle the acceptance of transfer of credit in different ways. Some have already set up exact matches or direct equivalents, which pair foreign university courses with courses at home institutions. More commonly, though, the home university will receive the overseas courses as substitutes for some of the required courses or as electives that can still fulfil degree requirements.
Some colleges offer credit for experiential education, sometimes for work experience, for public service projects, and sometimes for travel abroad. More and more U.S. universities encourage internships and may give credit for them alone or in combination with course work taken abroad. Many U.S. schools give credit by exam (as soon as the student has returned), especially in foreign languages but also in other subjects. Independent study provides another avenue for credit. An independent study or readings course is an individualised course for credit agreed upon between a student and a professor, one that usually allows the student to pursue some special research topic or do selected work in depth in a specialised area, usually in the student¶s major field of study. Some graduate schools in the U.S. allow thesis or dissertation credit for research done abroad by graduate students. In fact, some universities will enrol graduate students for credit concurrently with the foreign experience, and indeed this may be a requirement for maintaining fellowships or other awards from the home school. ECTS To help students make the most from their study abroad, a European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) was
developed within the Erasmus programme of the European Commission. ECTS provides a way of measuring and comparing learning achievements, and transferring them from one institution to another. ECTS helps higher education institutions to enhance their co-operation with other institutions by improving access to information on foreign curricula, and providing common procedures for academic recognition. ECTS can also be used within one institution or between institutions within one country. Developments in ECTS ECTS, the European Credit Transfer System, was initially established under the Erasmus programme (1988-1995) and has been tested over a period of 6 years in a pilot scheme involving 145 higher education institutions in all EU Member States and EEA countries, operating in five subject areas: Business Administration, Chemistry, History, Mechanical Engineering and Medicine (the so-called "inner circle" institutions). In the next phase, the ECTS pilot scheme was broadened so that the participating institutions could introduce the system to a wider range of subject areas, partner institutions and networks over the period January 95/ May 96. In a further step, in autumn 1995, the Commission invited institutions working as co-operation partners
with the "inner circle" institutions to present their plans concerning the introduction of ECTS in one or more disciplines. Special emphasis was given to the use of the ECTS system within the non-university higher education sector. As a result of this second extension of ECTS, a total of 38 new universities with 348 departments and 36 non-university institutions including 206 departments implemented the ECTS system during 1996-1997. Based on the results of the pilot scheme, the ECTS system has proved to be an effective instrument for creating curricular transparency and facilitating academic recognition and, as a consequence, the European Credit Transfer System has been included within the higher education component ± Erasmus ± of the Socrates Programme. Its promotion within higher education institutions has taken place within the framework of the Institutional Contracts drawn up between the Commission and the institutions. In 1997-1998, 772 new institutions applied for the introduction of ECTS. This exponential increase in the number of ECTS users was a real challenge for the Commission: following up the implementation of the system and ensuring its quality. 48 workshops were organised in all countries participating in the SocratesSound Links ± Full Report 79
programme from September 1997 to January 1998. These workshops were organised in co-operation with the ECTS counsellors, the Socrates/Erasmus National Agencies and host universities that had already had a great deal of experience with the ECTS system. In early 1998, as a follow-up of these workshops, a network of ECTS-Helplines has been set up. The task of the resource persons involved is to answer questions related to the implementation of ECTS, to help resolve practical problems, using examples of good practice gathered so far in the Member States. ECTS site visits are also organised under the Institutional Contract to allow the more experienced ECTS institutions to receive a visit by two international ECTS experts who take stock of what has been achieved, give advice, identify good practice and ensure that ECTS practice develops in a consistent manner in all EU institutions. In the framework of the Institutional Contract 1998-1999, 290 more institutions have requested a grant for the introduction of ECTS, of which 63 applications were from the associated countries. What does ECTS offer to students? · ECTS guarantees academic recognition of studies abroad. · ECTS enables access to regular courses alongside local students, with the benefit of full participation
in the academic life of the host institution. This characteristic of ECTS distinguishes it from many other student mobility programmes. · ECTS enables further studies abroad. A student may prefer not to go back to the home institution after the study period abroad, but rather to stay at the host institution -- possibly to gain a degree -- or to move to a third institution. The institutions themselves decide whether or not this is acceptable and what conditions the student must fulfil in order to get a diploma or transfer registration. What does ECTS offer to higher education institutions? · ECTS creates curriculum transparency by providing detailed information on the curricula and their relevance towards a degree. · ECTS helps academics to make academic recognition decisions thanks to prior agreement on the content of study programmes abroad between students and their home and host institutions. · The use of ECTS can also be a catalyst for reflection on course curriculum structures, student workload and learning outcomes. · With ECTS, higher education institutions preserve their autonomy and responsibility for all decisions concerning students' achievements, without amending existing course structures and assessment
Sound Links ± Full Report 80 The ECTS grading scale Examination and assessment results are usually expressed in grades. There are many different grading .methods: all courses and assessments are those which are normally taken by regular students at the host institution.in the laboratory. private work -. seminars. normally 30 credits are given for six months (a semester) and 20 credits for a term (a trimester). that is. In ECTS. ECTS credits ECTS credits are a value allocated to course units to describe the student workload required to complete them.and examinations or other assessment activities. lectures. ECTS credits are also allocated to practical placements and to thesis preparation when these activities form part of the regular programme of study at both the home and host institutions. practical work. ECTS credits are allocated to courses and are awarded to students who successfully complete those courses by passing the examinations or other assessments. library or at home -. They reflect the quantity of work each course requires in relation to the total quantity of work required to complete a full year of academic study at the institution. 60 credits represent one year of study (in terms of workload).
but does not replace the local grade. This provides additional information on the student's performance to that provided by the institution's grade. the ECTS grading scale has been developed. If the programme of study described in the learning agreement is completed satisfactorily by the student.perhaps to get a degree or move to a third institution.systems in Europe. it is fully recognised by the home institution. Higher education institutions make their own decisions on how to apply the ECTS grading scale to their own system. This is possible provided that the institutions involved agree and that the student accepts the . will replace an equivalent volume of study and assessment which would otherwise have been undertaken at the home institution. To help institutions translate the grades awarded by host institutions to ECTS students. How ECTS is used by students and institutions · Ensuring full academic recognition An ECTS study programme must be approved by both the home and the host institutions before the student leaves for the study period abroad. This means that the volume of study abroad. measured in terms of numbers of ECTS credits achieved. · Further studies abroad An ECTS student might wish to stay at the host institution .
From Crediting the Learning Company by Stan Lester: ³[CATS] has developed from being simply a µcurrency¶ for course-based learning to include any form of learning that is of higher education standard ± so project work. CATS reflects also the accumulation of credits that were earned outside higher education. it is based on yearly study load. it can also be used in the professional field for in-house training programmes. In addition. called CATS (Credit Accumulation and Transfer System). action research. Like ECTS.conditions to be fulfilled to get a diploma or to transfer registration. Unlike ECTS.´ . But there are some differences. Higher education institutions are encouraged to introduce ECTS within the framework of their institutional contract with the Commission. Therefore. Other credit systems Some institutions in Europe (mainly UK) use a similar credit transfer system. short courses and development programmes run by employers can be CATS rated to enable them to contribute to a qualification at degree or postgraduate level. By providing a history of the students' academic achievements. the transcript of records is a particularly useful means of helping institutions to make these decisions further opening up Europe to student mobility. independent study and learning from experience can all be accredited on an individual basis.
the directorate Education of the European Commission is working on a ³feasibility study on the development of the existing European Credit Transfer System into a European credit accumulation system to encompass different types of learning. e-mail.).int/comm/education/newprogr/index. However. Certificate of Higher Education or Postgraduate Diploma in order to have full validity. (europa. in four levels to indicate the accumulation of learning and experience. addresses. Stain Lester.CATS includes a rating system of 120 points per fulltime study load of an academic year (normally 8-9 months). and references · Overview of about 780 European institutions for higher education that officially use ECTS (incl.´ This is mentioned on a site about the new programs education. etc. January 1994) Specialised information. training and employment.´ (Crediting the Learning Company. Training and Development. contact persons. these levels do not necessarily correspond with degrees given out by institutions for higher education. · If correct. How many of these are conservatories can not be determined easily. sources.eu. ³(«) CATS credits are not qualifications in themselves and have to be credited in to an award such as a degree.html)Sound Links ± Full Report 81 .
The packages are meant for students.· List of ECTS helplines in countries involved (europa. employers. Degrees & Transferability of qualifications Merits of music education degrees in different European countries and US A concerted international effort is taking place to lay the basis for free traffic of qualified professionals. funds. partner institutions.uk/credit.eu. the Netherlands organisation for international co-operation in higher education writes about equivalence. · Brief description of CATS. recognition and acceptance of qualifications in Higher education in Europe: comparative studies on the recognition of degrees and diplomas 1 .eu.html: about the expected availability of ECTS Information Packages on world-wide web. This chapter examines the developments in status and equivalence in degrees in Europe and the US. Most usual traffic takes place within Europe and between Europe and the United States. Europe Nuffic.html.int/comm/education/socrates/ectswww.html) · europa.int/comm/education/socrates/ectsnapt.html) · List of ECTS Counsellors countries involved (europa.org.int/comm/education/socrates/helpline.seecoffice. co-ordinators. use thereof and history: www.eu.
The EU considers this convention the most important one in force at the moment. The countries that have acceded to this convention are: Austria. Czech Republic. Finland. in all respects (almost) identical to home degrees. 1953). . Denmark.Northern Ireland.e. Great Britain . i. would not be rejected simply because they were foreign. The µera of equivalence¶ runs roughly from the post-war period to the end of the sixties or mid-seventies. Cyprus.´ The early convention most relevant for the topic of status and equivalence of music education degrees is The European Convention on the Equivalence of Diplomas leading to Admission to Universities (Paris. this principle is accepted by contracting parties. In general. Germany. France.: ³The post-war period can be divided into two main periods concerning the treatment of non-national educational qualifications in Europe: one typified by the word µequivalence¶ and one by the word µrecognition¶. Croatia. The early conventions of the Council of Europe are the products of this era. Bosnia-Herzegovina. The objective of international policy was to ensure the foreign degrees which were considered equivalent. Belgium. It establishes the principle of admitting students to universities in the receiving country on the basis of credentials that give admission to universities in the home country.
Spain. Malta. It may be sufficient for the foreign degree to be of a comparable level. Slovakia. the Netherlands. which is still in effect today. Italy. purpose and prestige even if it differs in details. Ireland. µAcceptance¶ means granting comparable rights to a foreign degree. The Nuffic study continues: ³µThe µera of equivalence¶ was followed by the µera of recognition¶. Norway. Recognition in Europe should now move on into another era: the µera of acceptance¶. µAcceptance¶ must not be at odds with the maintenance of quality standards. Recognition is possible whenever the general level of the qualifications is the same. New Zealand. and the extent to which ³acceptance´ of a degree is possible remains up to the responsible authority. Portugal. Poland. The Council directive of 21 December 1988 (89/48/EEC) implicitly takes µacceptance¶ as its key principle for the recognition of professional qualifications for regulated professions. even if that degree is perceived to be of slightly lesser level. Sweden.¶ . Liechtenstein. Iceland. Luxembourg.Greece. There was a consensus that international educational exchange needed a more flexible and liberal approach to foreign degrees: the concept of µrecognition¶ advocates that a foreign degree need not be (almost) identical to be recognised. Switzerland and Turkey. length or quality than the national qualifications. Slovenia. Macedonia. Israel.
education is considered a matter of individual states. The Hague.M. Kouwenaar. The guide is meant to serve educational institutions and also students and graduates who wish to study in another EU Member State or in an EEA country. Nuffic. organisation of courses of study in the countries concerned. final qualifications/degrees in university and non-university higher education and the academic value of university qualifications. published by the European Commission. In this appendix. 1994Sound Links ± Full Report 82 systems and qualifications in the EU and EEA countries. . the first part of each file describes systems and institutions of higher education. The second part deals with the issue of qualifications and diplomas. United States The US do not have a federal Ministry of Education.T. This appendix consists of excerpts of the guide to higher education 1 Drs C.In appendix 6 of this research more detailed information is given on status and equivalence of degrees in the most relevant European countries. more specifically qualifications for admission to university and non-university higher education.
/M. level and character of study programmes are determined by institutions and/or the state or districts within the state. The terms µcollege¶ and µuniversity¶ are used almost at random and do not necessarily imply differences in programme. standard entry and exit demands do not exist and a diploma is hardly informative on students¶ exit level. B. but by a system of accreditation. is a university department or faculty offering specific vocational programmes with both a scientific and a practical .000 institutions offer higher education programmes. In the US higher education no distinction is made between university and vocational programs. Institutions offer both. As a result of the lack of federal legislation on education and a strong institutional autonomy. but level and content of equal diplomas can differ considerably. Formally a college does not have graduate programmes./B. colleges and universities. Most common are: community or junior colleges. nevertheless. Over 3. many colleges grant Master¶s degrees. sometimes mixed. are the most common). finally. level or general prestige..S.A.A. In practice.Content. the variety of diplomas is limited (High School diploma.S. Recognition of institutions for (higher) education is not granted by government. M. which compares level and quality to minimum demands. A µschool¶. The µtranscripts¶ (compare EU diploma supplement) explain specific content of study programmes.
) degree take four years. programmes take three to four years. requiring approximately 120 semester credits or 180 quarter credits. certain grade point averages and letters of recommendation.S. several types of professional musicians can be distinguished: performing musicians.character. The level of transferability of music qualifications and employment mobility Generally speaking. Admission to an undergraduate programme requires a High School diploma (12 years of primary and secondary education). Undergraduate programmes leading to a Bachelor or Arts (B. or Bachelor of Science (B. Ph. . Possible additional demands are different in each institution.A). Education to a Master of Arts or Master of Science degree is a highly specialised programme of one or two years. A semester credit is awarded to one contact hour or three practical hours per week during 15 or 16 weeks.D. requiring 30 to 60 semester credits or 45 to 90 quarter credits. The Master¶s programme is finished by exams and/or writing a thesis. but compatible. A quarter credit is awarded to one contact hour or three practical hours per week during 10 to 12 weeks. The credit system used in the United States is different from the European ECTS. Admission to a post-bachelor¶s programme (graduate phase) requires a bachelor¶s degree and additional demands like specific results at admission tests.
In these fields. public music schools and in community projects (although differences between countries exist). practical skills are usually esteemed higher than formal diplomas. teachers at public music schools. Private teachers and performing musicians usually face few problems if they want to work in another country than where they obtained their degree. Until international agreement in this field has been reached. for which a specific national diploma is required and binding formal regulations exist for granting recognition.private music teachers. schools usually demand a nationally recognised music teacher¶s degree. primary and secondary schools tend to pose much more official demands on their music teachers. and teachers at conservatoires. community music teachers. an education for classroom teaching specifically may be required. Quite often. Initial discussions on the . music teachers in primary and secondary education.Sound Links ± Full Report 83 However. Even if teaching music at primary and secondary schools is not regulated. More or less the same goes for teachers at conservatoires. individual institutions have to aim at custommade agreements with other institutions and/or governments in those countries. A general music teacher¶s degree (suitable for teaching privately or at music schools) is not always sufficient. an official degree is considered a recommendation at most. teaching professions belong to the so-called µregulated professions¶.
These countries recognise the . Second. Europe In order better to understand the Community rules on the recognition of diplomas. In some countries it is possible to use the national academic title of the host country on basis of an academic degree earned abroad. Recognition procedures will be described if applicable. Europe: academic recognition First. as regards academic recognition of a title or a period of study abroad in order to continue studying in the country of origin. There are also various countries where it is not possible to validate an academic title. Universities. That is why there are currently no diplomas that are recognised at European level. a distinction must first be made between recognition for academic purposes and recognition for professional purposes. are entirely responsible for the content of their curricula and for awarding diplomas and certificates to students. each Member State is responsible under the Maastricht Treaty for its own educational content and organisation. which are autonomous institutions. there are no Community provisions imposing mutual recognition of diplomas (except for certain regulated occupations).subject seem to indicate there are openings for such arrangements. The diplomas and certificates are recognised by the authorities of the Member State concerned.
The problem with the conventions. The unavoidably general and political nature of these conventions often leads to multiple interpretations. Nevertheless. the mutual academic recognition of qualifications between countries is promoted by the Council of Europe. UNESCO/CEPES and the Council of Europe have in recent years been working on a new convention.diploma and degree earned without conferring a national title. is the network of national information centres for the recognition of diplomas (NARIC). under the Erasmus programme. by encouraging bilateral agreements. which will finally replace all the others: the Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the Europe Region. the European Union. However. and their application is not always straightforward. Community programmes like Erasmus (in which participation is voluntarily) have greatly contributed to an understanding and recognition of education systems that are often very different. A tangible result of the effort to promote understanding of the academic recognition of qualifications. and increasingly by supporting their follow-up. especially with the older ones. is that they were drawn up at a time when the educational systems of the signatory . and UNESCO in several ways: by means of multilateral international conventions. Besides.
The core of the new Convention is to emphasise the principle of fair recognition procedures.Sound Links ± Full Report 84 The new Convention has been signed by many states belonging to the Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe and the Europe Region of the UNESCO at a diplomatic conference in Lisbon in May 1997. a Working Party has worked out the general procedures and criteria for the evaluation of foreign qualifications. The required ratification by at least 5 countries became a fact in February 1999. The burden of proof has been laid upon the host country. Transparency of the criteria used and procedures followed are the backbone of the Convention. which should be accepted unless substantial differences in the courses are detected. after which the Convention has come into effect. Six regions have been allocated: Latin America and the Caribbean. Together with the drawing up of a draft Convention. µRegional committees¶ are responsible for carrying out the Convention and accessory agreements. But growing diversification between countries and the growing number of signatories in recent years has decreased the practical usefulness of the existing conventions. the . and the acknowledgement of differences.countries were quite comparable.
. and finally Europe. Another effective instrument for improving both academic and professional recognition is the Diploma Supplement. level. as some non-European countries are part of it: Austria. Israel and the United States. It is necessary to make a distinction between: · Authorisation to work in a regulated profession. Africa. The UNESCO European region does not correspond with the geographical area. should enable the reader to make a judgement about the qualification. Asia and the Pacific. The supplement. content and status of the study that was pursued and successfully completed by the holder of accompanying qualification. Canada. The Diploma Supplement was introduced in 1988.Mediterranean. or for exemption from part of a programme. in combination with the credential itself. or an employer who needs to judge whether the credential is a good preparation for a specific job. Arab countries. It is intended as an addition to the original credential and aims to provide a clear description of the nature. This can either be a higher educational institution that has to decide whether the credential is appropriate for admission to a study programme. Europe: professional recognition: Professional recognition concerns recognition of educational qualifications for the purpose of employment as a qualified worker.
depending on the level of studies recognized by the diploma: either Directive 89/48/EEC on a general system for the recognition of higher-education diplomas awarded on completion of professional education and training of at least three years¶ duration (A-levels or equivalent + three years). . Liechtenstein and Norway. certificates and other vocational training titles (including short programmes of higher education) at a lower level than those covered by Directive 89/48/EEC. including people with a dual nationality. which are regulated.For these professions a specific national diploma is required. or Directive 92/51/EEC on a second general system which covers diplomas. were adopted at European level. vary among the member states of the EU and EEA. · Authorisation to work in a non-regulated profession. The directives apply only to nationals of EU Members States plus Iceland. applicable solely to the regulated professions. Both directives are valid in the countries of the European Union. The professions. For these professions there are no binding formal regulations Several legal instruments concerning the recognition of diplomas. There are binding formal regulations for granting professional recognition for regulated professions. One of two General Directives will be applicable.
There is no such thing as a list of diplomas that are automatically recognised at European level. It is for the person concerned to submit an individual application specifying clearly which occupation they wish to pursue. and · who wish to practice that profession in another Member State (the host Member State) It is important to note that the above-mentioned Directives did not set up a system of automatic equivalence between diplomas. the home Member State).· who are fully qualified to practice a profession in one of these countries. Under the Directives. if he has the diplomaSound Links ± Full Report 85 required in his country of origin in order to pursue that profession. (In other words. the authorities of the host Member State must authorise him to pursue a profession on its territory. but does not mean that a diploma is regarded as equivalent to a national diploma for . The recognition thus granted therefore constitutes the right to pursue a specific regulated profession under the same conditions as the holders of national diplomas. even if someone does not hold the appropriate national diploma. since a diploma is not recognised for its intrinsic value but according to the profession to which it gives access in the country that awarded it. who have obtained the necessary papers to work in the specific profession in one of these countries.
A person may be required to complete an adaptation period or an aptitude test if there are significant differences between the content of the professional training followed and required in the host country.other purposes. submitted in accordance with the above-mentioned Directives. a person who requests recognition might be asked to either provide proof of experience in the practice of the profession concerned in the home country. In principle. The competent authority to deal with applications for academic recognition. The earlier mentioned µguide to higher education systems and qualifications in the EU and EEA countries¶ is partly designed to be used by employers wishing to assess the qualifications of prospective employees who are eager to take advantage of the freedom of movement that is available to them because of the . varies from one profession to another. or to complete an adaptation period or aptitude test in the host country. Only one of these three requirements may be imposed. or in terms of the range of activities covered by the profession in the home and host Member State. proof of additional professional experience may be required if professional education and training was at least one year shorter than that required in the host Member State. If difference between study programmes in terms of duration or content are found to be significant.
In appendix 6.html. regulated professions as far as relevant for music students. graduates and staff are mentioned at the end of the excerpts per country. this brochure contains information about the recognition of professional qualifications in the member states of the EU. Liechtenstein. Employers require insight into the wide variety of certificates. diplomas and degrees with which they are likely to be confronted. Specialised information. and references · Academic Recognition of Higher Education Qualifications in the European Union (online: www. which came into force on 4 January 1991 and applies to regulated activities which require higher education and training of at least three years and the complimentary general system which covers short courses (less than three years) and vocational training at secondary level. (Nuffic) Although somewhat dated. Norway and . sources.single European market.nl/bigbook/narics. They also need to know how to assess credentials issued within the context of an education system that can be very different from their own. Addresses of all NARICS) · To work in the European Union: the recognition of my qualifications and Werken in de Europese Unie: de erkenning van mijn diploma. It should therefore assist in the implementation of the directive for a general system of recognition of diplomas (89/48/EEC).nuffic.
Professional development General situation Although it is high on the agenda in politics. · Eu sites about Narics and about academic and professional recognition in the EU and EEA. and list of contact points in other EU countries. It is primarily useful in case of concrete applications for recognition of a qualification or diploma. continuing education and professional development are considerably less welldocumented then the other subjects addressed in this study.Iceland. The guide does not add anything to the general information on professional recognition already included in this report. the OECD online database. business and institutions for arts education. Gives no additional information on professional recognition to what is already mentioned in this report. Education at a glance 2000.´Sound Links ± Full Report 86 . · Guide for users of the general system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Including list of regulated professions in the Netherlands. edition from European Commission. has a number of relevant entries on the subject: · ³Better educated adults are more likely to benefit from continuing education and training. life long learning.
´ · ³The transition from education to work is far from easy.· ³Annual hours of training invested per employee range from 20 in Poland to over 53 in the Netherlands. and it is often fragile and uncertain. even for successful graduates. specific information regarding music education is available. The European Association of Conservatoires published a final report of a working group on this subject in 2000: Lifelong Learning: Final report of the AEC working group on continuing professional development for musicians in the framework of the Socrates Thematic Network¶s Project (TNP) for music. The transition. New Zealand and the United Kingdom.´ · ³Young people are experiencing growing difficulties in gaining a firm foothold in the world of work.´ · ³Workers with higher levels of educational attainment are also the most likely to participate in jobrelated education and training. life-long learning is one of the few areas on which recent. Three times as many hours of training are invested in employees with a tertiary qualification as in those with less than an upper-secondary qualification.´ · ³Lack of interest remains the biggest obstacle to increasing participation of workers in job-related training. This report analyses the situation as follows: .´ Life-long learning in music Paradoxically. tends to take place later than it used to.
´ · ³For those schools where continuing education as such does not yet exist. whose Continuing Education Centre is considered a model of its kind.¶ Bucharest focuses on instrumental skills ánd learning new aspects of performance. Less formalised systems exist in Rostock. who are considered to have the same status as university professors. with some 2000 students taking long or short term courses every year. the responses showed how . Geneva offers a course for teachers in non-professional sections. and Geneva. Madrid.´ · ³The status of the institution often has an impact on its ability to offer continuing education: as such. Helsinki sees continuing education as the maintenance of professional skills in teaching. Paris. Groningen. In Lisbon.Continuing education (of (former) students): · ³Institutions which provide some sort of continuing education framework at the time of this questionnaire (1997) included the Sibelius Academy. individual discussions and evaluations of Conservatoire teachers provide opportunities to discuss and then provide a means to meet individual needs. Bucharest. and at London¶s Guildhall continuing education was not yet a formal aspect of institutional offerings. Rostock offers continuing education in didactics and research for violin teachers. In Groningen.
very real this need is perceived to be. knowledge of physical awareness and ergonomics. 23 % (9 institutions) intend to introduce them as soon as possible. ensemble work. 13 % µwithin two years¶. (Needs mentioned: knowledge of instrumental technique and repertoire. computer skills. life skills. with a number of key elements underlined´: pedagogical training. information exchange with colleagues.¶ Specific needs in the field of continuing education vary from institution to institution and from European region to region. . life skills. approaches to specialised repertoire. management and public relations skills. for 5 % it was still vague. performance skills. 93% of the institutions that replied are of the opinion that those five aspects match the continuing education needs of both staff and present and former students. 23 % have them already in operation. 8 % responded µwithin one year¶. · 28 % of the institutions that responded have no intention to introduce the continuing education priorities they perceive to be important into their programme. · ³Responses from former students and final year students were revealing: the professional experience of former students gave them a paradoxically broader view while also insisting on perceived personal needs and desires.
recording techniques. from computers to improvisation. beyond that. shows how for these former students the issue of being a good musician teacher requires much broader skills than those they had been taught. · µThere would seem to be a need to assure some form of performance and pedagogical practice through individual and group guidance during the first years following graduation. working in interdisciplinary settings. preparation for orchestra auditions. repertoire. Development of repertoire and knowledge of new instrumental techniques (especially as it applies to pedagogy) are universally requested. and also ergonomics.) ³The emphasis put on µlife skills¶ ± be they related to management. the need to provide a broad range of skills from management to ergonomics.¶ .´Sound Links ± Full Report 87 · µFinal year students expressed greater concern overall for maintaining links with their professors and having the opportunity to ask for advice receiving guidance in all aspects of musicianship.pedagogical skills (methods. stress reduction. improvisation.¶ (They expressed similar postgraduate training wishes as the former students ± see above). working with young children). from pedagogy to performance. and skills to deal with stress reduction.
and the role of the Conservatoire in helping graduates enter the market. This would seem to confirm the results of µEurope¶s Caprices¶. it is striking that responses from Bucharest and Madrid focus primarily on expanding repertoire. Likewise. The conservatoires¶ role is seen as going far beyond that of simply training musicians at the highest artistic and technical level: it is a role in which they are now . and technique. overall. Clearly. specialised approaches to specific periods. management. and to stay connected to the broader European musical world. ergonomics. the Conservatoire¶s role is perceived differently in Eastern and Southern Europe than it is in Northern Europe. a study of violin curricula among European institutions of higher education (1997): while the North and Centre often took a more µglobal¶ approach to training musicians.¶ · µWhat is clear. the East and South were often much more instrument specific. is the overwhelming desire expressed by former students and final year students alike to maintain a professional network and to constantly be given opportunities to broaden horizons. No mention was made of life skills.· µAs to specific geographic differences. ensemble practice (chamber and orchestra). expand knowledge and technique (instrumental and pedagogical). fewer opportunities for orchestral practice existed in Eastern Europe.
individual initiatives (13 out of 51) questionnaires (8) or recommendation by management (7). The percentage of (teaching and/or administrative) staff involved in staff development in the last five years varies highly. with results changing from 1 tot 3 institutions. three have a µvery small/limited¶ budget. 24 don¶t and at one institution it¶s still in progress. three a changing budget. appraisal system (6. and µ1% from budget of each department + ¼ 50.045 to ¼ 62. · Many institutions define staff development needs by individual discussions (12 out of 51 institutions).112. Among those 24 µdon¶ts¶ are 6 institutions that apparently get their money for staff development from the Centre National de la Fonction Publique Territorial. 44 do. Among the institutions with budget. 25 have a budget available. 9 institutions offer no continuing education at all to staff development. mainly UK) and staff meetings (6).being asked to see in a context that views learning as a life-long exercise. and at other institutions the budget varies from ¼ 2. from less than 5% to 80-90%. · Out of 51 replies.420 for CE centre¶. 9 .¶ Staff development: · Out of 51 responses to questions on budgets for staff development. A variety of other methods is mentioned.
7 adjusting to new methods (e. tailored) courses are relatively popular.don¶t. 6 to specialist fields/individual professional skills. In a more recent plan for the project Music education in a multicultural society it . The report itself forms an important sign of growing interest in professional development amongst European conservatoires and the Association Européenne des Conservatoires.) More or less the same counts for future needs of teaching staff. followed by common educational courses/periods/seminars and guest speakers/teachers (absolute numbers however are not very high. because answers vary enormously and. 11 to pedagogical skills. Individual (specific.g. 3 to further education abroad and 3 to further education elsewhere (other conservatoire). but stimulate individual initiatives either by own budgets or financial support from European/national government or other external sources. It and multimedia). as a result. Académies de Musique et Musikhochschulen (AEC). coaching) and/or new curricula. NB: replies are not based on multiple choice lists (open questions). many forms are mentioned with only one or two replies. though this gives a bit clearer image: 14 replies to technology (including general. Only 3 refer to adjusting to a new type of students (different background/working field).
Other relevant figures: Table C7. otherwise year mentioned. from 1997. by age and gender (table C7. Why is it still so uncommon for professional musicians to be involved in further (µlife-long¶. sources.4: Participation in job-related continuing education and training in the previous year by employed adults by highest level of educational attainment (94-95) . occupation.. but also questionsSound Links ± Full Report 88 regarding the road before and after higher education should be raised.1. by industry. appendix 10) Results in tables are split up into national results (OECD countries) and totals/averages. post-graduate) training?´ Specialised information. usually with reference figures from 1990.argues: ³Not only questions connected to higher education itself will be necessary.2: Percentage of job-related continuing education and training courses. that were financially supported.. by sources (employer-/government-supported.3: Mean number of course hours per employee in job-related continuing education and training in the previous year. mean number of hours per course) Table C7. and firm size (1994-95) Table C7. and references · Relevant tables and figures (from OECD website): Participation in job-related continuing education and training in the previous year by employed adults.
For the most recent programmes (from the summer of 2000 onwards). · From sites ECC In-Service Training Programme for Teachers: .7: Perceived barriers to participation in job. and references to documents and publications.Table C7.fr/teachertraining).or career-related continuing education and training among employed adults. music programmes and programmes on coaching skills and similar relevant new teaching approaches. · ECC: In-Service Training Programme for Teachers (http://culture. such a list is not available and prints have been made for each country. This has been scanned on multicultural/intercultural /cultural diversity programmes. For the programmes of the former year.5: Extent of use at work of job-related education and training taken by employed adults. by gender.coe. by source of financial support Table C7.6: Source of suggestion for participation in training or education that was taken by employed adults. Only links to concrete In Service Training Programmes in different countries are relevant. Searching on key µmusic¶ gives a rather undefined and vast list consisting of links to homepages Culture of the Europe of Cultural Co-Operation (ECC) in a large number of European countries. by source of support (94-95) Table C7. the site gives a chronological list including all countries.
a pilot study (1999) focuses on dance. delivery mechanisms. among which several national studies on employability and job choices of graduates in the fields mentioned. skills requirements and gaps. Subjects: progress of graduates. The number of bursaries varies highly: usually places are available for a fixed number of CDCC Member States and participants from the host country. Also bibliography + summary of other research and reports. skills and training needs. Many . Target groups vary from teachers and school principals to school psychologists and school pedagogical advisers. but the balance between the two changes. and/or new approaches to teaching like coaching. as well as the total number (from 5 to 40). national educational umbrella organisations and international bodies like UNESCO.The chronological list of courses and seminars from the summer of 2000 to the summer of 2001 consists of about 40 programmes. Only five of them have any relation to cultural diversity. theatre. but the programmes can also be (co)organised by ministries. music. fine arts and design only (music not included). Host institutions are usually institutions for higher education. · ELIA report (Socrates Thematic Network Higher Arts Education in Europe): Employability Skills for Arts Graduates.
with the danger of every country reinventing the wheel. co-ordinators and curriculum planners in the framework of this survey or through networks such as ISME and Cultural Diversity in Music Education. and in a growing number of cases finding or making available funds to do so. Secondly. While its importance for most subjects of study is already evident. but other countries included as well (especially Ireland and the Netherlands). often the scale of activity in any one country is too limited to address the full width of the subject. Firstly. Both aspects have become abundantly clear during meetings and discussions of directors. in the case of cultural diversity the need for international exchange is even stronger. .Sound Links ± Full Report 89 FUNDING MOBILITY Introduction Student mobility (and to some extent staff mobility) has been a major issue in the thinking on the development of the European µAcademic Space¶ and beyond. Many institutions for higher music education indicate interest in sending out students on semester/year abroad programmes. it is a relatively new subject.referring to UK situation.
and the scope and criteria of grants. focus. But they only work if mutually beneficial student exchange is possible. particularly in Europe. Although it is a newer field than tertiary education and consequently less documented. The data lead to a number of important indications for the role of student mobility in culturally diverse music education for the future: · Student mobility. directions of traffic. often raises problems in funding. In all other cases. the survey ± as well as an earlier one by AEC ± suggests a growing demand for professional development courses and life-long learning as well. and represents vast . this survey briefly examines the most important student exchange programmes. This. Within the EU. involves substantial numbers of students. which may also be tackled on an international scale.Funding is obviously an issue in what can be an intensely valuable but also relatively expensive part of a young person¶s education. funds and mobility programmes. The last chapter of the survey provides concrete indications of how that challenge is and can be answered in various countries. For that reason. µone way traffic¶ is more likely. these already function quite well. however. On the following pages we sketch a picture of the state of student mobility at the turn of the century: numbers. after painting a picture of student mobility in general.
At a national scale. usually no fees are paid. In case of one-way traffic. rapidly developing areas such as continuing education. Figures from the 1990s suggest a growth of 10% per annum. national or institutional level. and shows promise for new. funds are attached to a particular institution.amounts of money. In case of student exchange between countries or institutions. some or all of these costs are covered by grants at international. travel. Often. there may be a wealth of programmes (such as in the US. Only a limited number of relevant international funds exist. or even from institution to institution. the student brings in fees. and subsistence costs. · Possibilities for funding study abroad vary greatly from country to country. · There are various systems of student mobility. the Netherlands or Scandinavian countries) or hardly at all (such as in Portugal or the UK).Sound Links ± Full Report 90 · Although student mobility and study abroad are being accommodated increasingly by new approaches . It is growing rapidly. Students travel to countries or institutions that have something to offer in terms of content. · Student mobility occurs both at graduate and undergraduate level. Often. · Language or geographical location is of secondary importance.
Most information for this part of the survey has been gathered through numerous websites. Well over a thousand websites were visited. Student mobilility It is not easy to present a objective picture of student mobility. Another complicating factor is that recent data on many aspects of student mobility are not available. They therefore tend to overestimate true student mobility. and much less through physical publications. to make a distinction between ³residing foreign students´ and ³mobile foreign students´. dozens are referred to in this survey. on the contrary. it is still vital to invest in negotiations with individual home institutions. This gravitation towards digital sources has obvious limitations. An added advantage is the possibility to refer to sources that are regularly updated. The present report attempts. Many results . but stands to reason as particularly international traffic in education is highly digitalised. several hundred were analysed. so that new information on specific subjects is easily accessible. Most previous studies on the subject were based on foreign student statistics and consider that all foreign students are mobile.to curriculum and (inter)national agreements. Only the latter are counted as mobile. because a variable proportion of these foreigners are residents in the host country.
An analysis of web pages of individual countries on the EC website presents an image of lively interchange between various EU countries.4 1.408 160 2. from Europe % foreign from EU Austria 209.761 5.170.9 35.840 22. around 5% of the total student population comes from abroad. foreign stud % foreign stud nr. as is indicated by the chart below: nr. In countries that are prominent in the international the field of higher education.730 5.944 27.9 Belgium 120.2 Italy 1.290 22.348 29. partly under influence of EU-programmes such as Socrates (budget ¼ 950 million in the second phase.9 2.are based on data from the academic year 1994-1995 and occasionally even 199293.5 Denmark 166.4 13.556 2.899 29.601.389 4.339 18.8 Iceland 7.873 21.8 Finland 189. ¼ 750 of which for student grants) and Leonardo (budget ¼ 620 million in the first phase).938 956 0.7 Greece 116.738 10.300 129.6 France 2. Initial research shows that this is substantial.053 9.930 63.859 1.7 . students nr.
8 Sweden 270.900 9.9 2.100 4. Both categories are described in some detail. 35% of these foreign students.000 11.194.000 92.2 Spain 1.000 students. including mobility that is supported by the European Community programmes ERASMUS and LINGUA.883 2.435 17. 165.152 7.571.9 Total 7. Below are some outcomes and excerpts from this report.1 UK 934. Within this group we distinguish µMobility of new entrants¶.e.306 8.Sound Links ± Full Report 91 ´Spontaneous mobility´ · In 1993-94.864 50. .Netherlands 422.000 come from Western Europe.9 Norway 169.590 29. and µMobility of postgraduate students¶ 2. the total population of foreign students registered under standard procedures in higher education in the fifteen Member States of the EU amounted to approximately 475.2 EU only Empty cells indicate that data is not available.189 24. ³Spontaneous mobility´: Mobility of students registered under standard procedures.842 4.586 1. i. This distinction is also made in the Erasmus Statistical Report on higher education (2000).738 356.170 26.7 64.8 3. ³Organised mobility´: Mobility during a course of studies. For this report we make a distinction between two basic types of student mobility: 1.1 4.274 4.
the others have resided for a long time in the host country.´ · ³The total number of mobile foreign students from Western Europe registered under standard procedures in the higher education systems of EU countries was approximately 120.000 in 19931994. that is to say they have crossed a frontier for higher education purposes. Strictly speaking. an increase of some 10% a year. the others are µnet exporters¶ of students. · ³Spontaneous mobility increased by 33% between 1990-91 and 1993-94. Denmark. there is no specialisation of the host countries in such a field of study.´ · ³Spontaneous mobility concerns all fields of study in proportions that vary according to the host and home countries of the students. Austria. France. Belgium and Sweden are µnet importers¶ of mobile students (in decreasing order).´ · ³In all member States (except Austria. Ireland and Italy). The difference is greatest in Portugal (one European student for five students from other countries).· ³73 % of foreign students residing in the countries of the EU can be considered ³mobile´.´ · The UK. there is a larger proportion of foreign students from the rest of the world than from Western Europe. But in each country there are favourite subjects chosen by a large number of .
that is to say almost a quarter (23 %) of the total number of spontaneous mobile students. Spontaneous mobility: Mobility of postgraduate students. · ³It is very likely that the main motivation for mobile new-entrants to go to certain countries lies in the wish to circumvent restrictive admission conditions in the home country.´ Spontaneous mobility: Mobility of new entrants · ³The total number of mobile new-entrants in higher education in the countries of the EU is about 28. where entrance examinations are always applied.mobile students. or ³specialist mobility´ · ³Producing a precise statistical survey of specialist mobility poses major problems. the first of which is the actual definition of postgraduate level which varies according to the higher education structures of the Member State. Germany and Austria are µnet importers¶ of new entrants. ³it is impossible to provide exhaustive statistics on postgraduate . Belgium.000 (excluding Spain.´ · Apart from that first difficulty. Ireland and Sweden). the others are µnet exporters¶ of new entrants.´ · The UK.´ («) ³It must be borne in mind that learning the language of the country is rarely the main motivation for spontaneous mobility.´ This may be particularly relevant to arts and music education.
much higher than average in English-speaking countries. . since only eleven Member States out of fifteen can provide statistics. At present. But the number of postgraduate mobile students in the EU is estimated at 19. the idea of mobility for postgraduate students can be interpreted in various ways.´ · ³The balance of ³incoming/outgoing´ mobile postgraduates could be very useful to implement a high level human resource policy and to develop scientific research in each Member State. it is likely that there are now some 25. According to various estimates concerning the missing data for four Member States. that is to say slightly less than a quarter (22%) of the total number of spontaneous mobile students.500 for these eleven Member States. due to a lack of statistical data.´ · ³Finally. Denmark and Portugal. it is impossible to calculate.student mobility in the EU.¶ For practical reasons in this report mobile postgraduate students are µforeign students who are enrolled in postgraduate studies and who hold a secondary education qualification from another country or whose main place of residence is abroad.000 mobile postgraduate students in the EU.´Sound Links ± Full Report 92 · The number of spontaneously mobile postgraduate students is very low in Frenchspeaking Belgium.
8% of whom come from non-EU countries. They have no chance of being accepted unless they are going to follow a complete course of studies (in countries where university courses are not divided into modules) or a complete module in countries where these exist. the EU countries hosted a total of 20. France and Ireland are net importers of students.· µIn 1993-94.¶ ³Organised mobility´ · ³The mobility of students during the course of their studies.´ · ³The total number of mobile students registered in an ERASMUS and LINGUA II programme was estimated at 64.´ · ³Organised mobility is centred on five main fields of study which attract 70% of mobile students´: . the µincoming/outgoing¶ balance of organised student mobility in each Member State is more equal than for spontaneous mobility. but normal registration in the host country during the course of studies is certain to cause problems. as analysed in this report. is µorganised¶. In the last two cases. Students who wish to study abroad but not within existing exchange programmes are certainly free to do so. the others net exporters. they are included in the statistics of spontaneous mobility of students registered under standard procedures.000 in 1993/94.´ · The UK. · ³Generally speaking.000 mobile postgraduate students.
6% in Belgium. foreign languages.000 people (some 2% of the total student population of the EU). 4% in the UK and 3. total student mobility ± which includes spontaneous mobility and mobility organised in the framework of ERASMUS and LINGUA II ± is estimated at some 184. Table 18: Total spontaneous and organised mobility from the EU and other Western European countries is attached to this report as an appendix (11). Popular destinations for arts students are Greece. Ireland. Mobile students represent approximately 2% of the total EU student population. But this proportion varies from less than 1% in Mediterranean countries and Finland to 5.´ · ³Converted into annual flows. art and design 3%.´ Humanities attract 4%. total mobility represented some 94.6% in Austria.000 were organised mobility students. engineering.' (Note: the report makes no distinction between different art disciplines) Total student mobility · ³In 1993-94. ³The distribution varies greatly according to the host country.000 people in 1993/94. of which 30. social sciences and law. .´ The information above is supported by a number of tables in the report.000 were spontaneously mobile students and 64. Italy and the Netherlands.management. a total estimated at 9 million people in 1993/94.
Centrally organised online search programmes do not exist for European. · Table 12: flows of mobile postgraduates within the EU (host and home countries) · Table 13: Students from EU countries mobile during the course of their studies (Erasmus/Lingua programmes) · Table16: Flows of students who are mobile during the course of their studies through the Erasmus/Lingua programmesSound Links ± Full Report 93 Study abroad beyond Europe Student mobility is by no means limited to the EU. but information is badly organised. mobile foreign students and postgraduate mobility as a % of total mobility. for each host country a specification of student numbers from EU and other countries · Table 11: Mobile postgraduates from the European Union and other Western European countries. Besides. Most of it is directed at US students from US universities. lists and on-line search programmes on what is generally referred to as Study Abroad are available. for each host country split up into mobile postgraduates.Other relevant tables that can be accessed through the Erasmus website include: · Table 1: foreign students registered under standard procedures in higher education. arbitrary and overlapping. incomplete. the information . Many sites. African or Asian students.
Germany. From the sources available. (e.g. but usually refers to host institutions only. By institutions/mediators specialised in organising/offering study abroad programmes. or at least mediate between host institutions and students. Australia has a strong. These institutions often function at national level. By the home institution 2. By the host institution 3.) · ³Australia. and gives the following figures: · ³The percentage of foreign students at tertiary level enrolled in OECD countries 2 ranges from below 1 to around 16 per cent.hardly gives any insight into content and organisation of concrete programmes. well organised mediating structure of this kind). France. the United Kingdom and the United States attract more than eight out . Education at a glance 2000. the online database of the globally oriented OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). it can be concluded that there are roughly three ways of organising study abroad programmes: 1. states about the world student population that µsignificant numbers are studying abroad¶.´ (Please note: not all foreign students are considered mobile.
800 semester and year abroad academic programmes throughout the world. and quotes the 1997 percentages of foreign students in higher education (students enrolled who were not citizens of the country where they studied): ranging from between 10 and 16 % per cent in Britain. Switzerland and the United Kingdom have the largest net inflows of foreign students. while students from China and Southeast Asia comprise the largest proportions of foreign students from non-EU countries. The list . Much of the information on study abroad has not been specified in disciplines. Austria. so that it is difficult to gauge the percentages of music students and courses involved.´ The Chronicle (May 2000) published an article on the OECD report. Peterson¶s Study Abroad guide mentions nearly 1.of ten foreign students studying in the OECD area. Australia and Switzerland to less than 1 % in Japan. English speaking countries are relatively popular. Poland en South Korea. Australia.´ · ³In proportion to their size. 21 countries offer official music programmes for American students. Japanese and Korean students account for the largest proportions of foreign students from OECD countries. developed for U.S. students in higher education. Austria. as well as Scandinavia and western Europe.´ · ³Greek.
Sweden. United States. Switzerland. United Kingdom. In addition to this first list. Japan. Hungary. Netherlands. Belgium. Italy. Portugal. New Zealand.5% of the total number of courses listed in Peterson¶s. Korea. France. Poland. Czech Republic. education and theory) which is 10. Greece. Denmark. Ireland. Country No of Music programmes General Performance History Education Theory International 2 1 1 Argentina 2 2 2 2 OECD countries: Australia. See appendix 12. hitory. Canada. Finland.Sound Links ± Full Report 94 Australia 7 1 1 Austria 7 6 4 2 Brazil 2 Canada 4 .below shows 191 study abroad music programmes (general. Mexico. Norway. Slovak Republic. Iceland. performance. Turkey. Luxembourg. Germany. Spain. a random selection of 30 programmes has been made (at least one in each country where music programmes are offered). Austria.
China 2 3 1 Cuba 1 1 1 Czech Rep. 1 2 2 England 33 3 4 3 Finland 1 France 13 2 5 1 Germany 6 2 2 1 1 Hungary 2 2 1 1 1 India 2 Indonesia 2 Ireland 3 Italy 11 3 3 Netherlands 1 Poland 1 1 1 Senegal 1 South Africa 6 1 1 Spain 6 2 Sweden 1 Thailand 1 1 1 116 31 32 3 9 Total: 191 (From: Peterson's Study Abroad guide 2002) .
43.146. typical day schedule and availability of financial aid has been analysed. · Closer study of 30 representative examples demonstrates that the composition of prices varies as well: ß prices always include tuition (100%) ß in 25 out of 30 programmes housing is included in prices (83%) ß insurance included in 20 programmes (67%) ß meals included in 20 programmes (67%) ß international student ID in 15 programmes (50%) ß student support services in 23 programmes (77%) ß excursions in 23 programmes (77%) ß international airfare in 5 programmes (17%) ß computer access in 7 programmes (23%) . It must be noticed that the exact duration of programmes varies and that these variations have not been taken into account in the average price. This leads to the following results: · The average price for a one-term programme (usually fall.89.Information of the courses above on prices for one term and one year. Excluding 25% of the extremes the average year price is ¼ 16. The average price with exclusion of 25% of the extremes is similar: ¼ 9.779.062. spring or winter) is ¼ 9.41.79. price composition.755. which is ¼ 16. The same counts for the average price of year courses.
Sound Links ± Full Report 95 · Typical day schedules vary highly in number of hours. out-of class from 2 to 9. other activities also from 1 to 5. and other programme activities. out-of-class work. and internship placement.ß transcript in 7 programmes (23%) ß books and class materials in 8 programmes (27%) ß other components of prices. funds and credit transfer systems aimed at degree students and graduates. language study. · 27 out of 30 institutions have some kind of financial aid available for all or specific groups of students. library. language study from 1 to 5. . Class hours vary from 2 to 10 per day. Studying abroad for shorter periods can be considered a growth market. class and out-of-class hours form the main part of the programme. increasingly encouraged by governments. However. discounts. visa/immigration processing. more occasionally mentioned. Results on this subject are too diverse to draw any general conclusions. student card and passes. local transportation. they usually consist of at least three of the following four issues: class hours. Programmes. are: private lessons. Not surprisingly.
simplify both international student exchange and one-way academic travelling. Specialised information. Up to this point of research. These longer degree-related courses are closely connected to institutions for higher education and often regulated in official programmes.com (see below). sources. but gives little specific information in the field of music.com (see below) and goabroad. On www. organised in the same format as study abroad.edu/globaled the search keys µstudy abroad¶ and µsummer abroad¶ lead (back) to studyabroad.usc. institutions for higher education mention a growing demand for professional development like inservice training. and references References to study abroad guides on the internet: IIE Passport (ww.org) is mentioned as the best. continuing education and performer-as-teacher diploma courses. the exact dimensions of these areas are not yet clear. However. It seems that there are large blind spots in the database and/or that it is so all-encompassing that from all disciplines and countries. . only part can be searched.iiepassport. Information on this subject is therefore easier to get hold of than the more diffuse area of not degree-related courses and academic summer and winter courses. only initial insight into mainly semester and year abroad programmes has been gained. Besides.
summer programs by country. content. It is targeted entirely on American students from American universities. There are many similar links to the same institutions.For www. The lists contain much general information on institutions in the areas mentioned. . content. www. and Europe. A search by music gives lists in Africa/Middle East. price etc.com the same remarks apply as for studyabroad. There are many similar links to the same institutions. Winter/spring inter-session programs.studyabroad.com (see below). of specific programmes. price etc. Asia and Oceania. offering any kind of study abroad programmes. Academic programs by subject. Searching by search key µmusic¶ and search key µeducation¶ leads to much general information on institutions world-wide. There are search keys for Academic year and Semester programs by country. giving hardly any useful information on organisation.goabroad.com and gradschools. of specific programmes for music students. Americas. Occasionally there is a reference to a programme with signs of world music. giving hardly any useful information on organisation. offering any kind of (cultural/art/humanities) study abroad programme.com is an on-line resource with listings for thousands of programmes in more than 100 countries throughout the world.
Europe.This list is not useful for statistics. but it can possibly serve as a starting point for a search for so far undiscovered examples of good practice. Japan.Mus programmes in Music Performance. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is an international organisation helping . Nevertheless the list can be useful as a starting point for further negotiations with institutions.000 programmes in Australia/New Zealand. and USA (by state). elsewhere outside USA.oecd. It contains about 50. Teaching Music and Music Education leads to lists of institutions instead of the promised lists of programmes. Labour and Social Policy Directorate (http://www. It also shows a specialist market for Master degrees in Thai and Korean music. Employment. The files are therefore not very informative for the subject µstudy abroad for music students and graduates¶. the lists indicate that within the Anglo-Saxon higher education model there are MA and M. Apart from that. Canada.com is an online source of graduate school information. Searching by keys Music. Gradschools. whichSound Links ± Full Report 96 is not the case in other regions.org). UK& Ireland. Sources OECD: Education.
eu.int/comm/education/leonardo/leonardoold/stat/trainingstatis/) contains publications and on-line results. Vocational education and training (VET) systems descriptions.1: Foreign students enrolled as a percentage of all students.eu. Leonardo da Vinci. .int/comm/education/erasmus) contain full lists of projects and statistics. European Training Statistics (europa. There are key data on a. Online: europa. tertiary education.governments tackle the economic social and governance challenges of a globalised economy. contains the following relevant tables and figures: · Table C5. vocational training in the European Union (general issue. Also contains statistics of separate countries. young people¶s training).int/comm/education/erasmus/statisti/index. continuing training in enterprises. and transition of young people from education to working life.2: Number of foreign students enrolled in tertiary education as a percentage of students in the country of destination (split up into countries of origin and destination) Site Socrates-Erasmus (europa. Education at a glance 2000. and exchange of students within the OECD countries as a percentage of total enrolment. including: · Statistics of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 Socrates/Erasmus activities · Student mobility within the EU: a statistical analysis.o. · Table C5.eu. Its report.html.
.. in turn. interest groups.´ ³All EU funding is channelled towards precise objectives and priorities under the various common policies. ³The European Commission pays grants direct to beneficiaries (public or private bodies ± universities. Leonardo da Vinci and Tempus are the main EU DG Education programmes that encourage study abroad.o. businesses. which.).Mobility programmes Socrates. life-long learning and the dissemination of good practice. are based on provisions of the Treaties. More emphasis will be placed on a. NGOs.int/comm/secretariat_general/sgc/info_subv/index_en. For the second phase of these programmes (2000-2006) funds have been increased by 30 % overall. training (. education. A comprehensive description of EU funding can be found in µGrants and loans from the European Union: http://europa. and in some cases individuals) in pursuance of other common policies in such fields as research and development. Activities to be financed have been re-grouped in a limited number of actions.htm´ Further information can be found on the home pages of DG Education/Culture (see below) Socrates: Erasmus . and more possibilities for joint actions and more flexibility in selection criteria have been created. The first phase took place from 1995 to 1999.
Estonia. µIt is open to the participation of 28 countries: the 15 Member States of the European Union. Poland.Most relevant of the Socrates programmes is Erasmus. Romania. Slovenia. the Czech Republic. the Slovak Republic. The Scope of Erasmus: Students (mobility grants) µThis Action provides direct financial aid to students carrying out a period of study of between 3 months and a full academic year in another participating country in the framework of agreed arrangements . More emphasis is consequently placed on teaching staff exchanges and transnational curriculum development. all academic disciplines and all levels of higher education study up to and including the doctorate. Latvia.¶ Erasmus also supports open and distance learning. µWhile student mobility retains a position of central importance within the programme. Liechtenstein and Norway) and ten associated countries: Hungary. Bulgaria. Cyprus and Turkey) are currently negotiating their position. the three EEA countries (Iceland. stronger incentives will now be available to encourage universities to add a European perspective to theSound Links ± Full Report 97 courses followed by students who do not participate directly in mobility.¶ Three more countries (Malta. Lithuania. which focuses on higher education. Erasmus is open to all types of higher education institutions.
and the host universities' waiving of tuition fees. (see Erasmus site) . such as travel.) («) The grants are administered through a network of national agencies.000 institutions). To facilitate the recognition of study periods undertaken abroad. The grants are designed to help offset the 'mobility costs' of studying in another country. preparatory visits.between universities.¶ Universities & other higher education institutions (grants for activities within an Institutional Contract) Applications may include organisation of students and teachers mobility.¶ Teachers (mobility grants) µThis Action provides direct financial support to teaching staff to spend a short period of fully integrated teaching assignments in a partner University. introduction of ECTS (now being implemented by more than 1. and curriculum development activities. (1 to 8 weeks ± ed. µintensive programmes¶. language preparation and differences in the cost of living. Their award depends on the students' home universities giving proper assurances concerning such aspects as full academic recognition for the study carried out abroad. ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) has been developed and is now being adopted by around 1000 Higher Education Institutions. The grants are administered through a network of national agencies.
´ Relevant priorities are: 1) employability. Erasmus students do not pay tuition and fees to host institutions. The µmobility measure¶ of the Leonardo programme includes three types of action.6-9). 3) transparency (of qualifications). also in view of new employment possibilities. and professional development). how long . Details on who can go. 2) partnership. although grants do not cover tuition and fees. but µmobility costs¶ only: for Dutch students a contribution to travel and accommodation expenses of at least ¼ 300 and average monthly bursary of ¼ 125 (depending on study programme and country). Leonardo da Vinci Two relevant objectives are: 1) ³to improve the quality of.The students¶ and teachers¶ support are most relevant as funding possibilities (degree and degree-related courses. where. and access to. . continuing vocational training and the lifelong acquisition of skills and competencies´ 2) ³to promote an reinforce the contribution of vocational training to the process of innovation. financial contribution and criteria for applications: see copies from Leonardo da Vinci Mobility. guide for promoters (p. with a view to improving competitiveness and entrepreneurship.
focusing on subjects proposed by the Commission. particularly trainers. and occupational guidance specialists. vocational training programme planners and managers.¶ Exchanges are intended for a.. and with a view to stimulating the exchange of experience and promoting mutual understanding of how systems and vocational training mechanisms work. and/or innovative methods and practices in vocational training (. It aims at improving the skills and employability of the beneficiaries.¶ Study visits may be organised by CEDEFOP (European centre for the development of vocational training) .¶ There are different types of placements according to target groups and receiving organisations.. a.Sound Links ± Full Report 98 · Exchanges: µTransfer of competencies. Duration: 3-12 months. students registered in higher education institutions and recent graduates. within a co-operation framework involving training organisations (including universities) and undertakings.). · Study visits: µBrings together persons responsible for vocational training. Maximum grant: ¼ 5000 (for 12 months).o.· Placements: µA period of training and/or work experience spent by a beneficiary in a host organisation in another country under co-operation arrangements involving training organisations (including universities) and undertakings.o.
Leonardo has entered its second phase: ³While mobility and pilot projects will continue to take the lion¶s share of the budget.nsf Other programmes: Youth ³The Youth programme gives young people from the age of 15 upwards the chance to broaden their .int/tempus.´ Tempus III µInstitution-building projects in the non-candidate countries. firms and NGOs. will be possible for non-academic institutions. formerly restricted to university reform.etf.¶ The target group consists only of countries that are eligible for economic aid under Tacis and Phare programmes (mainly Central and Eastern Europe. It is not clear if grants are only for mobility towards Central/Eastern Europe or for students from Central/Eastern Europe studying in other countries as well. such as ministries.From 2000. There are references to mobility and individual grants. the second phase of Leonardo da Vinci also includes a new measure (transnational networks) as well as measures to support language skills and to facilitate Europe-wide comparative analyses and studies of vocational education and training (reference material). 12 independent republics of the former USSR and Mongolia. chambers of commerce. Website: www.eu.
´ ³The Youth programme is the EU¶s mobility and non-formal education programme targeting young people aged between 15 and 25 years. and all other actors involved in the youth field. and is based on. but also by offering more possibilities for supporting cooperation in this area and by opening these possibilities to third countries. The Youth programme offers possibilities to young people in the form of both group exchanges and individual voluntary work. It provides structures European co-operation between youth organisations. The programme is open to youth in 30 European countries.horizons and develop their sense of initiative through projects at home or abroad. And. project organisers. youth workers. not only by combining two previously separate programmes. the programme provides opportunities for mobility and non-formal education for young people themselves. The Youth programme started in spring 2000 but incorporates. the experiences faced by the former Youth for Europe and European Voluntary Service programmes. above all.´ Forthcoming initiatives ³European Pathways for training («) refer to any period of vocational training completed by a person . as well as support activities.´ ³The new programme brings greater coherence to the Community¶s action in this field.
objectives. whose contents and presentation are defined atSound Links ± Full Report 99 Community level. etc. and details of training periods abroad (host partner. a standard Community information document has been created: the Europass Training.). forming a partnership between the establishment where the person completes his training and the host body abroad. duration. is established by the body responsible for organising the training in the Member State of provenance. Within the framework of the partnership. This document provides the personal details of the trainee. both partners agree on the contents.´ Grants & Funds International The number of µfinancial aid information¶ websites and µgrant getting pages¶ aiming at individual students . information of the concerned training initiative ± which includes the European pathway. mentor. complying with a number of quality criteria.undergoing work-linked training as part of their training in another Member State. This involves.´ ³In order to testify such a European pathway for training and to provide better transparency and greater visibility to these training periods abroad. methods and monitoring of the European Pathway. The Europass Training. in particular.
These treaties often include agreements on exchange in the field of scientific education and research. are nationally oriented. and innovation in higher (arts) education are often formulated as part of the objectives of foundations. graduate and professional development bursaries. Target groups and countries.is considerable and they provide numerous links to undergraduate. i. but many internationally operating funds do not give grants to individual students and usually support only organisations and projects. though a rather inaccessible wilderness as well. educational and scientific co-operation.e. study and travel grants . Cultural diversity and exchange. International: global UNESCO fellowships. duration and volume of bursaries vary from treaty to treaty. and exchange programmes. Most of these funding possibilities however. relevant for students from one specific country only (mainly US). both private and public. Cultural treaties: Many European countries have bilateral treaties with other European countries in order to improve cultural. Particularly private funding possibilities for US students seem to be endless. In some cases individual scholarships/fellowships are awarded through grants to universities/organisations.
The fields of study within . China. Poland. Czech Republic. 2. Israel. see below. the European Union. The Republic of Korea. INCORVUZ. Priority targets are promising and qualified specialists who seek to undertake advanced research or to upgrade their skills and knowledge of state-of-the-art developments in their field of study or work. USA. All applications must be channelled through the National Commission for UNESCO of the candidate¶s country. Individual Fellowships Scheme Sort term duration (max. institutions and private donors may offer fellowships (contributions-in-kind) or may finance fellowships (cash contributions) in fields within Unesco¶s competence. foundations. The UNESCO Secretariat does not entertain requests from individuals. 3. The principles and conditions are spelt out in a circular letter sent to National Commissions at the beginning of each biennial exercise. Other fellowships programmes Relevant is only UNESCO-Aschberg bursaries for artists. 6 months). for specialised training at the postgraduate level. Netherlands and Japan are some of the countries/bodies which have made contributions under this scheme. The UNESCO Co-sponsored Fellowships Scheme Under this scheme Member States.1.
but orchestras etc. for the purpose of research.unesco. culture and humanities. All types of education all eligible. Scope of grants per student per year (or other designated period) is ¼ 5950. Periods vary from 1 month to 2 years (though mostly 1-3 months). as well). on areas yearly determined by Nato. The target group consists of graduates and researchers. . Maximum period: 2 years. World dance and world music is included is some of the programmes offered. Information found is relevant for Dutch students only. Candidates need to be graduated or working as a researcher and have sufficient knowledge of language of country of research. Research has to lead to publication.UNESCO¶s competence include education. additional research may be necessary for students with other backgrounds. (www.shtml) UNESCO-ASCHBERG International Fund for the Promotion of Culture Bursaries for Artists programme Bursaries for individual art students (yearly 5 for music and 14 for dance) are connected to selected host institutions (institutions for higher arts education.Sound Links ± Full Report 100 Nato Fellowships These bursaries are for the promotion of world peace.org/general/eng/about/fellowship. Bursaries cover residency and training.
admission to a reputable institution of higher learning. Pakistan. Scholarships are awarded on a 50% grant ± 50% loan basis through a competitive application process once a year in June.Aga Khan Foundation: International Scholarship Programme (www. and thoughtful and coherent educational and career plans.AKDN. Iran.org) The Aga Khan Foundation provides a limited number of scholarships each year for postgraduate studies to outstanding students from developing countries who have no other means of financing their studies.coe. In-Service Training Programme for Educational Staff (http://culture. Applications are accepted from countries where the Foundation has branches or agencies. the Gulf countries. Applications for short-term courses are not considered. US and Canada. Uganda. travel expenses are not included. Tanzania. Grants cover tuition fees and living expenses only. Tajikistan. genuine financial need. Portugal. France. Priority is given to requests for Master¶s level courses but is also willing to consider applications for PhD programmes. Kenya. when doctoral degrees are necessary for the career objectives of the student. Madagascar.fr/teachertraining) The programme is managed by the Council of Europe¶s Education Policies and European Dimension . UK. Syria. At present these are: Bangladesh. India. Criteria are: excellent academic records.
It enables teachers. curricula and teaching methods used in other countries¶.o. school inspectors/pedagogical advisors and teacher trainers to take part in short national in-service training courses (3 to 5 days). school links and exchanges. for instance held in one of the CDCC (Council for Cultural Co-operation) Member States. µEuropean courses tend to treat topics which are closely related to the Council of Europe¶s work and favour a cross-cultural. Western Europe: . The programme allows and encourages teachers to µbecome aware of the educational needs of an increasingly multicultural and multilingual Europe and to learn how to deal with them in school life¶. Bursaries cover travel and accommodation expenses for one week at the most.Division and administered by the member states by a network of national Liaison Officers). head teachers. Courses contribute to creating networks. project-oriented approach. There are up to 1000 scholarships awarded to educational staff every year. arts). and to µfind out about the education systems. Overall aim of the programme is the promotion of the European dimension in school education and teacher training throughout the CDCC Member States. µNationally prepared courses often concentrate on specific aspects of particular subjects¶ (a.¶ Target group consists of graduated teachers and other educational staff.
The newsletter of the European Cultural Foundation gives background information on mobility of citizens in general (not specifically students). Culture is understood in a broad sense.eurocult. study. It is constantly seeking ways to let diversity flourish while fostering a sense of belonging for all European people. legal implications et cetera.European Cultural Foundation (www.) The European Cultural Foundation is an independent non-profit organisation that promotes cultural cooperation in Europe. Grants are available for job-shadowing. · Priority 3: Strengthening the cultural sector (building skills to create a climate in which cultural activities can flourish) . · Priority 2: Stimulating participation through artistic and cultural activities (involving people in the arts to create positive change in the community) One of the programmes is Art for social change: supporting professional artists working orSound Links ± Full Report 101 interested in working with young people. The Foundation has three priority areas: · Priority 1: Encouraging intercultural dialogue (walking the fine line between diversity and integration) Grants are available for travel and projects.org. and evaluation and communication. projects.
Programmes are aimed primarily at Eastern Europe. Grants are available for travel, projects, and evaluation and communication. Compagnia di San Paolo (www. Compagnia. Torino.it/inglese/default.html) The goal is µto provide far-reaching initiatives that ar innovative in that they can anticipate the emerging needs of civil society.¶ The Compagnia has a number of acitivity areas, the relevant of which are: ¸ Education: The Compagnia µcollaborates in the field of education with international institutions present in the Turin area and supports numerous scholarships and fellowships offered by other institutions, for studies in keeping with its policy.¶ ¸ Arts: The Compagnia µpromotes initiatives that favour the return of works of artistic and cultural heritage to the benefit of citizens. Programmes are only about visual arts. ¸ Culture: Here the areas of theatre, dance and music are involved. The Compagnia promotes artistic activity and training. Grants are only given to non-profit organisations. Asia, Australia etc.: Arts Tas (www.arts.tas.gov.au) This is an arts grants and loans programmes for students from Tasmania Music Fund (www.ozco.gov.au)
This fund is for professional development of Australian musicians. The fund encourages applications which reflect the creativity and cultural diversity of Australian music artists. The Foundation for Young Australians (www.ayf.org.au) Funds are available for young indigenous Australians. Education is an area of interest. 20 to 30 Minerals Council Scholarships are awarded annually to young indigenous people up to the age of 25 to pursue their secondary or tertiary education in any field of study. Up to ¼ 5606 is awarded for each tertiary student. Canada: Alberta Foundation for the Arts (www.cd.gov.ab.ca) This foundation works only for Albertians. Funding is available for individuals and organisations, a.o. for study costs for graduates and undergraduates, up to MA. The foundation also develops career development projects. The Canada Council for the Arts (www.canadacouncil.ca) The council is useful for Canadians. Classical music grants are available, and cover subsistence, project and transportation costs related to a programme of work lasting from a few weeks to one year. Non-classical music grants also cover subsistence, project and transportation costs related to a programme of work lasting from a few weeks to one year. And there are travel grants to professional musicians, which give an
individual musician an opportunity to travel on occasions important to his or her career. Grants amounts range from ¼ 1888 to ¼ 12588. Travel grants provide fixed amounts of ¼ 314, ¼ 628, ¼ 944, and ¼ 1258. World music is specifically mentioned. Mexico, Latin America, Caribbean Fundacion Antorchas (www.fundantorchas.retina.ar) The foundation is located in Argentina. Its aim is to promote activities that help improve the well-being of the community. There are three major areas: education and scientific research, culture, and community development. Priority is given to higher education, academic life and original scientific research. The Foundation¶s main function is to assist the work of other bodies and individuals. Scholarships and grantsSound Links ± Full Report 102 are for specific purposes, most of them awarded on competitive basis, and normally to individuals but occasionally given to institutions. Collaborates with similarly constituted bodies in Brazil and Chile: Vitae, Apoio à Cultura, Educaçao e Promoçao Social (Sao Paulo) and the Fundación Andes (Santiago). Awards in the cultural field (all by competition): · Scholarships for a.o. leading figures in the Arts (Atorchas fellowships), advanced art studies abroad, and art workshops.
· Grants for artistic creation in all art disciplines. Awards for education and scientific research: · By competition: scholarships and fellowships are awarded for a.o. doctoral studies abroad in the humanities and social sciences, and postdoctoral research in any discipline either in Argentina or abroad. Grants are awarded for a.o. research projects. · Not by competition: awards for a.o. academic travel. National grants & funds Priority has been given to international, European, and Dutch funds. Portuguese funds are added as an indication of the Southern European situation. National funding possibilities in other regions and countries are not included in this report. However, while looking for international and European funding possibilities, a large number of funds for US students were found. International sources referring to funding possibilities in other countries are mentioned above at µInternational funds¶. Netherlands The Nuffic µBeursopener¶ (www.beursopener) lists funding possibilities for students and graduates, who wish to go abroad for study, research, traineeship, teaching or as a group. Nuffic is a well organised institution of good reputation, and the online searching system appears to be reliable and complete.
A list of bursaries for Dutch music and musicology students and graduates who want to study abroad in any country, can be found in appendix 13. The chart includes information on target group, conditions/specifications, grants per student per year (minimum-maximum), type of support (gift/loan), costs covered, duration (minimum-maximum, once-only or repeatable), percentage of applications awarded. · 18 out of 51 bursaries are for students, 27 for graduates and 6 for both. · 5 bursaries are meant for specific target groups and require other than academic/artistic and age conditions (such as: women, Frysian ancestry, children of freemasons). Good results, conservatoire education or a university degree are often required. · Information on grants per student per year is not available for all bursaries. Grants change from ¼45 minimum to ¼18,152 maximum. · 48 bursaries are gifts, 3 are loans · 28 cover tuition/fees, 14 cover costs of lodging, 20 cover travel expenses. · Information on duration is not available for all bursaries. The four minimum terms mentioned cover three months, the maximum varies from 3 to 60. · Information on % awarded is incomplete too; range: 10 tot 90 %, 100% in case of awards. Portugal
Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (www.gulbenkian.pt) The foundation has a competition for scholarships attribution for Portuguese nationality students, who want to attend 2nd and 3rd grades (university level) in Portugal. Types of scholarships and subsidies that appear to be relevant: Attributed by the Education and Scholarships Service: · Long term and short term scholarships, for finance research and postgraduate activities. Candidates must have the Portuguese nationality. For foreigners, if outside the African PALOP¶s, scholarshipsSound Links ± Full Report 103 for research projects and specialisations in fields of the Portuguese cultural knowledge, are made available by the International Service. · Long term scholarships: investigation with a duration over 3 months, in foreign centres, annual competition; · Short term scholarships: post-graduate, 1-3 months, in foreign centres, 5 annual competitions Subsidies: for participants at international congresses (presentation, short term training up to 1 month, 5 annual competition) · Students scholarships: for secondary and superior levels (selection based on academic quality and
economic condition, polytechnic institutions and Portuguese universities, annual competition) Attributed by the Fine Arts Service: · Scholarships in the fields of scenic and visual arts, architecture, urbanism, archaeology and patrimony. Does not seem relevant. Attributed by the Co-operation for the Development Service: · Scholarships for national students from Portuguese speaking African countries, who intent to continue their higher education studies in Portugal. They are also addressed to graduates, in the same nationality conditions, that intent to obtain a post-graduation or carry out improvements in the fields they already master. Attributed by the Armenian Communities Service: · Limited number of scholarships to Armenian origin students, born at the Diaspora, that continue their higher education training and don¶t have the necessary financial means for that. Following the Service reorganisation, candidates may be students that continue their studies in the Middle East countries, Europe, Latin America, Canada and Australia. Priority is given to candidates without university training and to those who want to follow a teaching career in an Armenian school institution at the Diaspora.
Attributed by the Music Service: · Scholarships for candidates with the Portuguese nationality and performing and erudite musical activity, who want to graduate or perfect themselves in the fields they choose. Open to candidates with official diplomas or performing a professional activity in the correspondent sector. Priority to previous requests of orchestra instrumentalists. Specialities: chant, composition, harpsichord, orchestra maestros, musicology, organ and piano. Scholastic Social Action in Higher Education (www.desup.min-edu.pt/fae.htm) This national programme stimulates access and attendance to higher education, through direct social support (scholarships and emergency aids), and indirect social support (access to feeding, lodging, health and education services at social prices). More detailed information was not available. The education savings plan (PPE) and the education reform plans (PRE) (canais.sapo.pt/financas/finances/fbA/7314.html) ³The Ministry of Education in co-partnership with the Ministry of Finances, launches two new financial products for the younger, with the objective of paying the expenses connected with higher education or technical education.´ The available information does not give insight into how these funds work. Reimbursement may take place in several circumstances, e.g. five years after the delivery year of the
Education expenses: ¼ 2495 for students attending an education institution close to their residential area ¼ 3740 for students coming from the Azores and Madeira who study at the main land or vice versa. ¼ 4990 for students studying abroad FAE Student Support Fund (also found on: www.desup.min-edu.pt/fae.htm) FAE is an organisation of the Ministry of Education, endowed with juridical personality, administrative and financial autonomy and its own property. The FAE attribution aims at the entire higher education system, covering public, private, co-operative and of concordance right education. The information gives no actual insight into volume in students and money, target groups etc, but consists basically of legal implications and objectives. Fundação Oriente (www.foriente.pt)Sound Links ± Full Report 104 ³The Fundação Oriente scholarships programme is one of the essential elements of the Fundação's activities in training. Its main goals are to motivate research into social science and literature related to the Far East; to promote scientific exchanges between Portuguese and Oriental universities and scientific groups; to motivate the knowledge of and improvement in knowledge of the languages and cultures of
to stimulate artistic improvement. and in June and December for short term scholarships.org) .gmsp. United States Bill & Melissa Gates Foundation (www.glf. The latter are granted for periods ranging from 15 to 90 days. Macao and the Macanese communities world-wide.org) ± The Gates Millennium Scholars (www.´ ³The Fundação Oriente's scholarships are granted through competitions which are held three times a year: in January. to grant access to vocational intermediate training courses for Oriental students of limited financial means.Portugal and the Orient. for the granting of long term scholarships. to encourage training of management staff through scholarships which will allow Oriental students who show great potential but have limited financial means to attend degree courses.´ Types of scholarships: · for artistic improvement · short term · for doctorates and masters degrees · for research · to attend long courses to improve Portuguese language and Culture and Oriental Languages and Cultures. Timor. specifically to students from Malacca.
At undergraduate level. maths. From the information available it is not clear if grants are awarded for programmes at accredited institutions in the US only.´ Target groups entail American citizens only. At graduate level individuals applying to or already enrolled in science.´ It will enable 20. Asian Pacific Americans. unmet financial need.The Gates Millennium Scholars Program ³is aimed at expanding access and opportunity to higher education to those citizens who will help reflect the diverse society in which we live. . demonstrated leadership and application to or enrollment in an accredited college or university or a graduate degree programme. engineering. The Foundation seeks to increase the number of African-Americans. or abroad as well.000 young Americans to attend undergraduate and graduate institutions of their choice. and Hispanic Americans enrolling in and completing undergraduate and graduate degree programs. American Indians / Alaska Natives. Required are academic promise. The programme has been established ³to encourage and support students in completing college and in continuing on to earn masters and doctorate degrees in disciplines where ethnic and racial groups are currently underrepresented. education or library science degree programs are eligible. individuals enrolling for any discipline or area of study are eligible.
In general.gov/International) The programme provides arrangements with participating countries for American teachers and administrators wishing to teach abroad. Foreign teachers are also paid by their home schools. The Ford Foundation (www. some go abroad on one-way assignments. the Middle East and Americas.grad. The majority directly exchanges positions with foreign teachers.fordfound. and a stipend is provided by the United States Department of State to cover living expenses while abroad. Subjects of current programmes vary from language training.S.org) Fulbright Teacher and Administrator Exchange Program (www. music and education. teachers are required to obtain a leave of absence without pay.org.Sound Links ± Full Report 105 Exchange countries are throughout Europe. Administration: council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES).FinAid. (Accessed through www. and replace their U. In the case of one-way assignments.Fulbright Fellowships For US citizens to study in other countries. Africa.usda. office in US) . math and science to art. counterparts at no additional cost to the hosting school. exchange teachers are granted a leave of absence with pay and use their regular salary to cover daily expenses while abroad.
Support for graduate fellowships is generally provided through . Although it also makes grants to individuals. In higher education and scholarship the foundation helps ³build fields of knowledge that deepen scholarly and public understanding of pluralism and the human condition.´ Goal of the field arts and culture of the Media. helping to chart the future of their respective societies. they are few in number relative to demand and are limited to research. understanding courage and confidence needed for societies to address their problems and encourage all citizens to fulfil their potential. Knowledge and Religion Unit works in three fields: 1) education reform. The Foundation does not award undergraduate scholarships or make grants for purely personal needs. 2) higher education and scholarship and 3) religion.´ ³Most of the Foundation¶s grant funds are given to organisations.The Education. training and other activities related to it program interests.´ It also focuses ³on social science training as a means of educating a new generation of leaders and scholars who can be more effective in their civic roles. society and culture. Arts and Culture Unit is ³to strengthen opportunities for artistic creativity and cultural expression that will generate the hope.
state government and community foundations). Africa. The Grantsmanship Center (www. organisations may apply at any time by sending a letter (see information from website). in 1998 35. after which they may be asked to send a formal proposal. www. Links to websites of funders covering relevant subjects have been checked for each region. Canada.studyabroad. Pacific Islands. Caribbean.grants to universities and other organisations. New Zealand. Central/Eastern Europe. All kinds of academic and professional subjects are included. sources and references TGCI. Middle East.´ Funds are limited in relation to the number of worthwhile proposals received (e.tgci.700 grant requests and 2. as well as international funders active in the following regions: Asia. Most Foundation grants to individuals are awarded either through publicly announced competitions or on the basis of nominations from universities and other non-profit institutions. Latin America.g.007 grants. of which 20% first-time grant recipients). which are responsible for the selection of recipients. Western Europe.com . Australia.com) µThe world¶s leader in grants information and grantsmanship training¶ lists federal funding sources in the US (federal government. There are no deadlines. Mexico. Specialised information.
This database lists study abroad programs from more than 800 institutions in 100 countries (specific academic year & semester abroad programs. Its mission is ³to introduce art at school as a tool to prevent violence and racism.org/:) gives information to both funds/funders and grant seekers.´ 5000 children from 80 different schools are participating in the programme. There is a list of Funding Information .Sound Links ± Full Report 106 The website of Funders Online (www. MUS-E might be indirectly relevant. though its objectives are primarily therapeutic and social.fundersonline. by the creation of a forum (Assembly of Cultures of Europe ± ACE). summer.´ There are no grants or mobility programmes. spring programs) InternationalYehudi Menuhin Foundation (www. Only information for grant seekers is relevant here. arts and all the disciplines necessary to its entire fulfilment (MUS-E Program).menuhin-foundation. encourage the expression and the protection of cultural identities. winter. with a view to fostering greater tolerance.com) The goal of this foundation is to: ³co-ordinate and implement cultural and humanitarian actions initiated by Lord Menuhin and spread them in the whole of Europe: improve the environment of the child by music. promote musical expressions and encounters of different cultures through the organisation of specific events (IYMF-EVENTS).
grant seekers linked back to site Foundation Centre (see above). All private funding.FinAid. domestic exchange and study abroad programs: .Resources (also libraries an publications.org): µother types of aid¶. wide range of subjects (though search on key µculture¶ is possible). hosted by Charities Aid Foundation). see files Ivb EU. not included here. Lists of grant giving companies in several countries in and outside Europe. Inc · Funding Digest. UK From FinAid! The SmartStudent Guide to Financial Aid (www. Not particularly useful for this research. · FundsNet: see international funds above · Grantsmanship Center: see international funds above · Polaris Grants Central Sites on Fundraising: · International Fundraising Group · UK Fundraising · Grant Guides Plus.) Online resources: Foundations and Corporate Funders: · Foundation Centre Grantmaker Info: see above (international funds) · CCINet (Corporate Community Involvement net. Student study abroad. · Council on Foundations: aims at foundations instead of grant seekers.
Directories of International Exchange Programs: Rock Bottom Study Abroad: online database of more than 200 scholarships for US students looking to study abroad.Institute of International Education (IIE). but all are exclusively relevant for US citizens. Only relevant for US and Canadian students.fundsnetservices. compare CIES = Fulbright. There are many books about financial aid for (post)graduates and student exchange programs found. art initiatives. .AIFS International scholarships: American Institute for Foreign Study OSAD Scholarship Database: low-cost foreign study programs.Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES) = Fulbright program.com) Foundations and funders online (links) in US and Canada. Guide for US nationals listing more than 650 awards. culture. . From FundsNet (www. areas of emphasis a.. Assists in administration of the graduate Fulbright Fellowships for US citizens to study in other countries and for international students tot study in the US. So in this research relevant for US students only .o. also includes an online database of more than 200 scholarships for US students looking to study abroad. education. .
which covers funding information.eurodesk. the information and communications programme of the EFC. contacts and . and theSound Links ± Full Report 107 involvement of young people in European activities¶. provides a public record and a public information service on foundations and corporate funders active in Europe. Funders Online is also part of ARIES.be/) Orpheus Programme: µThe mission of the EFC is to promote and underpin the work of foundations and corporate funders in teh New Europe. training and youth fields. the European telematic network for the social economy.efc. section giving advice on grantseeking in general.¶ It is concerned µwith information relevant to the education.Also from Funders Online (www.org) Eurodesk is µa European network for the dissemination of European information and for the provision of telephone enquiry answering services at national or regional level for young people and those who work with them.¶ The European Foundation Centre site is not relevant for grant seekers. Eurodesk (www.fundersonline. One possibly relevant publication is: · European Foundation Fundamentals: overview of Europe¶s national-level independent funding community through a series of country reports. Orpheus.org/): an initiative of the European Foundation Centre (EFC: http://www.
From Foundation Centre Grantmaker Info (http://fdncenter.g.com Financial Aid Information (www. a.com): . From Grantsmanship Center (www. community foundations) in a variety of countries in and outside Europe (e. music.resources (documents/publications etc.com) This site contains sources for information about obtaining financial Aid. corporate.tgci.¶ The Eurodesk Network has partners and information services in 23 countries.). domestic exchange and study abroad programs: · Partly domestic exchange within US (not relevant) · Partly study abroad and foreign exchange programs for US students: relevant programs for US students: American Institute for Foreign Study Gradschools. It has a wide range of search keys.o. From FinAid! The SmartStudent Guide to Financial Aid (www.org/grantmaker): There are links to numerous grantmaker web sites (private.gradschools. It µcan provide both European information from the European Commission and other European level agencies together with other relevant information from a national level in the participating countries. public. Eurodesk also has an online database for EU and national data.FinAid. also South-America). All partners can share and exchange information electronically. Student study abroad.org): µother types of aid¶.
Arts. Relevant aims are: increasing cooperation between nations. Central&Eastern Europe. Central /Eastern Europe · Batory Foundation (www. Asia. Priority to high-profile events and projects. Seems to be an organisation coordinating local centres and helping people/organisations to find money. . Latin America & Caribbean. · Limmat Stiftung (www.natwestgroup.ibm.batory. Western Europe. · Royal Bank of Scotland Group (www.org.com/ibm/) Mainly technology.The site lists funding sources in Canada. profit.pl/english/) (Founder is George Soros. Uncertain if this is a fund. business. No scholarships and not for individuals. The Grantsmanship Center leads to the following programmes: Western Europe: · Evens Foundation (www. the Middle East. and advancing educational development (equal access to education.org) Training of trainers. · IBM grant programmes (www. Australia. Africa.be) Focuses on intercultural education: European. UK. Funding possibilities for individuals unclear. Mexico.com).evensfoundation. see SOROS Foundation elsewhere in this report). New Zealand & Pacific Islands. Mainly about solving intercultural education problems.limmat.
· DAAD (www.stimulating quality of teaching.org .daad. funding programmes and scholarships (also published). promotes international academic exchanges.o. the latter only for exchange with US and Canada) DAAD a. group programmes (study visits. It funds one-year and short-term scholarships for individuals. higher education and degree courses abroad. DAAD sponsors undergraduates. postgraduates and academics grom Germany and abroad in over 100 different programmes.de and www.daad. It provides information on a. It operates mainly on the basis of public funding provided by different . increase access to knowledge). and the IAESTE International Committee for the exchange of student trainees. guest lectureships and project-linked academic co-operation between institutions of higherSound Links ± Full Report 108 education in Germany and abroad. and is the German national agency for the EU programmes Socrates. the exchange of academics. university seminars/practicals). Leonardo and Tempus. The foundation¶s activity includes giving grants and awarding scholarships for study and for internships.o. Applications for grants and scholarships are considered on a competitive basis with the participation of specialised committees and experts in relevant fields.
but individual students may obtain grants from the Ian Potter Cultural Trust. Grants up to $15.ministries. masters or doctorate students.org.macfdn. student exchange. · Ian Potter Foundation (www. scholarships) Asia.org Supporting women to transform the world. Higher Education (helps talented students to go to college and ensures they have access to quality education once they get there).o.: · www. Australia etc. Areas a. disciplined and resourceful leaders). Not relevant yet.ianpotter. but potentially. .ge.000 to women¶s groups outside the US. The website gives a link to the organisation¶s µStipendiendatenbank¶. Arts & Culture (hands-on participation in the arts develop creative.htm) The foundation itself does not support research or travel funds for undergraduate.org/programs). principally by the Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs. · MacArthur (www. e. International (supports quality education programmes around the world.au/ipct.com/community/fund Dedicated to developing and supporting programmes that are making a difference around the world.g.globalfundforwomen. United States · GE Fund (General Electric) www.
bombardier. Arts: remarkable projects. drama or theatre.telacu. Mexico. · Shell Australia (www. scholarships etc.Unclear what restrictions are: for individuals or not.carnegie. With a network of Los Angeles-area high schools and major colleges and universities participating in their programs. Caribbean · TELACU Scholarships (www.com).com) Limited information available: funding education in the form of student bursaries and donations to colleges and universities. Can be applied at any post-secondary institution. Programme themes and goals seem relevant.com/au-en) Education: engineering. they have awarded millions of dollars in scholarships. dance.org) .fordfound. Latin America.shell. · Ford Foundation (www. Provides international assistance to qualified latino students to obtain their college degree. A list of participating colleges / universities is included (among which UCLA in Los Angeles). Eligible for the TELACU Arts Award are students majoring in fine arts. music. Canada: · Bombardier (www.org): see above Africa: · Carnegie Corporation of New York (www.
promotion of broader public understanding of importance of teaching quality) and µLiberal Arts Education¶ (how the undergraduate experience should be redefined to help prepare students for success in the contemporary economic and social context). promotion of more widespread change. · Education program. Geographic focus is restricted to African countries that are or have been members of the British Commonwealth as of 1947.Interesting to keep an eye on: · International development program: themes include µstrengthening African universities¶ and µenhancing women¶s opportunities in higher education¶ (intend to establish a scholarship programmefor African women undergraduates in order to facilitate their access to university education). · The Rockefeller Foundation (www.rockfound. especially since the FoundationSound Links ± Full Report 109 .org) Overall goal could be relevant: µTo preserve and renew the cultural heritage of people who have been excluded from the benefits of a globalising world. to promote the free flow of ideas in the public sphere and to support diverse creative expression in the arts and humanities¶. higher education: µTeacher education¶ (wider adoption of models .
¶ Most of the resources are committed to a set of programmes. Relevant themes are: µKnowledge and Freedom in the Public Sphere: Artists and humanists. . Apart from that. general operating expenses. inclusive civil societies¶ and µCreativity and Innovation in a Global Age: The voices and vision of artists and humanists can help us envision reality and clarify our understanding of ourselves an others.attributes an important role in the realisation in this to arts and humanities. Grants however are made only to host institutions in the United States and Latin America. arts-in-education projects. the Arts and Humanities Division does not fund: undergraduateor graduate-level study. of which only the following could have been relevant: Humanities Fellowships: for scholars and writers whose work furthers the understanding of contemporary social and cultural issues and extends international or intercultural scholarships. curriculum development projects and collegiate or pre-collegiate programmes.¶ The Arts and Humanities Division µmakes grants to organisations and projects that advance the guiding strategy Understanding and Engaging Difference Across Changing Societies through the Arts and Humanities. travel-related expenses. through social critique. play a key role in creating democratic.
Meaning of art programmes is entirely unclear. µWomen¶ seemed interesting.com) also leads to a number of mostly irrelevant programmes: Western Europe: · Abbott Labs (other regions as well): not relevant. Mainly focused on companies and their surroundings. but . Unclear what policies are towards students and postgraduates. No individuals. · Du Pont Philantropy: not for individuals.TGCI. Stress on technology and communication · The Baring Foundation: Institutions based within England and Wales. No scholarships to students. for institutions/organisations and culturally specific. welfare and communities. but not colleges and universities. · Music Projects overseas: Support British artists. · Arts council funding: structural/long term subsidies for UK institutions and residents. · American Express (other regions as well): not for students. Probably not relevant. only UK organisations. The Grantsmanship Center (www.tgci. Education mainly for own employees. Mainly focused on health. not to individuals. · AT&T Foundation (other regions as well): Mainly US grants. · Nuffield Foundation: not for individuals.
html).usaid. · www. · Australian Regional Development scholarships: only for students in partner countries: pacific. Asia. Mexico. Maybe for organising workshops? · Myer Foundation and The Sidney Myer Fund: no scholarships · Sasakawa Peace Foundation.turned out to be not for performing artists. Caribbean · Kodak Community Relations and Contributions: mainly supports other funds. Latin America. Asia · The Commonwealth Foundation: only for projects/mobility within the Commonwealth. Pacific Islands: · Abu Dhabi fund for Development: IMF money for economic development · ACLS International activities: not for graduate and undergraduate students · American Jewish World Service: not relevant. Australia. · International Renaissance Foundation: no grants/loans to individuals. (www. a key factor to the long-term . Maybe Pacific Island part interesting.org/spf_e/englishpage.gov/educ_training: No grants and scholarships. like TELACU ScholarshipsSound Links ± Full Report 110 Market and employment However conducive the developments in higher music education in general. New Zealand.spf.
it has become a main stream phenomenon. it was still largely the territory of alternative world travellers and ethnomusicologists.success of cultural diversity in music education is the economic impact. In the authoritative 1997 publication Global Pop: World Music. Offshoots of these genres . D. world fusion. in other parts of the world. Afrobeat. ethnopop. The rise of world music in the last decade is one of the most striking recent developments in the world of music. festivals and concerts. T. and education. Taylor writes: One of the most notable trends in the music industry since the 1980s has been the rise in popularity of new music genres: world music. in Germany. world beat. World Markets. Afropop. We will try to give an impression of the development and scale of world music at the turn of the century through data from the record trade. At the beginning of the 1980s. the indications of total volume of concert and festival goers. Is there enough interest in world music in general to generate employability for (future) professionals in this field? Although specific data on economical effects of world music do not seem to be available in any country. Weltbeat and Weltmusik. the press. CD-buyers and music students in this chapter bear witness to a substantial interest in all fields of the world music market. In the 1990s.
and cybertribal. Although hard figures seem to be missing and labels are reticent to give sensitive market information. in 1995. techno-tribal. («) According to the Recording Industry Association of America. Tower Record¶s international buyer told Newsweek that this section was ³definitely the fastest growing part of the store´.include: tribal. corroborative evidence seems to support this figure. In 1988. as well as ambient. In both countries about 2% of all record sales was taken up by world music in 1998. trance and new age.0 %.2 million euro in Germany. . more than tripling in the previous three years. All of these categories overlap to some degree and with other categories I haven¶t mentioned. («) A report in Forbes says that only about 2% of Tower Records¶ sales are of ³foreign music´ Record Trade Observers from the record trade estimate that the global turnover of the record trade (including royalties.9 % and for jazz 3. etc) approaches ¼ 500 million a year. the market share of classical music was 2. By 1991 the market share of world music was equal to classical and jazz. The International Federation for the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) has figures of world and folk record sales in the Netherlands and Germany. making a turnover of almost 11 million euro in the Netherlands and 54.
000.2 million euros a year). there were none on the charts until early 1993. The CD of the Buena Vista Social Club (Cuban music) sold over 2 million copies. dozens of specialist world music CD-labels have come into existence. when Ellipsis Arts¶ 4- .2 million euros retail value. One of the main attractions of recent world music sales has been compilation CD¶s. Initial research at the trade fair WOMEX 99 indicates that small independent labels each tend to sell 20 to 60.000 items. Triple Earth (UK) 20. representing about ¼ 1. Global Pop records: µAnother trend worth noting is the rise of collections.000 to 1. A few examples of world music sales: The small record label Piranha (GE) sells about 60.000 of each release. and creating a turnover of around ¼ 40 million euros on a single title. and most major record labels have developed world music subdivisions. selling about 10.000 CD¶s a year. Stern¶s distribution (UK) has about 10 releases a year. In the past ten years. they do the distribution of one to two million CD¶s each year. with which people could be introduced to different kinds of music from different parts of the world. while large companies seem to move about 300.000 items a year (representing a retail value of about 400.In 1997 the percentage in the Netherlands was still only one percent. On top of that. making it one of the most successful world music CD¶s ever. Paradox (NL) moves 50.000 items (¼ 5 million).
combined with the lesser success of their Global Celebration helped make Ellipsis Arts¶ a player in the world music market. Examples can be found at Virgin Megastores.¶Sound Links ± Full Report 111 Further proof of the increased world music sales is the fact that virtually all major record stores now have special world music departments that take up a large part of the selling space. there is a Grammy Award for the best World Music Album of the year. India. Israel. but also in Lisbon and Rome. Haiti.CD Global Meditation arrived. In 1990. the World Music chart lists the top 15 best-selling albums in this growing genre («)¶. England. In the first 6 years. N-America. Bulgaria. Brazil. Senegal. 42 artists from 20 different countries topped the chart: Cape Verde. Scotland. Zimbabwe. Canada. not only in major multicultural cities like Amsterdam and London. where it stayed for 33 weeks. Spain. France. SouthAfrica. Mali. Tower Records and His Master¶s Voice. Ireland. Since 1991. Benin. for it appeared on Billboard¶s list of the top-five world music labels in 1993. Australia and Tahiti. This success. the leading trade magazine Billboard started a new chart for world music: µBased on reports from a panel of 40 dealers. they are also expecting to increase their annual earnings by about 25% from 1995 to 1996. The Grammy awards in World Music thus far have gone to: Year Artist Album .
Besides a conference. agencies. traditional and local music. there is also a µVirtual Womex¶. roots. by stating the choice for best world music album separately. the Grammy¶s committee acknowledges the rise and growth of this genre. Around 2. ethnic.M. Bhatt and Ry Cooder A Meeting by the River 1992 Sergio Mendes Brasileiro 1991 Mickey Hart and guests Planet Drum The creation of charts and awards does not mean that world music was previously ignored: it appeared in other categories. media and record companies from all over the world are participating every year in a trade fair. seminars. an online list . folk. and showcases on world music: WOMEX is the largest professional conference. However.000 groups of artists. trade fair and showcase event exclusively dedicated to all kinds of world.2001 Ravi Shankar Full Circle / Carnegie Hall 2000 João Gilberto João Voz e Violão 1999 Caetano Veloso Livro 1998 Gilberto Gil Quanta Live 1997 Milton nascimento Nascimento 1996 Chieftains Santiago 1995 Deep Forest Boheme 1994 Ali Farka Toure and Ry Cooder Talking Timbuktu 1993 V.
of contacts and presentations. a virtual marketplace for world music CD¶s. WOMEX festival has grown rapidly: 1995 1997 1999 2001 Participants 900+ from 41 countries (including 125 journalists) 1000+ from 45 countries (including 137 journalists) 1200+ from 65 countries (including 160 journalists) 1800+ from 80+ countries (including 200+ journalists) Tradefair 35 stands 60 exhibitors . has attracted 5000 paying subscribers (professional CD-companies) in the first 14 months. Womex Online. Over the years.
from 18 countries 64 stands 98 exhibitors from 23 countries 99 stands 150 exhibitors (information not yet available) 174 stands 250+ exhibitors (information not available) Conference 16 sessions 70 panellists from 23 countries 23 sessions 104 panellists from 29 countries 31 sessions 74 panellists from 21 countries .
they invite famous guests. based . Mundial (Netherlands) and Womad (international. 350 artists performed in 40 showcases on 4 stages. Most of these aim at reaching a wider audience. but also workshops. music and dance sessions and special children¶s programmes. The five largest world music festivals are profiled below: International Africa festival (Germany) Karnaval der Kulturen (Germany). Apart from specialist festivals and meetings for people with interest in a particular style or genre. while keeping a high level of quality and supporting new artists. which also draws hundreds of participants each edition. there is a great number of world music festivals with a broad range in programming. To this end. already established in the world music scene. a competing trade fair has emerged: Strictly Mundial. Some festivals offer not only concerts.26 sessions 30+ speakers (information not available) During WOMEX2001.Sound Links ± Full Report 112 Festivals & Concerts World music festivals have been appearing and growing over the past few years. as well as new talents and fusion groups. Dunya (Netherlands). Meanwhile.
These 12 hours are spread over two days and are held in a park. a street parade is held. Germany. Between them. Surinam village) ± where concerts.12 million in 2002. The park is divided into a number of µvillages¶ (e. In 1999. i.in UK). No statistical data about this festival is available for 2002.000 enthusiasts. On the first day. these festivals together drew an audience of about 1. In 2002. drawing 300. programmes µblack¶ music. More recent figures from a number of European world music festivals are included in appendix 14. · International Africa Festival in Würzburg. dance parties are held in the streets. Cape Verdian village. The festival draw a great response from the media: in 1999 about 100 journalists from television. there were 122. dance presentations storytelling sessions are held on eleven . radio and newspapers attended the festival. about 400. Moroccan village. the multicultural character of the city is made apparent when the ethnic minority groups present themselves and their cultures. Its slogan is: ³Journey around the world in 12 hours´. · Karnaval der Kulturen in Berlin is a large street festival that lasts four days. During the festival. · Dunya in Rotterdam (the Netherlands) is one the best known world music festivals in the Benelux.000 paying visitors in three festival days.e. On the days after the parade. 150 people work for this festival.g.000 people from 70 nationalities participated in the festivities. music from subSaharan Africa and African Diaspora.
.000 people.000 people a year come to the festival grounds. Arts. In recent years. There was a lot of attention from the media. This organisation.000 visitors in 2002. 15.000 of which were children who participated in the special µMundial in the classroom¶ programme. Reading (UK). including radio. Singapore. The youth programme alone drew more than 110. linked to the label Real World. ranging from pop fusion styles to traditional folk dancing. an average of 200. · Festival Mundial in Tilburg.000 visitors. Womad has presented more than 90 events in 20 different countries and islands. had 245. · Womad (World Of Music. the finale event had 140. television and the written press.stages ± as well as two large stages for the feature artists. Washington State (US). In 1999 Womad included 8 different world music festivals all over the world: London (UK). responsible for the festivals as well as a world music record label. The programming is very wide. Dance) is an international festival. Palermo (Sicily). Athens (Greece).000 visitors and participants. Despite the pouring rain. The entrance to the festival is free. the Netherlands. Other programmes (including educational programmes) in schools and cities et cetera had 70. Since the first festival in 1982. was initiated by Peter Gabriel.
responsible for festivals all through the year. Together they drew about 150. One of the goals of the festival is for the participants to learn to use .000 visitors in 1990 and 29.Dubrovnik (Croatia). The EFWMF has 47 members. Canarias (Spain).g. the annual festival Stimmen. concentrating on vocal music. usually combined with special attention paid to a particular tradition or musical culture (e. The most important network in this field is the European Forum for World Music Festivals (EFWMF).000 visitors.300 in 1990 to 56. Couleur Cafe in Belgium has seen the number of visitors increase from 5. spread over 20 different countries. The music staged on these festivals is highly varied. The Womad festivals include not only concerts. or Brazilian music). world music is combined with western music in the programming and workshops.000 in 2002.433. The last years have shown a vast increase in the number of festival visitors. In Germany.Sound Links ± Full Report 113 Voices. 29 of the EFWMF festivals together report drawing an audience of 1. Most of the festivals have wide range programming. Here. folklore.000 in 2002.000 people in 2002. Voix is held. but also participatory workshops and musical and dance sessions hosted by many of the visiting artists. while Forde Folk Music Festival in Norway had 6.
Tibet (5). In this respect. Surinam (3). which in 2002 attracted an audience of 54. with varying musical styles (in percentages): Europe & North America (23) Spain (flamenco) (6). little distinction is made between the places of origin of the music. For the past few years. Gypsy music (5). Other (8) Asia (22) India & Pakistan (7). Other (5) Africa (18) West-Africa (9). they have linked up with Amsterdam Roots Festival. East Africa (3). Other (6) South & Central America (24) Cuba (6). The prestigious Holland Festival in the Netherlands has followed a similar policy. Eastern Asia (4). Brazil (5). Argentina (tango) (5). Yiddish music (4). Since the 1960s.different sounds and techniques with their voices. they have included world music in the programme. The Festival for Ancient Music in Utrecht also organically includes world music in its programme. there is an extensive programming of world music concerts in most European countries.000 people: three quarters of the total amount of visitors of the festival. Southern Africa (4). Apart from the festivals. . the world music critic of the Volkskrant counted 1074 world music concerts in mainstream concert venues in the Netherlands. In the 1998/1999 season.
Marocco & Algeria (4). and further increase the volume of the practice of world music in the Netherlands.490. Examples can be found in the Netherlands. Press . Other (5) A single venue. The first two world music concerts in the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam were sold out within the first month of the season. Apart from the stages that have always programmed primarily world music. Vredenburg (Utrecht) and the prestigious Concertgebouw (Amsterdam) are organising world music concerts and series. the theatre of the Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam programmed about 160 concerts in the 98/99 season. The performances take place in rented halls or community centres. and reports a total audience of 26. mostly targeted at a specific ethnic group.Central Africa (2) Near & Middle East (14) Turkey (5). World music series are now a regular feature in the programming. halls and stages that never had world music before are now programming high quality series of world music. they co-operate with experts in this field using the same professional standards as for their regular western concerts. there are probably as many concerts of world music organised on a smaller scale. where De Doelen (Rotterdam). On the other side of the scale. RASA in Utrecht reaches similar numbers. Very often. as well as other countries.
in a number of countries.2 . World Music (two!). There are several others in other languages. festival announcements and CD-reviews. Oye Listen!. such as Folker. Mancs. there are at least four magazines of some stature dedicated to world music: Rhythm.1 Muziek & Onderwijs 6 12 91 13. eight leading specialist journals concerning music education have published 37 articles on the subject of world music education: Times a year World music articles All articles Percentage Musik und Unterricht 6 13 80 16. In English.4 Music Educators Journal 6 1 26 3.3 Council for Research in ME 4 2 8 25. In 1999. Regular magazines like Time Out magazine and Billboard . Voice.0 Musik in der Schule 6 2 45 4. Now.In the eighties. Songlines and Djembe. world music reviews appear weekly. a few major newspapers started employing world music critics on a free lance basis. Lira and Trad Magazine. Muska.8 British Journal of ME 3 6 35 17. fRoots.Sound Links ± Full Report 114 Education The rise of world music is also evident in education.and newspapers in several countries have special world music listings.
It instituted a special working group on µMusics of the Worlds Cultures¶.0 Total 38 289 13. about 50 public music schools . where since 1990.1 The International Society for Music Education (ISME). The 2001 CDIME conference in London had about 150 participants and showed a great variety in presentations concerning projects in the field. Switzerland. In the field of practical activity. exchanging students and teachers and the development of classroom material. one of the focus points has become cultural diversity. 45 out of 156 lectures and workshops were about culturally diverse music education: almost 30%! A Cultural Diversity in Music Education (CDIME) network was founded to specifically meet the challenges cultural diversity in music education creates for music educators worldwide. Figures only seem to be available for the Netherlands. At the 23rd ISME world conference in the Netherlands. (1998). but also an expression of the need for co-operation in for example curriculum development. In the past few years. founded by UNESCO in 1953. which published a policy statement in 1996. The members of CDIME exchange their views and experiences through conferences and a quarterly newsletter.International Journal for ME (1996) 1 2 4 50. Scandinavia and the Netherlands are forerunners. the UK. advocates all kinds of music education.
such as higher education and community arts. however. with about 2500 participants. combining performance. representing about 30 fte divided over 100 part time teachers. recording work and teaching.Sound Links ± Full Report 115 By Peter Renshaw EpilogueSound Links ± Full Report 116 EPILOGUE By Peter Renshaw. it is too early to draw any conclusions about the exact relation between world music graduates and the market. with a total turnover that is estimated to exceed 1000 million euro per annum. The total number of amateur courses. Conclusions On the basis of the data above. we can conclude that cultural diversity has generated a substantial market for world musicians in performance. The first data suggest. that professionally trained world musicians develop a mixed job profile. ranging from Turkish saz to black gospel choir. This figure excludes activities in other areas of education. project moderator . Because the information is disjointed and the field is relatively young. the recording industry and education.have included intercultural music education in their regular programmes. is about 100.
The two are not synonymous. For example. . Any such commitment will be realized only through the openness and sensibility of the culture of the whole institution. The issues raised in the Report are complex. A fundamental shift in mindset can lead to new structures. are to be congratulated on presenting a clear analysis of the central issues connected with cultural diversity in institutions for higher music education across Europe. it cannot be assumed that the inclusion of world music in the curriculum necessarily implies a commitment to cultural diversity. By widening opportunities and opening up access to musicians from many varied backgrounds. but they demonstrate that there is an urgency for institutions to address cultural diversity with an informed understanding and a clear resolve. The accompanying guide µFrom Policy to Practice¶ especially offers a practical guide for translating principles of policy into action. Huib Schippers (Project Supervisor) and Ninja Kors (Researcher and Project Manager). different forms of artistic practice and innovative approaches to learning and teaching. Drawing on the work of the Sound Links partners.The main architects of this Sound Links Report. the Report provides a clear framework that invites institutions to reappraise the ways in which they are responding to the challenges of cultural diversity. Several key questions arise from the main conclusions at the end of Part II of the Report.
excellence and quality are defined in relation to fitness for purpose and relevance to context. staff and students can be given opportunities to strengthen their sense of musical identity. it seems that there is an urgent need to produce a common framework for evaluating and assessing quality in accordance with diversity of need and purpose across all music . Evidence is shown where some cases of tradition-specific teaching in different music genres have become trapped in a single-minded tunnel vision which totally negates the open principles underpinning cultural diversity.an institution can find a creative energy and vitality through its growing diversity. The Report highlights the closed nature of some institutions for higher music education. Increasingly. It emphasizes that in a world characterized by the homogeneity of globalisation. By fostering a climate that respects cultural diversity. This is a lost opportunity for both the institution and individual musicians. it is essential for institutions to be open and receptive to the many different ways in which musicians can be encouraged to develop their creativity and find their own individual voice. One perceptive observation arises from a discussion of the danger of creating a new monoculture masquerading as cultural diversity. Perhaps one of the most fundamental points in the Report is the recognition that in a world which respects cultural diversity.
education and training of professional musicians in the 21st century.genres. Musical practice is now embedded in much wider social and cultural contexts than what is restricted to traditional music venues and recording studios. Emphasising the importance of cultural diversity and of widening participation in music provision. Finally. the Report draws attention to the widening employment possibilities arising from the growing diversity of the music industry. To achieve this. cultures and traditions. These changing roles have enormous implications for the future of institutions for higher music education. on increasing the proportion of trained musicians and teachers coming from («) those . it is pertinent to draw on a recent research project in England. In conclusion. which investigated the work. the Report asserts that: The development within the higher education sector of a wider range of musical genres and cultural traditions in music depends. performer. in part. institutions for higher music education need to engage in a collaborative mapping exercise which brings together appropriate criteria for making judgments within the diverse range of music activities. leader and teacher ± in different genres. Being a musician today involves having the opportunity to take on a series of roles ± those of composer.
In addition. a priority to retain quality and excellence at the highest international levelSound Links ± Full Report 117 if the music industry is to operate effectively on this global stage. No single institution can offer the diversity of genres that we have today. This suggests that a collaborative strategy between the conservatoires and other higher education institutions would enable the sector to diversify more and to extend the range of opportunities for excellence in different genres. too. but it also presents coherent insights into the complexity of cultural diversity and provides practical guidelines for future action. There is. Peter Renshaw Project Moderator Former Head of Research and Development . 2002. (Youth Music. Commissioned by the Higher Education Funding Council for England.19-20) Sound Links not only illuminates these views. the culture and ethos of many higher education institutions will have to change in order to absorb and do justice to this development.genres and traditions. («) Such genres cover western as well as minority ethnic and world music traditions. It is to be hoped that the observations and principles outlined in the Sound Links Report will inform the thinking and strategic planning of institutions for higher music education across Europe. pp. Creating a Land with Music.
Table: Expected hours of training over the life cycle 9. Bursaries available to Dutch students for study abroad 14. Questionnaire participants pilot (model) 5. Table: Educational expenditure for tertiary education 10. Questionnaire 1 (stage 2 of research) 3. Descriptions national education systems EU countries 7.Guildhall School of Music & DramaSound Links ± Full Report 118 1. Bologna Agreement (1999) 6. Table: Total mobility from the EU and other Western European countries 12. Questionnaire 2 (stage 3 of research) 4. Prices of degree-related courses abroad for US students 13. Analysis students and costs US colleges 8. European world music festivals: number of visitors 2002 Appendices . Survey stage 1: Brochures and websites (world-wide) 2. Table: Participation in job-related continuing education and training 11.
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