EEL 841 Solid State Controllers of Drives

Prof. Bhim Singh
Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016, India

Stepper Motor Drives


Stepper Motor
A stepper motor is an electromagnetic incremental actuator which converts digital pulse inputs to analog output shaft motion; The shaft of the stepper motor rotates in equal increments in response to a train of input pulses. When properly controlled, the output steps of a stepping motor are always equal in number to the number of input pulses.


Advantages of Stepper Motor
A stepper motor is inherently a discrete motion device, therefore it is more compatible with modern digital control techniques; It is more easily adaptable for interfacing with other digital components; The positional error in a stepper motor is noncumulative; It is possible to achieve accurate position and speed control with a step motor in an open loop system; Thus, avoiding the ordinary instability problems and elimination of feedback transducers;

Advantages of Stepper Motor
Power consumption for intermittent operation is reduced during quiescent periods for a permanent magnet type stepper motor; Design procedure is simpler for a stepper motor control system


Applications of Stepper Motor Drives 6 .

o Electro medical (high torque applications). o Numerical control of machine tools and robotics (high torque applications). o Computer peripherals and office equipments (medium torque. 7 . high performance. o Miscellaneous applications.Applications of Stepper Motor Stepper motor applications may be divided into following classes: o Instrumentation (low torque applications). high volume applications).

o Magnetic tape transport. o Paper tape drive. Computer peripherals: o Dot matrix and line printers.Applications of Stepper Motor Instrumentation: o Quartz watches. 8 . o Camera shutter operation. o Synchronized clocks. o Digital x-y plotter. o Mechanical converter (D/A). o Floppy disc drives.

o Ultrasound scanners. Electro-medical Applications: o X ray machines. Machine tool applications: o Numerically controlled (NC) milling machine. o CAT scanners. o Radiation therapy units. o Fax machine.Applications of Stepper Motor Office Equipments: o Electronic typewriter (serial printer). o Index table. o Robotics. 9 .

o UV spectrometer etc. o Constant flow hydraulic pumps.Applications of Stepper Motor Miscellaneous Applications: o Nuclear reactors. 10 . o Solar panel tracking. o Aerospace. o Tele operated TV camera.

Classification of Stepper Motor Drives 11 .

Classification of Stepper Motor 12 .

Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor It has permanent magnet on the rotor and also known as canstack motor. it is employed in paper feed motor of printers or head drive motor of a floppy disc drive. 13 . Due to its low manufacturing cost.

Cutaway View of 2 ph PM Stepper Motor 14 .

The torque developed by the motor shall be more in multi stack motor. The number of stator poles is an even multiple of the number of phases for which the stator windings are wound.Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor It has no permanent magnet either on the rotor or the stator. It can have single stack or multi stack construction. 15 . Rotor and stator both are made of soft iron stampings. The number of phases must be at least three for bidirectional control of stepper motor. The stator also has salient poles and carry stator windings. The rotor carries no windings and has salient pole construction.

Variable Reluctance (VR) Stepper Motor 6/4 pole 12/8 pole Single Stack 16 .

VR Multi Stack Stepper Motor Cross Section Parallel to Shaft 17 .

VR Multi Stack Stepper Motor Cross Section Parpendicular to Shaft 18 .

VR Multi Stack Stepper Motor 19 .

It provides détente torque with windings de-energized. Performance is affected by change in magnet strength. Less tendency to resonate. Higher holding torque capability.Hybrid Stepper Motor It has permanent magnet mounted on the rotor. Better damping due to the presence of rotor magnet. 20 . High stepping rate capability. High efficiency at lower speeds and lower stepping rates. It suffers from high inertia and weight due to presence of rotor magnets.

Hybrid Stepper Motor Cross Section Parallel to Shaft 21 .

Hybrid Stepper Motor Cross Section Perpendicular to Shaft 22 .

23 . These figures constitute 8 step sequence in which the rotor moves 45º per step. however. b.d. Figures a – h in next slide represent programmed sequence.g represent single phase energisation. The rotor will move further only when the pattern of energization of the stator windings is changed.f.g represent two phase energisation.e.c. Here one or two phases are alternatively energised.Operation of Hybrid Stepper Motor As long as the stator winding A and B are energised in a particular manner. Figures a. the rotor stays put in the corresponding position. therefore this sequence is known as hybrid or mixed or 1-2 sequence.

Hybrid Stepper Motor operation 24 .

8º Rotation Hybrid Stepper Motor It carries a cylindrical permanent magnet sandwiched between two rotor discs. There are 40 poles on the stator which can be in perfect alignment or misalignment depending on the switching. The stator and rotor both are made of soft iron stampings. 25 . Each rotor disc has 50 teeth and the stator has 8 poles with 5 teeth per pole.1.

1.8º Hybrid Stepper Motor 26 .

1.8º Hybrid Bifilar Stepper Motor 27 .

Characteristics of Stepper Motors 28 .

Static Characteristics Torque Angle Curve Torque Current Curve Hybrid motor torque and detente torque profile 29 .

Dynamic Characteristics Pull in curve: corresponds to start-stop or single stepping mode. Start Stop Mode Torque speed characteristic Slewing Mode 30 . Pull out curve: corresponds to slewing mode.

Dynamic Characteristics Start-stop Mode: rotor comes to rest after one step. Therefore motor can overrun by several steps before stopping. This phenomenon os a manifestation of instability of motor operation. Slewing Mode: rotor still moves in response to previous pulse when next pulse arrives. Mid Frequency Resonance : Pull in curve of stepper motor suddenly dips very low in particular range of stepping rates. 31 .

θs = 360º/Z Steps/revolution (Z) : For hybrid motor : Z=Nr. p.kws. 1-2 or hybrid) sequence of energization of stator winding.e. For single stack VR stepper motor : Ns = Nr ± p where p is no.m(m-1) for Ns > Nr. m is number of phases (minimum 3) 32 . i. 1 ph on or 2 ph on) Kws = 8 for 8 step (i.e. Kws = 4 for 4 step sequence (i.e.m(m+1) for Ns < Nr where Nr and Ns are number of teeth in rotor and stator respectively. of teeth per phase (minimum 2) Z = p.Some Definitions Step angle (θs) : It is the angle through which an unloaded stepper motor rotates for every step of the energization sequence.

33 . Détente torque is due to residual magnetism and is therefore present in PM or hybrid stepper motor only. and also known as torque sensitivity. Pull-in Torque (TPI) : It is the maximum torque that the stepper motor can develop in the start-stop mode at a given stepping rate Fs (steps/sec). Torque Constant (Kt) : It is the initial slope of the torque-current curve of the stepper motor. Detente Torque (TD) : It is the maximum load torque which the un-energized stepper motor can withstand without slipping.Some Definitions Holding Torque (TH) : It is the maximum load torque which the energized stepper motor can withstand without slipping from equilibrium position. without losing synchronism.

Pull-in Rate (FPI) : It is the maximum stepping rate at which the stepper motor will start or stop. without losing synchronism. 34 . against a load torque T. against a given load torque T. without losing synchronism. at a given torque T. Pull-out Rate (FPO) : It is the maximum stepping rate at which the stepper motor will slew. without losing synchronism. without missing steps. Response Range : It is the range of stepping rate at which the stepper motor can start or stop. Response range spans stepping rates Fs ≤ FPI. in the slewing mode.Some Definitions Pull-out Torque (TPO) : It is the maximum torque that the stepper motor can develop at a given stepping rate Fs (steps/sec).

against a given load torque T.Some Definitions Slewing Range : It is the range of stepping rate FPI ≤ Fs ≤ FPO at which the stepper motor can run in the slewing mode. 35 . Stiffness : It is the slope of the static torque / rotor position characteristic at the equilibrium position. without losing synchronism. Synchronism : This term means strict one to one correspondence between the number of pulses applied to the stepper motor and number of steps through which the motor has actually moved.

Analysis of Stepper Motors 36 .

the torque developed by the motor is approximately T = .TL /TPK)}/ p. TL = T = .Static Torque Production For a motor with p rotor teeth and a peak static torque TPK at a rotor displacement θ from the step position.TPK sin pθ. When a load torque TL is applied the rotor is displaced from the demanded position by the angle θe. The static position error is θe = {sin-1 (. static position error can be reduced either by increasing the peak static torque or by increasing the number of rotor teeth.TPK sin pθe. i. Therefore. at which the load and motor torques are equal. 37 . A motor with high stiffness develops a large torque for a small displacement from equilibrium.e.

the average torque produced is: 1 TM = θ1 − θ e ∫θ θ1 e −TPK sin ( pθ − π 2 ) dθ = TPK [sin pθ1 − sin pθe ] p (θ1 − θ e ) 38 . so the motor accelerates in positive direction.Static Torque Production Considering a 4 phase motor with two-phases-on excitation which gives approximately sinusoidal torque/position characteristic as shown. The first step command changes excitation to phases B & C and the static torque at the position θe then exceeds the load torque. Assuming that the motor has moved to θ1 with phase BC excited.

After one period of escitation t p the rotor is at position θ1 . therefore θ1 = (TM − TL ) t / J + θ e or t p = [ J (θ1 − θ e ) /(TM − TL )] 2 p 1/ 2 So the starting rate for the four phase motor is approximately : Starting rate = 1/t p = [ (TM − TL ) / J (θ1 − θ e )] 1/ 2 39 .Static Torque Production The equation of motion for the system inertia (J) is TM − TL = Jd 2θ / dt 2 which. after solving. gives θ = (TM − TL ) t 2 / J + θ e .

Converter Topologies for Stepper Motor Drives 40 .

3 phase Uni-polar Drive Circuit +Vs Forcing Resistance R Free wheeling Resistance Rf 1 2 3 Phase 1 control Signal Base Drive 41 .

Bipolar Drive Circuit (one phase) +Vs Phase 1+ control Signal Base Drive T1 D1 D2 Forcing Resistance R T2 Base Drive Phase 1control Signal Phase 1 winding Phase 1control Signal Base Drive T3 D3 D4 T4 Base Drive Phase 1+ control Signal 42 .

Uni-polar Drive Circuit for one phase of Bifilar Wound Stepper Motor +Vs Rf R • 1 • Phase 1+ control Signal Phase 1control Signal Rf Base Drive Base Drive 43 .

Uni-polar Bilevel Drive (one phase) Circuit Phase Current H 2 2 1 L 1 44 .

Uni-polar Chopper Drive Circuit (one phase) D2 T2 1 VH D1 T1 Rc Vc 45 .

Control Schemes for Stepper Motor Drives 46 .

Microprocessor based Open Loop Control for Stepper Motor 47 .

Constant Stepping Rate Open Loop Control 48 .

Closed Loop Control for Stepper Motor 49 .

Micro stepping Control of Stepper Motors 50 .

Micro Stepping Control Micro stepping control enables the stepper motor to move through a tiny micro step of size ∆θ << θs in response to input pulse. This overcomes the limited resolution and mid frequency response problems. The pull out curve of micro stepping control is shown 51 .

The resulting stator magnetic field will be at an angle θº (elect.t. However.r. The torque developed is same as developed under one-phaseon sequence. while IA1 = IR sin θ. The phasor diagram and the sequence table for micro stepping control is given in next slides. 52 . the stator magnetic field is made to rotate through a small angle θ << 90º in response to an input pulse. if the torque required is as under two-phase-on sequence then the magnitudes of the currents should be such that IA2 + IB2 = 2.) w. as the resultant current remains IR. the positive real axis.Micro Stepping Control In micro stepping control. This is achieved by modulating currents through windings B2 and A1 in such a way that IB2 = IR Cos θ.

Micro Stepping Principle 53 .

Circuit for Micro Stepping Control Current Controller A Current Controller B Power supply IA IB Phase A Phase B 1 2 3 4 54 .

Micro Stepping Table 55 .

Block Diagram of Micro-stepping Controller 56 .

Block Diagram of Micro-Friend II Kit 57 .

Advantages of Micro Stepping Improvement in resolution by the factor MSR (micro stepping ratio) i. Rapid motion at a micro stepping rate MFs = MSR. DC motor like smooth performance. 125 and powers of 2 up to 128. 58 .Fs where Fs is full stepping rate. 10.e. θs usual values of MSR are 5. Elimination of mid frequency resonance. MSR = θs /∆θ in as much as the smallest angle through which the motor rotates per input pulse is : ∆θ = (1/MSR).

. publishers.Acarnley. “theory and applications of step motors. 59 . Leenhouts. B.. 4. 3.” west publishing co.C. 1997. “The art and practice of step motor control. P.. 1987. Athani.” Intertec communications Inc. A. “Stepping Motors : a guide to modern theory and practice.P.C. “ Stepper Motors: fundamentals. New age international (P) ltd. New Delhi. 2. V. applications and design”.References 1.V. Kuo. 1974.” Peter Peregrinus Ltd. 1982.

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