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DCO21614 Week-5 Tutorial Solutions

Name: ____________________________

Student I.D.: ____________________________

Tutorial Date/Time: ____________________________

Please answer the following questions. You can extend this Word file and type (or write) your
answer right after each of the corresponding questions. Alternatively you can put all your
answers on other sheets.

1. List the different types of terminals and briefly describe the purpose of each type.

● Passenger Terminal – it acts as an interface between landside and the aircrafts for the
passengers. It takes all processes to enable passengers to embark and dis-embark the
aircrafts smoothly, safely and securely. It also has commercial shops and lounges to
provide convenience and comfort to passengers.
● Cargo Terminal – it is a structure to allow save handling of cargos, preparing them for
shipping through the aircrafts. It also handles arriving cargos, getting them ready for
transportation through local land or water transportation.
● Air Mail Terminal – it is a building to prepare air mails to be transported through
aircrafts or receive mails arriving through aircrafts.

2. There are two basic configurations for airport terminals – centralized and de-centralized.
Can you briefly describe their difference?

In the centralized configuration, the aprons are right next to the terminal building. In
the de-centralized configuration aprons are detached from the terminal building. They
are connected to the terminal through hallways.

3. What are the factors considered when deciding what terminal configuration should be
used when designing an airport terminal?

● The amount of land available relative to the estimated passenger throughput – how much
land is available, and how many aircrafts will be needed at any time.
● The geographical relationship to the taxiways and the runway(s) planned – can arriving
aircrafts reach the terminal safely through the taxiways?
● The estimated flight schedules at peak hours – is space enough for pushback of the

4. (a) What is the difference in pax handling (embarkation and disembarkation) between
frontal and remote parking stands?
(b) What is/are the advantage(s) of each of them?
(a) For frontal parking stand, passengers embark or disembark an aircraft via an air-
bridge joining between the plane and the terminal building; for remote parking
stand, passengers embark or disembark an aircraft via a bus to a location off the
terminal building;
(b) It is more convenient and secure for passengers (and flight staff) to use frontal
stand parking, and more comfortable, especially in case of bad weather. However,
if there is a congestion in boarding gates, the remote parking can save up the
aircraft queuing time for available boarding gates (hence save up passengers’
waiting time, and the airline’s landing fees); it also save up the airport’s
investment in constructing more terminal facilities.

5. (a) What are the advantages of using computerized stand allocation systems?
(b) Under what circumstances should stand allocation be computerized, and under what
circumstances traditional manual allocation should be used?
(a) The use of computerized stand allocation system matches parking stand allocation
with arrival or terminating flights. The system can provide logistics control on
boarding gate allocation, flight interface (i.e. airbridge, passenger bus, passenger
step, as well as RHO) and baggage handling, which is sometimes extremely
complicated for human to do. Computerized allocation is especially important if a
change of plan is required due to unexpected circumstances like bad weather. In
such case, a re-arrangement is necessary to be completed in a short period of time.
Human allocation can be chaotic.
(b) For large airports with heavy airplane throughput like hubs or large airports with
decentralized facilities need computerized stand allocation most. Small airports
with low airplane throughput can use manual stand allocation

6. What are the key processes a normal arrival passenger has to go through before they
board a landside transport and leave the airport?
Arrival Gate  Arrival Hall Airside  Quarantine  Immigration  Baggage Hall 
Custom Clearance  Landside Arrival Hall  Transportation

7. What are the key processes a normal departure passenger has to go through before they
board leave the airport in the aircraft?

Transportation  Departure Kerbside  Departure Hall  Check- in Area  Airside

Access  Security Check  Immigration  Waiting Area  Boarding Gate  Air-
bridge  aircraft