Social Cognitive Theory Albert Bandura Walter Mischel People are viewed as -Active problem solvers, -Active construers

of their world, and -Users of their cognitive processes to -Represent events -Anticipate the future -Choose among courses of action -Communicate with others Emphasizes the social origins of behavior Emphasizes systematic research to learn about personality Reciprocal Determinism

Observational Learning: Model & Observer Acquisition vs Performance -Observers learn without being directly rewarded -Observers perform only the behaviors they believe will lead to reinforcement -Bobo doll studies: Consequences to the model (model rewarded, punished, or no consequences for aggression; observers in no incentive or positive incentive condition) Vicarious Conditioning Expectancies: anticipated or predicted consequences of specific behaviors in specific situations -Expectancies, not reinforcement, maintain behavior Generalized Expectancies: Locus of Control (Rotter) Situation-Specific Expectancies Outcome Expectancies: If...then expectancies If this kind of situation, then this is what can expect to happen. -Behavioral Signatures (Mischel) -Self-Efficacy Expectancies: Beliefs about ability to handle the tasks and challenges presented by particular kinds of situations -Microanalytic research strategy Self-Regulation: Goals Internal Standards Self-reinforcement (Self-produced consequences) Competencies-Skills -Cognitive Competencies: Ability to solve problems to achieve goals

not every behavior they have learned. produced the change in condom use. Psychopathology -The result of maladaptive learning from direct experience or from exposure to inadequate or aberrant models. Accumulated an impressive research record 2. -Self-efficacy expectancies influence behavior.g.-Behavioral Competencies: Ability to perform tasks to achieve goals The Role of Self-Efficacy in Self-Regulation -Goal Selection -Effort. even maladaptive ones. Group 1 was more likely than both other groups to have increased actual condom use. -Results suggest a difference between learning & performance: people perform behaviors that they believe they can perform successfully and that they believe will yield the outcomes they desire. especially the response to stress Behavior Change through Modeling and Guided Mastery Through watching models and receiving guidance in performing the modeled behavior. Groups 1 and 2 scored higher on safe-sex self-efficacy and were more likely to report the intention to use a condom. often due to -Dysfunctional self-evaluations: maladaptive. These changes in self-efficacy expectancies can lead to behavior change Strengths of Social Cognitive Theory 1. changes in self-efficacy expectancies can occur. Concerned with important human social behaviors .. Conclusion: The increase in safe-sex self-efficacy. Follow-up: Two months later. Dysfunctional Expectancies -Maladapative expectations about the consequences of specific behaviors. e. avoidance learning Dysfunctional Self-conceptions -Perceived low self-efficacy or perceived inefficacy: the feeling that one cannot perform the necessary tasks or cope with the demands of the situation -Anxiety: the result of perceived low self-efficacy to potential threats -Fear-of-fear: the perceived inability to cope with anxiety -Depression: the result of perceived low self-efficacy to gain desired rewarding outcomes. Performance -Emotion -Coping Basen-Engquist (1994) Question: How can we motivate people to use condoms? Hypothesis: Higher self-efficacy people will use condoms more. not mere information about HIV. Manipulated self-efficacy by placement into three groups Group 1: Participated in a safe-sex efficacy workshop Group 2: Listened to a lecture on HIV Group 3: Listened to a lecture on an unrelated topic Outcome: Post-Test: Compared to Group 3. Persistence. excessively high goals and standards for reward and self-reward -Self-efficacy and Health: -Self-efficacy Expectancies affect health-related behaviors -Self-efficacy Expectancies affect physiological functioning. -We learn and are vicariously rewarded for many behaviors. -Sex education is inadequate to alter safe-sex behavior because information is not always translated into behavior.

handout . loosely organized 2. stop smoking? -Relies on self-reports excessively 3.3...g. Controversial issues: -Is reinforcement necessary for both learning and performance? -Is self-efficacy just another outcome expectancy? -Why are some self-efficacy expectancies stable and others susceptible to rapid change? -If self-efficacy expectancies are situation specific.htm . how do they relate to broader personality? -Why are some self-efficacy beliefs apparently unrelated to behavior. role of reward in learning.lec22.uwm. Focused on important theoretical issues.SocialCognitiveTheory. the stability of behavior 5. Reasonable view of people and concern with the social implications of the theory Limitations of Social Cognitive Theory 1. unified theory. e. Neglected areas: -Maturation and changes over the lifespan ignored -Minimal attention to motivation. Not a fully systematized. and emotion 4.g.205. Findings are preliminary -Are cognitive processes the basic concepts of personality? -Are modeling and guided participation able to handle many psychological problems? https://pantherfile. e. An evolving theory that is open to change 4.edu/vince/www/psy205/wwwcourse. conflict.

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