Java Persistence API

Best Practices
Carol McDonald Java Architect


>Entity Manager >Persistence Context >Entities >Schema & Queries >Transaction

EntityManager API for managing entities

set of entities managed by Entity Manager

Servlets EJBs Java app

persist() remove() refresh() merge() find() createQuery() contains() flush()




Catalog Java EE Application
Registration Application
Managed Bean

Entity Class




Catalog Session Bean

JSF Components


int batchSize) { Query q = em. @TransactionAttribute(NOT_SUPPORTED) public List<Item> getItems(int firstItem. } } 5 . List<Item> items= q.setMaxResults(batchSize). return items. q.S t a t e l e s s S e s s io n B e a n A n n o t a t io n EJB EntityManager Example D e p e n d e n c y In j e c t io n @Stateless public class Catalog implements CatalogService { @PersistenceContext(unitName=”PetCatalogPu”) EntityManager em. q.createQuery ("select i from Item as i").setFirstResult(firstItem).getResultList().

Catalog Spring JPA Application Registration Application Managed Bean Entity Class Item DB ItemController Catalog Spring Bean JSF Components Spring Framework 6 .

q.setMaxResults(batchSize). @Transactional(readOnly=true) public List<Item> getItems(int firstItem. q.getResultList().setFirstResult(firstItem).int batchSize) { Query q = em.Spring with JPA Component Stereotype Spring transactions use aop @Repository @Transactional public class CatalogDAO implements CatalogService { @PersistenceContext(unitName="PetCatalogPu") private EntityManager em.createQuery("select object(o) from Item as o"). } 7 . return items. List<Item> items= q.

Container vs Application Managed Container managed entity managers (EJB. Spring Bean. Seam component) • Injected into application • Automatically closed • JTA transaction – propagated Application managed entity managers > Used outside of the JavaEE 5 platform > Need to be explicitly created ● Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory() > RESOURCE_LOCAL transaction – not propagated > Need to explicitly close entity manager 8 .

Agenda >Entity Manager >Persistence Context >Entities >Queries >Transaction 9 .

Persistence Context • Persistence context acts as a first level cache for entities • Two types of persistence context > Transaction scoped > Extended scoped set of entities managed by Entity Manager EntityManager persist() remove() refresh() merge() find() createQuery() contains() flush() persistence context createNamedQuery()Persistence Context 10 .

Level1 and Level2 caches Persistence Context is a Level 1 cache Transaction Transaction Transaction Persistence Context (EntityManager) Persistence Context (EntityManager) Persistence Context (EntityManager) L2 Cache (Shared Cache) Entity managers for a specific PersistenceUnit on a given Java Virtual Machine (JVM™) The terms “Java Virtual Machine” and “JVM” mean a Virtual Machine for the Java™ Platform. Source: 11 .net/blog/guruwons/ archive/2006/09/understanding_t.

Entity Lifecycle new() New Entity Detached Entity Updates PC ends persist() Persistence Context Managed Entity Managed Managed Entity Entity Merge() find() Transaction commit Guaranteed Scope of Object Identity only one manage entity in PC represents a row remove() Removed Entity 12 .

Entity Lifecycle Illustrated – The Code @Stateless public ShoppingCartBean implements ShoppingCart { New entity @PersistenceContext EntityManager entityManager. return (orderLine).persist(orderLine). product). Persisten context public OrderLine createOrderLine(Product product . Managed entity } Detached entity } 13 . entityManager. Order order) { OrderLine orderLine = new OrderLine(order.

getId())). Persistence context public OrderLine createOrderLine(Product product. entityManager. (orderLine == orderLine2) // TRUE return (orderLine). } Multiple retrievals of the same object return references to the same object instance } 14 . product).Order order) OrderLine orderLine = new OrderLine(order. orderLine. OrderLine orderLine2 =entityManager.Scope of Identity @Stateless public ShoppingCartBean implements ShoppingCart { @PersistenceContext EntityManager entityManager.persist(orderLine).find(OrderLine.

Persistence Context • Two types of persistence context • Transaction scoped > Used in stateless components > Typically begins/ends at request entry/exit points respectively • Extended scoped persistence context 15 .

createOrder(item). Product p) { inv.updateInventory(Product p) } } Persistence context 16 .Persistence Context Propagation @Stateless public class ShoppingCartBean implements ShoppingCart { @EJB InventoryService inv. @EJB OrderService ord. ord. public void checkout(Item i.

Persistence Context Propagation @Stateless public class OrderServiceBean implements OrderService { @PersistenceContext EntityManager em1. } } @Stateless public class InventoryServiceBean implements InventoryService { @PersistenceContext EntityManager em2.. public void createOrder(Item item) { em1. .persist(new Order(item)). } 17 ..merge(p). public void updateInventory(Product p) { Product product = em2.

Create Order Order Service PC TX_REQUIRED 18 . Update Inventory Inventory Service PC TX_REQUIRED TX_REQUIRED Transaction Attributes 2.Declarative Transaction Management Example Check Out New Persistence Context Persistence Context Propagated Shopping Cart PC 1.

} 19 .AuditServiceBean @Stateless public class AuditServiceBean implements AuditService { @PersistenceContext private EntityManager em. NEW PC ! @TransactionAttribute(REQUIRES_NEW) public void logTransaction2(int id.persist(lr). String action) { LogRecord lr = new LogRecord(id. em. action).

Update Inventory Inventory Service REQUIRED PC Transaction Attributes 2. log transaction Audit Service PC2 REQUIRES_NEW NEW PC ! 20 .Declarative Transaction Management Example 2 Check Out New Persistence Context Persistence Context Propagated Shopping Cart REQUIRED PC 1.

UPDATE and DELETE statements • Minimizes database interactions • EntityManager flush SQL prior to commit 21 .Persistence Provider PC Transaction Features • Attribute-level change tracking • Only the minimal updates are sent to the database • Orders INSERT.

Conversation with detached entity Conversation request response transaction-scoped persistence context Persistence Context Managed Entity Managed Managed Entity Entity request Detached Entity Detached Entity response transaction-scoped persistence context Persistence Context Managed Entity Managed Managed Entity Entity merge() 22 .

Order order) { OrderLine orderLine = new OrderLine(order. } } Managed entity 23 . return orderLine2.Conversation with detached entity @Stateless public ShoppingCartBean implements ShoppingCart { @PersistenceContext EntityManager entityManager. entityManager. Managed entity return (orderLine). product).merge(orderLine)). } Detached entity public OrderLine updateOrderLine(OrderLine orderLine){ OrderLine orderLine2 =entityManager.persist(orderLine). public OrderLine createOrderLine(Product product.

Types of Persistence Context • Persistence Context > lifetime maybe transaction-scoped or extended • Transaction-scoped persistence context • Extended persistence context > spans multiple transactions 24 .

Conversation with Exented Persistence Context Conversation request response request response extended persistence context Persistence Context Managed Entity Managed Entity Managed Entity 25 .

EXTENDED) EntityManager em.Extended Persistence Context @Stateful public class OrderMgr { //Specify that we want an EXTENDED @PersistenceContext(type=PersistenceContextType. em.lineItems. } Managed entity 26 . //Cached order private Order order. //create and cache order public void createOrder(String itemId) { //order remains managed for the lifetime of the bean Order order = new Order(cust).add(li). Managed entity } public void addLineItem(OrderLineItem li){ order.persist(order).

@TransactionAttribute(NOT_SUPPORTED) public void getDepartment(int deptId) { dept = em. } @Remove @TransactionAttribute(REQUIRES_NEW) public void endUpdate(int deptId) { dept = em.empId).find(Employee.add(emp).Extended Persistence Context @Stateful public class DeptMgr { @PersistenceContext(type=PersistenceContextType.getEmployees().find(Department.find(Department. } 27 .class.deptId).EXTENDED) EntityManager em. private Department dept. emp.class.class.setDepartment(dept). } @TransactionAttribute(NOT_SUPPORTED) public void addEmployee(int empId){ emp = em. dept.deptId).

Persistence Context-Transactional vs. Extended
@Stateless public class


implements OrderService {

@PersistenceContext EntityManager em; public void addLineItem(OrderLineItem li){ // First, look up the order. Order order = em.find(Order.class, orderID); order.lineItems.add(li); }

look up the order

public class


implements OrderService {

@PersistenceContext(type = PersistenceContextType.EXTENDED)) EntityManager em; Managed entity // Order is cached Order order public void addLineItem(OrderLineItem li){ No em.find invoked // No em.find invoked for the order object order.lineItems.add(li); }

Persistence Context Micro Benchmark
• Micro benchmark with lots of lookups • Persistence context is caching entities
120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Extended Transactional

Source: Internal benchmarks

SEAM Conversations
@Name("shopper") @Scope(CONVERSATION) public class BookingManager { @In EntityManager entityManager; private Booking booking; @Begin public void selectHotel(Hotel selectedHotel){ hotel = em.merge(selectedHotel); } @End public void confirm() { em.persist(booking); } }

SEAM injected

SEAM conversation

Concurrency and Persistence Context
User 1 transaction Persistence Context 1 same entity
Entity Manager Entity Manager

User 2 transaction Persistence Context 2

Object Identity only one manage entity in PC represents a row

Data source

Optimistic versus Pessimistic Concurrency • Optimistic Concurrency > Pros—No database locks held > Cons—Requires a version attribute in schema ● user or app must refresh and retry failed updates > Suitable when application has few parallel updates • Pessimistic Concurrency > Lock the row when data is read in ● database locks the row upon a select ● (SELECT . supported in JPA 2.0 > Suitable when application has many parallel updates 32 .0 (vendor specific). FOR UPDATE [NOWAIT]) > Pros—Simpler application code > Cons—Database locks ● limits concurrent access to the data = scalability ● May cause deadlocks ● Not in JPA 1. . .

. Integer... @Version int version. merged or acquiring a write lock OptimisticLockException if mismatch Not used by the application! 33 .. Timestamp Used by persistence manager . long. short. version = version + 1 WHERE id = ? AND version = readVersion” Version Updated when transaction commits. Long. Short.Preventing Parallel Updates use @Version for optimistic locking public class Employee { @ID int id.. Results in following SQL “UPDATE Employee SET . . Can be int.

tx1. //Joe's employee id is 5 //e1.getRate() < 10) e1. //Joe's rate is $14 //OptimisticLockException 34 .version == 2 in db //Joe's rate is $11 //Joe's current rate is $9 if(e1.version == 1 e1 = findPartTimeEmp(5).commit().raise(5).commit(). //e1.version == 1 e1 = findPartTimeEmp(5).raise(2).Preventing Parallel Updates – 1 tx1.begin(). //Joe's current rate is $9 tx2. //Joe's employee id is 5 //e1. e1.version == 1 in db? tx2.begin(). Time //e1.

35 . READ). perform a version check on entity before commit OptimisticLockException if mismatch perform a version check on entity OptimisticLockException if mismatch and increment version before commit entityManager.lock( entity. WRITE).0 • Perform read or write locks on entities • Prevents non-repeatable reads in JPA entityManager.lock( entity.Preventing Stale Data JPA 1.

version in db tx2. tx2. READ).commit(). e1 = findEmp(eId).begin().setName(“MarketEngrg”).lock(d1. tx1. d1 = findDepartment(dId).Preventing Stale Data tx1. em.raiseByTenPercent().commit(). d1 = e1. //e1 gets the raise he does //not deserve //Transaction rolls back 36 . //d1's original name is //”Engrg” d1. Time //Check d1.getDepartment(). if(d1's name is “Engrg”) e1.begin().

getDepartment().commit().lock(d1. if(d1's name is “Engrg”) e1. d1 = findDepartment(dId).flush(). //version++ for d1 em. //tx rolls back Time tx2.begin(). d1 = e1. tx1. em.setName(“MarketEngrg”).commit().begin(). 37 . WRITE). tx2.raiseByTenPercent(). //d1's original name is //”Engrg” d1.Preventing Parallel Updates – 2 Write lock prevents parallel updates tx1. e1 = findEmp(eId).

. .JPA 2.0 also supports pessimistic locks • JPA 2.0 Locks • JPA1. FOR UPDATE ) 38 . JPA 2.0 LockMode values : > > > > • Multiple places to specify lock OPTIMISTIC (= READ) OPTIMISTIC_FORCE_INCREMENT (= WRITE) PESSIMISTIC database locks the row PESSIMISTIC_FORCE_INCREMENT (SELECT .0 only supported optimistic locking.

find(Account.getBalance().0 Locking //Read then lock: Account acct = em.JPA 2.100).setBalance(balance .100).find(Account. PESSIMISTIC).PESSIMISTIC). acctId).getBalance().lock(acct. acct. Locks longer. deadlock 39 . int balance = acct. risk stale. could cause OptimisticLock Exception //Read and lock: Account acct = em.class. acctId. acct. // Decide to withdraw $100 (already locked) int balance = acct. // Decide to withdraw $100 so lock it for update em. could cause bottlenecks.class. Lock after read.setBalance(balance .

class.getBalance(). deadlock ●Lock later : risk stale data for update. acctId). int balance = acct. // Decide to withdraw $100 . acct.JPA 2.0 Locking Trade-offs: ●lock earlier : risk bad scalability.find(Account.100). “right” approach depends on requirements 40 . PESSIMISTIC). get optimistic lock exception ● // read then lock and refresh Account acct = em.lock and refresh em.setBalance(balance .refresh(acct.

L2 cache shared across transactions and users Putting it all together User Session User Session User Session Persistence Context (EntityManager) Persistence Context (EntityManager) Persistence Context (EntityManager) L2 Cache (Shared Cache) (EntityManagerFactory) Entity managers for a specific PersistenceUnit on a given Java Virtual Machine (JVM™) 41 .

entities not found in persistence context. will be loaded from L2 cache. if found • Best for read-mostly classes • L2 Cache is Vendor specific > Java Persistence API 1. provide second-level cache(s) 42 . OpenJPA ..Hibernate. EclipseLink.Second-level Cache • L2 Cache shares entity state across various persistence contexts > If caching is enabled..0 does not specify L2 support > Java Persistence API 2.0 has basic cache operations > Most persistence providers-.

other queries go to database or query cache L2 Cache Data source 43 .L2 Cache User transaction 1 same entity not shared Persistence Context Persistence Context User transaction 2 Shared entity Entity Entity query that looks for a single object based on Id will go 1st to PC then to L2 cache.

or pessimistic lock) ●Bad scalability for frequent or concurrently updated entities 44 .L2 Caching • Pros: > avoids database access for already loaded entities ●faster for reading frequently accessed unmodified entities • Cons > memory consumption for large amount of objects > Stale data for updated objects > Concurrency for write (optimistic lock exception.

refresh policy to minimize lock failures • Configure Query cache > Useful for queries that are run frequently with the same parameters.L2 Caching • Configure L2 caching for entities that are > read often > modified infrequently > Not critical if stale • protect any data that can be concurrently modified with a locking strategy > Must handle optimistic lock failures on flush/commit > configure expiration. for not modified tables 45 .

public void evictAll(). public void evict(Class class). // invalidates object in the IdentityMap public void evict(Class class. Object pk). Object pk).0 Shared Cache API • entity cache shared across persistence unit > Accessible from EntityManagerFactory • Supports only very basic cache operations > Can be extended by vendors public class Cache { //checks if object is in IdentityMap public boolean contains(Class class.JPA 2. // Invalidates all classes in the IdentityMap } 46 . // invalidates the class in the IdentityMap.

EclipseLink Caching Architecture EntityManager EntityManager Factory EclipseLink caches Entities in L2. Hibernate does not L1 Cache PC Cache Server L2 Shared Cache Cache Coordination JMS (MDB) RMI CORBA IIOP 47 .

RMI. expiration. SYNC+NEW. type.refreshing > Coordination (cluster-messaging) ● Messaging: JMS. NONE 48 . invalidation. RMI-IIOP. coordination.EclipseLink Extensions . size. INVALIDATE.L2 Caching • Default: Entities read are L2 cached • Cache Configuration by Entity type or Persistence Unit > You can disable L2 cache • Configuration Parameters > Cache isolation. … ● Mode: SYNC.

disableHits=true. coordination ● Cache usage and refresh query hints 49 . coordinationType=INVALIDATE_CHANGED_OBJECTS ) public class Employee implements Serializable { . cache usage. alwaysRefresh=true.EclipseLink Mapping Extensions Type= @Entity @Table(name="EMPLOYEE") @Cache ( type=CacheType.. isolated=false. } Full: objects never flushed unless deleted or evicted weak: object will be garbage collected if not referenced =true disables L2 cache @Cache ● type. expiry=600000. expiry.isolated. refresh.WEAK.. size.

SwarmCacheProvider (JVM) > JBoss TreeCache Cluster > Can plug in others like Terracotta Cache Concurrency Strategy Cache EHCache OSCache SwarmCache JBoss Cache Type memory. Hibernate caches Id and state • Hibernate L2 cache is pluggable > EHCache.Hibernate L2 Cache • Hibernate L2 cache is not configured by default • Hibernate L2 does not cache Entities. disk clustered clustered Read-only Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Read-write Yes Yes Transactional 50 . OSCache. disk memory.

.optional configuration file parameter --> not configured by default net. } Cache Concurrency Strategy must be supported by cache provider 51 ..sf.NONSTRICT_READ_WRITE) public Class Country { private String name.Hibernate L2 Cache <!-.ehcache.configurationResourceName=/name_of_configuration_resource @Entity @Cache(usage = CacheConcurrencyStrategy..

OpenJPA L2 Caching • OpenJPA L2 caches object data and JPQL query • • • • results Updated when data is loaded from database and after changes are successfully committed For cluster caches are notified when changes are made Can plug in implementations... } 52 . such as Tangosol’s Coherence product several cache eviction strategies: > Time-to-live settings for cache instances @Entity @DataCache(timeout=5000) public class Person { .

Agenda >Entity Manager >Persistence Context >Entities >Schema and Queries >Transaction 53 .

add(e3).Maintaining Relationship • Application bears the responsibility of maintaining relationship between objects deptA. Before Employee1 After Employee1 Department A Employee2 Department A Inconsistent! Department B Employee2 Department B Employee3 Employee3 54 .getEmployees().

.. private String firstName. ... private String name. fetch=LAZY) private Collection<Employee> emps = new . } 55 .. @OneToMany(mappedBy = "dept". @ManyToOne(fetch=LAZY) private Department dept.Example – Domain Model @Entity public class Employee { @Id private int id... . private String lastName. } @Entity public class Department { @Id private int id.

.) { Employee e = new Employee(.. e.size(). em.persist(e).. } 56 .Example – Managing Relationship INCORRECT public int addNewEmployee(. return d.setDepartment(d)..getEmployees().).. //Reverse relationship is not set em.).. Department d = new Department(1.persist(d). .

em.. em.). d.add(e).persist(d). } 57 ..Example – Managing Relationship CORRECT public int addNewEmployee(.. Department d = new Department(1.setDepartment(d)..) { Employee e = new Employee(.persist(e). .size().. e.. return d.getEmployees().).getEmployees().

Navigating Relationships Data fetching strategy • EAGER – immediate • LAZY – loaded only when needed • LAZY is good for large objects and/or with relationships with deep hierarchies 58 .

FROM Employee e WHERE loading and JPA @Entity public class Department { @Id private int .. .deptId = ? // N times 59 . FROM Department d // 1 time SELECT e..... . @OneToMany(mappedBy = "dept") private Collection<Employee> emps . } • Default FetchType is LAZY for 1:m and m:n relationships > benefits large objects and relationships with deep hierarchies • However for use cases where data is needed can cause n+1 selects • LAZY – N + 1 problem: SELECT d.

fetch=EAGER) private Collection<Employee> employees . @OneToMany(mappedBy = "dept". use Join Fetch in a query: @NamedQueries({ @NamedQuery(name="getItEarly".. . query="SELECT d FROM Department d JOIN FETCH d. } 60 ..employees")}) public class Department{ . could load too much ! OR • Temporarily override the LAZY fetch type. } Can cause Cartesian product • Relationship can be Loaded Eagerly > But if you have several related relationships...Lazy loading and JPA @Entity public class Department { @Id private int id...

level" value="FINE"> • Test run use cases and examine the SQL statements > optimise the number of SQL statements executed! > only retrieve the data your application needs! • Lazy load large (eg BLOB) attributes and relationships that are not used often • Override to Eagerly load in use cases where needed 61 .Lazy loading and JPA • Capture generated SQL > persistence.logging.xml file:<property name="toplink.

Navigating Relationships Detached Entity • Accessing a LAZY relationship from a detached entity > If not loaded . Causes an exception • Solutions: > Use JOIN FETCH > Or Set Fetch type to EAGER > Or Access the collection before entity is detached: d. Persistence Context Managed Entity 62 .size().getEmployees().

REFRESH > The default is do nothing • Avoid MERGE. PERSIST. ALL with deep hierarchies > If want to do it. MERGE.Navigating Relationships Data fetching strategy • Cascade specifies operations on relationships > ALL. REMOVE. limit the scope 63 .

. @OneToMany private Collection<DepartmentCode> codes. @OneToMany(mappedBy = "dept" cascade=ALL.. } 64 . cascade=ALL @ManyToOne(cascade=ALL....Using Cascade @Entity public class Employee { Employee @Id private int id. private String lastName. X } @Entity public class Department { DepartmentCode @Id private int id. private String firstName. ... fetch=LAZY) Department private Department dept. private String name. fetch=LAZY) private Collection<Employee> emps = new . .

Agenda >Entity Manager >Persistence Context >Entities >Schema and Queries >Transaction 65 .

can  ve  t   gi beter peror ance f m > U se  sm al dat t as  l  a ypes  possi e as  bl > use  sm al  i ar key  possi e as  lprm y  as  bl > Veri   tton: tcalParii ●spltl ge.Database design Basic foundation of performance • Sm alert es  l  abl use ess  sk.i r i ar  nfequenty  l used  um ns nt a  col i o  separ e  at one­o­ t one abl t e • U se  good ndexi i ng > I ndexes  Speed  Q uer up  ys > I ndexes  ow   sl dow n  pdat U es > I ndex  um ns r col fequenty  l used n  uer W her cl i Q y  e  ause 66 .l m em or   l di  ess  y.

●there's less data to change. • However Normalized database causes joins for queries > Queries maybe slower > Normalize then maybe De-normalize frequently read columns and cache them 67 .Normalization • Normalization Eliminates redundant data > updates are usually faster.

Mapping Inheritance Hierarchies Employee --------------------------int id String firstName String lastName Department dept PartTimeEmployee ------------------------ FullTimeEmployee ----------------------- int rate double salary 68 .

varchar(30) • Requires columns corresponding to subclasses' state to be null • Table can have too many columns > Larger tables= more data. int NULL. can have negative affects on performance – 69 . varchar(255). int FK.Single Table Per Class Benefits @Inheritance(strategy=SINGLE_TABLE) • Simple EMPLOYEE --------------------------• No joins required ID Int PK. double NULL. > can be fast for Queries Drawbacks • Not normalized > Wastes space FIRSTNAME LASTNAME DEPT_ID RATE SALARY DISCRIM varchar(255).

varchar(255).Joined Subclass @Inheritance(strategy=JOINED) EMPLOYEE ID FIRSTNAME LASTNAME DEPT_ID int PK. Benefits • Normalized database > Better for storage • Database view same as domain model • Easy to evolve domain model Drawbacks • Queries cause joins > Slower queries > Poor performance for deep PARTTIMEEMPLOYEE ID int PK FK. int FK. SALARY double NULL hierarchies. varchar(255). RATE int NULL FULLTIMEEMPLOYEE ID int PK FK. polymorphic queries and relationships 70 .

int FK.Table Per Class Benefits • No need for joins to read entities of same type > Faster reads @Inheritance(strategy=TABLE_PER_CLASS) Drawbacks • Not normalized > Wastes space PARTTIMEEMPLOYEE ID int PK. DEPT_ID int FK. LASTNAME varchar(255). double NULL • Polymorphic queries cause union (all employees) > Poor performance • This strategy is not mandatory 71 . FIRSTNAME varchar(255). RATE int NULL FULLTIMEEMPLOYEE ID FIRSTNAME LASTNAME DEPT_ID SALARY int PK. varchar(255). varchar(255).

nR5N  aC)U lmH L aeAN s RO tV(T _A2  .tX  uT sr  ieN g U nTL aE . EI Nn Go ID N CTuI RAsn EBtf ALoo TEm  E e(  Cr  iN u T sI  eNN rTU _ L dO ._A2   nR5N faC)U imH L reAN s RO tV(T .E  X bT i  oN  U TL . EM Ny GI IS NA • limit number of columns per table • split large. EI Nn Go ID N Frequently referenced CTu( RAs EBt ALo TEm E e  Cr  iN NT u TAC sI UR eNNTE rTUOM _ L_E dO IN .nRT  c(  pe2N r )U oC L vHN iAO .a RO  yV(T d_A5  inR0N saC)U pmH L leAN . RO  V(T eA8  mR0N aC)U iH L lAN .eX  sT it  nsN t U eTL rE .oRO  r(T pd4  a 1N sC)U wA L HN .E ek  X(si FTitl U nss LKt.vertical partitioning CTu  RAs( EBt ALo TEm E e  Cr  iN NT u TAC sI UR eNNTE rTUOM _ L_E dO IN .) TYrs Ee  )EM  =._A2   nR5N faC)U imH L reAN s RO tV(T . TEXT data .nRT  c(  pe2N r )U oC L vHN iAO .sH L   RO aV(T dA8  rR0N eC)U AN .oRT  d(  pe7N o )U sC L tHN cAO .a RO  yV(T d_A5  inR0N saC)U pmH L leAN .oRO  r(T pd4  a 1N sC)U wAN H L .tX  uT sr  ieN g U nTL aE .sN   U sTL kE iX lT   .sH L   RO aV(T dA8  rR0N eC)U AN . infrequently used columns into a separate table 72 .V(T  A3  cR0N iC)U tH L yAN  RO .oRT  d(  pe7N o )U sC L tHN cAO Less Frequently referenced.R(d  Yu) P s RKe IEr MY_ A i .E )   ( UIe NNm IDa QEi UXl )EB  =.sN   U sTL kE iX lT   .eX  sT it  nsN t U eTL rE . RO  V(T eA8  mR0N aC)U iH L lAN .V(T  A3  cR0N iC)U tH L yAN  RO .R(d  Yu) P s RKe IEr MY_ A i .R(d  Yu) P s RKe IEr MY_ A i .E  X bT i  oN  U TL .E )   ( UIe NNm IDa QEi UXl )EB  =.nR5N  aC)U lmH L aeAN s RO tV(T _A2  .

@OneToOne(mappedBy= "CustomerInfo") Customer customer. String name. } 73 > split large. @OneToOne(fetch=LAZY) CustomerInfo info. String interests. } @Entity public class CustomerInfo { int userid. String password.Vertical partitioning @Entity public class Customer { int userid. infrequently used columns into a separate table . String email.

Application Partitioning Web/App Servers Sharding Architecture Cust_id 1-999 Cust_id 1000-1999 Cust_id 2000-2999 > Sharding =Horizontal partitioning ●Split table by rows into partitions 74 .Scalability: Sharding .

level" value="FINE"> • Find and fix problem SQL: > Watch for slow Queries ● use the MySQL slow query log and use Explain – Can reveal problems such as a missing Indexes > Watch for Queries that execute too often to load needed data > Watch for loading more data than needed 75 .xml file: <property name="toplink.Know what SQL is executed • Capture generated SQL: persistence.logging.

run time 76 . Sometimes its SQL that executes a lot that kills your system • Historical and real-time analysis > query execution counts.MySQL Query Analyser Find and fix problem SQL: • how long a query took • results of EXPLAIN statements Its not just slow running queries that are a problem.

Agenda >Entities >Entity Manager >Persistence Context >Queries >Transaction 77 .

createQuery(“select e from Employee NOT GOOD e WHERE ” + “e.”).empId LIKE ':id'”).. better to use with named q = em.createQuery(“select .Query Types – 1 • Named query > Like findByXXXX() from EntityBeans > Compiled by persistence engine > Created either with @NamedQuery or externalized in orm. id). > Beware of SQL injection.createQuery(“select e from Employee e WHERE ” GOOD + “e.xml • Dynamic query > Created dynamically by passing a query string to EntityManager • Query query = em.. parameters 78 .setParameter(“id”. q = em.empId LIKE '” + id + “'”). q.

Query Types – 2 • Native query > Leverage the native database querying facilities > Not portable – ties queries to database 79 .

setParameter(“id”.Flush Mode • Controls whether the state of managed entities are synchronized before a query • Types of flush mode flush //Assume JTA transaction Order order = em.persist(order). default > COMMIT – flush only when a transaction commits > NEVER – need to invoke EntityManger. > AUTO – immediate.setFlushMode(FlushModeType.getResultList().find(Order.createNamedQuery(“findAllOrders”). orderNumber).flush() to 80 . Query q = em. em. q. orderNumber). q.COMMIT). //Newly added order will NOT visible List list = q.class.

Agenda >Entities >Entity Manager >Persistence Context >Queries >Transaction 81 .

resource contention • Do not use transaction when browsing data > Create your own EntityManager as oppose to injected 82 .Transactions • Do not perform expensive and unnecessary operations that are not part of a transaction on log > Hurt performance > Eg. logging – disk write are expensive.

Carol McDonald Java Architect 83 83 .