RB67T1A28 1060070121 Smart antenna: ABSTRACT: One of the most rapidly developing areas of communications is Smart An tenna systems. This paper deals with the principle and working of smart antennas and the elegance of their applications in various fields such a 4G telephony sy stem, best suitability of multi carrier modulations such as OFDMA etc.., This paper mainly concentrates on use of smart antennas in mobile communications that enhances the capabilities of the mobile and cellular system such a faster bit rate, multi use interference, space division multiplexing (SDMA),increase in range, Multi path Mitigation, reduction of errors due to multi path fading and with one great advantage that is a very high security. The signal that is been t ransmitted by a smart antenna cannot tracked or received any other antenna thus ensuring a very high security of the data transmitted. This paper also deals the required algorithms that are need for the beam forming in the antenna patter s. The applications of smart antennas such as in WI-FI transmitter, Discrete Multi Tone modulation (DMT), OFDMA and TD-SCDMA is already in real world use is also i ncorporated in this paper. INTRODUCTION: Smart antennas (also known as adaptive array antennas, multiple antennas and rec ently MIMO) are antenna arrays with smart signal processing algorithms used to i dentify spatial signal signature such as the direction of arrival (DOA) of the s ignal, and use it to calculate beamforming vectors, to track and locate the ante nna beam on the mobile/target. The antenna could optionally be any sensor. Smart antenna techniques are used notably in acoustic signal processing, track a nd scan RADAR, radio astronomy and radio telescopes, and mostly in cellular syst ems like W-CDMA and UMTS. A smart antenna is an array of antenna elements connec ted to a digital signal processor. Such a configuration dramatically enhances th e capacity of a wireless link through a combination of diversity gain, array gai n, and interference suppression. Increased capacity translates to higher data ra tes for a given number of users or more users for a given data rate per user. Multipath paths of propagation are created by reflections and scattering. Also, interference signals such as that produced by the microwave oven in the picture, are superimposed on the desired signals. Measurements suggest that each path is really a bundle or cluster of paths, resulting from surface roughness or irregu larities. The random gain of the bundle is called Multipath fading. PRINCPLE OF WORKING: The smart antenna works as follows. Each antenna element "sees" each propagation path differently, enabling the collection of elements to distinguish individual paths to within a certain resolution. As a consequence, smart antenna transmitt ers can encode independent streams of data onto different paths or linear combin ations of paths, thereby increasing the data rate, or they can encode data redun dantly onto paths that fade independently to protect the receiver from catastrop hic signal fades, thereby providing diversity gain. A smart antenna receiver can decode the data from a smart antenna transmitter this is the highest-performing configuration or it can simply provide array gain or diversity gain to the desi red signals transmitted from conventional transmitters and suppress the interfer ence. No manual placement of antennas is required. The smart antenna electronically ad apts to the environment by looking for pilot tones or beacons or by recovering c ertain characteristics (such as a known alphabet or constant envelope) that the transmitted signal is known to have. The smart antenna can also separate the sig

nals from multiple users who are separated in space (i.e. by distance) but who u se the same radio channel (i.e. center frequency, time-slot, and/or code); this application is called Space-division multiple access (SDMA). Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation: The smart antenna system estimates the direction of arrival of the signal, using techniques such as MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification), estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithms, Matrix Pen cil method or one of their derivatives. They involve finding a spatial spectrum of the antenna/sensor array, and calculating the DOA from the peaks of this spec trum. These calculations are computationally intensive.Matrix Pencil is very eff icient in case of real time systems, and under the correlated sources. BEAM FORMING BASICS: Beam forming is the term used to describe the application of weights to the inpu ts of an array of antennas to focus the reception of the antenna array in a cert ain direction, called the look direction or the main lobe. More importantly, oth er signals of the same carrier frequency from other directions can be rejected. These effects are all achieved electronically and no physical movement of the re ceiving antennas is necessary. In addition, multiple beam formers focused in dif ferent directions can share a single antenna array one set of antennas can servi ce multiple calls of the same carrier. It is no coincidence that the number of elements in the above diagram equals the number of incoming signals. A beam former of L antenna elements is capable of a ccepting one signal and reliably rejecting L-1 signals. A greater number of inte rfering signals will diminish the performance of the beam former. Beam forming p resents several advantages to antenna design .Firstly, space division multiple a ccess (SDMA) is achieved since a beamformer can steer its look direction towards a certain signal. Other signals from different directions can reuse the same ca rrier frequency. Secondly, because the beamformer is focused in a particular dir ection, the antenna sensitivity can be increased for a better signal to noise ra tio, especially when receiving weak signals. Thirdly, signal interference is red uced due to the rejection of undesired signals. For the uplink case of transmitt ing from the antenna array to a mobile telephone, system interference is reduced since the signal is only transmitted in the look direction. A digital beamforme r is one that operates in the digital domain. Traditionally, beam formers were i mplemented in analog; the weights were determined and applied to the antenna inp uts via analog circuitry. With digital beam forming, the antenna signals are ind ividually translated from Radio Frequencies (RF) to Intermediate Frequencies (IF ), digitized and then down-converted to base-band I and Q components. A beam for ming algorithm implemented on one or more digital signal processors then process es the I and Q components to determine a set of weights for the input signals. T he input signals are then multiplied by the weights and summed to output the sig nal of interest (SOI).One of the foremost advantages offered by the software rad io technology is flexibility. Because beam forming is implemented in software, i t is possible to investigate a wide range of beam forming algorithms without the need to modify the system hardware for every algorithm. Consequently, researche rs can focus their efforts on improving the performance of the beam forming algo rithms rather than on designing new hardware, which can be a very expensive and time consuming process. A complete description of the RLS algorithm can be found in .This algorithm was chosen for its fast convergence rate and ability to proc ess the input signal before demodulation. While the first reason is important es pecially when the environment is changing rapidly, the later reason decreases th e algorithm dependency on a specific air interface. Beamforming: Beamforming is the method used to create the radiation pattern of the antenna ar ray by adding constructively the phases of the signals in the direction of the t argets/mobiles desired, and nulling the pattern of the targets/mobiles that are

undesired/interfering targets. This can be done with a simple FIR tapped delay l ine filter. The weights of the FIR filter may also be changed adaptively, and us ed to provide optimal beamforming, in the sense that it reduces the MMSE between the desired and actual beampattern formed. Typical algorithms are the steepest descent, and LMS algorithms. Types of smart antennas: Two of the main types of smart antennas include switched beam smart antennas and adaptive array smart antennas. Switched beam systems have several available fix ed beam patterns. A decision is made as to which beam to access, at any given po int in time, based upon the requirements of the system. Adaptive arrays allow th e antenna to steer the beam to any direction of interest while simultaneously nu lling interfering signals [3]. Beamdirection can be estimated using the so-calle d direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation methods . In 2008, the United States NTIA began a major effort to assist consumers in the purchase of digital television converter boxes.Through this effort, many people have been exposed to the concept of smart antennas for the first time. In the co ntext of consumer electronics, a "smart antenna" is one that conforms to the EIA /CEA-909 Standard Interface. 1. Phased Array/Beam Smart/Multi-beam Antenna In this type of array, there will be numerous amount of fixed beams amongst whic h one beam will turn on or will be steered towards the wanted signal. This can b e done only with the help of adjustment in the phase. In other words, as the wan ted target moves, the beam will also be steered. The figure of a phased array a ntenna is shown below. 2. Adaptive Array Antenna In this type of antenna, there will be a change in the beam pattern according to the movement of the wanted user and the movement of the interference. The signa ls that are received will be weighted and later combined to increase the wanted signal to interference in addition to the noise and power ratio [S/N]. Thus, the direction of interference will be balanced as the wanted signal will be in the direction of the main beam. The antenna can easily steer the main beam to any direction, while at the same t ime nullifying the interfering signal. The direction of the beam can be calculat ed using the DOA method. The figure of an adaptive array antenna is shown below.

Another way of categorizing smart antennas is in the number of inputs and output s that is used for the device. According t this classification the categories ar e given below. 1. SIMO (Single Input – Multiple Output) In this method one antenna will be used at the source and multiple antennas will be used at the destination. 2. MISO (Multiple Input – Single Output) In this method, multiple antennas will be used at the source and only one antenn a will be used at the receiver. 3. MIMO (Multiple Input – Multiple Output) In this method multiple antennas will be used at both the source and the destina tion. This is the most efficient method amongst all. This method was extended re cently in accordance to the IEEE 802.11n standard. This method clearly supports spatial information processing. Extension of smart antennas: Smart antenna systems are also a defining characteristic of MIMO systems, such a s the IEEE 802.11n standard. Conventionally, a smart antenna is a unit of a wire less communication system and performs spatial signal processing with multiple a

ntennas. Multiple antennas can be used at either the transmitter or receiver. Re cently, the technology has been extended to use the multiple antennas at both th e transmitter and receiver; such a system is called a multiple-input multiple-ou tput (MIMO) system. As extended Smart Antenna technology, MIMO supports spatial information processing, in the sense that conventional research on Smart Antenna s has focused on how to provide a beamforming advantage by the use of spatial si gnal processing in wireless channels. Spatial information processing includes sp atial information coding such as Spatial multiplexing and Diversity Coding, as w ell as beamforming. Applications in Mobile Communications:

A space-time processor (â„¢smart Ëœantennaâ„¢) is capable of forming transmit/receive beams rds the mobile of interest. At the same time it is possible to place spatial nul ls in the direction of unwanted interferences. This capability can be used to im prove the performance of a mobile communication system Increased antenna gain The â„¢smartâ„¢ antenna forms transmit and receive beams. Therefore, the â„¢smartâ„¢ antenn r gain than a conventional omni-directional antenna. The higher gain can be used to either increase the effective coverage, or to increase the receiver sensitiv ity, which in turn can be exploited to reduce transmit power and electromagnetic radiation in the network. Decreased inter-symbol-interference (ISI) Multipath propagation in mobile radio environments leads to ISI. Using transmit and receive beams that are directed towards the mobile of interest reduces the a mount of Multipath and ISI.Decreased co-channel-interference (CCI) â„¢Smartâ„¢ antenna tran mitters emit less interference by only sending RF power in the desired direction s. Furthermore, â„¢smartâ„¢ antenna receivers can reject interference by looking only in th direction of the desired source. Consequently â„¢smartâ„¢ antennas are capable of decreasi g CCI. A significantly reduced CCI can be taken advantage of by Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) o The same frequency band can be re-used in more cells, i.e. the so called frequency re-use distance can be decreased. This technique is called Channel Re-use via Spatial Separation. Several mobiles can share the same frequency within a cell. Multiple signals arr iving at the base station can be separated by the base station receiver as long as their angular separation is bigger than the transmit / receive beam widths .T he beams that are hatched identically use the same frequency band. This techniqu e is called Channel Re-use via Angular Separations. Spatial Structure Methods:

As mentioned before, spatial structure methods exploit the information in the st eering vector ..»._¼. The spatial structure is used to estimate the direction of arri (DOAs) of the signals impinging on the sensor array. The estimated directions of arrivals are then used to determine the weights in the pattern forming network. This is called beam forming. Spatial structure methods only exploit spatial str ucture and training signals and the temporal structure of the signals is ignored . In the following an overview will be given about the three main spatial struct ure methods, namely conventional beam forming methods, maximum likelihood estima tion and the so-called subspace-based methods. For simplicity, the vector channe l model used here (and everywhere in the array processing literature for spatial structure methods) is a spatial-only vector channel. Note, that knowledge about the number of impinging Multipath signals. Is assumed in the models that make use of spatial structure. Future applications are based on Bearer Services: Real-time applications like voice, video conferencing or other multimedia applic ations require minimum delay during the transmission and generate symmetric traf fic. This type of communication is nowadays carried via circuit switching system

s. For non real-time applications like e-mail, Internet and Intranet access timi ng constraints are less strict. In addition, the generated traffic is asymmetric . This type of communication is relayed via packet switched systems. Future patt ern of use will show a mix of real-time and non real-time services at the same t ime and same user terminal. Based on the TDD principle, with adaptive switching point between uplink and downlink, TD-SCDMA is equally adept at handling both sy mmetric and asymmetric traffic. Wireless Multi Media requires high data rates. W ith data rates of up to 2 Mbit/s TD-SCDMA offers sufficient data throughput to h andle the traffic for Multi Media and Internet applications. With their inherent flexibility in asymmetry traffic and data rate TD-SCDMA-based systems offer 3G services in a very efficient way. Although it is optimally suited for Mobile Int ernet and Multi Media applications, TD-SCDMA covers all application scenarios: v oice and data services, packet and circuit switched transmissions for symmetric and asymmetric traffic, pico, micro and macro coverage for pedestrian and high m obility users.In order to further improve the system robustness against interfer ence, TD-SCDMA base stations are equipped with smart antennas, which use a beamforming concept. Using omni directional antennas, the emitted radio power is dis tributed over the whole cell. As a consequence, mutual inter cell interference i s generated in all adjacent cells using the same RF carrier. On the other hand, smart antennas direct transmission and reception of signals to and from the spec ific terminals, improving the sensitivity of the base station receivers, increas ing the transmitted power received by the terminals and minimizing inter and int ra cell interference. Advantages • Both beam smart and adaptive arrays provide high efficiency and thus high power for the desired signal. When a large number of antenna elements are used at a hi gher frequency, Beam Smart antennas use narrow pencil beams. Thus high efficienc y is obtained in the direction of the desired signal. If a fixed number of anten na elements are used the same amount times the power gain will be produced with the help of adaptive array antennas. • Another advantage is in the amount of interference that is suppressed. Beam smar t antennas suppress it with the narrow beam and adaptive array antennas suppress the interference by adjusting the beam pattern. Disadvantages The main disadvantages are • Cost The cost of such a device will be more, not only in the electronics section, but also in the power. That is the device is way too expensive [especially if MIMO methods are used.], and will also decrease the life of battery of mobiles. The r eceiver chains that are used must be reduced in order to reduce the cost. Also t he costs rise up due to the RF electronics and A/D converter used for each anten na. • Size For this method to be efficient large base stations are needed. This will increa se the size. Apart from this multiple external antennas are needed on each termi nal. This is not practical. But companies re trying methods like dual polarizati on to reduce the size. • Diversity When multiple mitigation is needed, diversity becomes a big problem. The termina ls and base stations must have multiple antennas. There are mainly three types o f diversities. They are spatial, polarization, and angle. Spatial separation of the antennas that are used is practically impossible when it is applied on mobile phones. It is also difficult to be achieved in point-topoint systems where a near line-of-sight exists between the transmitter and rece iver. By using polarized diversity, the above problem can be avoided to a certai n point. Dual polarization can be easily instigated without the use of spatial s eparation.

Angular diversity is the most commonly used method nowadays. The signals which h ave the maximum signal power are selected from multiple beams and are used to ma intain diversity. But the gain depends on the angular spread. That is, if the sp read is small, the diversity will also be small. • Tracking • Spatial-temporal processing • Hooks in international • standards to include provisions for smart antennas • Vertical integration

CONCLUSION: In conclusion to this paper Smart Antenna systems are the antennas with intellig ence and the radiation pattern can be varied without being mechanically changed. With appropriate adaptive algorithms such as Recursive Least Square Algorithm ( RLS) the beam forming can be obtained. As the system uses a DSP processor the si gnals can be processed digitally and the performance is with a high data rate tr ansmission and good reduction of mutual signal interference.