Telecom is the exchange of information between two distant points in space.

The telecom industry is very important for the socio economic development of a nation. It is one of the main architects for accelerated growth and progress of different segments of the economy. Post liberalization the telecommunication industry has grown by leaps and bounds. Evolution Of Indian Telecom Year Event 1851 First operational landlines were laid by the government near Calcutta 1881 Telephone service introduced in India 1883 Merger with the postal system 1923 Formation of Indian Radio Telegraph Company (IRT) 1932 Merger of ETC and IRT into the Indian Radio and Cable Communication Company(IRCC) 1947 Nationalization of all foreign telecommunication companies to form the Posts, Telephone and Telegraph (PTT),a monopoly run by the government¶s Ministry of Communications 1986 Conversion of DOT into two wholly government-owned companies: the Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) for international telecommunications and Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) for service in metropolitan areas. 1997 Telecom Regulatory Authority Of India (TRAI) was created. 1999 Cellular Services are launched in India. New National Telecom Policy is adopted. 2000 DoT becomes a corporation, BSNL Liberalization As part of the policy of liberalization, telecom equipment manufacturing was delicensed in 1991 and value added services were accessible to the private sector in 1992.As a result a number of manufacturing units were established across the country. The National Telecom Policy resolution of 1994 further liberalized the telecom sector for private initiative. National Telecom Policy 1994 In 1994,the government came up with the National Telecom Policy which set certain important goals like availability of telephone on demand, providing International standard infrastructure and services at affordable prices, enhancing India's competitiveness in global market and encouraging exports, create environment conducive for both FDI and domestic investment, accelerate India's growth as a major manufacturer and exporter of telecom equipment and availability of telecom services to every village. Telecom Regulatory Authority Of India (TRAI) The opening up of the Indian telecom sector for private enterprises resulted in the need for independent regulation. In 1997 The Telecom Regulatory Authority Of India (TRAI) was initiated by an act of Parliament. The purpose of this act was to regulate telecom services, fix/revise tariffs for telecom services which till then was under the control of the central government. The objective of TRAI was to create an environment which would enable Indian Telecomm to play an important role globally. Another important objective for TRAI was to provide equal opportunity for all and ensure fair competition. To ensure these objectives, TRAI has issued a large number of regulations, orders and directives and strategized the plan to direct the telecom industry from a government controlled monopoly to multi operator multi service competitive market. In January 2000, TRAI was modified by an act resulting in Telecommunications Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) to settle disputes between a licensor and a licensee, between two or more service providers, between a service provider and consumers and to settle appeals against any direction, decision or order of TRAI. National Long Distance

In 2000 the government created guidelines for the entry of private sector in National Long Distance without restricting the number of operators. Some of the salient features of NLD are:

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Unlimited entry for both inter circle and intra circle calls. Total foreign equity must not exceed 74%.Promoters must have a net worth of Rs 25 million. Private operators will have to enter into an arrangement with fixed service providers within a circle for traffic between long distance and short distance charging centers. Private operators allowed to set up landing facilities that access submarine cables and use excess bandwidth available. License period would be for 20 years and extendable by 10 years.

International Long Distance

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India had accepted under the GATS to open up ILD in 2004.But India allowed competition in ILD in the year 2002 itself. There can be any number of service providers. The license for ILD service is issued for a period of 20 years, with automatic extension of the license by a period of 5 years. The private applicant would have to pay a onetime non refundable fee of Rs 25 million plus a bank guarantee of Rs 250 million, which will be given back on honoring of the commitment. The annual license fee is at 6% of the Adjusted Gross Revenue and the fee for use of spectrum is to be paid separately.

Internet service Providers (ISPs) In 1998 the private sector was given permission to be internet service providers. In the interest of the customer, the government has set certain guidelines to grant license to prospective service providers. Any company in India with a maximum foreign equity of 74% is eligible for license. The segment has seen tremendous technological advancements. Broad band Policy 2004 Realizing the immense potential of Broadband service in the growth of economy and the improvement in quality of life due to various functions like tele education, tele medicine, e-governance, entertainment and in job creation, the government came up with the Broadband policy in 2004.The main aim was to create infrastructure to enhance the progress of broadband. Some of the technology applicable for broadband would be Optical Fibre, Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines (ADSL), Cable Network, DTH etc. Foreign Direct Investment

y y y

In Basic, Cellular, Paging and Value Added Service and Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite, FDI of 74% is allowed subject to license granted by Department Of Telecommunication. FDI up to 74% is also permitted in Radio Paging Service and Internet Service Provider. FDI up to 100% is allowed for Infrastructure Providers of dark fibre, electronic and voice mail. The condition set was that these companies would divest 26% of their equity in favor of Indian companies in five years, provided they were listed in other parts of the world. FDI of 100% was allowed in telecom manufacturing.


National Long Distance Service (NLD) is opened for unrestricted entry. various factors driving the overall telecom market in market have been thoroughly analyzed in the report. Furthermore. the country is projected to see high penetration of Internet. In this regard. With the ongoing investments into infrastructure Indian Telecom Analysis (2008-2012) Telecom industry in India has undergone a revolution in the recent years. with mobile subscribers projected to grow at a CAGR of around 11% between 2009-10 and 2013-14. broadband and mobile subscribers. Indian telecom sector: recent policies      All villages shall receive telecom facilities by the end of 2002. our report provides rational analysis of the factors which are driving the growth of mobile handset market in India. The basic services are open to competition. Tele-density in India has improved significantly over the recent years and has reached around 51% in the fiscal year 2009-10. According to our new analytical study on the sector ³Indian Telecom Analysis (2008-2012)´. mobile telephony continues to fuel growth of the Indian telecom sector. mobile handset market is also expected to register a robust growth in near future. Also. after China.http://www. A Communication Convergence Bill introduced in the Parliament on August 31. The International Long Distance Services (ILDS) have been opened to competition. 2001 is presently before the Standing Committee of Parliament on Telecom and IT. Other segments of the industry such as Internet and broadband are also anticipated to witness strong growth in terms of both subscriber addition and network infrastructure deployment over the forecast period. The country is ranked second worldwide in terms of having the largest telecommunication network. . The launch of advanced telecom services like 3G and IPTV will also drive the growth in Indian telecom subscriber base over the forecast period. owing to improving network infrastructure.

DoT was responsible for telecom services in entire country until 1985 when Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) was carved out of DoT to run the telecom services of Delhi and Mumbai. Cellular operators have been permitted to provide all types of mobile services including voice and non-voice messages. funding.In addition to the existing three. 1999 in several new services.  Two telecom PSUs.  A decision to permit Community Phone Service has been announced. [edit]Emergence as a major player  In 1975.  Two categories of infrastructure providers have been allowed to provide end-to-end bandwidth and dark fiber.  Guidelines have been issued by the Government to open up Internet telephony (IP). digital Public Mobile Radio Trunked Service (PMRTS) and Voice Mail/ Audiotex/ Unified Messaging Services. a fourth cellular operator. one each in four metros and thirteen circles.  Wireless Local Loop (WLL) has been introduced to provide telephone connections in urban. both Satellite and Landing stations for submarine optical fiber cables.  Policies allowing private participation have been announced as per the New Telecom Policy (NTP).  Multiple Fixed Service Providers (FSPs) licensing guidelines were announced. data services and PCOsutilizing any type of network equipment. semi-urban and rural areas promptly. In 1990s the telecom sector was opened up by the Government for private investment .  Steps are being taken to fulfill Universal Service Obligation (USO). VSNL and HTL have been disinvested. which include Global Mobile Personal Communication by Satellite (GMPCS) Service. towers. the Department of Telecom (DoT) was separated from Indian Post & Telecommunication Accounts and Finance Service. right of way. has been permitted. including circuit and/or package switches that meet certain required standards. duct space etc. and administration.  Internet Service Providers (ISPs) have been allowed to set up International Internet Gateways.

Some of them were willing to throw open the market to foreign players (the centrists) and others wanted the government to regulate infrastructure and restrict the involvement of foreign players. They were also successful in . Many private operators..[16] The demand for telephones was ever increasing. under the leadership of Rajiv Gandhi. in an effort to set up 5. Vodafone. Tata Indicom. [edit]Privatization of telcommunications in India The Indian government was composed of many factions (parties) which had different ideologies. it became necessary to separate the Government's policy wing from its operations wing. When a bill was in parliament a majority vote had to be passed. Liberalization started in 1981 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi signed contracts with Alcatel CIT of France to merge with the state owned Telecom Company (ITI). It was during this period that the Narsimha Rao-led government introduced the national telecommunications policy [NTP] in 1994 which brought changes in the following areas: ownership. During this period. Many technological developments took place in this regime but still foreign players were not allowed to participate in the telecommunications business. Airtel. Therefore. VSNL and MTNL. Loop Mobile. service and regulation of telecommunications infrastructure. But soon the policy was let down because of political opposition.000 lines per year. successfully entered the high potential Indian telecom market. many public sector organizations were set up like the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) . Due to this political background it was very difficult to bring about liberalization in telecommunications. and such a majority was difficult to obtain. She invited Sam Pitroda a US based Non-resident Indian NRI to set up a Center for Development of Telematics(C-DOT).Idea etc. after the assassination of Indira Gandhi. given to the number of parties having different ideologies. such as Reliance a part of Liberalisation-Privatization-Globalization policy. The Government of India corporatised the operations wing of DoT on 1 October 2000 and named it as Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL).000. however the plan failed due to political reasons.

the government did face oppositions from ITI. the World Bank and ITU had advised the Indian Government to liberalize long distance services in order to release the monopoly of the state owned DoT and VSNL. Domestic business groups wanted the government to privatize VSNL. The proposal of raising the stake of foreign investors from 49% to 74% was rejected by the opposite political party and leftist thinkers. During all these improvements. The Rao run government instead liberalized the local services. These circles were divided into category A. The multi-nationals were just involved in technology transfer. The DoT opposed this. the government decided to cut its stake of 53% to 26% in VSNL and to throw it open for sale to private enterprises. VSNL and other labor unions. But still complete ownership of facilities was restricted only to the government owned policy maker and the other service provider (DTS) which was later renamed as BSNL. B and C depending on the value of the revenue in each circle. Foreign firms were eligible to 49% of the total stake.[16] . but they managed to keep away from all the hurdles.[16] During this period. DoT. TATA finally took 25% stake in VSNL. and not policy making. The country was divided into 20 telecommunication circles for basic telephony and 18 circles for mobile services. MTNL.establishing joint ventures between state owned telecom companies and international players. and to enable competition in the long distance carrier business which would help reduce tariff's and better the economy of the country. The political powers changed in 1999 and the new government under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee was more pro-reforms and introduced better liberalization policies.[16] After 1995 the government set up TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) which reduced the interference of Government in deciding tariffs and policy making. taking the opposite political parties into confidence and assuring foreign involvement in the long distance business after 5 years. For cellular service two service providers were allowed per circle and a 15 years license was given to each provider. Finally in April 2002. The government threw open the bids to one private company per circle along with government owned DoT per circle. They split DoT in two.

The government further reduced license fees for cellular service providers and increased the allowable stake to 74% for foreign companies.1 million only and the total mobile subscribers base in December 2002 stood at 10. the Government of India banned the import of several mobile phones manufactured in China citing concerns over quality and the lack of IMEI's which make it difficult for authorities in India to track the sale and use of such phones. the . Because of all these factors. which represented a nearly 50% growth when compared with previous year.[18] As the unbranded Chinese cell phones which do not have International Mobile Equipment Identity(IMEI) numbers pose a serious security risk to the country. The mobile tariffs in India have also become lowest in the world.[21] In April 2010. the total number of mobile subscribers has increased greatly to 706.[4][20] India has opted for the use of both the GSM (global system for mobile communications) and CDMA (code-division multiple access)technologies in the mobile sector. In 2005 alone additions increased to around 2 million per month in the year 2003-04 and 2004-05.[citation needed] In June 2009. In addition to landline and mobile phones.[17] In March 2008 the total GSM and CDMA mobile subscriber base in the country was 375 million.This was a gateway to many foreign investors to get entry into the Indian Telecom Markets. after a number of proactive initiatives were taken by regulators and licensors. The data reveals the real potential for growth of the Indian mobile market. After March 2000. However.05 to 0. Mobile network operators therefore planned to suspend the usage of around 30 million mobile phones (about 8 % of all mobiles in the country) by 30 April. the government became more liberal in making policies and issuing licenses to private operators. some of the companies also provide the WLL service. the service fees finally reduced and the call costs were cut greatly enabling every common middle class family in India to afford a cell phone. Nearly 32 million handsets were sold in India.5 millions.15 only. A new mobile connection can be activated with a monthly commitment of US$0.69 million subscribers as of Oct 31st 2010.[19] 5±6 years the average monthly subscribers additions were around 0.

3 billion) in 2005-06 as against 71. and the Philippines. for the fixed. mobile and broadband sectors. Indonesia. Sri Lanka. including Bangladesh.[25] [edit]Revenue and growth The total revenue in the telecom service sector was 86. which summarizes stakeholders¶ perception on certain TRE dimensions. The low penetration of broadband of mere 3. provides insight into how conducive the environment is for further development and progress. iii) interconnection. The fixed and mobile sectors have the highest scores for Tariff Regulation.Government was also reported to be blocking Indian service providers from purchasing Chinese mobile technology citing concerns that Chinese hackers could compromise the Indian telecommunications network during times of national emergency. and vi) universal services. The most recent survey was conducted in July 2008 in eight Asian countries. v) anticompetitive practices. The companies reported to be affected by this are Huawei Technologies and ZTE. Market entry also scores well for the mobile sector as competition is well entrenched with most of the circles with 4-5 mobile service providers. Other than for Access to Scarce Resources the fixed sector lags behind the mobile sector. Maldives. The broadband sector has the lowest score in the aggregate. A series of attacks on Indian government websitesand computer networks by suspected Chinese hackers has also made Indian regulators suspicious with regards to the import of potentially sensitive equipment from China. registering a growth of .720 crore (US$19. iv) tariff regulation.9 billion) in 2004-2005. The tool measured seven dimensions: i) market entry.[22][23][24] [edit]Telecommunications Regulatory Environment in India LIRNEasia's Telecommunications Regulatory Environment (TRE) index.87 against the policy objective of 9 million at then end of 2007 clearly indicates that the regulatory environment is not very conducive.674 crore (US$15. vii) quality of service. The results for India. point out to the fact that the stakeholders perceive the TRE to be most conducive for the mobile sector followed by fixed and then broadband. India. Thailand. Pakistan. ii) access to scarce resources.

09 million (Oct 2010)[4] . For long distance calls. which have not yet been provided with a Village Public Telephone (VPT). 011 would be dialed first followed by the phone number).831 crore (US$39.7 million Public Call Offices in December 2005[29] up from 2.[26] Telecommunication is the lifeline of the rapidly growing Information Technology industry. However doubts have been raised about what it would mean for the poor in the country.3 million in December 2004.[27] Out of this 10. For international calls. The value added services (VAS) market within the mobile industry in India has the potential to grow from US$500 million in 2006 to a whopping US$10 billion by 2009.835 Bn (US$ 19 Bn Approx). will be connected.The total investment in the telecom services sector reached 200.52 million were broadband connections.estimted revenue of FY'2011 is Rs.660 crore (US$44.822 revenue villages in the country. area code and local phone number. Under the Bharat Nirman Programme.28 million (Oct 2010) [4] Land Lines: 35.[28] It is difficult to ascertain fully the employment potential of the telecom sector but the enormity of the opportunities can be gauged from the fact that there were 3. Internet subscriber base has risen to 100 million in 2010.e. To call Delhi. Telephone Subscribers (Wireless and Landline): 787.[30] [edit]Telephone On landlines. the Government of India will ensure that 66.[4] More than a billion people use the internet globally.21%.7 billion) in the previous fiscal.5 billion) in 2005-06. "00" must be dialed first followed by the country code. intra-circle calls are considered local calls while inter-circle are considered long distance calls. the area code prefixed with a zero is dialed first which is then followed by the number (i. Currently Government is working to integrate the whole country in one telecom circle. up from 178. The country code for India is 91.

in the 900 MHz band. They are listed below:[4]     Assam Andhra Pradesh Bihar & Jharkhand Chennai .[4] The mobile subscriber base has grown by a factor of over a hundred and thirty. from 5 million subscribers in 2001 to over 680 million subscribers as of Sep 2010 [4] (a period of less than 9 years) . 84% of population by 2012.[32] The rates are supposed to go down further with new measures to be taken by the Information Ministry. Vodafone. with operations in only a few states. Recent operators also operate in the 1800 MHz band. Competition has caused prices to drop and calls across India are one of the cheapest in the world.19 million (Oct 2010) [4] Monthly Cell phone Addition: 22.Cell phones: 752. India is divided into 23 telecom circles. Government and several private players run local and long distance telephone services. The country is divided into multiple zones.62 million (Dec 2010) [4] Teledensity: 66. There are many smaller players. Reliance Infocomm. International roaming agreements exist between most operators and many foreign carriers.[4] the Mobile telecommunications system in India is the second largest in the world and it was thrown open to private players in the 1990s.[33] In September 2004. called circles (roughly along state boundaries). India primarily follows the GSM mobile system.16% (Dec 2010) [4] Projected Teledensity: 1 billion.[31] [edit]Mobile telephones See also: List of mobile network operators of India and List of mobile network operators With a subscriber base of more than 771 million. Idea cellular and BSNL/MTNL. the number of mobile phone connections crossed the number of fixed-line connections and presently dwarfs the wireline segment by a ratio of around 20:1. The dominant players areAirtel.

53% 11.20% Reliance Communications 125. Nagaland.219 Market Share 20. & Tripura) Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu excluding Chennai & Puducherry Eastern Uttar Pradesh Western Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand West Bengal (excluding Kolkata).495.652.27% 16.120 86.255. Mizoram.233.[4] 152.7% 16.398 . Andaman & Nicobar Islands & Sikkim The following table gives details regarding the subscriber base of each Mobile Service Provider in India as of 31 December 2010 Operator Bharti Airtel Subscriber base. Manipur. Meghalaya.127 Vodafone BSNL Tata Teleservices 124.537 84.                   Delhi & NCR Gujarat & Daman & Diu Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Karnataka Kerala & Lakshadweep Kolkata Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh Maharashtra (excluding Mumbai) & Goa Mumbai North Eastern States (Arunachal Pradesh.709.52% 11.

969.351.412.069 90.415.849 97. Kolkata and Chennai in their respective states and exluding National Capital Territory Delhi) with the largest subscriber base as of Mar 03rd 2011 is given below State Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Subscriber base[4] 102.867.228.611 84.682 67.090.926 92.899 752.603 5.Idea Cellular Aircel Unitech Sistema Videocon MTNL Loop S Tel HFCL Infotel Etisalat All India 81.044.67% 2.190.71% 0.811 18.342.585.190 West Bengal Bihar Karnataka 58.315.491 Population (01/08/2010) [34] 199.241.560.992 110.923.40% 0.433.778.221 .039 3.655 50.678 10.12% 0.97% 0.524 1.688 67.723 264.667 7.319.246.31% 0.168.579 2.21% 0.344 50.027 58.773.049 8.04% 100% A list of states (including the metros Mumbai.510.524.851 47.46% 1.611.87% 6.294 Mobile phones per 1000 population 514 836 990 691 650 522 804 Andhra Pradesh 58.

592. Due to the rapid growth of the cellular phone industry in India.179 58. This has forced landline service providers to become more efficient and improve their quality of service.261 .237 Tata Teleservices 1.102 72.454 Bharti Airtel 2.928.374 1.625 67.154 Kerala India 30.254 Reliance Communications 1.449.181. Landline connections are now also available on demand.542.357 [edit]Landlines Until the New Telecom Policy was announced in 1999.313 31. landlines are facing stiff competition from cellular operators.514.239 41.951.783.841.446. The breakup of wireline subscriber base in India as of September 2009 is given below[35] Operator Subscriber base BSNL 28.152.388.969 MTNL 3.362.377 771. even in high density urban areas.188.641.Gujarat Rajasthan 44.003.351 764 617 594 959 649 Madhya Pradesh 42. only the Government-owned BSNL and MTNL were allowed to provide landline phone services through copper wire in India with MTNL operating in Delhi and Mumbai and BSNL servicing all other areas of the country.

[37] The number of broadband connections in India has seen a continuous growth since the beginning of 2006.296 2.729 3.751.211 2.225 2. As of December 2010.803.049 2.253 Andhra Pradesh 2.534.[36] Internet penetration in India is one of the lowest in the world which is 8.912 3.334 The list of eight states (including the metros Mumbai.978 Teleservices Ltd 95.996.306.620.181 All India 37.755 [edit]Internet India has the world's third largest Internet users with over 100 million users (of whom 40 million use the internet via mobile phones) as of December 2010. total .632. Kolkata and Chennai in their respective states) with largest subscriber base as of September 2009 is given below[35] State Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Kerala Uttar Pradesh Karnataka Delhi West Bengal Subscriber base 5. compared to other nations like United States.HFCL Infotel 165. Japan or South Korea where internet penetration is significantly higher than in India.490.4% of the population.477.

some even failing to meet the 256 kbit/s standards.2 mbit/s) The current definition of Broadband in India is speeds of 256 kbit/s.[42] Hayai Broadband will offer FTTH services up to 100 Mbit/s. India has 10. South Korea and France. [edit]High  Speed Broadband (over 2 Mbit/s)      Airtel has launched plans up to 16 Mbit/s on ADSL2+ enabled lines and is piloting new 30 Mbit/s and 50 Mbit/s plans in limited areas.[41] BSNL offers ADSL up to 8 Mbit/s in many cities. many with their own local loop and gateway infrastructures. many non-resident Indians are now enjoying the ability to communicate with family in India from around the world.92 million. with an Internal network speed of 1 Gbit/s. which has been known to impose censorship on some websites.[40] Beam Telecom offers plans up to 6 Mbit/s for home users and has 20 Mbit/s plans available for power users in only Hyderabad city.52 million broadband users.[4] India ranks one of the lowest provider of broadband speed as compared countries such as Japan. The telecom services market is regulated by the TRAI and the DoT.[38] After economic liberalization in 1992.It also started offering FTTH speeds ranging from 256Kbps to 100Mbps. See also: List of ISPs in India and Internet censorship in India [edit]Low Speed Broadband (256 kbit/s . many consumers complain that ISPs still fail to provide the advertised speeds .broadband Internet users in the country have reached 10. See List of countries by number of broadband Internet users Broadband in India is more expensive as compared to Western Europe/United Kingdom and United States. Honesty Net Solutions offers Broadband over Cable at up to 4 Mbit/s.[39] As of October 2010.[8][38] Because of the increase in Broadband penetration and the quality of service steadily improving. constituting 6.0% of the population. MTNL offers VDSL at speeds up to 20 Mbit/s in selected areas [43] . many private ISPs have entered the market. TRAI on July 2009 has recommended raising this limit to 2 Mbit/s. However.

[44] Tata Indicom offers 10 Mbit/s. shortwave 68 (1998).  Reliance Communications offers 10 Mbit/s and 20 Mbit/s broadband internet services in selected areas.571 (2004) Source: CIA World FactBook Country code (Top-level domain): . FM 91. 20 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s options under the "Lightning Plus" tariffs structure/[45] O-Zone Networks Private Limited Pan-India public Wi-Fi hotspot provider giving wireless broadband up to 2 Mb/ [edit]Broadcasting Main article: Media of India AIR Radio Tower Radio broadcast stations: AM 153. [edit]Statistics Internet Service Providers (ISPs) & Hosts: 86.Broadcasting . Domestica Radio.[46] See also: List of ISPs in India  The main problem consumers face with High Speed Broadband in India is that they are frequently expensive and/or they have limited amounts of data transfer included in the plan.

CNN-IBN. Satellite/Cable television took off during the first Gulf War with CNN. It initially had one major National channel (DD National) and a Metro channel in some of the larger cities (also known as DD Metro). [edit]Next generation networks In the Next Generation Networks. In the late 1990s. Some of the notable ones are Aaj Tak (means Till Today. Initially restricted to music and entertainment channels. Times Now. Here is a reasonably comprehensive List of Indian television stations. The main news channels available were CNN and BBC World. giving rise to several channels in regional languages. becoming immensely popular because of the alternative viewpoint they offered compared to Doordarshan. in the future. viewership grew.New Delhi TeleVision. It would then be futile to . Prannoy Roy (NDTV now has its own channels.Radios: 116 million (1997) Television terrestrial broadcast stations: 562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997) Televisions: 110 million (2006) In India. especiallyHindi. These access networks include fibre optics or coaxial cable networks connected to fixed locations or customers connected through wi-fi as well as to 3G networks connected to mobile users. initially run by the NDTV group and their lead anchor. NDTV Profit. There are no regulations against ownership of satellite dish antennas. Darshan = Vision) is allowed to broadcast terrestrial television signals. multiple access networks can connect customers to a core network based on IP technology. or operation of cable television systems. it would be impossible to identify whether the next generation network is a fixed or mobile network and the wireless access broadband would be used both for fixed and mobile services. many current affairs and news channels sprouted. run by theIndia Today group) and STAR News. NDTV India and NDTV Imagine). only the government owned Doordarshan (Door = Distant = Tele. led by the Star TV group and Zee TV. As a result. which led to an explosion of viewership and channels. NDTV 24x7.

2010 in Metros & category 'A' service areas. before they decide to move to another service provider. [edit]Mobile Number Portability (MNP) TRAI announced the rules and regulations to be followed for the Mobile Number Portability in their draft release on 23 September 2009.differentiate between fixed and mobile networks ± both fixed and mobile users will access services through a single core network. while shifting to a different service provider provided they follow the guidelines set by TRAI.000 route kilometers (419. Indian telecom networks are not so intensive as developed country¶s telecom networks and India's teledensity is low only in rural areas. 2009 in Metros & category µA¶ service areas and by March 20. Government of India decided to implement MNP from December 31.[47] As per news reports. lobbying by the state-run firms. 2010 in rest of the country. It has been postponed to March 31.000 miles) of optical fibres has been laid in India by the major operators. appears to be an attractive proposition. However. viz. BSNL alone. the Next Generation Network. has laid optical fibre to 30. The latest reports suggest . Once a customer changes his/her service provider & retaining the same mobile number they are expected to hold the mobile number with a given provider for at least 90 days. an attractive solution appears to be one which offers multiple service facility at low costs.000 Telephone Exchanges out of their 36 Exchanges. Fibre network can be easily converted to Next Generation network and then used for delivering multiple services at cheap cost. A rural network based on the extensive optical fibre network. even in remote areas and the process continues. BSNL and MTNL has resulted in innumerable delays in the implementation of Mobile Number portability. time and time again. This restriction is set in place to keep a check on exploitation of MNP services provided by the service providers. Mobile Number Portability (MNP) allows users to retain their numbers. Keeping in mind the viability of providing services in rural areas. using Internet Protocol and offering a variety of services and the availability of open platforms for service development. 670.

[51] Another news report said it will be implemented across India on January 20. Capacity of 960 Gbit/s. cables [edit]Submarine     LOCOM linking Chennai to Penang.[48] A press release by the Department of Telecommunications on 30 June 2010 said "Keeping the complexity and enormity of the testing involved before MNP is implemented and keeping in view the present status of implementation by various operators."[49] The latest official report is that Mobile Number Portability will be phased in slowly.BSNL and MTNL are finally ready to implement the Mobile Number Portability by October 31.[52] [edit]International   Nine satellite earth stations .Microwave Nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai. it has now been decided to extend the time line for implementation of MNP to 31st October 2010. 2010. Hyderabad andErnakulam.8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region). Chennai. Kolkata. . 2010. The MNP service inaugurate by the Union Minister of Communications & IT Mr. Kanpur.[50] A news report on 25 November 2010 said Mobile Number Portability (MNP) was finally launched in Haryana. Even as DoT has recommended a porting fee of Rs. some operators such as Idea Cellular may consider waiving off the porting charges. Malaysia India-UAEcable linking Mumbai to Al Fujayrah. Jalandhar. Gandhinagar. 2011. the Chief Minister of Haryana from a ported mobile number in function held at Rohtak city. SEA-ME-WE 2 (South East Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 2) SEA-ME-WE 3 (South East Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 3) Landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai. Kapil Sibal by making the inaugural call to Shri Bhupindrer Singh Hooda. starting with Haryana which will have MNP on or soon after November 1. 19. UAE. New Delhi.

MTNL incorporated Centre for Excellence in Telecom Technology and Management (CETTM) in 2003-04. Capacity of 3.2 million).  MENA (Middle East North Africa). Capacity Unknown. upgraded to over 1 Tbit/s (2005).SEA-ME-WE 4 (South East Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 4) Landing sites at Mumbai and Chennai. [edit]Telecom Training in India  The incumbent telecom operators (BSNL & MTNL) have maintained several telecom training centres at regional. Initial design capacity 10 Gbit/s. Bharat Ratna Bhim Rao Ambedkar Institute Of Telecom Training at Jabalpur. Powai. Capacity of 1.  TGN-Eurasia (Announced) Landing at Mumbai (due 2010?). . BSNL has three national level institutions.  TIISCS (Tata Indicom India-Singapore Cable System).28 Tbit/s  TGN-Gulf (Announced) Landing at Mumbai (due 2011?). namely Advanced Level Telecom Training Centre (ALTTC) at Ghaziabad. It currently joins with SEA-ME-WE 4 off the west coast of Spain to carry traffic onward to London (2009).28 Tbit/s. landing at Mumbai (due Q2 2010).4 m2).12 Tbit/s. Capacity of 1. Chennai to Singapore. Capacity of 5.Chennai to Singapore. Capacity of 8.  I-ME-WE (India-Middle East-Western Europe) with two landing sites at Mumbai (2009). It provides training in telecom switching.921 sq ft (45. upgraded in 2002 to 80 Gbit/s. UP. It is the largest telecom training centre in India and one of the biggest in Asia with a capex plan of over 100 crore (US$22. and National Academy of Telecom Finance and Management. Mumbai with built area of 486. MP. via South Africa.28 Tbit/s. Capacity of 1. also known as TIC (Tata Indicom Cable).  EIG (Europe-India Gateway).  Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG-FEA) with a landing site at Mumbai (2000). circle and district level.  i2i . transmission.  SEACOM From Mumbai to the Mediterranean.236. CETTM is situated at Hiranandani Gardens.84 Tbit/s. wireless communication.4 Tbit/s.

Spice Communications etc. CELLiNOR is also one of the leading telecom training providers.pdf At 110. Consequently.69 million in 2004 to 62. And the numbers are still growing for 'Indian Telecom Industry '.01 million connections ' Indian Telecom Industry' is the fifth largest and fastest growing in the world. Idea Cellular.5 million new subscribers every month in 2007. It is a part of NR Switch N Radio Services Pvt ltd which is a leading telecom service provider in the telecommunication world.57 million in FY 2004 -2005.Hutchison-Essar. Haryana.Reliance Infocomm and Tata Teleservices. Escotel.6% of the total telephone subscriber base. two out of every three new telephone connections were based at Gurgaon. Other than the government opearators some private players like Bharti (Bharti School of Telecom Management part of IIT Delhi). ' Telecom Industry in India ' is regulated by 'Telecom Regulatory Authority of India' (TRAI). Bharti Tele-Ventures. [edit] http://metroethernetforum.BSNL and MTNL. Aegis School of Business and Telecommunication(Banglore and Mumbai) and Reliance have started their own training centres. In addition some independent centres like Telcoma Technologies providing Telecom Training have also evolved in India. There are primarily 9 GSM and 5 CDMA operators providing mobile services in 19 telecommunication circles and 4 metro cities. wireless now accounts for 54. Over the last 3 years. It has earned good reputation for transparency and competence. covering more than 2000 towns across the country. Private Indian owned companies like . The wireless subscriber base skyrocketed from 33. The wireless technologies currently in use ' Indian Telecom Industry ' are Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). BPL Mobile. It gives extensive Training in Telecom in classrooms as well as on job training on live project to the aspiring engineers in Telecommunication field. Three types of players exists in ' Telecom Industry India ' community - y y y State owned companies like . Foreign invested companies like . It is a full fledge telecom training wing with stateof-art-equipments and labs.telecom operations and management to corporates and students besides its own internal employees. as compared to only 40% in 2003. . Wireless subscriber growth is expected to grow at 2. The subscriber base has grown by 40% in 2005 and is expected to reach 250 million in 2007.

The ' Indian Telecom Industry ' services is not confined to basic telephone but it also extends to internet. aims at 9 million broadband connections and 18 million internet connections in 2007. Service providers bears huge initial cost to make inroads and achieving break-even is difficult. The bottlenecks for ' Indian Telecom Industry ' are: y y y y Slow reform process. ' Indian Telecom Industry ' is currently expected to contribute nearly 1% to India's GDP which is heartening and estimated to grow further and brighten the ' Scenario of Indian Telecom Industry ' . Limited spectrum availability and interconnection charges between the private and state operators. The Government Broadband Policy 2004. IPTV. broadband (both wireless and fixed). cable TV. SMS. Huge initial investments. Low penetration. soft switches etc.

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