You are on page 1of 36

Please read

:
A personal appeal from
Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales

Robin Hood

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation).

Robin Hood statue in Nottingham

Robin Hood is a heroic outlaw in English folklore. A highly skilled archer and
swordsman, he is known for "robbing from the rich and giving to the poor,"[1]
assisted by a group of fellow outlaws known as his "Merry Men."[2] Traditionally
Robin Hood and his men are depicted wearing Lincoln green clothes.[3] The origin
of the legend is claimed by some to have stemmed from actual outlaws, or from
ballads or tales of outlaws.[4]

Robin Hood became a popular folk figure starting in medieval times continuing
through modern literature, films, and television. In the earliest sources Robin Hood
is a commoner, but he was often later portrayed as an aristocrat wrongfully
dispossessed of his lands and made into an outlaw by an unscrupulous sheriff.

Contents

[hide]

1 History

2 Early references

3 References to Robin as Earl of Huntington

4 Sources

5 Ballads and tales

6 Connections to existing locations

7 List of traditional ballads

7.1 Early ballads (i.e., surviving in 15th- or early 16th-
century copies)

7.2 Ballads appearing in 17th-century Percy Folio

7.3 Other ballads

8 Popular culture

9 See also

10 References

11 Bibliography

12 External links

History

In popular culture Robin Hood and his band of merry men are usually portrayed as
living in Sherwood Forest, in Nottinghamshire, where much of the action in the early
ballads takes place.[5] So does the very first recorded Robin Hood rhyme, four lines
from the early 15th century, beginning: "Robyn hode in scherewode stod."[6]
However, the overall picture from the surviving early ballads and other early
references[6] suggest that Robin Hood may have been based in the Barnsdale area
of what is now South Yorkshire (which borders Nottinghamshire).

Other traditions point to a variety of locations as Robin's "true" home both inside
Yorkshire and elsewhere, with the abundance of places named for Robin causing
further confusion.[7][8] A tradition dating back at least to the end of the 16th
century gives his birthplace as Loxley, Sheffield in South Yorkshire, while the site of
Robin Hood's Well in Yorkshire has been associated with Robin Hood since at least
1422.[9] His grave has been claimed to be at Kirklees Priory near Mirfield in West
Yorkshire, as implied by the 18th-century version of Robin Hood's Death, and there
is a headstone there of dubious authenticity.[10]

The first clear reference to "rhymes of Robin Hood" is from the late 14th-century
poem Piers Plowman, but the earliest surviving copies of the narrative ballads which
tell his story have been dated to the 15th century or the first decade of the 16th
century. In these early accounts Robin Hood's partisanship of the lower classes, his
Marianism and associated special regard for women, his outstanding skill as an
archer, his anti-clericalism, and his particular animosity towards the Sheriff of
Nottingham are already clear.[11] Little John, Much the Miller's Son and Will Scarlet
(as Will "Scarlok" or "Scathelocke") all appear, although not yet Maid Marian or Friar
Tuck. It is not certain what should be made of these latter two absences as it is
known that Friar Tuck, for one, has been part of the legend since at least the later
15th century.[12]

In popular culture Robin Hood is typically seen as a contemporary and supporter of
the late 12th-century king Richard the Lionheart, Robin being driven to outlawry
during the misrule of Richard's evil brother John while Richard was away at the Third
Crusade. This view first gained currency in the 16th century, but it has very little
scholarly support.[13] It is certainly not supported by the earliest ballads. The early
compilation A Gest of Robyn Hode names the king as "Edward," and while it does
show Robin Hood as accepting the King's pardon he later repudiates it and returns
to the greenwood.

The oldest surviving ballad, Robin Hood and the Monk gives even less support to the
picture of Robin Hood as a partisan of the true king. The setting of the early ballads
is usually attributed by scholars to either the 13th century or the 14th, although it is
recognised they are not necessarily historically consistent.[14]

The early ballads are also quite clear on Robin Hood's social status: he is a yeoman.
While the precise meaning of this term changed over time, including free retainers
of an aristocrat and small landholders, it always referred to commoners. The
essence of it in the present context was "neither a knight nor a peasant or
'husbonde' but something in between."[15] We know that artisans (such as millers)
were among those regarded as "yeomen" in the 14th century.[16] From the 16th
century on there were attempts to elevate Robin Hood to the nobility and in two
extremely influential plays Anthony Munday presented him at the very end of the
16th century as the Earl of Huntingdon, as he is still commonly presented in modern
times.[17]

From 1228. [21] Another view is that Robin Hood's origins must be sought in folklore or mythology. ne sufficeante of goodes. beynge of his clothynge. The petition cites one Piers Venables of Aston. 1386) in which Sloth. 'Robehod' or 'Hobbehod' occur in the rolls of several English Justices. the legend was also transmitted by "Robin Hood games" or plays that were an important part of the late medieval and early modern May Day festivities. more or less accurately portrayed. [24] In a petition presented to Parliament in 1439. The first record of a Robin Hood game was in 1426 in Exeter. the folklorist Francis James Child declared "Robin Hood is absolutely a creation of the ballad-muse" and this view has been neither proven or disproven."[25] The name was still used to describe sedition and treachery in 1605. in manere of insurrection. Derbyshire. gadered and assembled unto him many misdoers./ But I kan rymes of Robyn Hood.[18] It is commonly stated as fact that Maid Marian and a jolly friar (at least partly identifiable with Friar Tuck) entered the legend through the May Games. Robin Hood has been claimed for the pagan witch-cult supposed by Margaret Murray to have existed in medieval Europe. or even ballads recounting his exploits. [19] The early ballads link Robin Hood to identifiable real places and many are convinced that he was a real person.As well as ballads. A number of theories as to the identity of "the real Robin Hood" have their supporters.[22] Despite the frequent Christian references in the early ballads."[26] . but hints and allusions found in various works. Between 1261 and 1300. when Guy Fawkes and his associates were branded "Robin Hoods" by Robert Cecil. and. Some of these theories posit that "Robin Hood" or "Robert Hood" or the like was his actual name. there are at least eight references to 'Rabunhod' in various regions across England.[23] Early references The oldest references to Robin Hood are not historical records. the lazy priest. 1362–c. but the reference does not indicate how old or widespread this custom was at the time. wente into the wodes in that countrie.[20] At the same time it is possible that Robin Hood has always been a fictional character. confesses: "I kan [know] not parfitly [perfectly] my Paternoster as the preest it singeth. "who having no liflode. The first allusion to a literary tradition of Robin Hood tales occurs in William Langland's Piers Plowman (c. the name is used to describe an itinerant felon. others suggest that this may have been merely a nickname disguising a medieval bandit perhaps known to history under another name. The majority of these references date from the late 13th century. from Berkshire in the south to York in the north. The Robin Hood games are known to have flourished in the later 15th and 16th centuries. like as it hadde be Robyn Hude and his meyne. onwards the names 'Robinhood'.

Robin is represented as a fighter for de Montfort's cause. In it. the character Valentine is banished from Milan and driven out through the forest where he is approached by outlaws who. The next notice is a statement in the Scotichronicon. 1266] arose the famous murderer. and about whom they are delighted to hear the jesters and minstrels sing above all other ballads. Robert Hood.[30] Another reference. apparently as a reward for his piety. it says: Around this time. "By the bare scalp of Robin Hood's fat friar." Bower goes on to tell a story about Robin Hood in which he refuses to flee from his enemies while hearing Mass in the greenwood. The word translated here as "murderer" is the Latin siccarius. Among Bower's many interpolations is a passage which directly refers to Robin. It is inserted after Fordun's account of the defeat of Simon de Montfort and the punishment of his adherents. one of his earliest.[28][29] Bower writes: Then [c. composed by John of Fordun between 1377 and 1384. from the Latin for "knife. Written around the year 1460 by a monk in Latin. This fellow were a king for our wild faction!"[32] . upon meeting him. and revised by Walter Bower in about 1440. written in about 1420. desire him as their leader. and then gains a surprise victory over them.[27] This was in fact true of the historical outlaw of Sherwood Forest Roger Godberd. infested Sherwood and other law-abiding areas of England with continuous robberies. as well as Little John. discovered by Julian Luxford in 2009. with his accomplices.[31] William Shakespeare makes reference to Robin Hood in his late 16th-century play The Two Gentlemen of Verona.The first mention of a quasi-historical Robin Hood is given in Andrew of Wyntoun's Orygynale Chronicle. appears in the margin of the "Polychronicon" in the Eton College library. The following lines occur with little contextualisation under the year 1283: Lytil Jhon and Robyne Hude Wayth-men ware commendyd gude In Yngil-wode and Barnysdale Thai oysyd all this tyme thare trawale. according to popular opinion. whom the foolish populace are so inordinately fond of celebrating both in tragedies and comedies. whose points of similarity to the Robin Hood of the ballads have often been noted. together with their accomplices from among the disinherited. They comment. a certain outlaw named Robin Hood.

1247. Came of the northe and the sothern blode. Robin Hood already belongs more to literature than to history. but according to the following inscription found among the papers of the Dean of York.References to Robin as Earl of Huntington Another reference is provided by Thomas Gale. In fact. "comedies and tragedies. where one would expect to find verifiable references to Robert.[34][35] Sources . The medieval texts do not refer to him directly. Hear undernead dis laitl stean Lais Robert Earl of Huntingun Near arcir der as hie sa geud An pipl kauld im Robin Heud Sic utlaws as hi an is men Vil England nivr si agen. in an anonymous song called Woman of c.his claim to which title has been as hotly contested as any disputed peerage upon record. a figure that the audience will instantly recognise as imaginary: He that made this songe full good." for Bower. And somewhat kyne to Robert Hoad. 1412. Consequently. In this inscription. but mediate their allusions through a body of accounts and reports: for Langland. about the 87th year of his age. Obiit 24 Kal Dekembris 1247 This inscription also appears on a grave in the grounds of Kirklees Priory near Kirklees Hall (see below). "commendyd gude. in the medieval period itself. he is treated in precisely this manner . Robin Hood is described as Earl of Huntington .. 1635–1702)." Even in a legal context. Dean of York (c. which bears evidence of high antiquity.as a joke.[33] but this comes nearly four hundred years after the events it describes: [Robin Hood's] death is stated by Ritson to have taken place on the 18th of November. he is primarily a symbol. Robin exists principally in "rimes." while for Wyntoun he is.the death occurred a month later. a generalised outlaw-figure rather than an individual.. The Gale note is inaccurate. Robert is largely fictional by this time.

such as Hereward the Wake. nevertheless regard it as "highly probable" that this French Robin's name and functions travelled to the English May Games where they fused with the Robin Hood legend. However."[43] Dobson and Taylor in their survey of the legend. swordplay. while (unlike some)[39] refraining from utterly and finally dismissing it."[42] In the Jeu de Robin and Marion Robin and his companions have to rescue Marion from the clutches of a "lustful knight. Fulk . such as Kinmont Willie.[41] Robin Hood's role in the traditional May Day games could suggest pagan connections but that role has not been traced earlier than the early 15th century. "this Robin and Marion tended to preside. which were based on historical events. over a variety of rustic pastimes. any such associations being regarded as later development [36] The mythological theory does go back to at least to 1584 when Reginald Scot identified Robin Hood with the Germanic goblin "Hudgin" or Hodekin and associated him with Robin Goodfellow. from fairies or other mythological origins. or from tales of outlaws.[40] While Robin Hood and his men often show super skill in archery. Eustace the Monk.[42] The origin of the legend is claimed by some to have stemmed from actual outlaws. in which they reject the mythological theory. they are no more exaggerated than those characters in other ballads. in the intervals of the attempted seduction of the latter by a series of knights."Robin shoots with Sir Guy" by Louis Rhead There is at present little scholarly support for the view that tales of Robin Hood have stemmed from mythology or folklore. it is uncontroversial that a Robin and Marion figured in 13th-century French "pastourelles" (of which Jeu de Robin et Marion c. 1280 is a literary version) and presided over the French May festivities.[37] Maurice Keen[38] provides a brief summary and useful critique of the once-popular view that Robin Hood had mythological origins. and disguise.

[51] Another theory of the origin of the name needs to be mentioned here. and apparently because he had been outlawed.[49] For whatever it may be worth. but this may merely indicate that no parallels have survived. so that the "Robin Hood" of legend was so-called because that was seen as an appropriate name for an outlaw. A difficulty with any such historical search is that "Robert" was in medieval England a very common given name."[22] There are indeed a number of references to Robin Hood as Robin Wood. generally called Richard at the Lee. Hunter identified the outlaw with a "Robyn Hode" recorded as employed by Edward II in 1323 during the king's progress through Lancashire. there are a number of people called "Robert Hood" or "Robin Hood" to be found in medieval records. but it is not clear whether either one is the source for the other. was also fairly common. referring ultimately to the head-covering. it appears to be the source. or Whood. notably the Gest names the reigning king as "Edward. and "Robin" (or Robyn) especially in the 13th century was its very common diminutive. therefore. On the other hand what appears to be the first known example of "Robin Hood" as stock name for an outlaw dates to 1262 in Berkshire where the surname "Robehod" was applied to a man after he had been outlawed. notably by John Maddicott.[46] There are a number of theories that attempt to identify a historical Robin Hood.FitzWarin. and that the outlaw's name has been given as "Robin Wood.[52] One well-known theory of origin was proposed by Joseph Hunter in 1852. however. Unsurprisingly.). Some of them are on record for having fallen foul of the law but this is not necessarily significant to the legend. from the 16th and 17th centuries.[4] and William Wallace. or whether they merely show that such tales were told of outlaws. that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by thieves.[47] The surname "Hood" (or Hude or Hode etc.[44] Hereward appears in a ballad much like Robin Hood and the Potter. and as the Hereward ballad is older.[45] Some early Robin Hood stories appear to be unique. King Edward I took the throne in 1272. It has long been suggested. The earliest recorded example. This Robyn Hood was identified .[50] This could suggest two main possibilities: either that an early form of the Robin Hood legend was already well established in the mid-13th century. The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica remarks that 'hood' was a common dialectical form of 'wood'." but the ballads cannot be assumed to be reliable in such details. or Whod. such as the story where Robin gives a knight. dates from 1518. or alternatively that the name "Robin Hood" preceded the outlaw hero that we know. money to pay off his mortgage to an abbot.[48] The early ballads give a number of possible historical clues. The ballad Adam Bell. and an Edward remained on the throne until the death of Edward III in 1377. in connection with May games in Somerset. Clym of the Cloughe and Wyllyam of Cloudeslee runs parallel to Robin Hood and the Monk.

[57][58] There is no evidence however that this Robert Hood. Another is that there is no direct evidence that Hunter's Hood had ever been an outlaw or any kind of criminal or rebel at all.with (one or more people called) Robert Hood living in Wakefield before and after that time.[20] There are certainly parallels between Godberd's career and that of Robin Hood as he appears in the Gest.[59] Ballads and tales The earliest surviving text of a Robin Hood ballad is "Robin Hood and the Monk". D. or Hod. V. first proposed by the historian L. referred to in nine successive Yorkshire Pipe Rolls between 1226 and 1234. or Hobbehod.) The theory supplies Robin Hood with a wife. and no sign in the early Robin Hood ballads of the specific concerns of de Montfort's revolt.48. all apparently the same man. . and Hunter also conjectured that the author of the Gest may have been the religious poet Richard Rolle (1290–1349) who lived in the village of Hampole in Barnsdale."[56] Some problems with this theory are that there is no evidence that Godberd was ever known as Robin Hood.[61] It contains many of the elements still associated with the legend. this casting doubt on this Robyn Hood's supposed earlier career as outlaw and rebel.[54] Finally recent research has shown that Hunter's Robyn Hood had been employed by the king at an earlier stage.5. one of the most serious being that "Robin Hood" and similar names were already used as nicknames for outlaws in the 13th century.[53] This theory has long been recognised to have serious problems. Comparing the available records with especially the Gest and also other ballads Hunter developed a fairly detailed theory according to which Robin Hood was an adherent of the rebel Earl of Lancaster. thought to be origin of Maid Marian. is that the original Robin Hood might be identified with an outlawed Robert Hood. which would place Robin Hood around the 1260s. although an outlaw. (The Gest does relate that Robin Hood was pardoned by "King Edward" and taken into his service.[55] Another theory identifies him with the historical outlaw Roger Godberd who was a die-hard supporter of Simon de Montfort.[54] Another well-known theory. John Maddicott has called Godberd "that prototype Robin Hood. from the Nottingham setting to the bitter enmity between Robin and the local sheriff. C. was also a bandit. Owen in 1936 and more recently floated by J. the theory is built on conjecture and coincidence of detail.[60] This is preserved in Cambridge University manuscript Ff. Matilda. which was written shortly after 1450. According to this theory Robin Hood was pardoned and employed by the king in 1323. defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge in 1322. Holt and others.

the sword with which he is depicted was common in the oldest ballads The first printed version is A Gest of Robyn Hode (c. contains the earliest reference to Friar Tuck. 1503. The difference between the two texts recalls Bower's claim that Robin-tales may be both 'comedies and tragedies'.[65] The story of Robin's aid to the "poor knight" that takes up much of the Gest may be an example. Each of these three ballads survived in a single copy. a collection of separate stories which attempts to unite the episodes into a single continuous narrative. Other early texts are dramatic pieces such as the fragmentary Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham[64] (c. These are particularly noteworthy as they show Robin's integration into May Day rituals towards the end of the Middle Ages. 1475). It has been argued that the fact that the surviving ballads were preserved in written form in itself makes it unlikely they were typical. . its plot involving trickery and cunning rather than straightforward force. 1472). and what has survived may not be typical of the medieval legend. in particular stories with an interest for the gentry were by this view more likely to be preserved. and neither is the plot of "Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne" which is probably at least as old as those two ballads although preserved in a more recent copy. among other points of interest. "The Potter" is markedly different in tone from "The Monk": whereas the earlier tale is "a thriller"[24] the latter is more comic. so it is unclear how much of the medieval legend has survived.[62] After this comes "Robin Hood and the Potter". Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham. The plots of neither "the Monk" nor "the Potter" are included in the Gest.Douglas Fairbanks as Robin Hood.[63] contained in a manuscript of c.

[66] and later in the same ballad Robin Hood states his intention of giving money to the next traveller to come down the road if he happens to be poor." Their social status. although in a "A Gest of Robyn Hode" Robin does make a large loan to an unfortunate knight which he does not in the end require to be repaid. Of my good he shall haue some. but it seems in context that Robin Hood is stating a general policy. he is shown as quick tempered and violent. Holt that the Robin Hood legend was cultivated in the households of the gentry.[68] And in its final lines the Gest sums up: he was a good outlawe. assaulting Little John for defeating him in an archery contest. C. in the same ballad Much the Miller's Son casually kills a "little page" in the course of rescuing Robin Hood from prison. and Robin Hood does not take to a staff until the 18th century Robin Hood and Little John. .[69] The political and social assumptions underlying the early Robin Hood ballads have long been controversial. as yeomen. Within Robin Hood's band medieval forms of courtesy rather than modern ideals of equality are generally in evidence. is shown by their weapons. He is not a peasant but a yeoman. Ne no knyght ne no squyer That wol be a gode felawe. Yf he be a por man. From the beginning Robin Hood is on the side of the poor. and that it would be mistaken to see in him a figure of peasant revolt.[67] As it happens the next traveller is not poor. It has been influentially argued by J. In "Robin Hood and the Monk". the Gest quotes Robin Hood as instructing his men that when they rob: loke ye do no husbonde harme That tilleth with his ploughe. And dyde pore men moch god.[5] No extant ballad actually shows Robin Hood "giving to the poor". No more ye shall no gode yeman That walketh by gren-wode shawe. for example. In the early ballads Robin's men usually kneel before him in strict obedience: in A Gest of Robyn Hode the king even observes that "His men are more at his byddynge/Then my men be at myn. The only character to use a quarterstaff in the early ballads is the potter.The character of Robin in these first texts is rougher edged than in his later incarnations. they use swords rather than quarterstaffs.

Gilbert with the White Hand in A Gest of Robyn Hode. which included common freeholders possessing a small landed estate. or Robert Fitz Ooth. David of Doncaster in Robin Hood and the Golden Arrow.who was called "little" as a joke. pious. Later that century Robin is promoted to the level of nobleman: he is styled Earl of Huntingdon. and Arthur a Bland in Robin Hood and the Tanner.[74] Even though the band is regularly described as being over a hundred men. Much the Miller's Son. and courteous. and see in the medieval Robin Hood ballads a plebeian literature hostile to the feudal order.[70] He appears not so much as a revolt against societal standards as an embodiment of them.[73] These include Will Scarlet (or Scathlock). worldly.and his tales make no mention of the complaints of the peasants.[72] "Little John and Robin Hood" by Frank Godwin Although the term "Merry Men" belongs to a later period. and Little John . he was a member of the yeoman classes. as he was quite the opposite.[75] .[74] Printed versions of the Robin Hood ballads. such as oppressive taxes. In the early ballads. appear in the early 16th century. Robert of Locksley. usually only three or four are specified. the ballads do name several of Robin's companions. shortly after the introduction of printing in England. opposed to stingy. generally based on the Gest. Some appear only once or twice in a ballad: Will Stutely in Robin Hood Rescuing Will Stutly and Robin Hood and Little John. being generous. and churlish foes.[71] Other scholars have by contrast stressed the subversive aspects of the legend. by contrast.

Valor.[78] A complaint of 1492. presiding over games and processions.[76] Robin was often allocated the role of a May King. with revellers dressing as Robin or as members of his band for the festivities. and during the reign of Henry VIII.but the characters were brought together. the accused defended themselves on the grounds that the practice was a long-standing custom to raise money for churches.[76] Both Robin and Marian were certainly associated with May Day festivities in England (as was Friar Tuck). and . accuses men of acting riotously by coming to a fair as Robin Hood and his men.[79] Robin Hood and Maid Marian It is from the association with the May Games that Robin's romantic attachment to Maid Marian (or Marion) apparently stems. The naming of Marian may have come from the French pastoral play of c. a means by which churches raised funds.By the early 15th century at the latest. 1500. and they had not acted riotously but peaceably. but in some regions the custom lasted until Elizabethan times. Breeding.[77] sometimes performed at church ales. the Jeu de Robin et Marion. was briefly popular at court.[73] Marian did not immediately gain the unquestioned role. This was not common throughout England. in Robin Hood's Birth. Robin Hood had become associated with May Day celebrations. refers to "some merry fytte of Maid Marian or else of Robin Hood" .Alexander Barclay in his Ship of Fools. although this play is unrelated to the English legends. but these may have been originally two distinct types of performance . but plays were also performed with the characters in the roles. 1280. writing in c. brought to the Star Chamber.

In As You Like It. the stories become even more conservative. Robin disguises himself as a friar and cheats two priests out of their cash.[80] Clorinda survives in some later stories as an alias of Marian. romance. Up until this point there was little interest in exactly when Robin's adventures took place. rather than as a real challenge to convention. setting out to capture Robin. When his enemies do not fall for this ruse. and develop a slightly more farcical vein. In this. The tinker. all represent moves to domesticate his legend and reconcile it to ruling powers. Edward II. The "criminal" element is retained to provide dramatic colour. the legend of Robin Hood is often used to promote the hereditary ruling class. He first appeared in a 17th century broadside ballad. or Edward III. The continued popularity of the Robin Hood tales is attested by a number of literary references. However. a tinker and a ranger. managed to adhere to the legend. he persuades them to drink with him instead. Yet even in these ballads Robin is more than a mere simpleton: on the contrary. the only character who does not get the better of Hood is the luckless Sheriff. fighting in the crusades. summoning the Merry Men to his aid. without stipulating whether this is Edward I. his legend is similar to that of King Arthur. the exiled duke and his men "live like the old Robin Hood of England". Giving Robin an aristocratic title and female love interest. chivalrous romance under the troubadours serving Eleanor of Aquitaine.[80] This is also the era in which the character of Robin became fixed as stealing from the rich to give to the poor. and placing him in the historical context of the true king's absence.[84] In the 18th century. In Robin Hood's Golden Prize. the period in which King Richard was absent from his throne. From this period there are a number of ballads in which Robin is severely "drubbed" by a succession of professionals including a tanner. Anthony Munday wrote a pair of plays on the Robin Hood legend.[74] In the 16th century. he often acts with great shrewdness. only manages to fight with him after he has been cheated out of his money and the arrest warrant he is carrying. The Downfall and The Death of Robert Earl of Huntington (published 1601). The 17th century introduced the minstrel Alan-a-Dale. during the 16th century the stories become fixed to the 1190s. which morphed from a dangerous male-centred story to a more comfortable. and religious piety. Even when Robin is defeated. and gains popular acceptance by the end of the century.[82] This date is first proposed by John Mair in his Historia Majoris Britanniæ (1521). and unlike many of the characters thus associated. he usually tricks his foe into letting him sound his horn. while Ben Jonson produced the (incomplete) masque The Sad .[82] In fact. From the 16th century on.[81] Hood may thus have been active at any point between 1272 and 1377. his sweetheart is 'Clorinda the Queen of the Shepherdesses'.[83] In 1598. The original ballads refer at various points to "King Edward". Robin Hood is given a specific historical setting.Marriage.

or a Tale of Robin Hood[85] as a satire on Puritanism. These developments are part of the 20th century Robin Hood myth.[88] The title page of Howard Pyle's 1883 novel. since the novel's chief theme is the childhood of King Arthur. most notably in Howard Pyle's The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood. Nevertheless.makes his debut.[90] The 20th century has grafted still further details on to the original legends. The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood The Victorian era[89] generated its own distinct versions of Robin Hood. or Robin Hood and Maid Marian. and plays no part in raising the ransom to free Richard.[87] which was presented with incidental music by Sir Arthur Sullivan in 1892. the Romantic poet John Keats composed Robin Hood. starring Errol Flynn and Olivia de . the modern Robin Hood ."King of Outlaws and prince of good fellows!" as Richard the Lionheart calls him . The most notable contributions to this idea of Robin are Jacques Nicolas Augustin Thierry's Histoire de la Conquête de l'Angleterre par les Normands (1825) and Sir Walter Scott's Ivanhoe (1819). the adventures are still more local than national in scope: while King Richard's participation in the Crusades is mentioned in passing. To A Friend[86] and Alfred Lord Tennyson wrote a play The Foresters. The idea of Robin Hood as a high-minded Saxon fighting Norman lords also originates in the 19th century. The traditional tales were often adapted for children. Somewhat later. Later still. The 1938 film The Adventures of Robin Hood. Robin takes no stand against Prince John. a man who takes from the rich to give to the poor.Shepherd. T.[1] These versions firmly stamp Robin as a staunch philanthropist. which influenced accounts of Robin Hood through the 20th century. H. In this last work in particular. White featured Robin and his band in The Sword in the Stone - anachronistically.

due to concerns that Reynard was unsuitable as a hero. who not only supports the poor by taking from the rich. leading the oppressed Saxons in revolt against their Norman overlords while Richard the Lionheart fought in the Crusades. portrays the figures in later years after Robin has returned from service with Richard the Lion Hearted in a foreign crusade and Marian has gone into seclusion in a nunnery. Robin himself has evolved from a yeoman bandit to a national hero of epic proportions.[91] In the 1973 animated Disney film Robin Hood. The Robin Hood legend has thus been subject to numerous shifts and mutations throughout its history.[citation needed] The 1976 British-American film Robin and Marian.Havilland. this movie established itself so definitively that many studios resorted to movies about his son (invented for that purpose) rather than compete with the image of this one. portrayed Robin as a hero on a national scale. Years before Robin Hood had even entered production. animator Ken Anderson lifted many elements from Reynard into Robin Hood. starring Sean Connery as Robin Hood and Audrey Hepburn as Maid Marian. However. Connections to existing locations The Major Oak in Sherwood Forest . Later versions of the story have followed suit: the 1991 movie Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves and 2006 BBC TV series Robin Hood each contain equivalents of Nasir.[91] The latest movie version released in spring of 2010 is simply entitled Robin Hood and is directed by Ridley Scott. the title character is portrayed as an anthropomorphic fox voiced by Brian Bedford. Disney had considered doing a project on Reynard the Fox. but heroically defends the throne of England itself from unworthy and venal claimants. it has become commonplace to include a Saracen among the Merry Men. with Robin played by Russell Crowe. a trend which began with the character Nasir in the Robin of Sherwood television series. Since the 1980s. in the figures of Azeem and Djaq respectively. thus making the titular character a fox.

the Nottingham setting is a matter of some contention.[93] To reinforce this belief.. furthermore. While the Sheriff of Nottingham and the town itself appear in early ballads. The Robin Hood Way runs through Nottinghamshire and the county is home to literally thousands of other places. often claiming him as the symbol of their county. 389.an assertion with no documentary evidence whatsoever to support it in any of the stories. tales or ballads. then consideration of the following reference may lend this theory a modicum of credence: 24) No. "Of [or from] Lockesly"). dated 1245. major road signs entering the shire depict Robin Hood with his bow and arrow. 29 H. approximately fifty miles north of Nottingham. Specific sites linked to Robin Hood include the Major Oak tree. Nic Meverill. If the Robert mentioned above was indeed Robin Hood. III. The project "will use a 3D laser scanner to produce a three dimensional record of more than 450 sandstone caves around Nottingham". with John Kantia. only.[95] This is reinforced for some by the alleged similarity of Locksley to the area of Loxley. annually from the . in consideration of receiving from each of them 2M (2 marks). it is further believed by some that Robin had a brother called Thomas . on the one part. and also since it was usual for men to adopt the name of their hometown ("De Lockesly" means simply. in the county of Yorkshire. Ascension Day. the University of Nottingham in 2010 has begun the Nottingham Caves Survey with the goal "to increase the tourist potential of these sites". the said Henry to live at table with one of them and to receive 2M. a record of the appearance of a "Robert de Lockesly" in court is found. For example. roads. which was the "Kings Larder" in the Royal Forest of the Peak. where in nearby Tideswell. Robin Hood is said to have taken up residence in the verdant Sherwood Forest in the county of Nottinghamshire. rent.[92] Robin Hood's Well. and Henry de Leke.In modern versions of the legend. welcoming people to 'Robin Hood County. where Robin and Maid Marian are historically thought to have wed. the record could just as easily be referring to any man from the area named Robert. inns and objects bearing Robin's name. South Yorkshire in Sheffield. certain of the original ballads (even those with Nottingham references) locate Robin on occasion in Barnsdale (the area between Pontefract and Doncaster). Mary in the village of Edwinstowe. For this reason the people of present-day Nottinghamshire have a special affinity with Robin Hood. As "Robert" and its diminutives were amongst the most common of names at the time. which he received from Nicolas and John and Robert de Lockesly for his life from the lands of Gellery. f0.[94] However. Although it cannot be proven whether or not this is the man himself.78. and the Church of St. and Sherwood is specifically mentioned in the early ballad Robin Hood and the Monk.' BBC Radio Nottingham also uses the phrase 'Robin Hood County' on its regular programmes. and if he did have a brother named Thomas. located near Newstead Abbey (within the boundaries of Sherwood Forest). claimed to have been used by him as a hideout. it has been suggested that the ballads placed in this area are far more geographically specific and accurate. Henry released to Nicholas and John 5 m.

Warwickshire. wallpaper was removed to reveal a wall mural depicting Robin Hood and his Merry Men in the small snug of the pub. Roger de Lockesly. This location was used in the 1991 film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves. 80 b.e. which Nicolas Meveril had rendered to him. This was the previous location of a pub/music venue known as The Duchess of York which was previously known as the Robin Hood. however.other. UK. to the extent that South Yorkshire's new airport." In the city centre of Leeds. There is something of a modern movement amongst Yorkshire residents to attempt to claim the legend of Robin Hood. a variant of "as plain as the nose on your face" was "Robin Hood in Barnesdale stood. The Landlord at the time. It is again. Centuries ago. has been given the name Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield. Yorkshire. a Little John's Well (near Hampole) and a Robin Hood's stream (in Highfields Wood at Woodlands). Hadrian's Wall. Robin Hood Tree aka Sycamore Gap. under a penalty of L40 (40 pounds). A pound was 240 silver pence. p. 402. Thomas de Lockesly bound himself that he would not sell his lands at Leke. Sampson de Leke. Robin Dover. Vicar Lane is a retail clothing store operated by Hugo Boss. although ironically in the historic county of Nottinghamshire. West Yorkshire at 71. There have been further claims made that he is from Swannington in Leicestershire[96] or Loxley. on the site of the redeveloped RAF Finningley airbase near Doncaster. John. equally likely that Nicolas.. John de Leke. (25) No. Rico de Newland. Magister Peter Meverill. 13 shillings and fourpence). T. and a mark was 160 silver pence (i. there is a well known as Robin Hood's Well (by the side of the Great North Road). Robert fil Umfred. In Barnsdale Forest. Richard Meverill. Robert and Thomas were simply members of a family which came from the area. During a interior refurbishment. . was photographed standing next to the mural which was published in The Yorkshire Evening Post..

also in the Peak District.This debate is hardly surprising. his health worsened. Peveril Castle and Haddon Hall. Ladybower and the Derwent Valley near Loxley. With the 1881 Childers reforms that linked regular and reserve units into regimental families." and this is where the Royal Forest of the Peak is found. came to within three miles of Sheffield City Centre. Robin was ill and staying at the Priory where the Prioress was supposedly caring for him. There is an elaborate grave there with the inscription referred to above. A British Army Territorial (reserves) battalion formed in Nottingham in 1859 was known as The Robin Hood Battalion through various reorganisations until the "Robin Hood" name finally disappeared in 1992. Mercia. behind the Three Nuns pub in Mirfield. Considering these references to Robin Hood. However. Doncaster and right into West Yorkshire. The supposed grave of Little John can be found in Hathersage. on the A61 between Leeds and Wakefield and close to Rothwell and Lofthouse. There is a village in West Yorkshire called Robin Hood. The Royal Forest included Bakewell. not far from Lofthouse. West Yorkshire. Lincoln. organised by Calderdale Council Tourist Information office. could easily have roamed between Nottingham. although for the reasons given above this theory has now largely been abandoned. the Robin Hood Battalion became part of The Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment). West Yorkshire. if he existed. Further indications of the legend's connection with West Yorkshire (and particularly Calderdale) are noted in the fact that there are pubs called the Robin Hood in both nearby Brighouse and at Cragg Vale. The grave with the inscription is within sight of the ruins of the Kirklees Priory. The Sheriff of Nottingham also had jurisdiction in Derbyshire that was known as the "Shire of the Deer. The story said that the Prioress was a relative of Robin's. to which Nottingham belonged. and where the arrow landed was to be the site of his grave. Castleton. who. He shot an arrow from the Priory window. it is not surprising that the people of both South and West Yorkshire lay some claim to Robin Hood. and he eventually died there. Robin Hood Hill is near Outwood. where Robin Hood Rocks can also be found. he told Little John (or possibly another of his Merry Men) where to bury him. given the considerable value that the Robin Hood legend has for local tourism. she betrayed him. The grave can be visited on occasional organised walks. amongst other places both far and wide including Hazlebadge Hall. higher up in the Pennines beyond Halifax. which roughly corresponds to today's Peak District National Park. Robin Hood himself was once thought to have been buried in the grounds of Kirklees Priory between Brighouse and Mirfield in West Yorkshire. Tideswell. Before he died. The Sheriff of Nottingham possessed property near Loxley. .

Ballads whose first recorded version appears (usually incomplete) in the Percy Folio may appear in later versions[98] and may be much older than the mid 17th century when the Folio was compiled. surviving in 15th. List of traditional ballads Elizabethan song of Robin Hood Ballads are the oldest existing form of the Robin Hood legends. although had Robin Hood existed it is doubtful that he would have travelled so far south.A Neolithic causewayed enclosure on Salisbury Plain has acquired the name Robin Hood's Ball. or descended from a lost older ballad. often opening with praise of the greenwood and relying heavily on disguise as a plot device. and many are much later. For example.[99] Early ballads (i. very roughly according to date of first known free-standing copy. and it also appears in an 18th-century version.or early 16th-century copies) A Gest of Robyn Hode Robin Hood and the Monk Robin Hood and the Potter Ballads appearing in 17th-century Percy Folio . is summarised in the 15th-century A Gest of Robyn Hode.[97] The ballads below are sorted into three groups. found in the Percy Folio. Any ballad may be older than the oldest copy which happens to survive. but include a wide variation in tone and plot..e. although none of them are recorded at the time of the first allusions to him. They share many common features. the plot of Robin Hood's Death.

also probably have late medieval origins. Valor. and Marriage Robin Hood's Chase . are generally agreed to preserve the substance of late medieval ballads. although preserved in 17th century copies.[100] Robin Hood's Death Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne Robin Hood and the Curtal Friar Robin Hood and the Butcher Robin Hood Rescuing Will Stutly Robin Hood Rescuing Three Squires The Jolly Pinder of Wakefield Little John and the Four Beggars Robin Hood and Queen Katherine Other ballads A True Tale of Robin Hood Robin Hood and the Bishop Robin Hood and the Bishop of Hereford Robin Hood and the Golden Arrow Robin Hood and the Prince of Aragon Robin Hood and the Ranger Robin Hood and the Scotchman Robin Hood and the Tanner Robin Hood and the Tinker Robin Hood and the Valiant Knight Robin Hood Newly Revived Robin Hood's Birth. The third (the "Curtal Friar") and the fourth (the "Butcher"). Breeding. The first two ballads listed here (the "Death" and "Gisborne").NB.

unrelated ballads) led him to title it Willie and Earl Richard's Daughter in his collection. where the folk hero appears to be added to a ballad pre-existing him and in which he does not fit very well.[101] He was added to one variant of Rose Red and the White Lily."[102] Francis James Child indeed retitled Child ballad 102. its clear lack of connection with the Robin Hood cycle (and connection with other. and Friendship with Robin Hood The Noble Fisherman Some ballads.[103] Popular culture Main articles: Robin Hood in popular culture and List of films and television series featuring Robin Hood See also Eustace Folville Juraj Jánošík Kobus van der Schlossen Ned Kelly Iancu Jianu Nezumi Kozō Rummu Jüri Ustym Karmaliuk Trysting Tree Verysdale William de Wendenal . apparently on no more connection than that one hero of the other variants is named "Brown Robin. feature Robin Hood in some variants.Robin Hood's Delight Robin Hood's Golden Prize Robin Hood's Progress to Nottingham The Bold Pedlar and Robin Hood The King's Disguise. such as Erlinton. though it was titled The Birth of Robin Hood.

shtml. p.html. ^ a b Robin Hood and the Monk. pp.icons. ^ a b Dobson & Taylor.org.uk/nottingham/features/2004/01/robin_hood_county. 24 October 2007.channel4." ^ "Robin Hood – Evidence for Yorkshire". BBC. From The Robin Hood Project at the University of Rochester.org. Channel4. . See Online Etymology Dictionary ^ The Child Ballads 117 "A Gest of Robyn Hode" (c 1450) "Whan they were clothed in Lyncolne grene" ^ a b Holt. http://www.uk/theicons/collection/robin-hood/features/rival-claims.co. http://books. 84–88.uk.Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd Schinderhannes Chucho el Roto References ^ a b "Robin Hood: Development of a Popular Hero". The pathes he knew ilkone.com. ^ "Merry-man" has referred to the follower of an outlaw since at least 1386.google. Retrieved 22 November 2008.com/?id=dPtpkU1WSbcC&pg=PR11&dq=Holt+%22robin+hood %22. http://www. ISBN 978-0-8014-3885-1. 62. 24 October 2007. Hym selfe mornyng allone. ^ Knight.co. 18: "On balance therefore these 15th-century references to the Robin Hood legend seem to suggest that during the later Middle Ages the outlaw hero was more closely related to Barnsdale than Sherwood. And Litull John to mery Scherwode.com/history/microsites/H/history/n-s/robin02. ^ "In the footsteps of Robin Hood". p. 119A: Robin Hood and the Monk Stanza 16: Then Robyn goes to Notyngham. online at Sacred Texts. 24 October 2007. Ithica.bbc. http://www. Icons. New York: Cornell University Press. ^ "Robin Hood – On the move?".uk. From Child's edition of the ballad. Robin Hood: A Mythic Biography. Stephen (2003).

edu/cgi/t/text/text- idx?c=cme.396 in Schmidt's ed". 1475. ^ Dobson & Taylor. http://www. almost invariably among the performers in the 16th century morris dance. pp. Robert Graves notes to his reconstruction of Robin Hood's Death. 14–16. accessed 19 August 2008 on the Godberd theory. 34. stanza 292 (archery) 117A: The Gest of Robyn Hode. p. 44. 203. ^ Robert Graves English and Scottish Ballads.view=text. ^ a b Holt ^ Rot. ^ Dobson & Taylor. The real Robin Hood. p.idno=PPlLan. ^ Dobson & Taylor.umich. ^ Dobson & Taylor. 33. Friar Tuck is mentioned in the play fragment Robin Hood and the Sheriff dated to c.rgn=div1. Parl. p. Robin Hood. 1957. ^ Dobson & Taylor." Dobson and Taylor have suggested that theories on the origin of Friar Tuck often founder on a failure to recognise that "he was the product of the fusion between two very different friars. ^ a b See BBC website. p." a "bellicose outlaw.node=PPlLan%3A6. pp.cc=cme. New York: Macmillan. London: William Heinemann. ^ Dobson & Taylor. pp. 1957. ^ Dobson & Taylor.umich. p. 220–223. ^ Singmam. "It was here [the May Games] that he encountered and assimilated into his own legend the jolly friar and Maid Marian. 34–35. 62. 16. in particular. Retrieved 2010-03-12. The Shaping of the Legend p.hti. Hti." and the May Games figure. 5. ^ "V. 1998. ^ Dobson & Taylor. Retrieved 15 April 2008. pp. See. 16. ix ^ a b A number of such theories are mentioned at 1911 Britannica article on "Robin Hood" at LoveToKnow Robin Hood. v.^ A Gest of Robin Hood stanzas 10–15. 41. ^ Dobson & Taylor.edu. 5 .

33.^ J. Routledge. 42. Pollard has also so refrained. p. Robin Hood. also quoting Francis Child to the same effect ^ More recently A. ^ Holt. ^ Maurice Keen The Outlaws of Medieval England Appendix 1. Thirteenth century England:1 Proceedings of the Newcastle Upon Tyne Conference 1985. 1987.002.Early ballads (London. Journal of Medieval History 35 (1): 70–76. A Mythic Biography.jmedhist. 70) ^ Wright. Routledge. doi:10. 104 ^ Women from The Wright's Chaste Wife. and stressed the symbolical significance of the "perpetual springtime" of the ballads. p. Cornell University Press. p.org/stable/2935696 ^ The Outlaws of Medieval England Appendix 1. 55. p. "Sir Edward the First and the Lessons of Baronial Reform" in Coss and Loyd ed. 5 ^ Luxford. line 36–7 ^ The Annotated Edition of the English Poets . J. .01. R. G. 2003. 79-146 Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press http://www. p. ^ Dobson & Taylor. Boydell and Brewer. by Adam of Cobsam at Project Gutenberg ^ Holt. 73. Routledge ISBN 0-415-22308- 3. p. Julian M. 1987. (2009).1016/j. Scott "The Devil and His Imps: An Etymological Investigation" page 129 Transactions of the American Philological Association (1869-1896) Vol. (1895). ^ Dobson & Taylor. p. Routledge ^ Passage quoted and commented on in Stephen Knights.jstor. 26. p. Maddicott. ^ Reginald Scot "Discourse upon divels and spirits" Chapter 21. 2 ^ Maurice Hugh Keen The Outlaws of Medieval England.2009. Scene 1. "An English chronicle entry on Robin Hood". quoted in Charles P. ^ Holt. ^ a b Dobson & Taylor. ISBN 0-7102-1203-8. p. ISBN 0-7102- 1203-8. p. pp. 57. ^ Act IV. 1856. 1987. 2004. Imagining Robin Hood: The Late-Medieval Stories in Historical Context. 63.

http://www.edu/camelot/teams/potter. xxi–xxii. and chapter on place-names. 1d.lib. Maddicott. p. Lib. http://www. p.lib. The Great Hero of the Ancient Minstrelsy of England: Robin Hood. criticising Joseph Hunter's "quite remarkable belief in the historical accuracy of the Gest. ^ Introduction accompanying Knight and Ohlgren's 1997 ed. ^ Crook. Thomas. 97–134 ^ "Robin Hood and the Potter". 1465–1560. ^ Dobson & Taylor. 2. rot. Coss.edu. "Edward the First and the Lessons of Baronial Reform" in Coss and Loyd ed. 160f. D.edu. summarised in Dobson & Taylor. Retrieved 2010-03-12. Lib.rochester. Thirteenth century England:1 Proceedings of the Newcastle Upon Tyne Conference 1985. introduction page 13. ^ Dobson & Taylor.htm. 530–34. (Newark: University of Delaware Press. 75–76. JR Smith. S.rochester. pp. xvii. Online at Google digitized books. introduction pages 11–12. 12. 1950. Investigated and perhaps Ascertained. Crook English Historical Review XCIX (1984) pp. real character etc. ^ Dobson & Taylor. ^ Joseph Hunter. ed Thirteenth Century England University of Newcastle — 1999. his period.htm. ^ a b Dobson & Taylor. Lloyd. pp. EG Withycombe. R. Robin Hood: The Early Poems. 12 lines from bottom. Quoted in the Gentlemans Magazine "The Discovery of the Veritable Robin Hood" 1854 p. pp. ^ Ohlgren. 39n. 2007). pp.edu/camelot/teams/monk. p.^ Holt. ^ J. discussed in Dobson & Taylor. . 74–75. ^ Dobson & Taylor. pp. ^ "Robin Hood and the Monk". xxi–xxii. p." ^ D. Boydell and Brewer. 1852. ^ Holt. introduction. ^ Dobson & Taylor.rochester. David "The Sheriff of Nottingham and Robin Hood: The Genesis of the Legend?" In Peter R. Retrieved 2010-03-12. From Script to Print: Robin Hood and the Early Printers. ^ E372/70.rochester. ^ Oxford Dictionary of Christian Names. xvii.

http://www. 148–9 ^ a b Holt. "A Beginner's Guide to Robin Hood" ^ Holt. p.edu/camelot/rh/jonsonss.^ "''Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham''". p. 46.edu.edu. http://www. 165 ^ Holt. 190. Retrieved 2010-03-12. http://www. 37 ^ a b Holt. p. Lib. Lib. p.lib. ISBN 0-313-30101-8 ^ a b Jeffrey Richards.rochester. 159 ^ a b Hutton.lib. pp.rochester. Robin Hood: The Shaping of the Legend Published 1998. Jeffrey L Robin Hood: The Shaping of the Legend. pp. 1988 ^ a b c Allen W.edu. p. Greenwood Publishing Group. p.edu/camelot/rh/keats. p. 1999 ^ Holt.edu/camelot/teams/sheri. 1998.htm. p.rochester. pp. 37–38 ^ Holt. Swordsmen of the Screen: From Douglas Fairbanks to Michael York. 10 ^ Singman. 31 ^ Holt. 1996. Lond.rochester. p. Wright. and first chapter as a whole. p. p. Retrieved 2010-03-12. Routledge & Kegan Paul.lib. p.htm. 32 ^ Hutton. 170 ^ The Times (London). Jeffrey L. . ie A Gest of Robyn Hode stanza 210 ^ 117A: The Gest of Robyn Hode stanzas 13–14 A Gest of Robyn Hode ^ Holt.htm. ^ "Keats' "Robin Hood. Henly and Boston. Lib. ^ Singman.rochester. 51 ISBN 0-313-30101-8 ^ Holt. 184 ^ "Johnson's "The Sad Shepherd"". 270–1 ^ Hutton.rochester. 1997. 36 ^ Holt. To a friend"". 1996. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 11 ^ Child Ballads 117A:210. p. July 11. Greenwood Publishing Group.

^ Allen W.2007-05- 22.edwinstowe. v. Robin Hood: The English Outlaw Unmasked.R. Pierce the Younger (1846). p.uk/ebulletin/news/2000-2009/2007/05/nparticle.htm. ^ Child.lib. Lib. p.ac.rochester.uk/robin_hood/index. ISBN 978-1-84868-378-5. Urbana Chicago London.rochester.nottinghamshire. Amberley Publishing.co. http://www2. http://www. Pub.htm. 1976 ^ Egan. http://www.le.le. 151.0457154226/?searchterm=bloor.htm. ^ Holt. 34–35 ^ Dobson and Taylor. p. ^ Laser to scan Robin Hood's prison under Nottingham city. v. "Major Oak". Retrieved 2007-11-21. Retrieved 2010-03-12.edu. Wright. "Wolfshead through the Ages Films and Fantasy" ^ Nottinghamshire County Council. 178 ^ Child. ^ Edwinstowe Parish Council. 83 ^ "Big It Up Bulletin-May issue". p. see introduction to each individual ballad.ac. Retrieved 2010-03-12. . Barry. University of Illinois Press. George Peirce. p. Retrieved 2009-08-02. http://www. Sur les vicissitudes et les transformations du cycle populaire de Robin Hood. pp.uk. Rignoux. 416 ^ Child. Wright. London.^ "Tennyson's "The Foresters"". 2.uk/home/leisure/countryparks/sherwoodforestcp/m ajoroak. 2. . 1. 133 ^ Dobson & Taylor.gov. David (2010). 2007-04-29. The Game of the Impossible. Robin Hood and Little John or The Merry Men of Sherwood Forest. 412 Bibliography Baldwin. "Wolfshead through the Ages Revolutions and Romanticism" ^ a b Allen W. "Edwinstowe". v. Irwin. ^ W.edu/CAMELOT/rh/forest. ^ Holt. p. Edward (1832). Appendix 1 ^ Dobson and Taylor.

Oxford University Press. The Origins of Robin Hood. ISBN 0-9540164-0-8. Rylands Univ. ISBN 0-631-19486-X. Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-medieval. Ronald (1996). Cornell University Press. Ronald (1997). V. Past and Present. R.. Linney.. Diane (2004). Fran. ISBN 0-19-285327-9. ISBN 0-19-288045-4. D. C. Green. ISBN 0- 7509-3977-X. Coghlan. ISBN 0-86373-136-8. Harris. Robin Hood Comprehension Guide. Mike (2006). Four Courts Press..S. The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Hahn. Brewer. (1978). Phillips. Robin Hood. Transgression and Justice. Thames & Hudson. Geoff (2000). The Rymes of Robin Hood: An Introduction to the English Outlaw. Knight. The Robin Hood Companion. Francis James (1997). Taylor. Robin Hood: A Complete Study of the English Outlaw. pp. 30–44. Stephen Thomas (1994). Secrets of the Grave. Child. Truth About Robin Hood. Xiphos Books. Robin Hood in Popular Culture: Violence. Deitweiler. Robin Hood: A Hero for All Times. Barbara (2001). ISBN 0- 9544936-0-5. ISBN 0-900525-16-9. Veritas Pr Inc. Doel. ISBN 0-85991-564-6. Thomas (2000). ISBN 0-500-27541-6.Blamires. Doel. John (1977). Hutton. Holt. Tempus Publishing Ltd. Hutton. J. Helen (2005). Coleman. Available online at JSTOR. ISBN 1-930710-77-1. J. (Nov. David (1998). R.H. Laurie. No. . (1982). Robin Hood: A Mythic Biography. Dixon-Kennedy. Stephen Thomas (2003). The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. ISBN 0-8014-3885-3. 14. Knight. Robin Hood: Outlaw and Greenwood Myth. Dover Publications. Sutton Publishing. 1958). B. The Rise and Fall of Merry England: The Ritual Year 1400– 1700. Sutton Publishing. 1–5. ISBN 0-750916613. Hilton. ISBN 0-7524-1479-8. Oxford University Press. Dobson. Blackwell Publishers. of Manchester. Palmyra Press. ISBN 978-0-486-43150-5. Lib. The Robin Hood Handbook. P. Ronan (2003). ISBN 1-85182-931-8.

A. Thomas (1847). Richard (2002). information on the development of the legend. Richard (1999). Stand and Deliver: Highway Men from Robin Hood to Dick Turpin. ISBN 0-19-818336-4. William Pickering. University of Delaware Press. ISBN 1-4212-6209-6. ballads. .Ludwig von Mises Institute Robin Hood: Bold Outlaw of Barnsdale and Sherwood. Rutherford-Moore. Oxford University Press. Imagining Robin Hood: The Late Medieval Stories in Historical Context. Now Extant Relative to That Celebrated English Outlaw: To Which are Prefixed Historical Anecdotes of His Life. place names. and Ballads.Pollard. Robin Hood the Facts and the Fiction. medieval records. Rutherford-Moore. England Robin Hood. ISBN 0-415-22308-3. Friend of Liberty . Dorset Press. contains ballads. Patrick (1991). Songs. Routledge. Playing Robin Hood: The Legend as Performance in Five Centuries. Wright. Lewis (1998). Vahimagi. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Robin Hood Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Robin Hood. and interviews with scholars and authors. Potter. ISBN 1-86163-177-4. now first imprinted. The Legend of Robin Hood. analysis on the legend etc. Tise (1994). Nottingham. ISBN 1-86163-069-7. Robin Hood: A Collection of All the Ancient Poems. BBC History: Robin Hood and his Historical Context Home of the World Wide Robin Hood Society in Sherwood. has a lot of information on Robin Hood. Robin Hood: On the Outlaw Trail. Songs and Carols. Joseph (1832). ISBN 0874136636. ISBN 0-88029-698-4. an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd. (2004). Percy Society. Pringle. Capall Bann Publishing. J. British Television: An Illustrated Guide. Ritson. Capall Bann Publishing.

Thinking of visiting Robin Hood's home in Nottingham? visit www.robinhoodbreaks. Project Gutenberg and Google Books (scanned books original editions color illustrated) Nottingham Caves Survey [hide] v•d•e Robin Hood Robin Hood · Maid Marian · Merry Men · Much the Miller's Son · Little John · Friar Tuck · Alan-a-Dale · Will Scarlet · Will Stutely · Gilbert Characte Whitehand · Arthur a Bland · David of Doncaster · Sheriff of rs Nottingham · Sir Guy of Gisbourne · Prince John · Bishop of Hereford · Richard at the Lee Settings Sherwood Forest · Nottingham · Loxley · Barnsdale · Wentbridge Adaptatio Popular culture · Film and television ns Retrieved from "http://en.the greatest of English myths" on BBC Radio 4's In Our Time featuring Stephen Knight. Thomas Hahn and Dr Juliette Wood Robin Hood .wikipedia.com first and save money at attractions on your holiday with a Robin Hood Card Ben Turner's Robin Hood site one of the first on the web The Robin Hood Project at the University of Rochester — Houses a large collection of Robin Hood text and art "Robin Hood .org/wiki/Robin_Hood" Categories: Disney's Robin Hood characters | Fictional archers | Film characters | English folklore | English heroic legends | English legendary characters | English outlaws | English rebels | English Roman Catholics | Fictional earls | Medieval legends | Merry Men | Nottingham | Robin Hood | Robin Hood characters .from Internet Archive.

Hidden categories: Wikipedia semi-protected pages | Wikipedia indefinitely move- protected pages | Articles containing French language text | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from September 2009 Personal tools Log in / create account Namespaces Article Discussion Variants Views Read View source View history Actions Search Top of Form Bottom of Form Navigation Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate Interaction Help .

About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Cite this page Print/export Create a book Download as PDF Printable version Languages Alemannisch ‫العربية‬ Беларуская (тарашкевіца) Български Català Česky Dansk Deutsch Eesti Ελληνικά .

Español Esperanto Euskara ‫فارسی‬ Føroyskt Français Gaeilge 한국어 Hrvatski Bahasa Indonesia Íslenska Italiano ‫עברית‬ ქართული Latviešu Lietuvių Magyar Македонски Bahasa Melayu Nederlands 日本語 Norsk (bokmål) Кырык мары Polski Português Română .

See Terms of Use for details.. additional terms may apply. Inc. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. a non- profit organization.Русский Shqip Simple English Slovenčina Ślůnski Српски / Srpski Suomi Svenska தமிழ் Türkçe Українська Vèneto Tiếng Việt 文言 中文 This page was last modified on 26 November 2010 at 16:42. Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers .