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Disposable baby diaper with resealable tapes and elasticated leg cuffs.
Different kinds of outer diapers. A diaper (in North America) or nappy (in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and many Commonwealth countries) is a sponge-like garment worn by individuals who are incapable of controlling their bladder or bowel movements, or are unable or unwilling to use a toilet. When diapers become soiled, they require changing; this process is often performed by a secondary person such as a parent or caregiver. Failure to change a diaper on a regular enough basis can result in diaper rash. Diapers have been worn throughout human history, and made of cloth or disposable materials. Cloth diapers are composed of layers of fabric such as cotton, hemp, bamboo or microfiber and can be washed and reused multiple times. Disposable diapers contain absorbent chemicals and are thrown away after use. The decision to use cloth or disposable diapers is a controversial one, owing to issues ranging from convenience, health, cost, and their effect on the environment. Currently, disposable diapers are the most commonly used, with Pampers, Luvs, and Huggies being some well-known brands in the industry. Plastic pants can be worn over diapers to avoid leaks, but with modern cloth diapers, this is no longer necessary. Diapers are primarily worn by children who are not yet potty trained or suffer from bedwetting. However, they can also be used by adults who suffer from incontinence or in certain circumstances where access to a toilet is unavailable. These can include the elderly, those with a physical or mental disability, and people working in extreme conditions such as astronauts. It is not uncommon for people to wear diapers under dry suits. Diapers are usually worn out of
and reacting quickly enough to reach a suitable spot for elimination . but in Britain the word "nappy" took its place. Development . a technique that involves sound association. although there are exceptions. the third a diaper" ²One of the earliest known uses of the word in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. The Middle English word diaper originally referred to the type of cloth rather than its use. Most sources believe nappy is a diminutive form of the word napkin. The first cloth diapers consisted of a special type of soft tissue sheet. This type of pattern was called diapering and eventually gave its name to the cloth used to make diapers and then to the diaper itself. This method is more commonly used in third-world countries whose citizens do not possess the financial means to purchase baby diapers. "diaper" was the term for a pattern of small repeated geometric shapes. people such as infantilists and diaper fetishists wear diapers recreationally for comfort.necessity rather than choice. and later came to describe a white cotton or linen fabric with this pattern. traced back to 1590s England. learning an infant¶s body language. History Etymology "Another bear the ewer. An alternative to infant diapers is the infant potty training method or elimination communication. cut into geometric shapes. This usage stuck in the United States and Canada following the British colonization of North America. Terms such as "incontinence pads" can be used to refer to adult diapers. or sexual gratification. emotional fulfillment.
Dennis C. Over the next few decades. Types Disposable Since their introduction several decades ago. was especially invaluable inventing these materials. depicting the changing of a diaper. babies were kept naked and mothers tried to anticipate their bowel movements so as to avoid mess near their living areas. Holtman. Disposable diapers were introduced to the US in 1949 by Johnson & Johnson. and Molnlycke entered the disposable diaper market. the diapers themselves were not launched into the market until 1961. Mills stated. invented what would be trademarked "Pampers". along with his project group including William Dehaas. "This one will fly. a man named George M. the "hourglass shape" so as to reduce bulk at the crotch area. held in place with a safety pin. Modern disposable baby diapers and incontinence products have a layered construction. Presented to Fred Wells as project p-57 (this was the plane Wells had taught American pilots to fly during WWII). In the 20th century. Playtex.Unpleasant duties by Adriaen Brouwer. or clothing children not yet toilet trained is as old as human history. the modern diaper began to take shape and children in Europe and North America were being diapered using cotton material. Basic layers are an outer shell of breathable polyethylene film or a nonwoven and film composite . Four years later Marion Donovan. the disposable diaper gradually evolved through the inventions of several different people. In 1956. The product range has more recently been extended into children's toilet training phase with the introduction of training pants and pant diapers. During the 1950s. Procter & Gamble began researching disposable diapers. In 1942. a Swedish paper company known as Pauliström created the first disposable diaper using sheets of tissue placed inside rubber pants. In the 19th century. One of their scientists. companies such as Kendall. Schroder invented the first diaper with disposable nonwoven fabric. she was granted four patents for her invention. Connecticut. They are now much thinner and much more absorbent." Although Pampers were conceptualized in 1959. Victor Mills. the disposable diaper industry boomed and the competition between Procter & Gamble's Pampers and Kimberly Clark's Huggies resulted in lower prices and drastic changes to diaper design. In some countries with warmer climates. Cloth diapers were first mass produced in 1887 by Maria Allen in the United States. In 1947. product innovations include the use of superabsorbent polymers. such as the introduction of refastenable tapes. Parke-Davis. and elasticised waist bands. resealable tapes. including the use of plastic snaps as opposed to safety pins. developed a waterproof diaper cover known as the "Boater" using a sheet of plastic from a shower curtain. and the 1984 introduction of super-absorbent material from polymers known as sodium polyacrylate that were originally developed in 1966. Several improvements were made. an American housewife from Westport. Diapering. which allows the transfer and distribution of urine to an absorbent core structure where it is locked in. both men who worked for the company.
or a combination of both. Some diapers have tapes which are refastenable to allow adjusting of fit or reapplication after inspection. bamboo. Some disposable diapers include fragrances. in which a chemical included in the fabric of the diaper changes color in the presence of moisture to alert the carer or user that the diaper is wet. lotions or essential oils in order to help mask the scent of a soiled diaper or to protect the skin. and unbleached hemp. Other natural fiber cloth materials include wool. Most materials in the diaper are held together with the use of a hot melt adhesive which is applied in spray form or multi lines. but is generally put in the garbage with the rest of the diaper. A disposable diaper may also include an inner fabric designed to hold moisture against the skin for a brief period before absorption to alert a toilet training or bedwetting user that they have urinated. Polyester fleece and faux suedecloth are often used inside cloth diapers as a "stay-dry" wicking liner because of the non-absorbent properties of those synthetic fibers. . Manmade materials such as an internal absorbent layer of microfiber toweling or an external waterproof layer of polyurethane laminate (PUL) may be used. and a layer nearest the skin of nonwoven material with a distribution layer directly beneath which transfers wetness to the absorbent layer. Elasticized fabric around the leg and waist areas aid in fitting and in containing urine or stool which has not been absorbed. Other common features of disposable diapers include one or more pairs of either adhesive or velcro tapes to keep the diaper securely fastened. and primarily consists of keeping them in a dry place before use.which prevents wetness and soil transfer. Care of disposable diapers is minimal.  Cloth Baby cloth diaper filled with extra cloth. They are often made from industrial cotton which may be bleached white or left the fiber¶s natural color. Cloth diapers are reusable and can be made from natural fibers. Some diapers lines now commonly include wetness indicators. manmade materials. Stool is supposed to be deposited in the toilet. an inner absorbent layer of a mixture of air-laid paper and superabsorbent polymers for wetness. an elastic hot melt is also used to help with pad integrity when the diaper is wet. with proper disposal in a garbage receptacle upon soiling.
Sun exposure will kill any remainder and usually resolves any staining issues. usage of disposable diapers increases the burden on landfill sites. however.Safe Diaper Clip from mid-1960s. cloth diapers consisted of a folded square or rectangle of cloth. resulting in a possible 3.4 million tons of used diapers adding to landfills each year. some locations have a fee-based cloth diapering service that delivers clean diapers and picks up soiled ones. Since disposable diapers are discarded after a single use. these hybrids are cloth diapers with a disposable inner layer. including preformed cloth diapers. but also require washing in water with detergent to be properly cleaned. NY .  Debate An average child will go through several thousand diapers in his life.4 billion disposable diapers are used each year in the US. In one cradle-to-grave study sponsored by the National Association of Diaper Services (NADS) and conducted by Carl Lehrburger and colleagues. fastened with safety pins. and equipment and supplies for cleaning. which consist of a waterresistant outer shell sewn with an opening for insertion of absorbent material inserts. It is possible. The method of "dry-pailing" after removal of solid waste and washing on a cold or warm wash removes most bacteria. was invented and patented in 1961 by Edward Moonan of Boonville. and increased environmental awareness has led to a growth in campaigns for parents to use reusable alternatives such as cloth or hybrid diapers. Generally. Cloth diapers require dry storage as well. Modern cloth diapers come in a host of shapes. Cloth diapers place less stress on landfills as compared to single-use disposable diapers. The "Safe Diaper Clip. The environmental impact of cloth as compared to disposable diapers has been studied several times. to buy disposable diapers with a low environmental impact." an alternative to traditional safety pins. An estimated 27. while parents in more rural areas often find that they must clean diapers using their own cleaning facilities. Some brands seek to combine cloth and disposable diapers. all-in-one diapers with waterproof exteriors. due to simultaneous development in the disposable diaper industry. The "Safe Diaper Clip" never took off. As an alternative to athome cleaning.fitted diaper with covers and pocket or "stuffable" diapers. Traditionally. results found that disposable diapers produce seven times more solid waste when discarded and three times more waste in the . Closure methods include snap closures and hook and loop fasteners (such as Velcro).
that's more than any other crop per unit. Single-use diapers consume less water than reusables laundered at home." There are variations in the care of cloth diapers that can account for different measures of environmental impact. effluents from the plastic. disposables even scored slightly better). and paper industries are far more hazardous than those from the cotton-growing and -manufacturing processes. which is generally considered an environmentally wasteful crop to grow.org . unless the user has a high-efficiency washing machine. sucking up 10% of all agricultural chemicals and 25% of insecticides on 3% of our arable land. These factors can alleviate the environmental and financial impact from manufacture.com. Food and Rural Affairs stated that reusable diapers can cause significantly less (up to 40 per cent) or significantly more damage to the environment than disposable ones. Yet such a service uses less water per diaper in the laundering process. For example. craigslist or other online communities. which is roughly equivalent to flushing the toilet 15 times a day. sale and use of brand-new reusable diapers. sale of used diapers through diaperswappers. In addition." This effect can be mitigated by using other materials. but more than those sent to a commercial diaper service. depending mostly on how parents wash and dry them. but uses less water and energy per diaper than one laundry load at home.manufacturing process. Some people who launder cloth diapers at home wash each load twice. An average diaper service puts its diapers through an average of 13 water changes. Washing cloth diapers at home uses 50 to 70 gallons of water every three days. Many reusable diaper users take advantage of these resources and may even join communities like livejournal's clothdiapering in order to find ways to make their diaper-washing routine more efficient or get feedback about different types of reusable diapers. However. using a cloth diaper laundering service involves additional pollution from the vehicle that picks up and drops off deliveries. it is consumers¶ behaviour after purchase that determines most of the impacts from reusable nappies. Cloth diapers are most commonly made of cotton. The "baseline scenario" showed that the difference in green-house emissions was insignificant (in fact. Another factor in reusable cloth diaper impact is the ability to re-use the diapers for subsequent children. pulp. considering the first wash a "prewash". in contrast to the use of disposable nappies. Cloth nappy users can reduce their environmental impacts by: y y y y y y Line drying outside whenever possible Tumble drying as little as possible When replacing appliances. much better results (emission cuts of up to 40 per cent) could be achieved by using reusable diapers more rationally. In October 2008. and thus doubling the energy and water usage from laundering. "Conventional cotton is one of the most chemically-dependent crops. "The report shows that. donation of used diapers through recycling groups such as freecycle or to charities such as miraclediapers. . "An updated lifecycle assessment study for disposable and reusable nappies" by the UK Environment Agency and Department for Environment. choosing more energy efficient appliances (A+ rated machines [according to the EU environmental rating] are preferred) Not washing above 60 °C (140 °F) Washing fuller loads Reusing nappies on other children. such as bamboo and hemp.
 However. depending on culture. and the child's personality. commonly referred to as diaper rash. diaper type. The age at which toilet training should begin is a subject of debate and keeping children in diapers beyond infancy can be controversial. Diapering can also serve as a bonding experience for parent and child. Usage  Children Babies may need to have their diapers changed five or more times a day. Berry Brazelton. To avoid skin irritation. a diaper for older children. and that toilet training is simply not a priority for many of them. While awake. Teachers' groups²who are attributing the epidemic to an increase in full-time day care use²are requesting that diapered children be banned from the classroom. Children may have problems with daytime or more often nocturnal bladder control until eight years or older and need to wear diapers at nighttime to control bedwetting. as feces contain urease which catalyzes the conversion of the urea in urine to ammonia which irritates the skin and can cause painful redness. with family psychologist John Rosemond claiming it is a "slap to the intelligence of a human being that one would allow baby to continue soiling and wetting himself past age two. This can pose a number of problems if the child is sent to school wearing diapers. "[S]uper-comfortable nappies" have also been criticized. where Queensland news sources report that parents are similarly lax about potty training and have likewise seen increasing numbers of school age children still in diapers. leaving the child oblivious to their accident and when they need to go to the toilet. not the parents'. ." Pediatrician T. most children no longer need diapers when past two to four years of age. the diaper of those prone to it should be changed as soon as possible after it is soiled (especially by fecal matter). The disposable diaper industry has been accused of encouraging this trend by manufacturing diapers in increasingly larger sizes. however. the advanced technology in modern diapers wick wetness away from skin. Parents and other carers for children often carry spare diapers and necessities for diaper changing in a diaper bag. parental habits. including teasing from classmates and health issues resulting from dirty diapers. Other countries in which un-potty-trained older children have seen greater mainstream acceptance include Australia. Brazelton warns that enforced toilet training can cause serious longterm problems. believes that toilet training is the child's choice and has encouraged this view in various commercials for Pampers Size 6. Paediatric nurse June Rogers claims that the attitude of parents plays a major role in the problem. and that it is the child's decision when to stop wearing diapers. it is becoming increasingly common for children as old as five to still be wearing diapers because of their parents' neglect or the child's opposition to toilet training.
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