Hasan Raza Khan

2007-Civil-203

Table of Contents

INDUS BASIN IRRIGATION SYSTEM
I. II.   History Salient Features

 Operation and Maintenance

Water sharing formula between Provinces

(application of Tube wells)  Flood protections

HISTORY OF IRRIGATION CANAL SYSTEM
     Salient Feature of Barrages In Pakistan Year of Completion Location and river on which it is Constructed Length, no of Bays, No of Unde r Sluices, Crest Level No. of off-taking Canals

TENTATIVE DISTRIBUTION PROGRAMME RABI 2010-11

SALIENT FEATURES OF OFF-TAKING CANALS FROM THE BARRAGES IN PAKISTAN Which includes. Rivers Barrages Off -Taking Canals

Discharge, Lengths, Location, Zone, Division…..
Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203

Hasan Raza Khan

2007-Civil-203

Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and re-vegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall.

The Indus Basin Irrigation System

History and Silent Features
The 4,000 year-old Indus civilization has its roots in irrigated agriculture. The abandoned creeks of the meandering river, inundated during the flood season, are supposed to have served as the irrigation channels of the ancient systems. The first controlled all- year irrigation began in 1859 with the completion of the Upper Bari Doab Canal emanating from the Madhopur headworks on the Ravi river. The Sukkur barrage, completed in 1932, is considered as the first modern hydraulic structure on the downstream Indus river. The waters of the Indus basin begin in the Himalayan mountains of Indian held Kashmir. They flow from the hills through the arid states of Punjab and Sind, conve rging in Pakistan and emptying into the Arabian Sea south of Karachi. Where once there was only a narrow strip of irrigated land along these rivers, developments over the last century have created a large network of canals and storage facilities that provide water for more than 26 million acres - the largest irrigated area of any one river system in the world. The partition of the Indian subcontinent created a conflict over the plentiful waters of the Indus basin. The newly formed states were at odds over how to share and manage what was essentially a cohesive and unitary network of irrigation. Furthermore, the geography of partition was such that the source rivers of the Indus basin were in India. Pakistan felt its livelihood threatened by the prospect of Indian control over the tributaries that fed water into the Pakistani portion of the basin. Where India certainly had its own ambitions for the profitable development of the basin, Pakistan felt acutely threatened by a conflict over the main source of water for its cultivable land. During the first years of partition the waters of the Indus were apportioned by the Inter-Dominion Accord of May 4, 1948. This accord required India to release sufficient waters to the Pakistani regions of the basin in return for annual payments from the government of Pakistan. The accord was meant to meet immediate requirements and was followed by negotiations for a more permanent solution. Neither side, however, was willing to compromise their respect ive positions and negotiations reached a stalemate. Pakistan wanted to take the matter to the International Court of Justice but India refused, arguing that the conflict required a bilateral resolution. By 1951, the two sides were no longer meeting and the situation seemed intractable. The Pakistani press was calling for more drastic action and the deadlock contributed to hostility with India. As one anonymous Indian official said at the time,
Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203

Hasan Raza Khan

2007-Civil-203

"India and Pakistan can go on shouting on Kashmir for all time to come, but an early settlement on the Indus waters is essential for maintenance of peace in the sub-continent" Despite the unwillingness to compromise, both nations were anxious to find a solution, fully aware that the Indus conflict could lead to overt hostilities if unresolved. In this same year, David Lilienthal, forme rly the chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority and of the US Atomic Ene rgy Commission, visited the region to write a series of articles for Colliers magazine. Lilienthal had a keen interest in the subcontinent and was welcomed by the highest levels of both Indian and Pakistani governments. Although his visit was sponsored by Colliers, Lilienthal was briefed by State Department and executive branch officials, who hoped he could help bridge the gap between India and the United States and also gauge hostilities on the subcontinent. During the course of his visit, it became clear to Lilienthal that tensions between India and Pakistan were acute, but also unable to be erased with one sweeping gesture. In his journal he wrote: ”India and Pakistan were on the verge of war over Kashmir. There seemed to be no possibility of negotiating this issue until tensions abated. One way to reduce hostility . . . would be to concentrate on other important issues where cooperation was possible. Progress in these areas would promote a sense of community between the two nations which might, in time, lead to a Kashmir settlement. Accordingly, I proposed that India and Pakistan work out a program jointly to develop and jointly to operate the Indus Basin river system, upon which both nations were dependent for irrigation water. With new dams and irrigation canals, the Indus and its tributaries could be made to yield the additional water each country needed for increased food production. In the article I had suggested that the World Bank might use its good offices to bring the parties to agreement, and help in the financing of an Indus Development program. (Gulhat i 93) “ Lilienthal's idea was well received by officials at the World Bank, and, subsequently, by the Indian and Pakistani governments. Eugene R. Black, then president of the World Bank told Lilienthal that his proposal "makes good sense all round". Black wrote that the Bank was interested in the economic progress of the two countries and had been concerned that the Indus dispute could only be a serious handicap to this development. India's previous objections to third party arbitration were remedied by the Bank's insistence that it would not adjudicate the conflict, but, instead, work as a conduit for agreement. Black also made a distinction between the "functional" and "political" aspects of the Indus dispute. In his correspondence with Indian and Pakistan leaders, Black asserted that the Indus dispute could most realistically be solved if the functional aspects of disagreement were negotiated apart from political considerations. He envisioned a group that tackled the question of how best to utilize the waters of the Indus Basin - leaving aside questions of historic rights or allocations. Black proposed a Working Party made up of Indian, Pakistani and World Bank engineers. The World Bank delegation would act as a consultative group, charged with offering suggestions and speeding dialogue. In his opening statement to the Working Party, Black spoke of why he was optimistic about the group's success:

Hasan Raza Khan

2007-Civil-203

Pakistan felt that its share of waters should be based on pre-partition distribution. in 1954. large development projects were put on hold by negotiations and Indian leaders were eager to divert water for irrigation. Pakistan found it unacceptable. Canals and storage dams were to be constructed to divert waters from the western rivers and replace the eastern river supply lost by Pakistan. neither India nor Pakistan seemed willing to compromise their positions. The World Bank soon became frustrated with this lack of progress. While the Bank had expected that the two sides would come to an agreement on the allocation of waters. The World Bank proposal was more in line with the Indian plan and this angered the Pakistani delegation. The World Bank allocated the eastern rivers to India and the western rivers to Pakistan. Finally. One of the strengths of the engineering profession is that. One of the last stumbling blocks to an agreement concerned financing for the construction of canals and storage facilities that would transfer wate r from the eastern Indian rivers to Pakistan. all over the world. This new distribution did not account for the historical usage of the Indus basin and repudiated Pakistan's negotiating position. stop and go. But neither side could afford the dissolution of talks. India was also eager to settle the Indus issue. Where India had stood for a new system of allocation. stepping beyond the limited role it had apportioned for itself and forcing the two sides to consider concrete plans for the future of the basin. I mean his insistence that the Indus problem is an engineering problem and should be dealt with by engineers. This transfer was necessary to make up for the water Pakistan was Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 . the government was ill-prepared to forego talks for a violent conflict with India and was forced to reconsider its position. the World bank offered its own proposal. The proposal offered India the three eastern tributaries of the basin and Pakistan the three western tributaries. the Indian side set up a new basis of distribution. (Gulhati 110) “ Black's hopes for a quick resolution to the Indus dispute were premature. for the next six years. The Pakistani press met rumors of and end to negotiation with talk of increased hostilities. While Pakistan insisted on its historical right to waters of all the Indus tributaries. the Indian side argued that the previous distribution of waters should not set future allocation. after nearly two years of negotiation. India and Pakistan were unable to agree on the technical aspects of allocation. with the waters of the Western tributaries going to Pakistan and the Eastern tributaries to India. While the Indian side was amenable to the World Bank proposal. let alone the implementation of any agreed upon distribution of waters. The substantive technical discussions that Black had hoped for were stymied by the political considerations he had expected to avoid. What had originally been envisioned as a technical dispute that would quickly untangle itself became an intractable mess. Lilienthal's proposal appealed to me from the first. Instead. engineers speak the same language and approach problems with common standards of judgment. They threatened to withdraw from the Working Party and negotiations verged on collapse. In Decembe r of 1954. the two sides returned to the negotiating table.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 ”One aspect of Mr. The World Bank proposal was transformed from a basis of settlement to a basis for negotiation and the talks continued.

This was designed to distribute water with minimum human interference. but India refused. and not political. The World Bank initially planned for India to pay for these works. The Commission is required to meet regularly to discuss potential disputes as well as cooperative arrangements for the development of the basin. .these considerations might be met when cooperation is vital. Although. Eugene Black's desire to "treat water development as a common project that is functional. Development of irrigation in the Indus basin has progressed in the form of discrete barragecontrolled systems. the annual inspections and exchange of data continue. the irrigation systems were generally designed to use the available river supplies for bringing the largest possible areas under crops. information on the history and development of irrigation generally refers to the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS). it is doubtful whether "functional" areas of cooperation are ever devoid of political considerations . . The IBIS is characterized by its supply-based structure. functional cooperation was necessary for both sides to survive and prosper. the final outcome was amenable to all parties. In cases of disagreement. in nature . the will to accept ideas put forward by outside mediators. The Permanent Indus Commission has survived two wars and provides an on-going machinery for consultation and conflict resolution through inspection. While the World Bank may have underestimated the political impediments to technical debate and agreement. The Bank responded with a plan for external financing supplied mainly by the United States and the United Kingdom. Although irrigation takes place in other areas of Pakistan. and visits. There are few structures to regulate canal flow. undertaken separately from the political issues with which India and Pakistan are confronted" suggests possibilities for future areas of Indo-Pakistani cooperation.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 giving up by ceding its rights to the eastern tributaries. While neither side has initiated projects that could cause the kind of conflict that the Commission was created to resolve. The Indus waters are the life blood of Pakistan and much o f western India. The agreement also set up a commission to adjudicate any future disputes arising over the allocation of waters.the will to agree. exchange of data. This solution cleared the remaining stumbling blocks to agreement and the Treaty was signed by the Prime Ministers of both countries in 1960. Although its negotiation was often arduous and frustrating for the World Bank and for the Indian and Pakistani delegations. With water rather than land being the main constraint. overwhelming the political hedging that prevents other forms of reconciliation. The Indus Waters Treaty is the only agreement that has been faithfully imple mented and upheld by both India and Pakistan. with minimum water provided to bring the crops to maturity. No escapes are provided at the tail end of the system and the surplus flows have to be Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 . The example of the Indus Waters Treaty suggests that cooperation between India and Pakistan is possible in cases where the benefits of agreement are plentiful and pressing. the will to change positions . unperturbed by tensions on the subcontinent. a neutral expert is called in for mediation and arbitration. Either party must notify the other of plans to construct any engineering works which would affect the other party and to provide data about such works.

The rotation schedule. The limited reservoir capacity of the systems does not allow the full regulation of rivers for irrigation. the IBIS is the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world. The total length of the canals is about 61.000 km with communal watercourses. They are. farmers receive water proportional to their land holding. and field ditches covering another 1. collected in all regions by PRD. and are deemed to be part of provincial revenues. water and drainage charges are not linked to operation and maintenance needs.6 million km.000 watercourses) which are supplied through outlets (moghas) from the distributaries and minors. Provincial Irrigation Departments (PID) inform WAPDA of provincial water demands at specific locations. is established by the Provincial Irrigation Department. The gap between operation and maintenance expenditures and recoveries through water charges is high (44%) and increasing. an agreement was reached between the provinces on the apportionment of the Indus waters to replace a much older agreement. In Sindh and Balochistan. while infrastructure development has often obstructed natural drainage flows. In reality. river water is diverted by barrages and weirs into main canals and subsequently branch canals. In the Indus system. together with deliveries at less than the designed levels and illegal diversion. the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) of the Federal Government estimates water availability for the following season. has led to major inequalities in the distribution of surface water. canals. The difficulties faced in cost recovery have resulted in very poor operation and maintenance which. Currently. farm channels. Now that the supplies have been apportioned. called warabandi. distributaries and minors. The new agreement has released the provincial canal systems from the need to be in operation all the time so as to pro tect or establish future rights. the provincial systems are free to move toward more effic ient water use. Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 . Water sharing formula between Provinces In March 1991. water charges are assessed by PID. they are assessed by the Provincial Revenue Department (PRD). and watercourses. The entire discharge of the watercourse is given to one farm for a specified period on a seven day rotation. Within the watercourse command (an area ranging from 80 to 280 ha). moreover. water often does not reach users toward the tail end of system. The operation and maintenance expenditure is collected by levying water charges and/or drainage taxes. unless the farmers can reach a mutual agreement. Drain construction has not kept pace with requirements. Each season. WAPDA releases water from the reservoirs to meet demands as closely as possible. Operation and Maintenance The public sector operates the irrigation systems above the moghas. The mogha is designed to allow a discharge that self-adjusts to variations in the parent canal. The flow to the farm is delivered by the watercourses (there are over 107. It consists of an extensive network of barrages.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 absorbed within the systems. which can partly explain the increasing groundwater extraction. With almost 14 million ha. In Punjab and NWFP. including the formula for sharing any surplus river flows.

causing waterlogging and salinity. Initially. Seepage from irrigation canals and watercourses. with a higher use of groundwater extracted by tubewells.5% and groundwater provided through public tubewells 7.78 million hectares are considered as severely saline. From 1959 onwards. the figures were 63%. and the deep percolation of this water have gradually raised the groundwater table. groundwater provided through private tubewells 22. Within the IBIS. but the survey does not indicate which part is due to irrigation. In 1992. Salinity. groundwater use has been a major factor in increasing agricultural production. total water availability at the farm gate has significantly increased in the last 15 years.10 million ha. great efforts have been made to provide drainage in the irrigated areas. there is a danger of excessive lowering of water tables and intrusion of saline water into freshwater aquifers. By 1991. about 50 Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARPs) have been initiated to provide a lasting solution to the problem of waterlogging and salinity through subsurface drainage.92 million ha in October 1989. Groundwater tube wells not only supply additional water but have provided flexibility to match surface water supplies with crop water requirements. 1. Since the 1960s. and from outlet to farm gate at 15%. and Flood Protection The increasing diversion of river flows has significantly changed the hydrological balance of the irrigated areas in the past century. Waterlogging. surface water represented 70% of the total water available. and changed slightly in its composition. such areas being considered as "disaster areas" by the government and given high priority for drainage. Irrigation Water Withdrawal and Water Losses (application of Tube wells) Over the past 20 years. with a membership of 85. the total drained area was estimated at 5.39 million ha had water tables within 1. and 0.000 WUA.18 million hectares as very severely saline.5%. representing about 16% of all watercourses.5 meters of the surface level in June 1989 (which resulted in 4. They were formed at the watercourse level. with a primary objective of rehabilitating the waterco urses. It is estimated that about 2. because of uncontrolled and rapid private sector development of groundwater (6% annual growth). irrigation systems were developed without any provision for drainage. Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 . However. In 1990.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 The first Water Users Associations (WUA) were created in 1981 under the World Bank-supported On-Farm Water Management Program. just after the monsoon season). Drainage. there were some 17. In 1975. 27% and 10% respectively. According to the Soil Survey of Pakistan (1985-1990).000 farmers. The Water Resources Section of the Planning and Development Division has estimated average water losses from canal head to outlet at 25%.

com/articletext.php?id=219695 2007-Civil-203 There are about 5. irrigation was extended to other nearby areas by breaching the banks or the natural levies of the rivers to bring water to the low lying fields.pk/indus-basin-irrigation-system-of-pakistan/ http://www.tbl.Hasan Raza Khan http://en. They tended to be unpredictable in operation and subjected both to frequent breaches and serious siltation problems.paktribune. The first evidence of perennial irrigation on any of the Indus rivers dates back to early seventeenth century when a 80 Km long canal was constructed by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir (reigned 1605-27) to bring water from the right bank of the Ravi to the pleasure gardens of Sheikhpura near Lahore. Unde r British Administration Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .C.org/INTSOUTHASIA/Resources/2234971105737253588/IndusWatersTreaty1960. only the narrow strips of land along the river banks were irrigated. This was done only during high water periods. The NEXT STAGE in the evaluation of the Irrigation System was construction of perennial canals having permanent head works. The first canals were constructed some five or six centuries ago and extended under the Mughal Emperors. The early canals were inundation channels and delivered water to the fields when rivers were in high flow during the summer.wikipedia. whose maintenance falls under the responsibility of the PID.com.storyofpakistan.com/news/print. In the beginning. These head works either did not extend across the entire stream or allowed the floods to pass over their crests.worldbank.org/wiki/Indus_Waters_Treaty http://siteresources.pdf http://www. History of Irrigation Canal system Early Development There is evidence that irrigation has been practiced along the Indus system of rivers from 3000 B.200 km of flood control works.asp?artid=A138 http://www. but with time.

Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 . now called the Lowe r Jhelum Canal was opened in 1901. a feeder canal from Marala on the Chenab River to the Ravi River above Balloki (Upper Chenab Canal) and construction of a barrage (level crossing) on the Ravi River at Balloki to divert the transferred water into the new Lowe r Bari Doab Canal (LBDC). The more important of these were the Uppe r and Lowe r Sutle j canals. The Triple Canal Project involved the diversion of the available waters in the Jhelum River across the Chaj and Rechna Doabs. the Pinyari and the Kalri canals. ICID – Irrigation & Drainage in the World Canals are primarily feeder or link canals but they also provide considerable irrigation enrooting the Upper parts of the Chaj and Rechna Doab. a large number of inundation canals were remodelled and fitted with permanent headworks and new canals with weir controlled supply were constructed for the Sindh.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 The irrigation system which exists today was stated in the nineteenth century under the British administration. Construction was started in 1897 and the Jhelum Canal. Triple Canal Project The Triple Canal Project was sanctioned in 1905 and became the first project to transfer water from one river to another. Punjab and NWFP areas. In the Sindh. From the middle of the 19th century onwards. In the early 19th century. Among Sindh’s 19th century canals were the Desert. The project consisted of a feeder canal from the Jhelum River at Mangla to the Chenab River above Khanki (Upper Jhelum Canal). the Begari. where the Indus River flows more or less on a ridge. the Sukkur. the Chenab canals and the Indus canals in Punjab and Bahawalpur. the Fuleli. Lower Jhelum Canal A similar scheme was sanctioned for the irrigation of the area between the Chenab and the Jhelum (Chaj Doab) from a weir at Rasul on the Jhelum River. which started supplying water to the Upper Chenab Canal in 1915. First Permanent Headwork. The first permanent headworks constructed in 1887 was the Marala Barrage. the Shahpur canals. conditions were particularly favorable for inundation canals. there were numerous inundation canals leading from the Indus River and its tributaries.

Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 . The retaining wall has sixty-six spans. the first barrage constructed on the Indus River was started in 1923 and was commissioned to irrigation in 1932. The proposal is halted due to political reasons. with more than 5 million acres (20.166 miles (9. feeding the largest irrigation system in the world. It was built during the British Raj from 1923 to 1932 as the Lloyd Barrage to help alleviate famines caused by lack of rain. each 60 feet (18 m) wide.wikipedia. Pakistan. The proposed site for the dam was situated at Kalabagh in Mianwali District of the north-west Punjab province.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 http://en. bordering the Province.wikipedia. Kalabagh Barrage (Jinnah) The Kalabagh dam was a mega water reservoir that the Government of Pakistan was planning to develop across the Indus River. Details of which are mentioned here.org/wiki/Irrigation Silent Features Of Barrages In Pakistan Indus River Sukkur Barrage After World War-I. However there is a barrage at the same location which is also known as Jinnah barrage. the Sukkur Barrage Project. one of the world's largest rivers.923 km) long.000 km²) of irrigated land. each span has a gate which weighs 50 tons. The barrage enables water to flow through what was originally a network of canals 6. The Sukkur barrage is a barrage across the Indus river near the city of Sukkur.org/wiki/Category:Irrigation_in_Pakistan http://en.

It is divided into 2 different divisions.400 people during the mid 60’s.M. It is one of the many major engineering works that form a part of Indus basin treaty of 1960 between India and Pakistan. The project was built between 1967 and 1971.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203    Thal canal: The amount of water that it carries is 2.L (Sidhnai Mailsi Bahawal Link) Canal Terbela Chenab River Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .      Kotri Baghar feeder.B. Phuleli Pinjari Akram Wah S.Its Culturable command area is 2966. According to the project reports.Its authorized tail discharge is 228. The installed capacity of power station is 184MW.00. And length in miles is 100. Chas hma Barrage Chashma Barrage is located on the Indus River near the village Chashma in Mianwali district. 34 villages were displaced with the population of 22.   Chashma Jhelum link Chashma reservoir bank canal Kotri Barrage Kotri Barrage was constructed on the Indus River.Its Gross command area is 3534. Chashma Barrage is the 3rd largest water reservoir of Pakistan.534 MAF. Thal canal main line lower: It is a main canal located in bhakkar. Its reduced distance is 502500.Its authorized head discharge is 4100.50.

it enters the Sialkot District in Pakistan where the Marala Barrage was built across the river in 1968 with a maximum discharge of 1. was the last barrage completed prior to World War II. located below the junction of the Jhelum and the Chenab Rivers was started in 1837 and completed in 1939. Proposals are under consideration to build Mangla Link Canal to overcome any shortage of water in future.000 m³/s). Punjab. Head Marala is also a picnic spot. Pakistan. Trimmu Barrage The Trimmu Barrage.086 km (675 mi) long river which originates in the Kulu and Kangra Districts of Himachal Pradesh in India and is fed by the tributaries Chandra and Bagha as it enters Jammu & Kashmir near Kishtwar. Chenab is a 1.1 million ft³/s (31. wildlife sanctuary and unprotected wetland. Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 . After cutting across the Pir Panjal range. The MaralaRavi Link Canal and the Upper Chenab Canal. It is a massive hydro engineering project and is used to control water flow and flood control in river Chenab. Two major water channels originate at the Marala headworks. Many people come here and enjoy the landscape and natural beauty.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 MARRALA BARRAGE The Marala headworks is situated at the Chenab River near the city of Sialkot.

It provides water to three million acres (12. The project envisaged the diversion of the Chenab waters by means of a weir at Khanki.000 km²) of agricultural lands by one main distributaries is Lower Chenab and 59 minor distrtributeries. Water is drived from this point to Chenab River at Qadirabad through Rasul-Qadirabad link canal. was opened in 1892. Rasul-Qadirabad link canal has the second largest water discharge capacity after Chashma-Jhelum link canal. now called the Lowe r Chenab Canal.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 HEAD QADIRABAD:Head Qadirabad is a hydroelectric plant and wildlife game reserve located on the river Chenab in the Punjab province of Pakistan. In last 118 years there were 11 occasions when water was 730 foot higher in it than sea level at times of high floods.000.000 m³/s in it Jehlum River RASUL BARRAGE Rasul Barrage is located on the Jehlum River. Sutluj River Bhakra Dam Bhakra Dam in India on the Sutlej River were under construction. The plant is a hydro engineering project and is used to control water flow in the river Chenab. Its bridge is in shambles now a day and is posing serious threat to adjoining population of 100. then ultimately transferred to Sulemanki Barrage on the Sutlej River. It was constructed in 1968 and has a discharge capacity of 24070 cubic meter per second. The project was sanctioned in 1890 and the Chenab Canal. a project was prepared for the irrigation of part of the Rechna Doab. There were 16 occasions in last century when flood flow was 400. Khanki Barrage In 1889. 4 km downstream of the Rasul Weir and 72 km from the Mangla Dam.000 and 600. Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 . It has 538-cumce discharge capacity while Chashma-Jhelum link canal has 615-cumec capacity. It is lies in Phalia tehsil of Mandi Bahauddin District.

Its authorized head discharge is 8900. Khan Canal It is a main canal located in D. The canals which originate from this barrage and their details is given here under.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 Sutlej Valley Project During 1921 the Sutlej Valley Project was sanctioned for the development of the Punjab. Muzaffargarah Canal It is a main canal located in D.      Its reduced distance is 345230. Bikaner (now in India) and Bahawalpur states areas. The Project consisting of four weirs on the Sutlej River at     Ferozepur Sulemanki Islam Panjnad And 11 canals were completed by 1933. Its authorized tail discharge is 5514. It is categorized in the zone of D. It is categorized in the zone of D.00 Its Gross command area is 947874.046. Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .G KHAN.00.00. And length in miles is 69.G KHAN. It is a nonperennial canal.G.00.G KHAN. Its Culturable command area is 901981. It provided the much needed rail link between Kashmor and Kot Addu as a parallel route to the main railway lines from Karachi to the north.G Khan .00. It is a non. Kachhi Canal D. TAUNSA BARRAGE: This barrage is situated on Indus River near Taunsa at a distance of 180 miles from the Jinnah barrage.perennial canal.

Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203       Its reduced distance is 370700.8 million rupees. Its authorized tail discharge is 2776.20. The project was completed in 1962. The maximum flood level height of this barrage is 26ft (8meters). It is located near Sukkur in Pakistan.00 Its Gross command area is 2150000.40. Its authorized head discharge is 8901. Its authorized head discharge is 12000.wikipedia.00. Its reduced distance is 191000. It is a nonperennial canal.org/wiki/Guddu_Barrage Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 . Jacobabad and Shikarpur areas.G KHAN.html http://en. Guddu Barrage supplies water for irrigation to 2. Its Culturable command area is 20000000.00.9million acres of agricultural lands in the Districts of Jacobabad.G KHAN. And length in miles is 38.0 Its tail authorized tail gauge is 9. 90 miles upstream from Sukkur and ten milesfrom Kashmor.defence.14. Taunsa Panjnad Link Canal It is a main canal located in D.issues/69510-rivers-barrages-pakistan.00 Its Gross command area is 906490.00. Its authorized tail discharge is 12000.00. Larkana and Sukkur of Sindh and the Nasirabad District of Balouchistan.     Pat feeder Desert Feeder Begari Sindh Feeder Ghotki canal http://www. Its Culturable command area is 838380. And length in miles is 74.00.pk/forums/current-events-social. The canals that branch out from here irrigate about 31 lakh acres of land inSukkur. The cost of the project was 474.00 GUDDU BARRAGE It has been constructed on Indus River at Guddu. It is categorized in the zone of D.00.

wikipedia. length. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Hasan Raza Khan River Indus Indus Indus Indus Indus Indus Jehlum Chenab Chenab Chenab Chenab Barrage Jinnah Chashma Taunsa Guddu Sukkar Kotri Rasul Trimmu Panjnad Khanki Qadirabaad Length (ft) 3360 3556 4346 3840 4490 3034 3517 2980 2856 7000 3373 Discharge (1000 x cfs) 1100 950 1000 120 1500 875 900 645 700 750 900 Year of completion 1949 1971 1959 1962 1932 1955 1967 1939 1929 1892 1967 2007-Civil-203 .Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 http://en.org/wiki/Sukkur_Barrage http://travelingluck.html Barrages in Pakistan (history. discharge ) Sr.com/Asia/Pakistan/Sindh/_1171974_Lloyd%20Barrage.

Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .pk/export/sites/UETWebPortal/research/researchinfo/journal/volume5/5PHYSICAL. Left and right Unde rsluices are having 7 and 4 bays.uet. http://www.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 12 13 14 15 16 17 Chenab Ravi Ravi Sutlej Sutlej Sutlej Maralla Marala Balloki Sulemanki Islam Mailsi 4475 4475 1644 2220 1650 1601 1100 1100 140 309 300 429 1968 1968 1940 1927 1927 1965 Length No of Bays.pdf Jinnah Barrage Jinnah barrage consists of 42 weir bays. The barrage width between the abutments is 3781ft.edu. Taunsa Barrage Taunsa barrage consists of 53 weir bays. No of Undersluices and crest level. respectively. Two Undersluices each consisting of 7 bays Clear span of 60 ft. Two divide walls bifurcates weir and undersluices sections of the barrage. respectively. Whereas clear waterway for the weir and undersluices sections is 2520 ft and 420 ft. The barrage width between abutments is 4346 ft Clear water waterway is 3862 ft.

No of Left Under Sluice Portion 5.pdf Trimmu Barrage No of all Gates Weir Potion 37 Gates.pk/images/upload/books/Vol.pdf Wuller Barrage crest level at EL 1574. Bay Lenght of Main Weir 60 Feet.90 meters http://www.blogspot. Crest level of under sluice bays 617 Length 3556ft b/w abutments http://pecongress. of bays 52 No of standard bays 41 No of Under sluice Bays 11 Crest Level of Standard Bays 622 No.org. No of Right Under Sluice Portion 6 Lenght of Under Sluice 30 Feet.edu.00 http://paki-history.40(No.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 http://www.southasianmedia.htm Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .50 Crest Level of Under Sluice 472.pk/export/sites/UETWebPortal/research/researchinfo/journal/volume5/5PHYSICAL.15-2).net/magazine/journal/7_legal_purview.00 Maximum Pond Level 493. Crest Level of Main Weir 477.html Chasma Barrage No.uet.com/2011/01/trimmu-barrage.

221 1.357 0.295 MAF INDUS ZONE (TERBELA COMMAND) S.145 0.557 MAF -11.html 2010-2011 TENTATIVE DISTRIBUTION PROGRAMME RABI 2010-11 Average System Useage 1977-82: Punjab para(2) share: Expected Share Approved by IRSA: % Change w.gov.t Average Useage System: Tarbela Command Total: Mangla Command Total: 19.665 0.750 MAF MAF 17.r.262 MAF 10.pk/htmls/ghazibarotha.069 1.838 Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .No Channel Name 1 Chashma Right Bank Canal 2 Haveli (INT) 3 Sidhnai Canal 4 Rangpur canal 5 Punjnad Main Line (including Abbassia Link Canal) 6 Abbassia Canal 7 Thal Canal Main Line Upper Proposed Share (MAF) 0.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 Ghazi Barrage Standard bays 20 Undersluices 8 Head regulator 8 http://www.269 0.wapda.1 % 7.

669 1.262 JHELUM CHENAB ZONE (MANGLA COMMAND) S.901 0.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 8 Pakpattan Canal Lower 9 Lower Mailsi Canal 10 Lower Bahawal Canal 11 Muzaffargarh Canal 12 D.079 0.412 2.070 0.780 0.666 0.000 0.No Channel Name 1 Lower Jehlum Canal 2 Upper Jhelum Canal (INT) 3 Lower Chenab Canal 4 Upper Chenab Canal (INT) 5 Lower Bari Doab Canal 6 Central Bari Doab Canal (CBDC) 7 Marala Ravi (INT) 8 Upper Depaulpur Canal 9 Lower Depaulpur Canal 10 Upper Pakpattan Canal 11 Eastern Sadiqa Cana 12 Fordwah Canal 13 Upper Bahawal (INT) & Qaim Canal TOTAL: Proposed Share (MAF) 1.G Khan Canal TOTAL: 0.165 0.552 0.093 0.864 0.346 0.166 10.295 Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .291 0.919 1.784 7.236 0.

gov.95 MAF for Punjab Canals under the likely scenario against Average System Uses of 19.95 MAF to 17.aspx Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .75 MAF i.aspx http://irrigation. However subsequently IRSA updated the forecast of water availability on the basis of actual river flows and actual storage available at Mangla and Tarbela upto 30th September 2010 and enhanced the Punjab share from 16.pk/Entitlement.org/wiki/Irrigation PUNJAB IRRIGATION AND POWER DEPARTMENT http://irrigation. Agriculture Department and was finalized incorporating the changes / suggestions made the participant. A copy of the final distribution progam is available on website herewith for information and further neccessary action.gov. Copy of this distribution program may also be supplied to Deputy Commissionar and District Heads of the Agriculture Department for their information and further action.punjab. The canal distribution program was discussed in the meetings of the Chief Engineers held on 21st October 2010 participated by the Director General (Extension).pk/Search.aspx http://irrigation.punjab.MARCH) IRSA Advisory Committee in its meeting held on 30th September 2010 approved the forecast of water availability for Rabi 2010-2011 and indicated a share of 16.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 WATER SITUATION FOR RABI 2010-2011 (OCTOBER . http://irrigation.e a short fall of 14%.punjab.gov.pk/index.39 MAF reducing the shortfall to 12%.pk/Search.punjab.wikipedia.wikipedia.gov.org/wiki/Category:Irrigation_in_Pakistan http://en. electronic media.aspx http://en. Internal distribution program for each canal system may please be prepared in consultation with the FOs and farmer's representatives and may be given wide publicity among the farming community both through the print.

Hasan Raza Khan Channel is running less than designed discharge at head and tails are short Head Discharge is less than 95% of Design Discharge and Indent And Tail Gauge is greater than 30% and less than 90% of Authorized Tail Gauge 2007-Civil-203 Tails are as per Authorized Tail Discharge Head Discharge is more than or equal to 95% of either Design Discharge or Indent And Tail Gauge is more than or equal to 90% and less than or equal to 115% of Authorized Tail Gauge Channel is running less than designed discharge at head and tails are as per Authorized Discharge Head Discharge is less than 95% of Design Discharge and Indent Tail Gauge is more than or equal to 90% and less than or equal to 115% of Authorized Tail Gauge Tails are dry Head Discharge is more than or equal to 95% of either Design Discharge or Indent and Tail Gauge is less than or equal to 30% of Authorized Tail Gauge Closed Channel Head Discharge is zero Excessive supply at Tails. Head Discharge is more than or equal to 95% of either Design Discharge or Indent and Tail Gauge is more than 115% of Authorized Tail Gauge Silent features of Off taking CANALS from The Barrages In Pakistan River ravi Jassar bridge     Ravi syphon Balloki barrage Balloki Sulemanki Link Canal LBDC Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .

S.M. S.Link (Trimmu Sidhnai Link) Canal Length 43.996 miles Authorized Head Discharge 10100 Authorized Tail Discharge = 4000 Zone Multan Division Sidhnai Barrage T.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 Sidhanai Barrage  Sidhnai melsai bahawal link canal (Ravi and Sutluj Link)  Sidhnai canal (on downstram side river ravi falls into Chenab river.L (Sidhnai Mailsi Bahawal Link) Canal Length 74.B. Haweli canal Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 . Trimmu sidhnai II.60 miles Authorized Head Discharge 12500 Authorized Tail Discharge = 10000 Zone Multan Division Sidhnai Barrage Trimmu Barrage  One from right (Rangpur Canal)  One from left I.

60 miles Authorized Head Discharge 12500 Authorized Tail Discharge = 10000 Zone Multan Division Sidhnai Barrage Haveli Canal Length 12.S.Link (Trimmu Sidhnai Link) Canal Length 43.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 Rangpur canal Length 64 miles Authorized Head Discharge 2710 Authorized Tail Discharge = -----Zone Multan Division Trimmu Barrage T.6 miles Authorized Head Discharge 7375 Authorized Tail Discharge = 4364 Zone Multan Division Trimmu Barrage Pungnet Barrage Left side  Abassia canal  Punjnet canal Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .

915 miles Authorized Head Discharge 3580 Authorized Tail Discharge = 2184 Zone Bhawalpur Division Punjnet Barrage Punjnet Canal Length 5 7.267 miles Authorized Head Discharge 10484 Authorized Tail Discharge = 4274 Zone Bhawalpur Division Punjnet barrage Sutluj River 1)Sulemanki Barrage Left side Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .915 miles Authorized Head Discharge 1394 Authorized Tail Discharge = 587 Zone Bhawalpur Division Punjnet Barrage Abbassia Feeder Length 44.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 Abassia canal Length 44.

Pak patan Canal Eastern Sadiqia Canal Length 49.47 miles Authorized Head Discharge 5508 Authorized Tail Discharge =24 Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .00 miles Authorized Head Discharge 6820 Authorized Tail Discharge = 5106 Zone Multan Division Sulemanki Fordwah Canal Length 8. Eastern sadiqia Fordwah canal Right side I. II.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 I.97miles Authorized Head Discharge 3447 Authorized Tail Discharge =2993 Zone Multan Division Sulemanki Pak Patan Canal Length 113.

Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 Zone Multan Division Sulemanki Islam Barrage Left canal Qaim Canal Bhawal canal Karam branch Qaim Canal Length 7.43 miles Authorized Head Discharge 483 Authorized Tail Discharge = 61 Zone Multan Division Islam Barrage Karam Branch Length 4.132 miles Authorized Head Discharge 630 Authorized Tail Discharge = 630 Zone Multan Division Islam Barrage Bhawal canal Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .

M.B.4 miles Authorized Head Discharge 500 Authorized Tail Discharge = 386 Zone Multan Division Islam Barrage Melsai Syphon  S.996 miles Authorized Head Discharge 10100 Authorized Tail Discharge = 4000 Zone Multan Division Sidhnai Barrage Pakpattan Islam Link Length 24.M.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 Length 2.L (Sidhnai Mailsi Bahawal Link) Canal Length 74.B.148 miles Authorized Head Discharge 1086 Authorized Tail Discharge = 1086 Zone Multan Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .L (Sidhnai Mailsi Bahawal Link) Canal  Pakpattan Islam Link S.

II.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 Division Sidhnai Barrage Jhelum  Mangla Dam  Mangla Head works (upper Jhelum Canal) Rasool Barrage  I.366 miles Authorized Head Discharge 5500 Authorized Tail Discharge = 3705 Zone Sarghodha Division Rasul Division LJC Indus Tarbella dam  Downstream of Tarbella Ghazi barotha Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 . Left side Rasool Qadirabaad Lower Jhelum Canal It joins River Chenab. Lower Jhelum Canal Length 39.

Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203  Left side Ghazi bhrotha Poer Channel Jinnah Barrage (Kala Bagh Dam) Left side  Thal Canal Chashma Barrage Right side  Chasma Right Bank Canal Left side  Chasma Jhelm Link Canal Downstream: Tounsa Headworks Tounsa Barrage Right Side   Khachi Canal Dera Ghazi Khan Left Side Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .

046 miles Authorized Head Discharge 8900 Authorized Tail Discharge = 5514 Zone D G Khan Division Taunsa Barrage Muzaffar Garh Canal Length 74.14 miles Authorized Head Discharge 8901 Authorized Tail Discharge = 2776 Zone D G Khan Division Taunsa Barrage Taunsa Punjnad Link Canal Length 38.G Khan Canal Length 69.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203   Tounsa Punjnet Link Canal Muzaffar Garh Canal Downstream Guddu Barrage 3 on right 2 on left D.20 miles Authorized Head Discharge 12000 Authorized Tail Discharge = -------Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .

punjab.aspx http://irrigation.5 Million Cusecs Still have the volume capacity of 1.gov.gov.punjab.pk/index.punjab.gov.Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 Zone D G Khan Division Taunsa Barrage Sakkar Barrage    Maximum Capacity 1.aspx http://irrigation.pk/Search.aspx Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .pk/livedata.0 million Cusecs 7 Canals 4 on Right 3 on left Kotary Barrage 4 Canals 1 on right side 3 on left side Indus Delta Goes to Arabian Sea http://irrigation.

Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 Hasan Raza Khan 2007-Civil-203 .

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