Sloan Springer | M.

Arch Thesis Prep Spring 2011 Advisors | Art McDonald, Bruce Coleman

Leveraging Constraints for Innovation

THINK RATIONALLY

CONTENTS pREfACE CONTENTION TERmINOLOgY HISTORICAL REfERENCES CASE STudIES dOwNTOwN AuSTIN, Tx EvENTS & ACTIvITIES gREEN wATER REdEvELOpmENT EdgE CONdITIONS wEATHER ANALYSIS pubLIC-pRIvATE TOOLKIT pROjECTIONS bIbLIOgRApHY

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

pREfACE
**General introduction and methodology** At asi occus et earum que laborer speribus apitios aperciatur sum facepellaces repe dignit aut odic tem et maio is exerios et ent, ommodiscient lab idella doluptur, omnimillique non comnimint, odisimet alitati ssequi sunt audande sedicia spiciasperi ipsant. Si ut perit alitaesci im ullabo. Itati in consect oreperro ium qui rem fugit dempori onsectur rescimp orehendem que cus simperio cone quodit et ex ea cus eosant andandu ciminul luptata net auda nihitem. Itate nonsecae. Ihit aut magnihi tiuntendis aut a sanim re porionse libus aut quis nust enestru mquam, sectasi minuscipiet harciae ritianimus eos serovit untore consequ aepeditem et ligent mo imus maximo doluptur, sitibus iumquist, nustis aliquidi ditaquatis molestem aut aspernatum fugit eos adit debit voluptaqui ut idest estium harument et perum quo cumquasimint eic tem facepel moditatus voluptat aut andit id quis sinus velland igniam ium volumet quatia volupta tionse conem. Qui dolorum et aborehe nimolorem dolorpo remquis imagniandia des et landis ex es aut a nime voluptat elestio cum essitia vollacernam latuste mperupta inietum si ne occulla borae. Neque dolestota doluptatur, a que non ped que nobis aut eseque earchit ad maio.

CONTENTION
For centuries, public space has been one of the key drivers for urban design and development. But, in an everurbanizing world, the opportunities for public space and it’s interface with architecture must be further developed. This thesis contends to investigate the potentials in leveraging public space for private development, where public private partnerships are utilized to not only subsidize capital costs but to set up new opportunities for design innovation. By interfacing the design of public space with that of private buildings, both begin to inform that of the other, increasing value and maximizing the utilization potentials of the spaces for both public and private sectors. The city of Austin, Texas, considered the “Live Music Capitol of the World”, is known for it’s unique urban outdoor lifestyle, blending the amenities of a rich urban context with the laid-back atmosphere of more rural settings. Few other cities allow for the ability to visit art galleries and music venues then, within walking distance, go kayaking and hiking. In an effort to further bolster this atmosphere, the city is pursuing several large developments aimed at increasing density while also increasing the public value of private developments. One such endeavor is the Green Water Treatment Plant Redevelopment, consisting of 2 million square feet of retail, office, housing, hotel and public space. Situated in between the proposed hotel and recently completed Austin Music Hall, the developments proposed main public plaza holds significant potential for leveraging the interests of the hotel and music hall, as well as setting up a key urban public space for the entire development.

TERmINLOLgY
AgENCY ability of architecture to perform an action [see performance] CONSTRAINT limitation or restriction to a project that cannot be waived or removed INTERfACE physical or immaterial connection LEvERAgE ability to exert significant influence for a greater gain pERfORmANCE moment where architecture becomes an active participant in any context pRIvATE entity whose finances are unaffiliated with the government pubLIC entity that seeks to promote general welfare RECIpROCAL relationship where entities provide benefit to each other TOuRISm activity that generates income in multiple sectors simultaneously

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

HISTORICAL REfERENCES
Plan for Rome | Pope Sixtus V

As the Roman Catholic Church gained more power during the early days of the Renaissance, it became necessary to position Rome once again as a center for culture and religion. One major detriment to the city was the fact that it lacked a wholistic means for navigating the city. Prior to accepting the title of Pope Sixtus V, Cardinal Montalto began developing his plans for reinvigorating Rome as suitable for the center of the Christian world. He created an organisational structure connecting key monumental spaces and architecture in the city, allowing for pilgrims to easily find their way around the city. Visual connection and sense of space were key factors in driving the plan, and so several obelisks were relocated to the intersections of main trajectories between spaces to aid in creating such connection. This was once of the earliest precedents in urban design where development of public space creates new opportunities for private development, and furthermore reestablished the prominence of the city of Rome.

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

Regent Street, London | John Nash

Renovation of Paris | Georges-Eugène Haussmann

One of the first planned developments in London, Regent Street represents an attempt to break free from the medieval street pattern of the city. The plan connects Prince Regent’s residence at Carlton House up to Regents Park, passing though several key spaces. Due to the financial state of the country following the Napoleonic Wars, a large portion of the development was funded by private developers, including Nash. Planning guidelines were setup that dictated everything from architectural style to material details in order to preserve a cohesive feel. Regent Street is still considered a crucial part of the urban fabric of London, and its shops and cafes are enjoyed by tourists and Londoners alike.

Perhaps one of the most noted urban design endeavours was Haussmann’s plan for Paris, creating a series of tree-lined boulevards and converting main streets into pedestrian-friendly public spaces. What was even more profound was the mass implementation of a series of public regulations and mandates, an early form of building codes and zoning laws, that established guidelines for the businesses and residences connected to the avenues. This entire urban system still stands as the backbone of Parisian urban strategies and city life. While it was by no means perfect, often leveraging the authoritarian government to expropriate buildings from the private sector, Haussmann’s plan provides a critical precedent for the relationships in urban design between public and private sectors.

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

HISTORICAL REfERENCES
The High Line | Field Operations & Diller Scofidio + Renfro Museum Plaza | REX

Running over a mile-and-a-half stretch of abandoned railway tracks in lower Manhattan, the High Line has become an arterial life-line for the redevelopment of the Meatpacking District and Hudson Rail Yards. The park, in effect, provides significantly increased pedestrian traffic for the many shops, restaurants, and other businesses in the district, both new and old. This creates a reciprocal relationship where the park capitalizes on its connection to diverse program, and developments leverage the park for increased exposure. New projects created show this relationship by blurring their boundaries with the park and allowing for spaces that simultaneously exist as the park and the development.

Museum Plaza rethinks conventional attitudes towards property development. REX Architects had to take on the mind set of the developer in order to come up with a solution that could support the capital and operational costs of a 3,700 square meter museum. The site was sold to the owners for $1 in a public private partnership with the city of Louisville so that it may be developed as mixed-use in order to avoid over-saturating the market with any one single program. By leveraging the constraints of the site conditions with the financial requirements of the developer, an innovative solution was reached. The concept is driven by using a public museum as the centerpoint for private development, allowing for the design of each to influence the other in ways not possible through traditional development.

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

CalTrans District 7 Headquarters | Morphosis

The public plaza of the CalTrans District 7 Headquarters transcends the traditional role of public space. In order to provide a critical influence on the function and operation of the building, the plaza simultaneously acts as an open-air lobby for the building as well as an art gallery and seating for the cafeteria. The sculptural aesthetic is intended to mimic that of moving cars and transportation infrastructure, generating a space that implies movement and vibrance, encouraging building workers and pedestrians alike to disperse within the space.

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

dOwNTOwN AuSTIN, TExAS

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

EvENTS & ACTIvITIES
Austin’s unique atmosphere has had a profound impact on tourism to the city. Few other cities boast such a diverse range of activities and events. From its art, music, and film venues, such as the well-known Austin City Limits and South by Southwest music festivals, to the beautiful and serene Barton Springs natural swimming hole and Lady Bird Lake Trail, Austin offers something for both the cultural urbanite and the outdoor adventurist. The influx of people and economy, due to such events as Austin City Limits, South by Southwest Music Festival and the University of Texas football games, has bolstered the city of Austin and is fuelling the steady increase in development within the city. This economic engine should be capitalized upon in all city projects, using architecture to leverage the benefits of tourism for better design and value while simultaneously providing for and supplementing the tourism itself.

Austin Film Festival

Trail of Lights

4th St Entertainment District

Hiking & Biking

ACL Festival

Longhorn Football

Congress Bridge Bats

Barton Springs

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

90

75

Austin City Limits 75,000

UT Football 85,000

60

45

30

15

UT Basketball 12,000 South by Southwest 17,000

UT Baseball 6,000

Blues on the Green 2,000

Austin Film Festival 7,000

0

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

Event Attendance | Average per day of event (thousands)

Locations | text
Longhorn Football

parking | Building & Surface Primary Traffic | Vehicular & Pedestrian

Events Pay Free Activities Pay Free Longhorn Basketball Texas State Arts Festival
SOUTH BY SOUTHWEST MUSIC FESTIVAL

Texas State Capitol Blues on the Green

Kayaking

Con Dist rict
Austin Convention Center

Hiking/ Biking

Trail of Lights Barton Springs ACL Festival

2nd

t Dis trict Republic Square Farmers Market 4th St E nter tain men t Dist rict

men

St R

etail

Congress Bridge Bats

South Congress Retail District

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

gres

&E

nter

tain

s Av

6th

St R

etail

e Re

tail

Dist

rict

gREEN wATER REdEvELOpmENT
By far the largest single development undertaking in the history of downtown Austin, the $750 million Green Water Redevelopment is slated to bring over 2 million square feet of retail, office, and residential space to perhaps the most booming area of the city. Located along the shore of Lady Bird Lake and Shoal Creek, the development joins additional ventures to redevelop the Seaholm Power Plant for adaptive reuse, and the new Austin Central Library. This new complex stands to create a significant impact on the urban fabric of the city, and offers potential for unique solutions for urban space.

sqft

units

sqft

Rental 320

Gables

Republic Square Austin Museum of Art
t Di stri ct

W Hotel & Condos

Senior 235

360 Condos Rio Grande Lofts

4th

St E

t nter

en ainm

AMLI

Residential 804,750

For Sale 140

Proposed Mixed-Use Residential Austin Ballet Austin Music Hall

AMLI

Austin City Limits

Private 1,912,750

City Hall
Dis tric t

West Avenue Lofts

Sh

oa

lC

re

Proposed Plaza
ek Tr a il

Proposed Mixed-Use Hotel

2nd Proposed Mixed-Use Residential

e St R

tail

Office 588,000

Proposed Central Library

Hotel 350,000
st Arm ron gB ikew ay e Tr ail

Lan

ce

La

i dy B

ak rd L

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

Retail 170,000 Civic 10,000

Public 10,000

EdgE CONdITIONS

SW - NE Section | Between Rio Grande & Nueces Streets

Southwest | Cesar Chavez Street Front & Lady Bird Lake Trail

Northeast | Austin Music Hall

NW - SE Section | Between Second and Third Streets

Northwest | Shoal Creek Bank Stabilization Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

Southeast | Nueces Street Extension & Proposed Street Front

wEATHER ANALYSIS
Austin’s climate is characterized by long, hot and humid summers with mild, dry winters. Most of the yearly rainfall occurs in spring and fall, with relatively few overcast days during the summer. Within immediate proximity to the city are several bodies of water, including Lady Bird Lake downtown, Lake Austin, Lake Travis, and the Colorado River. These create a lush vegetative environment, paired with the primarily limestone hill country. This mix of natural landscape and urban density gives Austin its unique feel and provides residents with immediate access to both city and rural amenities.

Shadow Range Sun Chart
Date | 1.1-12.31 Time | 00:00-24:00

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

AH

Psychrometric Chart | Austin, TX
Date | 1.1-12.31 Time | 00:00-24:00 1. 2. 3. 4.

30

Selected Design Techniques
passive solar heating thermal mass effects natural ventilation indirect evaporative cooling
25

20

15

10

Comfort

5

DBT (°C)

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Optimum Orientation | Austin, TX
Annual Average Underheated P eriod Overheated P eriod

Wind Frequency | Austin, TX
Date | 1.1-12.31 Time | 00:00-24:00

345° 330°

N kW h/ m² 2.70 2.40

15° Best 30° W orst 45°
315° 330° NOR T H 345°

50 km/ h

15° 30°

hrs 484+ 435 387
45°

315°

40 km/ h

2.10 1.80

338 290 242 193
60°

300°

1.50 1.20

60°
300°

30 km/ h

145 96 <48

20 km/ h

285°

0.90 0.60 0.30

75°
285° 75°

10 km/ h

270°

90° 90.0°

W EST

E AS T

255°

105°

255°

105°

240°

120°

240°

120°

225°

135°

225°

135°

210° 195° Compromise: 180.0° 180° 165°

150°

210° 195° S OUT H 165°

150°

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

pubLIC-pRIvATE TOOLKIT
A reciprocal relationship exists between public space and private development, but maximum potential is rarely achieved. This toolkit of strategies pose to leverage public space for private development and vice versa.

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

pROgRAmmATIC dIvERSITY
Multiple opportunities lie in the diversity of programming within a project. Through “architectural alchemy”, these opportunities are leveraged by blending diverse program to create unique and innovative results that not only perform the same tasks as the original program but simultaneously allow for additional and often unexpected possibilities.

CALCuLATEd fLExIbILITY
The traditional notion of generic flexibility of space is seldom capitalized upon. Typical “flexible” spaces ultimately end up serving a minimum number of options due to the indecisiveness of human nature. Strategic insertions of calculated flexibility can maximize viable opportunity for users. By analysing desired uses within the space and creating a predefined range of options, usability and value are increased along with the number of options actually capitalized upon.

“What do you get when you cross a parrot with a centipede? A walkie-talkie”Francisco Sanin

+

=

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

ACCESS INTERfACE

CRITICAL AdjACENCIES

F

re utu

Ligh

t Ra

ten il Ex

sion

4th

n St E

tert

ainm

Di ent

stri

ct

SOUTH BY SOUTHWEST MUSIC FESTIVAL

Proposed Mixed-Use Residential

Proposed Mixed-Use Residential

2nd

St

ail Ret

Dis

tric

t
Austin Music Hall Proposed Plaza
ird L l Trai ake

Austin Ballet

Sh

oa

lC

re

Proposed Plaza
ek Tr a il

Proposed Mixed-Use Hotel

Proposed Mixed-Use Residential
Lad yB

Proposed Mixed-Use Hotel

Proposed Mixed-Use Residential

Proposed Central Library
w Bike ay

Proposed Central Library

La

Ar nce

mst

rong

Access is key to any urban project. By plugging in to the city’s networks of mass-transit, bike routes, and pedestrian paths, both public and private space becomes energized by urban fabric. Additionally, this will help reduce the project’s net carbon footprint by encouraging alternative modes of access rather than strictly automotive.

Adjacent program offers unique opportunities for partnerships that can leverage constraints and capital resources for both public and private development. By identifying and analysing such critical adjacencies, such partnerships can provide further influence for design innovation and financing. Additionally, other outside resources may be possible through further analysis of specific program connections in the city.

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

TRANSfER Of dEvELOpmENT RIgHTS
In order to maximize user experience through visual and physical connectivity, public amenities of private developments could be transferred to the public sector. Various incentives could be given to the private development in return, creating a reciprocal partnership for the betterment of the public and consequently for the financial betterment of the development.

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

pROjECTIONS
**Brief projection into the development of the thesis** At asi occus et earum que laborer speribus apitios aperciatur sum facepellaces repe dignit aut odic tem et maio is exerios et ent, ommodiscient lab idella doluptur, omnimillique non comnimint, odisimet alitati ssequi sunt audande sedicia spiciasperi ipsant. Si ut perit alitaesci im ullabo. Itati in consect oreperro ium qui rem fugit dempori onsectur rescimp orehendem que cus simperio cone quodit et ex ea cus eosant andandu ciminul luptata net auda nihitem. Itate nonsecae. Ihit aut magnihi tiuntendis aut a sanim re porionse libus aut quis nust enestru mquam, sectasi minuscipiet harciae ritianimus eos serovit untore consequ aepeditem et ligent mo imus maximo doluptur, sitibus iumquist, nustis aliquidi ditaquatis molestem aut aspernatum fugit eos adit debit voluptaqui ut idest estium harument et perum quo cumquasimint eic tem facepel moditatus voluptat aut andit id quis sinus velland igniam ium volumet quatia volupta tionse conem. Qui dolorum et aborehe nimolorem dolorpo remquis imagniandia des et landis ex es aut a nime voluptat elestio cum essitia vollacernam latuste mperupta inietum si ne occulla borae. Neque dolestota doluptatur, a que non ped que nobis aut eseque earchit ad maio.

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

bIbLIOgRApHY
Joshua Prince-Ramus, “Agency,” ed. Marc Guberman, Jacob Reidel, and Frida Rosenberg, Perspecta 40 “Monster”: The Yale Architectural Journal: 96-101. Judith R. Blau, Architects and Firms : A Sociological Perspective on Architectural Practices (The MIT Press, 1987). Sara Moss, “Calculated Risk,” Architectural Design, January 2004. Edmund N. Bacon, Design of Cities (New York Viking Press, 1976). Bruce Upbin, “Joshua Prince-Ramus On The Myth Of Architectural Genius,” Forbes.com (June 14, 2010). Ashley Schafer and Amanda Reeser Lawrence, PRAXIS: Journal of Writing and Building, Issue 10: Urban Matters (Praxis, Inc, 2008). Elite Kedan, Provisional: Emerging Modes of Architectural Practice, ed. Jon Dreyfous and Craig Mutter, 1st ed. (Princeton Architectural Press, 2009). Committee for Economic Development, Public Private Partnership: An Opportunity for Urban Communities, 1982. Girish K. Misra and G.C. Mathur, Public Private Partnerships in Urban Development (Intellectual Book Corner, 1997). Keith Moskow, Small Scale: Creative Solutions for Better City Living (Princeton Architectural Press, 2010). Paul Lewis, Marc Tsurumaki, and David J. Lewis, “Tactics for an Opportunistic Architecture,” in Opportunistic Architecture, 1st ed. (Princeton Architectural Press, 2007), 168-177. Bjarke Ingels, Yes Is More: An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution (Evergreen, 2009).

Think Rationally | M.Arch Thesis Sloan Springer | Spring 2011

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