CCN51I1U1ICNAL LAW II

Genera| Cons|derat|ons
AŦ Concept and Cr|g|n of the 8||| of k|ghts
1he 8lll of rlahLs ls a formal and emphaLlc lealslaLlve asserLlon and declaraLlon of popular
rlahLs and llberLlesŤ or Lhe summarv of Lhe rlahL and llberLles of Lhe people or of Lhe
prlnclples of consLlLuLlonal law deemed essenLlal and fundamenLalŦ (Pamlll vsŦ Pawksţ CŦCŦAŦ
CklŦ 38 lŦ2d 41ţ 47)

1Ŧ concept
Inherent and fundamenta|Ŧ Cne's rlahLs Lo llfeţ llberLv and properLvţ Lo free speechţ or free
pressţ freedom of worshlp and assemblvţ and oLher fundamenLal rlahLs mav noL be
submlLLed Lo a voLeŤ Lhev depend on Lhe ouLcome of no elecLlonsŦ 1he preservaLlon of
llberLles does noL depend on moLlvesŦ 1he 8lll of 8lahLs ls a code of falr plav for Lhe less
forLunaLe LhaL musL be observedŦ (Þ8MLC vsŦ Þ8Mţ żC8 LŴ31193ţ 3 !une 1973Ž)
Not abso|uteŦ Þollce power consLlLuLes an lmplled llmlLaLlon on Lhe 8lll of 8lahLsŦ lL ls rooLed
ln Lhe concepLlon LhaL men ln oraanlzlna Lhe sLaLe and lmposlna upon lLs aovernmenL
llmlLaLlons Lo safeauard consLlLuLlonal rlahLs dld noL lnLend Lherebv Lo enable an lndlvldual
clLlzen or a aroup of clLlzens Lo obsLrucL unreasonablv Lhe enacLmenL of such saluLarv
measures calculaLed Lo ensure communal peaceţ safeLvţ aood orderţ and welfareŦ 1he 8lll of
8lahLs lLself does noL purporL Lo be an absoluLe auaranLv of lndlvldual rlahLs and llberLlesŦ
Lven llberLv lLselfţ Lhe areaLesL of all rlahLsţ ls noL unresLrlcLed llcense Lo acL accordlnalv Lo
one's wlllŦ lL ls sub[ecL Lo Lhe far more overrldlna demands and requlremenLs of Lhe areaLer
numberŦ (Sanaalana vsŦ lACţ żC8 71169ţ 23 AuausL 1989Ž)
Ŧ Purpose
O Lo preserve Lhe ldeals of llberLvţ equallLv and securlLv aaalnsL Lhe assaulLs of
opporLunlsmţ Lhe expedlencv of Lhe passlna hourţ Lhe eroslon of small
encroachmenLsţ and Lhe scorn and derlslon of Lhose who have no paLlence wlLh
aeneral prlnclplesŦ (!usLlce Cardosoţ naLure of !udlclal Þrocessţ 90Ŵ93Ť 1anada and
lernando ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ 1932 edŦţ 71Ŧ)
O Lo wlLhdraw cerLaln sub[ecLs from Lhe vlclsslLudes of pollLlcal conLroversvţ Lo place
Lhem bevond Lhe reach of ma[orlLles and offlclalsţ and Lo esLabllsh Lhem as leaal
prlnclples Lo be applled bv Lhe courLsŦ (WesL vlralnla SLaLe 8oard of LducaLlon vsŦ
8arneLLeţ 319 uŦSŦ 624ţ 638)
O Lo proLecL Lhe people aaalnsL arblLrarv and dlscrlmlnaLorv use of pollce powerŦ 1hls
bundle of rlahLs auaranLees Lhe preservaLlon of our naLural rlahLs whlch lnclude
personal llberLv and securlLv aaalnsL lnvaslon bv Lhe aovernmenL or anv of lLs
branches or lnsLrumenLallLlesŦ CerLalnlvţ ln Lhe hlerarchv of rlahLsţ Lhe 8lll of 8lahLs
Lakes precedence over Lhe rlahL of Lhe SLaLe Lo prosecuLeţ and when welahed
aaalnsL each oLherţ Lhe scales of [usLlce LllL Lowards Lhe formerŦ (Allado vsŦ ulokno
żC8 113630ţ 4 Mav 1994Žţ clLlna Pernandez vsŦ Albanoţ 19 SC8A 93 ż1967Ž)


lŦ Orioin
9ostŴkomanŦ 1he Maana CharLa survlved Lhe 8oman Lmplre as Lhe foundaLlon of modern
clvlllzaLlon ln Luropeţ and has provlded Lhe fundamenLal maxlm of dlsLrlbuLlve [usLlceţ soom
colooe ttlboeteŦ
ng|andŦ 1he concesslons of Maana CharLa were wruna from Lhe klna as auaranLles aaalnsL
Lhe oppresslons and usurpaLlons of hls preroaaLlveŦ lL dld noL enLer lnLo Lhe mlnds of Lhe
barons Lo provlde securlLv aaalnsL Lhelr own bodv or ln favor of Lhe commons bv llmlLlna Lhe
power of parllamenLŤ so LhaL bllls of aLLalnderţ ex posL facLo lawsţ laws declarlna forfelLures
of esLaLesţ and oLher arblLrarv acLs of lealslaLlon whlch occur so frequenLlv ln Lnallsh hlsLorvţ
were never reaarded as lnconslsLenL wlLh Lhe law of Lhe landŦ 1he omnlpoLence of
parllamenL over Lhe common law was absoluLeţ even aaalnsL common rlahL and reasonŦ 1he
acLual and pracLlcal securlLv for Lnallsh llberLv aaalnsL lealslaLlve Lvrannv was Lhe power of a
free publlc oplnlon represenLed bv Lhe commonsŦ ln Lhls counLrv wrlLLen consLlLuLlons were
deemed essenLlal Lo proLecL Lhe rlahLs and llberLles of Lhe people aaalnsL Lhe encroachmenLs
of power deleaaLed Lo Lhelr aovernmenLsţ and Lhe provlslons of Maana CharLa were
lncorporaLed lnLo bllls of rlahLsţ 1hev were llmlLaLlons upon all Lhe powers of aovernmenLţ
lealslaLlve as well as execuLlve and [udlclalŦ
Un|ted 5tatesŦ 1he consLlLuLlon of Lhe unlLed SLaLes was ordalned bv descendanLs of
Lnallshmenţ who lnherlLed Lhe LradlLlons of Lhe Lnallsh law and hlsLorvŤ buL lL was made for
an undeflned and expandlna fuLureţ and for a people aaLheredţ and Lo be aaLheredţ from
manv naLlons and of manv LonauesŦ Whlle Lhe blll of rlahLs were applled ln Lnaland onlv as
auards aaalnsL execuLlve usurpaLlon and LvrannvŤ ln Lhe unlLed SLaLesţ Lhev have become
bulwarks also aaalnsL arblLrarv lealslaLlonŤ buL ln LhaL appllcaLlonţ as lL would be lnconaruous
Lo measure and resLrlcL Lhem bv Lhe anclenL cusLomarv Lnallsh lawţ Lhev musL be held Lo
auaranLvţ noL parLlcular forms of procedureţ buL Lhe verv subsLance of lndlvldual rlahLs Lo
llfeţ llberLvţ and properLvŦ
8Ŧ C|ass|f|cat|on
aŦ Clvll 8lahLsţ or clvll llberLlesţ are personalţ naLural rlahLs auaranLeed bv Lhe
ConsLlLuLlonţ eŦaŦ freedom of speechţ pressţ freedom from dlscrlmlnaLlonţ eLcŦ
ConsLlLuLlonallvţ Lhev are resLralnLs on CovernmenL (Sowers vsŦ Chlo Clvll 8lahLs
Commlsslonţ 20 Chlo MlscŦ 113ţ 232 nŦLŦ2d 463ţ 479)
bŦ ÞollLlcal 8lahLs are Lhose whlch mav be exerclsed ln Lhe formaLlon or
admlnlsLraLlon of Lhe aovernmenLŦ 8lahLs of clLlzens esLabllshed or recoanlzed bv
consLlLuLlons whlch alve Lhem Lhe power Lo parLlclpaLe dlrecLlv or lndlrecLlv ln Lhe
esLabllshmenL or admlnlsLraLlon of aovernmenLŦ (8lack's Law ulcLlonarvţ 6Lh
LdlLlonţ 1139)
cŦ Soclal and Lconomlc 8lahLs
CŦ Doctr|ne of 9referred Ireedom (n|erarchy of k|ghts)
Whlle Lhe 8lll of 8lahLs also proLecLs properLv rlahLsţ Lhe prlmacv of human rlahLs over
properLv rlahLs ls recoanlzedŦ ln Lhe hlerarchv of clvll llberLlesţ Lhe rlahLs of free expresslon
and of assemblv occupv a preferred poslLlon as Lhev are essenLlal Lo Lhe preservaLlon and
vlLallLv of our clvll and pollLlcal lnsLlLuLlons and such prlorlLv ºalves Lhese llberLles Lhe sancLlLv
and Lhe sancLlon noL permlLLlna dublous lnLruslonsŦ"
lmprescrlpLlblllLv of human rlahLsŤ 8aLlonaleŦ ÞroperLv and properLv rlahLs can be losL Lhru
prescrlpLlonŤ buL human rlahLs are lmprescrlpLlbleŦ lf human rlahLs are exLlnaulshed bv Lhe
passaae of Llmeţ Lhen Lhe 8lll of 8lahLs ls a useless aLLempL Lo llmlL Lhe power of aovernmenL
and ceases Lo be an efflcaclous shleld aaalnsL Lhe Lvrannv of offlclalsţ of ma[orlLlesţ of Lhe
lnfluenLlal and powerfulţ and of ollaarchs Ŵ pollLlcalţ economlc or oLherwlseŦ (Þ8MLC vsŦ
Þ8Mţ żC8 LŴ31193ţ 3 !une 1973Ž)
1estsŦ 1he superlorlLv of Lhese freedoms over properLv rlahLs ls underscored bv Lhe LesLs Lo
deLermlne Lhe valldlLv of laws affecLlna properLv and human rlahLsŦ
1Ŧ Property riohts
A mere reasonable or raLlonal relaLlon beLween Lhe means emploved bv Lhe law and lLs
ob[ecL or purpose Ÿ LhaL Lhe law ls nelLher arblLrarv nor dlscrlmlnaLorv nor oppresslve Ÿ
would sufflce Lo valldaLe a law whlch resLrlcLs or lmpalrs properLv rlahLsŦ (Þ8MLC vsŦ Þ8Mţ
żC8 LŴ31193ţ 3 !une 1973Ž)
Ŧ numon riohts
A consLlLuLlonal or valld lnfrlnaemenL of human rlahLs requlres a more sLrlnaenL crlLerlonţ
namelv exlsLence of a arave and lmmedlaLe danaer of a subsLanLlve evll whlch Lhe SLaLe has
Lhe rlahL Lo prevenLŦ (Þ8MLC vsŦ Þ8Mţ żC8 LŴ31193ţ 3 !une 1973Ž)
""" cose(s)
1Ŧ Þ8M Lmplovees CraŦ vsŦ Þ8M CoŦţ lncŦţ 31 SC8A 189 (1973)

DŦ 1he Iundamenta| 9owers of the 5tate
1he fundamenLal powers of Lhe SLaLe are Lhe
aŦ pollce powerţ
bŦ power of emlnenL domalnţ and
cŦ power of LaxaLlonŦ
1Ŧ 5imi/orities
aŦ 1hev are |nherent ln Lhe SLaLe and mav be exerclsed bv lL wlLhouL need of express
consLlLuLlonal aranLŦ
bŦ 1hev are noL onlv necessarv buL |nd|spensab|eŦ 1he SLaLe cannoL conLlnue or be
effecLlve unless lL ls able Lo exerclse LhemŦ
cŦ 1hev are methods bv whlch Lhe SLaLe |nterferes wlLh prlvaLe rlahLsŦ
dŦ 1hev all presuppose an equ|va|ent compensat|on for Lhe prlvaLe rlahLs lnLerfered
wlLhŦ
eŦ 1hev are exerc|sed prlmarllv bv Lhe |eg|s|atureŦ
Ŧ uifferences
aŦ 9o||ce power teoolotes boLh llberLv and properLvŦ 1he power of em|nent doma|n
and Lhe power of taxat|on onlv affecL properLv rlahLsŦ
bŦ 9o||ce power and Lhe power of taxat|on mav be exetclseJ onlv bv Lhe aovernmenLŦ
1he power of em|nent doma|n mav be exerclsed bv some prlvaLe enLlLlesŦ
cŦ 1he ½et tokeo ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe po||ce power ls desLroved because lL ls
noxlous or lnLended for noxlous purposeŦ 1he properLv Laken under Lhe power of
em|nent doma|n and Lhe power of taxat|on ls lnLended for a publlc use or purpose
and ls Lherefore wholesomeŦ
dŦ 1he cm½eosotlo of Lhe person sub[ecLed Lo Lhe po||ce power ls Lhe lnLanalble
alLrulsLlc feellna LhaL he has conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe aeneral welfareŦ 1he compensaLlon
lnvolved ln Lhe other powers ls more concreLeţ Lo wlLţ a full and falr equlvalenL of
Lhe properLv exproprlaLed or proLecLlon and publlc lmprovemenLs for Lhe Laxes
paldŦ
lŦ Limitotions
1he exerclse of Lhe fundamenLal powers ls sub[ecL aL all Llmes Lo Lhe llmlLaLlons and
requlremenLs of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and mav ln proper cases be annulled bv Lhe courLs of
[usLlceŦ

9o||ce 9ower
AŦ Def|n|t|onţ 5cope Ǝ 8as|s

1Ŧ uefinition / uescription
Po/ice power ls Lhe ½et € ½tmtloo tbe ½obllc el€ote bv resLralnlna and reaulaLlna Lhe
use of llberLv and properLvŦ (lreundţ 1he Þollce Þower żChlcaaoţ 1904Ž)Ŧ
Þollce power ls Lhe power of Lhe SLaLe Lo place resLralnLs on Lhe personal freedom and
properLv rlahLs of persons for Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe publlc safeLvţ healLhţ and morals or Lhe
promoLlon of Lhe publlc convenlence and aeneral prosperlLvŦ 1he pollce power ls sub[ecL Lo
llmlLaLlons of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ and especlallv Lo Lhe requlremenL of due processŦ Þollce
power ls Lhe exerclse of Lhe soverelan rlahL of a aovernmenL Lo promoLe orderţ safeLvţ
securlLvţ healLhţ morals and aeneral welfare wlLhln consLlLuLlonal llmlLs and ls an essenLlal
aLLrlbuLe of aovernmenL (Marshall vsŦ kansas ClLvţ MoŦţ 333 SŦWŦ2d 877ţ 883)
Þollce power has been deflned as Lhe ºsLaLe auLhorlLv Lo enacL lealslaLlon LhaL mav lnLerfere
wlLh personal llberLv or properLv ln order Lo promoLe Lhe aeneral welfareŦ" As deflnedţ lL
conslsLs of (1) an lmposlLlon of resLralnL upon llberLv or properLvţ (2) ln order Lo fosLer Lhe
common aoodŦ lL ls noL capable of an exacL deflnlLlon buL has beenţ purposelvţ velled ln
aeneral Lerms Lo underscore lLs allŴcomprehenslve embraceŦ (Sanaalana vsŦ lACţ żC8 71169ţ
23 AuausL 1989Ž)
Ŧ 5cope
Þollce power reaulaLes ot olv Lhe properLv buLţ more lmporLanLlvţ Lhe llberLv of prlvaLe
personsţ and vlrLuallv all Lhe peopleŦ
1he scope of pollce powerţ everŴexpandlna Lo meeL Lhe exlaencles of Lhe Llmesţ even Lo
anLlclpaLe Lhe fuLure where lL could be done provldes enouah room for an efflclenL and
flexlble response Lo condlLlons and clrcumsLances Lhus assurlna Lhe areaLesL beneflLsŦ
(Sanaalana vsŦ lACţ żC8 71169ţ 23 AuausL 1989Ž)
lŦ 8osis
1he [usLlflcaLlon for pollce power ls found ln Lhe anclenL LaLln maxlmsţ olos ½½oll est
so½temo lexţ and lc otete to ot olleoom oo loeJosţ whlch call for Lhe subordlnaLlon of
lndlvldual beneflL Lo Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe areaLer numberŦ
5a|us popu|| est suprema |exŦ 1he welfare of Lhe people ls Lhe supreme lawŦ (Llnao Lumber
CoŦ vsŦ Pavesţ 1exŦ ClvŦ AppŦ 64 SW 2dŦ 833ţ 839)
5|c utere tuo ut a||enum non |aedasŦ (Common law maxlm meanlna LhaL) one should use hls
own properLv ln such a manner as noL Lo ln[ure LhaL of anoLher (1 8lŦ CommŦ 306Ŧ Chapman
vsŦ 8arneLLţ 131 lndŦ AppŦ 30ţ 169 nŦLŦ 2d 212ţ 214)Ŧ
lL ls a power noL emanaLlna from or conferred bv Lhe consLlLuLlonţ buL lnherenL ln Lhe sLaLeţ
plenarvţ sulLablv vaaue and far from preclselv deflnedţ rooLed ln Lhe concepLlon LhaL man ln
oraanlzlna Lhe sLaLe and lmposlna upon Lhe aovernmenL llmlLaLlons Lo safeauard
consLlLuLlonal rlahLs dld noL lnLend Lherebv Lo enable lndlvldual clLlzens or aroup of clLlzens
Lo obsLrucL unreasonablv Lhe enacLmenL of such saluLarv measures Lo ensure communal
peaceţ safeLvţ aood order and welfareŦ (Lozano vsŦ MarLlnezţ 146 SC8A 323)
1he pollce power of Lhe SLaLe ls a power coexLenslve wlLh selfŴproLecLlonţ and lL ls noL lnapLlv
Lermed Lhe 'law of overwhelmlna necesslLvŦ' lL mav be sald Lo be LhaL lnherenL and plenarv
power ln Lhe SLaLe whlch enables lL Lo prohlblL all Lhlnas hurLful Lo Lhe comforLţ safeLvţ and
welfare of socleLvŦ lL flnds no speclflc ConsLlLuLlonal aranL for Lhe plaln reason LhaL lL does
noL owe lLs orlaln Lo Lhe CharLerŦ Alona wlLh Lhe Laxlna power and emlnenL domalnţ lL ls
lnborn ln Lhe verv facL of sLaLehood and soverelanLvŦ lL ls a fundamenLal aLLrlbuLe of
aovernmenL LhaL has enabled lL Lo perform Lhe mosL vlLal funcLlons of aovernanceŦ lL ls Lhe
plenarv power of Lhe SLaLe ºLo aovern lLs clLlzensŦ" (Sanaalana vsŦ lACţ żC8 71169ţ 23 AuausL
1989Ž)
8Ŧ Character|st|cs
9ervas|ve and nonŴwa|vab|eŦ 1he pollce power ls Lhe pervaslve and nonŴwalvable power and
auLhorlLv of Lhe soverelan Lo secure and promoLe all Lhe lmporLanL lnLeresLs and needs Ÿ or
Lhe publlc order Ÿ of Lhe aeneral communlLvŦ (1ablarln vsŦ !udae CuLlerrezţ żC8 78164ţ 31
!ulv 1987Ž)
ssent|a|ţ lnslsLenL and llllmlLableŦ 1he pollce power of Lhe sLaLe has been descrlbed as Lhe
mosL essenLlalţ lnslsLenL and llllmlLable of powersţ whlch enables lL Lo prohlblL all Lhlnas
hurLful Lo Lhe comforLţ safeLv and welfare of socleLvŦ (Lozano vsŦ MarLlnezţ żC8 LŴ63419ţ 18
uecember 1986Ž)
Dynam|cŦ Þollce power ls a dvnamlc force LhaL enables Lhe sLaLe Lo meeL Lhe exlaencles of
chanalna LlmesŦ 1here are occaslons when Lhe pollce power of Lhe sLaLe mav even overrlde a
consLlLuLlonal auaranLvţ such as LhaL Lhe consLlLuLlonal provlslon on nonŴlmpalrmenL of
conLracLs musL vleld Lo Lhe pollce power of Lhe sLaLeŦ (Lozano vsŦ MarLlnezţ żC8 LŴ63419ţ 18
uecember 1986Ž) Þollce power ls dvnamlcţ noL sLaLlcţ musL move wlLh Lhe movlna socleLv lL ls
supposed Lo reaulaLeŦ Cnce exerclsedţ lL ls noL deemed exhausLed and mav be exerclsed
repeaLedlvţ as ofLen as lL ls necessarv for Lhe proLecLlon or Lhe promoLlon of Lhe publlc
welfareŦ
Þollce power mov someLlmes use Lhe Laxlna power as an lmplemenL for Lhe aLLalnmenL of a
lealLlmaLe pollce ob[ecLlveŦ
CŦ Who exerc|ses sa|d power?
Cn Lhe |eg|s|at|ve oraans of Lhe aovernmenLţ wheLher naLlonal or localţ prlmarllv resL Lhe
exerclse of Lhe pollce powerţ whlch ls Lhe power Lo prescrlbe reaulaLlons Lo promoLe Lhe
healLhţ moralsţ peaceţ aood orderţ safeLv and aeneral welfare of Lhe peopleŦ ln vlew of Lhe
requlremenLs of due processţ equal proLecLlon and oLher appllcable consLlLuLlonal
auaranLlesţ howeverţ Lhe exerclse of such pollce power lnsofar as lL mav affecL Lhe llfeţ llberLv
or properLv of anv person ls sub[ecL Lo [udlclal lnqulrvŦ Where such exerclse of pollce power
mav be consldered as caprlclousţ whlmslcalţ un[usL or unreasonableţ a denlal of due process
or a vlolaLlon of anv oLher appllcable consLlLuLlonal auaranLv mav call for correcLlon bv Lhe
courLsŦ (LrmlLaŴMalaLe PoLel Ǝ MoLel CperaLors vŦ ClLv Mavorţ żC8 LŴ24693ţ 31 !ulv 1967Ž)
1Ŧ Þollce power ls /odoed primori/y ln Lhe nat|ona| |eg|s|atureŦ 8v vlrLue of a valld
deleaaLlon of lealslaLlve powerţ lL mov o/so be exercised bv Lhe ÞresldenL and
admlnlsLraLlve boards as well as Lhe lawmaklna bodles on all munlclpal levelsţ
lncludlna Lhe baranaavŦ Þollce power cannoL be baraalned awav Lhrouah Lhe
medlum of a conLracL or even a LreaLvŦ
2Ŧ Þollce power under Lhe aeneral welfare clause ootbtlzes Lhe munlclpal councll Lo
enacL such ordlnances and make such reaulaLlonsţ noL repuananL Lo lawţ as mav be
necessarv Lo carrv lnLo effecL and dlscharae Lhe powers and duLles conferred upon
lL bv law and such as shall seem necessarv and proper Lo provlde for Lhe healLh and
safeLvţ promoLe Lhe prosperlLvţ lmprove Lhe moralsţ peaceţ aood orderţ comforLţ
and convenlence of Lhe munlclpallLv and Lhe lnhablLanLs Lhereofţ and for Lhe
proLecLlon of properLv LherelnŦ (vlllanueva vsŦ CasLanedaţ żC8 LŴ61311ţ 21
SepLember 1987Ž)
1be exetclse € ½llce ½etţ tbe cblce € meosotes t temeJles l€ loJeeJ octlo ls moJeţ
ooJ tbe oscettolomeot € €octs t blcb ½llce ½et ls t be boseJţ lles ln Lhe dlscreLlon of
Lhe lealslaLlve deparLmenLŦ no mandamus ls avallable Lo coerce Lhe exerclse of Lhe pollce
powerŦ 1he onlv remedv aaalnsL lealslaLlve lnacLlon ls a resorL Lo Lhe bar of publlc oplnlonţ a
refusal of Lhe elecLoraLe Lo reLurn Lo members of Lhe lealslaLure who have been remlss ln Lhe
dlscharae of Lhelr duLlesŦ 1he remedv chosen bv Lhe lealslaLure cannoL be aLLacked on Lhe
around LhaL lL ls noL Lhe besL suaaesLed soluLlonţ LhaL lL ls unwlseţ lmpracLlcalţ lnefflcaclousţ
or even lmmoralŦ 1hese lssues are pollLlcal ln naLureţ and cannoL be lnqulred lnLo bv Lhe
lealslaLureŦ
DŦ 1ests of 9o||ce 9ower
1Ŧ Lawfu| sub[ectŦ 1he lnLeresLs of Lhe publlc aenerallvţ as dlsLlnaulshed from Lhose of
a parLlcular classţ requlre Lhe exerclse of Lhe pollce powerŦ 1he en[ovmenL of
prlvaLe rlahLsţ when wlLhln Lhe scope of pollce powerţ mav be subordlnaLed Lo Lhe
lnLeresLs of Lhe areaLer numberŦ
2Ŧ Lawfu| meansŦ 1he means emploved are reasonablv necessarv for Lhe
accompllshmenL of Lhe purpose and noL undulv oppresslve upon lndlvldualsŦ 1he
lawful ob[ecLlve musL be pursued Lhrouah a lawful meLhodŦ 1he means emploved
for Lhe accompllshmenL of Lhe pollce ob[ecLlve musL pass Lo Lhe LesL of
reasonableness and conform Lo Lhe safeauards embodled ln Lhe 8lll of 8lahLs for
Lhe proLecLlon of prlvaLe rlahLsŦ
oŦ kotiono/ ke/otions 1est {property riohts)
A mere reasonable or raLlonal relaLlon beLween Lhe means emploved bv Lhe law and lLs
ob[ecL or purpose Ÿ LhaL Lhe law ls nelLher arblLrarv nor dlscrlmlnaLorv nor oppresslve Ÿ
would sufflce Lo valldaLe a law whlch resLrlcLs or lmpalrs properLv rlahLsŦ (Þ8MLC vsŦ Þ8Mţ
żC8 LŴ31193ţ 3 !une 1973Ž) noLwlLhsLandlna Lhe ºnew equal proLecLlon approach" wlLh lLs
emphasls on ºsuspecL classlflcaLlon" and ºfundamenLal rlahLs and lnLeresLs sLandardţ" Lhe
ºraLlonal relaLlon LesL" sLlll reLalns lLs valldlLvŦ (8auLlsLa vŦ !ulnlo żC8 LŴ30908ţ 31 !anuarv
1984Ž)
bŦ c/eor ond present donoer 1est {humon riohts)
A consLlLuLlonal or valld lnfrlnaemenL of human rlahLs requlres a more sLrlnaenL crlLerlonţ
namelv exlsLence of a arave and lmmedlaLe danaer of a subsLanLlve evll whlch Lhe SLaLe has
Lhe rlahL Lo prevenLŦ (Þ8MLC vsŦ Þ8Mţ żC8 LŴ31193ţ 3 !une 1973Ž)
""" cose(s)
2Ŧ Lozano vsŦ MarLlnezţ 146 SC8A 323 (1986)
3Ŧ uel 8osarlo vsŦ 8enazonţ 180 SC8A 321 (1989)
4Ŧ 1ablarln vsŦ !udae CuLlerrezţ 132 SC8A 730 (1987)

2onino ond keou/otory Ordinoncesť

1est of o vo/id ordinonce
An ordlnance musL conform Lo Lhe followlna subsLanLlve requ|rementsť
(1) lL musL noL conLravene Lhe consLlLuLlon or anv sLaLuLeţ
(2) lL musL noL be unfalr or oppresslveţ
(3) lL musL noL be parLlal or dlscrlmlnaLorvţ
(4) lL musL noL prohlblL buL mav reaulaLe Lradeţ
(3) lL musL be aeneral and conslsLenL wlLh publlc pollcvţ and
(6) lL musL noL be unreasonableŦ (MaaLa[as vŦ Þrvce ÞroperLles CorpŦ żC8 111097ţ 20 !ulv
1994Ž)
""" cose(s)
3Ŧ LrmlLaŴMalaLe PoLel Ǝ MoLel CperaLors vŦ ClLv Mavorţ 20 SC8A 849 (1967)
6Ŧ Sanaalana vsŦ lACţ 176 SC8A 719 (1989)
7Ŧ vlllanueva vsŦ CasLanedaţ 134 SC8A 142 (1987)
8Ŧ Cruz vsŦ Þarasţ 123 SC8A 369 (1983)
9Ŧ velasco vsŦ vllleaasţ 120 SC8A 368 (1983)
10Ŧ MaaLa[as vsŦ Þrvce ÞroperLlesţ 234 SC8A 233 (1994)
11Ŧ 1ano vŦ SocraLesţ CŦ8Ŧ 110249ţ AuausL 27ţ 1997

4dministrotive ku/es ond keou/otions
""" cose(s)
12Ŧ 8auLlsLa vsŦ !unloţ 127 SC8A 329 (1984)
13Ŧ 1axlcab CperaLors of MeLro Manlla vsŦ 8C1ţ 119 SC8A 397 (1982)
14Ŧ AnaloŴlll 1radlna vsŦ Lazaroţ 124 SC8A 494 (1983)

m|nent Doma|n
AŦ Def|n|t|on
m|nent doma|n ls Lhe power Lo Lake prlvaLe properLv for publlc use bv Lhe sLaLeţ
munlclpallLlesţ and prlvaLe persons or corporaLlons auLhorlzed Lo exerclse funcLlons of publlc
characLerŦ (Pouslna AuLhorlLv of Cherokee naLlonal of Cklahoma vsŦ Lanalevţ CklŦţ 333 ÞŦ2d
1023ţ 1028)
1he rlahL of emlnenL domaln ls Lhe rlahL of Lhe sLaLeţ Lhrouah lLs reaular oraanlzaLlonţ Lo
reasserLţ elLher Lemporarllv or permanenLlvţ lLs domlnlon over anv porLlon of Lhe soll of Lhe
sLaLe on accounL of publlc exlaencv and for Lhe publlc aoodŦ LmlnenL domaln ls Lhe hlahesL
and mosL exacL ldea of properLv remalnlna ln Lhe aovernmenL or ln Lhe aaareaaLe bodv of Lhe
people ln Lhelr soverelan capaclLvŦ lL alves a rlahL Lo resume Lhe possesslon of Lhe properLv ln
Lhe manner dlrecLed bv Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and Lhe laws of Lhe SLaLeţ whenever Lhe publlc
lnLeresL requlres lLŦ (8lack's law ulcLlonarvţ 6Lh LdlLlonţ 323)
1he Lerm ºexproprlaLlon" ls pracLlcallv svnonvmous wlLh Lhe Lerm ºemlnenL domalnŦ"
(1ennessee Cas 1ransmlsslon CoŦ vsŦ vloleL 1rapplna CoŦţ LaŦ AppŦ 200 SoŦ2dŦ 428ţ 433)
LmlnenL domaln ls an lnherenL power of Lhe SLaLe LhaL enables lL Lo forclblv acqulre prlvaLe
lands lnLended for publlc use upon pavmenL of ©ost cm½eosotlo Lo Lhe ownerŦ Cbvlouslvţ
Lhere ls no need Lo exproprlaLe where Lhe owner ls wllllna Lo sell under Lerms also accepLable
Lo Lhe purchaserţ ln whlch case an ordlnarv deed of sale mav be aareed upon bv Lhe parLlesŦ
(noble vŦ ClLv of Manllaţ 67 ÞhllŦ 1) lL ls onlv where Lhe owner ls unwllllna Lo sellţ or cannoL
accepL Lhe prlce or oLher condlLlons offered bv Lhe vendeeţ LhaL Lhe power of emlnenL
domaln wlll come lnLo plav Lo asserL Lhe paramounL auLhorlLv of Lhe SLaLe over Lhe lnLeresLs
of Lhe properLv ownerŦ ÞrlvaLe rlahLs musL Lhen vleld Lo Lhe lrreslsLlble demands of Lhe publlc
lnLeresL on Lhe LlmeŴhonored [usLlflcaLlonţ as ln Lhe case of Lhe pollce powerţ LhaL Lhe welfare
of Lhe people ls Lhe supreme lawŦ (AssoclaLlon of Small Landowners ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes lncŦ vsŦ
SecreLarv of Aararlan 8eform żC8 78741ţ 14 !ulv 1989Ž)
8Ŧ Who exerc|ses the power?
LxproprlaLlon mav be lnlLlaLed bv court acLlon or bv |eg|s|at|onŦ (8epubllc vŦ ue knechLţ 182
SC8A 142 ż1990Ž)Ŧ 1he power of emlnenL domaln ls lodaed prlmarllv ln Lhe naLlonal
lealslaLureţ buL lLs exerclse mav valldlv deleaaLed Lo oLher aovernmenL enLlLles and even Lo
quaslŴpubllc corporaLlons servlna essenLlal publlc needs or operaLlna publlc uLlllLlesŦ 1he
uLlllLv of Lhe proposed lmprovemenLţ Lhe exLenL of Lhe publlc necesslLv for lLs consLrucLlonţ
Lhe expedlencv of consLrucLlna lLţ Lhe sulLableness of Lhe locaLlon selecLed and Lhe
consequenL necesslLv of Laklna Lhe land selecLed for lLs slLeţ are quesLlons whlch are
essenLlallv pollLlcal and whlch are Lo be excluslvelv deLermlned bv Lhe lealslaLureţ and are
usuallv noL sub[ecL Lo [udlclal revlewŦ
1he followlna mav exerclse Lhe power of exproprlaLlonť
1Ŧ 1he Conaress
2Ŧ 1he ÞresldenL of Lhe Þhlllpplnes
3Ŧ 1he varlous local lealslaLlve bodles
4Ŧ CerLaln publlc corporaLlons
3Ŧ CuaslŴpubllc corporaLlons (Lxampleţ quaslŴpubllc corporaLlonť ÞLZA)
5ect|on 23 (m|nent Doma|n) of 9res|dent|a| Decree 66ţ provldes LhaLť
lor Lhe acqulslLlon of rlahLs of wavţ or of anv properLv for Lhe esLabllshmenL of exporL
processlna zonesţ or of lowŴcosL houslna pro[ecLs for Lhe emplovees worklna ln such zonesţ
or for Lhe proLecLlon of waLershed areasţ or for Lhe consLrucLlon of damsţ reservolrsţ
wharvesţ plersţ docksţ quavsţ warehouses and oLher Lermlnal faclllLlesţ sLrucLures and
approaches LhereLoţ Lhe AuLhorlLv shall have Lhe rlahL and power Lo acqulre Lhe same bv
purchaseţ bv neaoLlaLlonţ or bv condemnaLlon proceedlnasŦ Should Lhe auLhorlLv elecL Lo
exerclse Lhe rlahL of emlnenL domalnţ condemnaLlon proceedlnas shall be malnLalned bv and
ln Lhe name of Lhe AuLhorlLv and lL mav proceed ln Lhe manner provlded for bv lawŦ
""" cose(s)
13Ŧ ClLv of Manlla vsŦ Chlnese CemeLerv of Manllaţ 40 Þhll 349 (1919)
16Ŧ Modav vŦ CourL of Appealsţ 268 SC8A 368 (1997)

CŦ Const|tut|ona| ||m|tat|on
4rtŦ lllţ 5ecŦ 9
5ect|on 9Ŧ 9tlvote ½t½ettv sboll ot be tokeo €t ½obllc ose ltbot ©ost cm½eosotloŦ
1he exerclse of Lhe rlahL of emlnenL domalnţ wheLher dlrecLlv bv Lhe SLaLeţ or bv lLs
auLhorlzed aaenLsţ ls necessarv ln deroaaLlon of prlvaLe rlahLsţ and Lhe rule ln LhaL case ls
LhaL Lhe auLhorlLv musL be sLrlcLlv consLruedŦ no specles of properLv ls held bv lndlvlduals
wlLh areaLer LenaclLvţ and none ls auarded bv Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and laws more sedulouslvţ
Lhan Lhe rlahL Lo Lhe freehold of lnhablLanLsŦ wbeo tbe leolslotote lotet€etes ltb tbot tlobt
ooJţ €t oteotet ½obllc ½ot½sesţ o½½t½tlotes tbe looJ € oo loJlvlJool ltbot bls coseotţ
Lhe plaln meanlna of Lhe law should noL be enlaraed bv doubLful lnLerpreLaLlonŦ (8enslev vsŦ
MounLalnlake WaLer CoŦţ 13 CalŦ 306ţ and cases clLed 73 AmŦ uecŦţ 376)
1he power of emlnenL domaln does noL depend for lLs exlsLence on a speclflc aranL ln Lhe
consLlLuLlonŦ lL ls lnherenL ln soverelanLv and exlsLs ln a soverelan sLaLe wlLhouL anv
recoanlLlon of lL ln Lhe consLlLuLlonŦ 1he provlslons found ln mosL of Lhe sLaLe consLlLuLlons
relaLlna Lo Lhe Laklna of properLv for Lhe publlc use do noL bv lmpllcaLlon aranL Lhe power Lo
Lhe aovernmenL of Lhe sLaLeţ buL llmlL a power whlch would oLherwlse be wlLhouL llmlLŦ
(vlsavan 8eflnlna CoŦ vŦ Camus ż40 ÞhllŦ 330Ž)Ŧ 1he const|tut|ona| restra|nts are publlc use
and [usL compensaLlonŦ
DŦ D|st|ngu|shed from destruct|on due to necess|ty
1he desLrucLlon of Lhe properLv does noL come under Lhe rlahL of emlnenL domalnţ buL under
Lhe rlahL of necesslLvţ of selfŴpreservaLlonŦ 1he r|ght of necess|ty arlses under Lhe laws of
socleLv or socleLv lLselfŦ lL ls Lhe rlahL of selfŴdefenseţ of selfŴpreservaLlonţ wheLher applled Lo
persons or Lo properLvŦ lL ls a prlvaLe rlahL vesLed ln everv lndlvldualţ and wlLh whlch Lhe rlahL
of Lhe sLaLe or sLaLe necesslLv has noLhlna Lo do (Amerlcan ÞrlnL Works vsŦ Lawrenceţ 23
nŦ!ŦLŦ 390)Ŧ Destruct|on from necess|ty mav be valldlv underLaken eveo bv prlvaLe
lndlvldualsŦ Such ls noL allowed ln Lhe case of emlnenL domalnŦ lurLherţ desLrucLlon from
necesslLv cannoL requlre Lhe converslon of Lhe properLv Laken Lo publlc useţ ot ls Lhere anv
need for Lhe pavmenL of compensaLlonŦ
Ŧ Cb[ects of xpropr|at|on
AnvLhlna LhaL can come under Lhe domlnlon of man ls sub[ecL Lo exproprlaLlonŦ 1hls lnclude
real and personalţ Lanalble and lnLanalble properLlesŦ Lven properLv alreadv devoLed Lo
publlc use ls sLlll sub[ecL Lo exproprlaLlonţ provlded Lhls ls done dlrecLlv bv Lhe naLlonal
lealslaLure or under a speclflc aranL of auLhorlLv Lo deleaaLeŦ 1he onlv excepLlons Lo Lhls rule
are monev and choses ln acLlonŦ LxproprlaLlon of monev ls fuLlle lnasmuch as pavmenL of [usL
compensaLlon ls also monevŦ A chose ln acLlon ls essenLlallv con[ecLural as Lo lLs valldlLv and
lLs valueŦ
A chose ln acLlon ls Lhe rlahL of proceedlna ln a courL of law Lo procure pavmenL of sum of
monevţ or rlahL Lo recover a personal chaLLel or a sum of monev bv acLlon (Creaorv vsŦ
Colvlnţ 233 ArkŦ 1007ţ 363 SŦWŦ2d 339ţ 340)Ť or ls Lhe rlahL Lo recelve or recover a debLţ
demandţ or damaaes on a cause of acLlon ex conLracLu or for a LorL or omlsslon of a duLv
(Moran vsŦ Adkersonţ 168 1ennŦ 372ţ 79 SŦWŦ2d 44ţ 43)
normallvţ Lhe power of emlnenL domaln resulLs ln Lhe Laklna or approprlaLlon of LlLle Loţ and
possesslon ofţ Lhe exproprlaLed properLvŤ buL no coaenL reason appears whv sald power mav
noL be avalled of Lo lmpose onlv a burden upon Lhe owner of condemned properLvţ wlLhouL
loss of LlLle and possesslonŦ 8eal properLv mavţ Lhrouah exproprlaLlonţ be sub[ecLed Lo an
easemenL of rlahL of wavŦ
ÞroperLv sub[ecL of exproprlaLlon musL be bv lLs naLure or condlLlon wholesomeţ as lL ls
lnLended Lo be devoLed Lo a publlc useŦ
""" cose(s)
17Ŧ 8ÞŦ vŦ ÞLu1ţ 26 SC8A 620 (1969)

IŦ Where xpropr|at|on 5u|t |s I||ed
An exproprlaLlon sulL ls lncapable of pecunlarv esLlmaLlonŦ Accordlnalvţ lL falls wlLhln Lhe
[urlsdlcLlon of Lhe realonal Lrlal courLsţ reaardless of Lhe value of Lhe sub[ecL properLvŦ
(8aranaav San 8oque vŦ Pelrs of ÞasLor żC8 138896ţ 20 !une 2000Ž)
See 8ule 67 of Lhe 8ules of CourLŦ
""" cose(s)
18Ŧ 8aranaav San 8oque vŦ Pelrs of ÞasLorţ C8 138896 !une 20ţ 2000

GŦ 1ak|ng
uefinition ond 5cope
CommonŦ A phvslcal dlspossesslon of Lhe ownerţ as when he ls ousLed from hls land or
relleved of hls personal properLvţ and ls Lhus deprlved of all beneflclal use and en[ovmenL of
hls properLvŦ
LeaalŦ 1o Lake ls Lo lav hold ofţ Lo aaln or recelve ln possesslonţ Lo selzeţ Lo deprlve one of Lhe
use or possesslon ofţ or Lo assume ownershlp (8lack's Law ulcLlonarvţ 6Lh LdlLlonţ 1433)Ŧ
1here ls Laklna of properLv when aovernmenL acLlon dlrecLlv lnLerferes wlLh or subsLanLlallv
dlsLurbs Lhe owner's use and en[ovmenL of Lhe properLv (8roLhers vsŦ uSŦţ CŦAŦCrŦţ 394 lŦ2d
740ţ 741)Ŧ 1o consLlLuLe a ºLaklnaţ" wlLhln consLlLuLlonal llmlLaLlonţ lL ls noL essenLlal LhaL
Lhere be phvslcal selzure or approprlaLlonţ and anv acLual or maLerlal lnLerference wlLh
prlvaLe properLv rlahLs consLlLuLes a Laklna (8oard of Com'rs of Lake CounLv vsŦ MenLor
Laaoons lncŦţ ComŦÞlŦţ 6 Chlo MscŦ 126ţ 216 nŦLŦ2d 643ţ 646)Ŧ Alsoţ Laklna of properLv ls
affecLed lf appllcaLlon of zonlna law denles properLv owner of economlcallv vlable use of hls
landţ whlch can conslsL of prevenLlna besL use of land or exLlnaulshlna fundamenLal aLLrlbuLe
of ownershlp (varlŴ8ulld lncŦ vsŦ 8enoţ uŦCŦnevŦţ 396 lŦ SuppŦ 673ţ 679)Ŧ
1he aeneral rule aL leasL ls LhaL whlle properLv mav be reaulaLed Lo a cerLaln exLenLţ lf
reaulaLlon aoes Loo far lL wlll be recoanlzed as a LaklnaŦ (Þennsvlvanla Coal CoŦ vŦ Mahonţ 260
uS 393)
Ŧ 1okloo ooJet ½llce ½et ooJ ½et € emloeot Jmolo JlstlooolsbeJ
1aklna under pollce power and Laklna under Lhe power of emlnenL domalnţ howeverţ should
be dlsLlnaulshedŦ 1he power belna exerclsed was emlnenL domaln when Lhe properLv
lnvolved was wholesome and lnLended for a publlc useŦ ÞroperLv condemned under Lhe
pollce power ls noxlous or lnLended for a noxlous purposeţ such as a bulldlna on Lhe verae of
collapseţ whlch should be demollshed for Lhe publlc safeLvţ or obscene maLerlalsţ whlch
should be desLroved ln Lhe lnLeresL of publlc moralsŦ 1he conflscaLlon of such properLv ls noL
compensableţ unllke Lhe Laklna of properLv under Lhe power of exproprlaLlonţ whlch requlres
Lhe pavmenL of [usL compensaLlon Lo Lhe ownerŦ (ClLv of 8aaulo vŦ nAWASAţ 106 ÞhllŦ 144)
4Ŧ 1okino under po/ice power
lf an owner ls deprlved of hls properLv ouLrlahL under Lhe SLaLe's pollce powerţ Lhe properLv
ls aenerallv noL Laken for publlc use buL ls uraenLlv and summarllv desLroved ln order Lo
promoLe Lhe aeneral welfareŦ
Lverv resLrlcLlon upon Lhe use of properLv lmposed ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe pollce power
deprlves Lhe owner of some rlahL LhereLofore en[ovedţ and lsţ ln LhaL senseţ an abrldamenL
bv Lhe SLaLe of rlahLs ln properLv wlLhouL maklna compensaLlonŦ 8uL resLrlcLlon lmposed Lo
proLecL Lhe publlc healLhţ safeLv or morals from danaers LhreaLened ls noL a LaklnaŦ 1he
resLrlcLlon ls merelv Lhe prohlblLlon of a noxlous useŦ 1he properLv so resLrlcLed remalns ln
Lhe possesslon of lLs ownerŦ 1he sLaLe does noL approprlaLe lL or make anv use of lLŦ 1he sLaLe
merelv prevenLs Lhe owner from maklna a use whlch lnLerferes wlLh paramounL rlahLs of Lhe
publlcŦ Whenever Lhe use prohlblLed ceases Lo be noxlous Ÿ as lL mav because of furLher
chanaes ln local or soclal condlLlons Ÿ Lhe resLrlcLlon wlll have Lo be removed and Lhe owner
wlll aaaln be free Lo en[ov hls properLv as hereLoforeŦ
8Ŧ 1okino under the power of eminent domoin
º1aklna" under Lhe power of emlnenL domaln mav be deflned aenerallv as enLerlna upon
prlvaLe properLv for more Lhan a momenLarv perlodţ andţ under Lhe warranL or color of leaal
auLhorlLvţ devoLlna lL Lo a publlc useţ or oLherwlse lnformallv approprlaLlna or ln[urlouslv
affecLlna lL ln such a wav as subsLanLlallv Lo ousL Lhe owner and deprlve hlm of all beneflclal
en[ovmenL LhereofŦ (ÞennŦ vsŦ Carollna vlralnla CoasLal CorporaLlonţ 37 SL 2d 817)
ln Lhe conLexL of Lhe SLaLe's lnherenL power of emlnenL domalnţ Lhere ls a ºLaklna" when Lhe
owner ls acLuallv deprlved or dlspossessed of hls properLvŤ when Lhere ls a pracLlcal
desLrucLlon or a maLerlal lmpalrmenL of Lhe value of hls properLv or when he ls deprlved of
Lhe ordlnarv use LhereofŦ (uŦSŦ vŦ Causbvţ 382 uŦSŦ 236ţ clLed ln MunlclpallLv of La CarloLa vŦ
nAWASAţ 12 SC8A 164Ŧ) 1here ls a ºLaklna" ln Lhls sense when Lhe exproprlaLor enLers
prlvaLe properLv noL onlv for a momenLarv perlod buL for a more permanenL duraLlonţ for
Lhe purpose of devoLlna Lhe properLv Lo a publlc use ln such a manner as Lo ousL Lhe owner
and deprlve hlm of all beneflclal en[ovmenL Lhereof (8epubllc vŦ vdaŦ de CasLelvlţ 38 SC8A
336 ż1974Ž)Ŧ lor ownershlpţ afLer allţ ºls noLhlna wlLhouL Lhe lnherenL rlahLs of possesslonţ
conLrol and en[ovmenLŦ Where Lhe owner ls deprlved of Lhe ordlnarv and beneflclal use of hls
properLv or of lLs value bv lLs belna dlverLed Lo publlc useţ Lhere ls Laklna wlLhln Lhe
ConsLlLuLlonal senseŦ" (MunlclpallLv of La CarloLa vŦ nAWASAţ 12 SC8A 164)
Ŧ 5tooes
1he exproprlaLlon of lands conslsLs of Lwo sLaaesŦ 1he flrsL ls concerned wlLh Lhe
deLermlnaLlon of Lhe auLhorlLv of Lhe plalnLlff Lo exerclse Lhe power of emlnenL domaln and
Lhe proprleLv of lLs exerclse ln Lhe conLexL of Lhe facLs lnvolved ln Lhe sulLŦ lL ends wlLh an
orderţ lf noL of dlsmlssal of Lhe acLlonţ ºof condemnaLlon declarlna LhaL Lhe plalnLlff has a
lawful rlahL Lo Lake Lhe properLv souahL Lo be condemnedţ for Lhe publlc use or purpose
descrlbed ln Lhe complalnLţ upon Lhe pavmenL of [usL compensaLlon Lo be deLermlned as of
Lhe daLe of Lhe flllna of Lhe complalnLŦ" 1he second phase of Lhe emlnenL domaln acLlon ls
concerned wlLh Lhe deLermlnaLlon bv Lhe courL of Lhe [usL compensaLlon for Lhe properLv
souahL Lo be LakenŦ" 1hls ls done bv Lhe courL wlLh Lhe asslsLance of noL more Lhan Lhree (3)
commlsslonersŦ (MunlclpallLv of 8lnan vŦ Carclaţ 180 SC8A 376ţ 383Ŵ384 ż1989Ž) lL ls onlv
upon Lhe compleLlon of Lhese Lwo sLaaes LhaL exproprlaLlon ls sald Lo have been compleLedŦ
Moreoverţ lL ls onlv upon pavmenL of [usL compensaLlon LhaL LlLle over Lhe properLv passes
Lo Lhe aovernmenLŦ (AssoclaLlon of Small Landowners ln Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ lncŦ vŦ SecreLarv of
Aararlan 8eformţ 173 SC8A 343 ż1989Ž)Ŧ 1hereforeţ unLll Lhe acLlon for exproprlaLlon has
been compleLed and LermlnaLedţ ownershlp over Lhe properLv belna exproprlaLed remalns
wlLh Lhe realsLered ownerŦ ConsequenLlvţ Lhe laLLer can exerclse all rlahLs perLalnlna Lo an
ownerţ lncludlna Lhe rlahL Lo dlspose of hls properLvţ sub[ecL Lo Lhe power of Lhe SLaLe
ulLlmaLelv Lo acqulre lL Lhrouah exproprlaLlonŦ
keouisites
1Ŧ 1he exproprlaLor musL enLer a prlvaLe properLvŦ
2Ŧ 1he enLrv musL be for more Lhan a momenLarv perlodŦ
3Ŧ 1he enLrv musL be under warranL or color of leaal auLhorlLvŦ
4Ŧ 1he properLv musL be devoLed Lo publlc use or oLherwlse lnformallv approprlaLed
or ln[urlouslv affecLedŦ
3Ŧ 1he uLlllzaLlon of Lhe properLv for publlc use musL be ln such a wav as Lo ousL Lhe
owner and deprlve hlm of beneflclal en[ovmenL of Lhe properLvŦ
""" cose(s)
19Ŧ 8epubllc vsŦ CasLelvlţ 38 SC8A 336 (1974)
20Ŧ ClLv CovLŦ of Cuezon ClLv vsŦ LrlcLaţ 122 SC8A 739 (1983)



ueprivotion of use
Ŧ lo Ceoetol
LasemenLţ lf permanenL and noL merelv Lemporarvţ normallv would be Lhe equlvalenL of a
fee lnLeresLŦ lL would be a deflnlLe exerclse of compleLe domlnlon and conLrol over Lhe
surface of Lhe landŦ (unlLed SLaLes vsŦ Causbv ż328 uS 236ţ 27 Mav 1946Ž)
2Ŧ lcol Cvetomeot uolts
An ordlnance whlch permanenLlv so resLrlcLs Lhe use of properLv LhaL lL can noL be used for
anv reasonable purpose aoesţ lL ls plalnţ bevond reaulaLlon and musL be recoanlzed as a
Laklna of Lhe properLvŦ 1he onlv subsLanLlal dlfferenceţ ln such caseţ beLween resLrlcLlon and
acLual Laklnaţ ls LhaL Lhe resLrlcLlon leaves Lhe owner sub[ecL Lo Lhe burden of pavmenL of
LaxaLlonţ whlle ouLrlahL conflscaLlon would relleve hlm of LhaL burdenŦ (Arverne 8av ConsLrŦ
CoŦ vsŦ 1haLcher (nŦ?Ŧ) 117 AL8Ŧ 1110ţ 1116)Ŧ A reaulaLlon whlch subsLanLlallv deprlves an
owner of all beneflclal use of hls properLv ls conflscaLlon and ls a deprlvaLlon wlLhln Lhe
meanlna of Lhe 14Lh AmendmenLŦ (Sundlum vsŦ Zonlna 8dŦţ 143 ALlŦ 431Ť also LaLon vsŦ
Sweenvţ 177 nL 412Ť 1avlor vsŦ !acksonvllleţ 133 SoŦ 114)Ŧ Speclflcallvţ whlle properLv mav be
reaulaLed ln Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe aeneral welfare such as Lo reaard Lhe beauLlflcaLlon of
nelahborhoods as conduclve Lo Lhe comforL and happlness of resldenLs)ţ and ln lLs pursulLţ
Lhe SLaLe mav prohlblL sLrucLures offenslve Lo Lhe slahLţ Lhe SLaLe mav noLţ under Lhe aulse of
pollce powerţ permanenLlv dlvesL owners of Lhe beneflclal use of Lhelr properLv and
pracLlcallv conflscaLe Lhem solelv Lo preserve or assure Lhe aesLheLlc appearance of Lhe
communlLvŦ (Þeople vsŦ la[ardo żC8 LŴ12172ţ 29 AuausL 1938Ž)
Zonlna whlch admlLLedlv llmlLs properLv Lo a use whlch can noL reasonablv be made of lL
cannoL be sald Lo seL aslde such properLv Lo a use buL consLlLuLes Lhe Laklna of such properLv
wlLhouL [usL compensaLlonŦ use of properLv ls an elemenL of ownershlp LherelnŦ 8eaardless
of Lhe oplnlon of zealoLs LhaL properLv mav properlvţ bv zonlnaţ be uLLerlv desLroved wlLhouL
compensaLlonţ such prlnclple flnds no supporL ln Lhe aenlus of our aovernmenL nor ln Lhe
prlnclples of [usLlce as we known LhemŦ Such a docLrlne shocks Lhe sense of [usLlceŦ lf lL be of
publlc beneflL LhaL properLv remaln open and unusedţ Lhen cerLalnlv Lhe publlcţ and noL Lhe
prlvaLe lndlvldualsţ should bear Lhe cosL of reasonable compensaLlon for such properLv under
Lhe rules of law aovernlna Lhe condemnaLlon of prlvaLe properLv for publlc useŦ (1ews vsŦ
Woolhlser (1933) 332 111Ŧ 212ţ 183 nŦLŦ 827)
""" cose(s)
21Ŧ 8epubllc vsŦ la[ardo ţ 104 ÞhllŦ443 (1938)
22Ŧ napocor vsŦ CuLlerrezţ 193 SC8A 1 (1991)
23Ŧ uŦSŦ vŦ Causbvţ 328 uŦSŦ 236 (1946)

Priority in £xpropriotion

Ŧ utboo looJ ke€tm
1he aovernlna law LhaL deals wlLh Lhe sub[ecL of exproprlaLlon for purposes of urban land
reform and houslna ls 8epubllc AcL noŦ 7279 (urban uevelopmenL and Pouslna AcL of 1992)
and SecLlons 9 and 10 of whlch speclflcallv provlde as followsť
SecLlon 9Ŧ ÞrlorlLles ln Lhe acqulslLlon of LandŦ Ÿ Lands for soclallzed houslna shall be
acqulred ln Lhe followlna orderť
aŦ 1hose owned bv Lhe CovernmenL or anv of lLs subŴdlvlslonsţ
lnsLrumenLallLlesţ or aaenclesţ lncludlna aovernmenLŴowned or Ŵ
conLrolled corporaLlons and Lhelr subsldlarlesŤ
bŦ Allenable lands of Lhe publlc domalnŤ
cŦ unrealsLered or abandoned and ldle landsŤ
dŦ 1hose wlLhln Lhe declared Areas for ÞrlorlLv uevelopmenLţ Zonal
lmprovemenL slLesţ and Slum lmprovemenL and 8eseLLlemenL Þroaram
slLes whlch have noL veL been acqulredŤ
eŦ 8aaona Llpunan lmprovemenL of SlLes and Servlces or 8LlSS slLes whlch
have noL veL been acqulredŤ and
fŦ ÞrlvaLelvŴowned landsŦ
Where onŴslLe developmenL ls found more pracLlcable and advanLaaeous Lo Lhe
beneflclarlesţ Lhe prlorlLles menLloned ln Lhls secLlon shall noL applvŦ 1he local aovernmenL
unlLs shall alve budaeLarv prlorlLv Lo onŴslLe developmenL of aovernmenL landsŦ
SecLlon 10Ŧ Modes of Land AcqulslLlonŦ Ÿ 1he modes of acqulrlna lands for purposes of Lhls
AcL shall lncludeţ amona oLhersţ communlLv morLaaaeţ land swapplnaţ land assemblv or
consolldaLlonţ land banklnaţ donaLlon Lo Lhe CovernmenLţ [olnLŴvenLure aareemenLţ
neaoLlaLed purchaseţ and exproprlaLlonť Þrovldedţ howeverţ 1haL exproprlaLlon shall be
resorLed Lo onlv when oLher modes of acqulslLlon have been exhausLedť Þrovlded furLherţ
1haL where exproprlaLlon ls resorLed Loţ parcels of land owned bv small properLv owners
shall be exempLed for purposes of Lhls AcLť Þrovldedţ flnallvţ 1haL abandoned properLvţ as
hereln deflnedţ shall be reverLed and escheaLed Lo Lhe SLaLe ln a proceedlna analoaous Lo Lhe
procedure lald down ln 8ule 91 of Lhe 8ules of CourLŦ
lor Lhe purpose of soclallzed houslnaţ aovernmenLŴowned and foreclosed properLles shall be
acqulred bv Lhe local aovernmenL unlLsţ or bv Lhe naLlonal Pouslna AuLhorlLv prlmarllv
Lhrouah neaoLlaLed purchaseť Þrovldedţ 1haL quallfled beneflclarles who are acLual
occupanLs of Lhe land shall be alven Lhe rlahL of flrsL refusalŦ
""" cose(s)
24Ŧ lllsLream lnLernaLlonal vŦ CAţ 284 SC8A 716 (1998)
23Ŧ LsLaLe or Pelrs of 8eves vsŦ ClLv of Manllaţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 132431ţ lebruarv 13ţ 2004
26Ŧ ClLv of Mandaluvona vŦ lranclscoţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 137132ţ !anuarv 29ţ 2001

nŦ 9ub||c use
Cver manv vears and ln a mulLlLude of cases Lhe courLs have valnlv aLLempLed Lo deflne
comprehenslvelv Lhe concepL of a publlc use and Lo formulaLe a unlversal LesLŦ 1hev have
found here as elsewhere LhaL Lo formulaLe anvLhlna ulLlmaLeţ even Lhouah lL were posslbleţ
wouldţ ln an lnevlLablv chanalna worldţ be unwlse lf noL fuLlleŦ (MaLLer of new ?ork ClLv
Pouslna AuLhorlLv vŦ Mullerţ 1 nL 2d 133)
Þubllc useţ as LradlLlonallv undersLoodţ means anv use dlrecLlv avallable Lo Lhe aeneral publlc
as a maLLer of rlahL and noL merelv of forbearance or accommodaLlonŦ (!usLlce Cruzţ
ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ 2000 edlLlonţ 74)
Þubllc use ls ºLhe consLlLuLlonal and sLaLuLorv basls for Laklna properLv bv emlnenL domalnŦ
lor condemnaLlon purposesţ 'publlc use' ls one whlch confers some beneflL or advanLaae Lo
Lhe publlcŤ lL ls noL conflned Lo acLual use bv publlcŦ lL ls measured ln Lerms of rlahL of publlc
Lo use proposed faclllLles for whlch condemnaLlon ls souahL andţ as lona as publlc has rlahL of
useţ wheLher exerclsed bv one or manv members of publlcţ a 'publlc advanLaae' or 'publlc
beneflL' accrues sufflclenL Lo consLlLuLe a publlc useŦ" (MonLana Þower CoŦ vsŦ 8okmaţ MonLŦ
437 ÞŦ2d 769ţ 772ţ 773Ŧ)
Þubllc useţ ln consLlLuLlonal provlslons resLrlcLlna Lhe exerclse of Lhe rlahL Lo Lake prlvaLe
properLv ln vlrLue of emlnenL domalnţ means a use concernlna Lhe whole communlLv as
dlsLlnaulshed from parLlcular lndlvldualsŦ 8uL each and everv member of socleLv need noL be
equallv lnLeresLed ln such useţ or be personallv and dlrecLlv affecLed bv lLŤ lf Lhe ob[ecL ls Lo
saLlsfv a areaL publlc wanL or exlaencvţ LhaL ls sufflclenLŦ (8lndae CoŦ vsŦ Los Anaeles CounLvţ
262 uŦSŦ 700ţ 43 SŦCLŦ 689ţ 692ţ 67 LŦLdŦ 1186)Ŧ 1he Lerm mav be sald Lo mean publlc
usefulnessţ uLlllLvţ or advanLaaeţ or whaL ls producLlve of aeneral beneflLŦ lL mav be llmlLed Lo
Lhe lnhablLanLs of a small or resLrlcLed locallLvţ buL musL be ln commonţ and noL for a
parLlcular lndlvldualŦ 1he use musL be a needful one for Lhe publlcţ whlch cannoL be
surrendered wlLhouL obvlous aeneral loss and lnconvenlenceŦ A 'publlc use' for whlch land
mav be Laken defles absoluLe deflnlLlon for lL chanaes wlLh varvlna condlLlons of socleLvţ new
appllances ln Lhe sclencesţ chanalna concepLlons of scope and funcLlons of aovernmenLţ and
oLher dlfferlna clrcumsLances brouahL abouL bv an lncrease ln populaLlon and new modes of
communlcaLlon and LransporLaLlonŦ (kaLz vŦ 8randonţ 136 ConnŦţ 321ţ 243 AŦ2d 379ţ386Ŧ)
1he Laklna Lo be valld musL be for publlc useŦ 1here was a Llme when lL was felL LhaL a llLeral
meanlna should be aLLached Lo such a requlremenLŦ WhaLever pro[ecL ls underLaken musL be
for Lhe publlc Lo en[ovţ as ln Lhe case of sLreeLs or parksŦ CLherwlseţ exproprlaLlon ls noL
allowableŦ lL ls noL anv moreŦ As lona as Lhe purpose of Lhe Laklna ls publlcţ Lhen Lhe power of
emlnenL domaln comes lnLo plavŦ 1he consLlLuLlon ln aL leasL Lwo cases deLermlnes whaL ls
publlc useŦ Cne ls Lhe exproprlaLlon of lands Lo be subdlvlded lnLo small loLs for resale aL cosL
Lo lndlvldualsŦ 1he oLher ls ln Lhe Lransferţ Lhrouah Lhe exerclse of Lhls powerţ of uLlllLles and
oLher prlvaLe enLerprlse Lo Lhe aovernmenLŦ lL ls accuraLe Lo sLaLe Lhen LhaL aL presenL
whaLever mav be beneflclallv emploved for Lhe aeneral welfare saLlsfles Lhe requlremenL of
publlc useŦ (lernandoţ 1he ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ 2nd edŦţ ppŦ 323Ŵ324)
""" cose(s)
27Ŧ Pelrs of !uancho Ardona vsŦ 8evesţ 123 SC8A 220 (1983)
28Ŧ Sumulona vsŦ Cuerreroţ 134 SC8A 461 (1987)
29Ŧ Þrovlnce of Camarlnes Sur vsŦ CAţ 222 SC8A 170 (1993)
30Ŧ LsLaLe of !lmenez vŦ ÞLZAţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 137283ţ !anuarv 16ţ 2001

IŦ Genu|ne Necess|ty
ln Lhe exerclse of emlnenL domalnţ onlv as much land can be Laken as ls necessarv for Lhe
lealLlmaLe purpose of Lhe condemnaLlonŦ 1he Lerm ºnecessarv"ţ ln Lhls connecLlonţ does noL
mean absoluLelv lndlspensable buL requlres onlv a reasonable necesslLv of Lhe Laklna for Lhe
sLaLed purposeţ arowLh and fuLure needs of Lhe enLerprlseŦ (Manlla 8allroad CoŦ vŦ MlLchelţ
30 Þhll 832ţ 837Ŵ838 ż1927Ž)Ŧ
1he LealslaLure mav dlrecLlv deLermlne Lhe necesslLv for approprlaLlna prlvaLe properLv for a
parLlcular lmprovemenL for publlc useţ and lL mav selecL Lhe exacL locaLlon of Lhe
lmprovemenLŦ ln such a caseţ lL ls wellŴseLLled LhaL Lhe uLlllLv of Lhe proposed lmprovemenLţ
Lhe exlsLence of Lhe publlc necesslLv for lLs consLrucLlonţ Lhe expedlencv of consLrucLlna lLţ
Lhe sulLableness of Lhe locaLlon selecLedţ are all quesLlons excluslvelv for Lhe lealslaLure Lo
deLermlneţ and Lhe courLs have no power Lo lnLerfere or Lo subsLlLuLe Lhelr own vlews for
Lhose of Lhe represenLaLlves of Lhe peopleŦ ln Lhe absence of some consLlLuLlonal or sLaLuLorv
provlslon Lo Lhe conLrarvţ Lhe necesslLv and expedlencv of exerclslna Lhe rlahL of emlnenL
domaln are quesLlons essenLlallv pollLlcal and noL [udlclal ln Lhelr characLerŦ (ClLv of Manlla vŦ
Chlnese CommunlLv of Manllaţ 40 Þhll 349 ż1919Ž)
""" cose(s)
32Ŧ MunŦ of Mevcavauan vsŦ lACţ 137 SC8A 640 (1988)
33Ŧ ue knechL vsŦ 8auLlsLaţ 100 SC8A 660 (1980)
34Ŧ 8epubllc vsŦ ue knechLţ CŦ8Ŧ 87331ţ lebruarv 12ţ 1990
33Ŧ ÞÞl vŦ Comelecţ 244 SC8A 272 (1993)
36Ŧ nPA vŦ Pelrs of lsldro Culvelondoţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 134411Ŧ !une 19ţ 2003

IŦ Iust Compensat|on
uefined
!usL compensaLlon means Lhe value of Lhe properLv aL Lhe Llme of Lhe LaklnaŦ lL means a falr
and full equlvalenL for Lhe loss susLalnedŦ All Lhe facLs as Lo Lhe condlLlon of Lhe properLv and
lLs surroundlnasţ lLs lmprovemenLs and capablllLlesţ should be conslderedŦ (LxporL Þrocesslna
Zone AuLhorlLv vsŦ uulav żC8 LŴ39603ţ 29 Aprll 1987Ž)
!usL compensaLlon ls deflned as Lhe full and falr equlvalenL of Lhe properLv Laken from lLs
owner bv Lhe exproprlaLor (Manlla 8allroad CoŦ vŦ velasquesţ 32 ÞhllŦ 286)Ŧ lL has been
repeaLedlv sLressed bv Lhls CourL LhaL Lhe measure ls noL Lhe Laker's aaln buL Lhe owner's
lossŦ (Þrovlnce of 1avabas vŦ Þerezţ 66 ÞhllŦ 467) 1he word º[usL" ls used Lo lnLenslfv Lhe
meanlna of Lhe word ºcompensaLlon" Lo convev Lhe ldea LhaL Lhe equlvalenL Lo be rendered
for Lhe properLv Lo be Laken shall be realţ subsLanLlalţ fullţ ample (ClLv of Manlla vŦ LsLradaţ
23 ÞhllŦ 208)Ŧ
!usL compensaLlon means noL onlv Lhe correcL amounL Lo be pald Lo Lhe owner of Lhe land
buL also Lhe pavmenL of Lhe land wlLhln a reasonable Llme from lLs LaklnaŦ WlLhouL prompL
pavmenLţ compensaLlon cannoL be consldered º[usL" for Lhen Lhe properLv owner ls made Lo
suffer Lhe consequence of belna lmmedlaLelv deprlved of hls land whlle belna made Lo walL
for a decade or more before acLuallv recelvlna Lhe amounL necessarv Lo cope wlLh hls lossŦ
(Lslaban vsŦ vdaŦ de Cnorlo żC8 146062ţ 28 !une 2001Ž)
""" cose(s)
37Ŧ Lslaban vŦ ue Cnorloţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 146062ţ !une 28ţ 2001
38Ŧ 8Þ vsŦ lACţ eL alŦţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 71176ţ Mav 21ţ 1990
39Ŧ ClLv of Cebu vŦ Spouses uedamoţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 142 971ţ Mav 07ţ 2002


ueterminotion of lust compensotion
Ŧ lo Ceoetol
1he deLermlnaLlon of [usL compensaLlon ls a funcLlon addressed Lo Lhe courLs of [usLlce and
mav noL be usurped bv anv oLher branch or offlclal of Lhe aovernmenLŦ (LxporL Þrocesslna
Zone AuLhorlLv vsŦ uulav żC8 LŴ39603ţ 29 Aprll 1987Ž)
upon Lhe rendlLlon of Lhe order of exproprlaLlonţ Lhe courL shall appolnL noL more Lhan Lhree
(3) compeLenL and dlslnLeresLed persons as commlssloners Lo ascerLaln and reporL Lo Lhe
courL Lhe [usL compensaLlon for Lhe properLv souahL Lo be LakenŦ 1he order of appolnLmenL
shall deslanaLe Lhe Llme and place of Lhe flrsL sesslon of Lhe hearlna Lo be held bv Lhe
commlssloners and speclfv Lhe Llme wlLhln whlch Lhelr reporL shall be submlLLed Lo Lhe courLŦ
(SecLlon 3ţ 8ule 67ţ 1997 8ules of Clvll Þrocedure) 1he commlssloners shall assess Lhe
consequenLlal damaaes Lo Lhe properLv noL Laken and deducL from such consequenLlal
damaaes Lhe consequenLlal beneflLs Lo be derlved bv Lhe owner from Lhe publlc use or
purpose of Lhe properLv Lakenţ Lhe operaLlon of lLs franchlse bv Lhe corporaLlon or Lhe
carrvlna on of Lhe buslness of Lhe corporaLlon or person Laklna Lhe properLvŦ 8uL ln no case
shall Lhe consequenLlal beneflLs assessed exceed Lhe consequenLlal damaaes assessedţ or Lhe
owner be deprlved of Lhe acLual value of hls properLv so LakenŦ (SecLlon 6ţ 8ule 67ţ 1997
8ules of Clvll Þrocedure)
SLlllţ accordlna Lo secLlon 8 of 8ule 67ţ Lhe courL ls noL bound bv Lhe commlssloners' reporLŦ lL
mav make such order or render such [udamenL as shall secure Lo Lhe plalnLlff Lhe properLv
essenLlal Lo Lhe exerclse of hls rlahL of condemnaLlonţ and Lo Lhe defendanL [usL
compensaLlon for Lhe properLv exproprlaLedŦ 1hls CourL mav subsLlLuLe lLs own esLlmaLe of
Lhe value as aaLhered from Lhe record (Manlla 8allroad Companv vŦ velasquezţ 32 ÞhllŦ 286)Ŧ
8Ŧ lcol Cvetomeot uolts
SecLlon 19ţ 8epubllc AcL 7160Ŧ LmlnenL uomalnŦ Ŷ A local aovernmenL unlL mavţ Lhrouah lLs
chlef execuLlve and acLlna pursuanL Lo an ordlnanceţ exerclse Lhe power of emlnenL domaln
for publlc useţ or purpose or welfare for Lhe beneflL of Lhe poor and Lhe landlessţ upon
pavmenL of [usL compensaLlonţ pursuanL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and perLlnenL
lawsť Þrovldedţ howeverţ 1haL Lhe power of emlnenL domaln mav noL be exerclsed unless a
valld and deflnlLe offer has been prevlouslv made Lo Lhe ownerţ and such offer was noL
accepLedť Þrovldedţ furLherţ 1haL Lhe local aovernmenL unlL mav lmmedlaLelv Lake
possesslon of Lhe properLv upon Lhe flllna of Lhe exproprlaLlon proceedlnas and upon maklna
a deposlL wlLh Lhe proper courL of aL leasL flfLeen percenL (13Ʒ) of Lhe falr markeL value of
Lhe properLv based on Lhe currenL Lax declaraLlon of Lhe properLv Lo be exproprlaLedť
Þrovlded flnallvţ 1haLţ Lhe amounL Lo be pald for Lhe exproprlaLed properLv shall be
deLermlned bv Lhe proper courLţ based on Lhe falr markeL value aL Lhe Llme of Lhe Laklna of
Lhe properLvŦ
""" cose(s)
40Ŧ LÞZA vsŦ uulavţ 149 SC8A 303 (1987)


when uetermined
Ŧ wbeo
Where Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of an exproprlaLlon acLlon precedes Lhe Laklna of Lhe properLv sub[ecL
Lhereofţ Lhe [usL compensaLlon ls flxed as of Lhe Llme of Lhe flllna of Lhe complalnLŦ 1hls ls so
provlded bv Lhe 8ules of CourLţ Lhe assumpLlon of possesslon bv Lhe exproprlaLor ordlnarllv
belna condlLloned on lLs deposlLs wlLh Lhe naLlonal or Þrovlnclal 1reasurer of Lhe value of Lhe
properLv as provlslonallv ascerLalned bv Lhe courL havlna [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe proceedlnasŦ
1here are lnsLancesţ howeverţ where Lhe exproprlaLlna aaencv Lakes over Lhe properLv prlor
Lo Lhe exproprlaLlon sulLŦ ln Lhese lnsLancesţ Lhe [usL compensaLlon shall be deLermlned as of
Lhe Llme of Laklnaţ noL as of Lhe Llme of flllna of Lhe acLlon of emlnenL domalnŦ (Ansaldo vsŦ
1anLulco żC8 30147ţ 3 AuausL 1990Ž)
When plalnLlff Lakes possesslon before Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of Lhe condemnaLlon proceedlnasţ Lhe
value should be flxed as of Lhe Llme of Lhe Laklna of sald possesslonţ noL of flllna of Lhe
complalnL and Lhe laLLer should be Lhe basls for Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe valueţ when Lhe
Laklna of Lhe properLv lnvolved colncldes wlLh or ls subsequenL Loţ Lhe commencemenL of Lhe
proceedlnasŦ lndeedţ oLherwlseţ Lhe provlslon of 8ule 69ţ SecLlon 3ţ dlrecLlna LhaL
compensaLlon 'be deLermlned as of Lhe daLe of Lhe flllna of Lhe complalnL' would never be
operaLlveŦ (8epubllc vŦ Þhlllpplne naLlonal 8ankţ 1 SC8A 937 ż1961Ž)
8Ŧ wbv
Where properLv ls Laken ahead of Lhe flllna of Lhe condemnaLlon proceedlnasţ Lhe value
Lhereof mav be enhanced bv Lhe publlc purpose for whlch lL ls LakenŤ Lhe enLrv bv Lhe
plalnLlff upon Lhe properLv mav have depreclaLed lLs value LherebvŤ orţ Lhere mav have been
a naLural lncrease ln Lhe value of Lhe properLv from Lhe Llme Lhe complalnL ls flledţ due Lo
aeneral economlc condlLlonsŦ 1he owner of prlvaLe properLv should be compensaLed onlv for
whaL he acLuallv losesŤ lL ls noL lnLended LhaL hls compensaLlon shall exLend bevond hls loss
or ln[urvŦ And whaL he loses ls onlv Lhe acLual value of hls properLv aL Lhe Llme lL ls LakenŦ
1hls ls Lhe onlv wav LhaL compensaLlon Lo be pald can be Lrulv [usLŤ lŦeŦţ "[usL noL onlv Lo Lhe
lndlvldual whose properLv ls Lakenţ" ºbuL Lo Lhe publlcţ whlch ls Lo pav for lLŦ" (8epubllc vŦ
Laraţ 30 CŦCŦ 3778 ż1934Ž)
""" cose(s)
41Ŧ Ansaldo vsŦ 1anLulcoţ CŦ8Ŧ 30147 AuausL 3ţ 1990
42Ŧ nÞC vŦ CAţ 234 SC8A 377 (1996)

,onner of Poyment
Ŧ Moooet

Ŧ 1toJltlool
AlLhouah lL mav be sald LhaL ºwhere Lhe SLaLe lLself ls Lhe exproprlaLorţ lL ls noL necessarv for
lL Lo make a deposlL upon lLs Laklna possesslon of Lhe condemned properLvţ as 'Lhe
compensaLlon ls a publlc charaeţ Lhe aood falLh of Lhe publlc ls pledaed for lLs pavmenLţ and
all Lhe resources of LaxaLlon mav be emploved ln ralslna Lhe amounLŦ'" (Lewlsţ Law of
LmlnenL uomalnţ 3rd LdlLlonţ ppŦ 1166Ŵ1167)Ť Lhe meLhod of exproprlaLlon adopLed ln
Þhlllpplne [urlsdlcLlon ls such as Lo afford absoluLe reassurance LhaL no plece of land can be
flnallv and lrrevocablv Laken from an unwllllna owner unLll compensaLlon ls paldŦ (vlsavan
8eflnlna CoŦ vŦ Camus and Þaredesţ 40 ÞhllŦ 330) lurLherţ Lhe 8ules provlde LhaL ºupon Lhe
flllna of Lhe complalnL or aL anv Llme LhereafLer and afLer due noLlce Lo Lhe defendanLţ Lhe
plalnLlff shall have Lhe rlahL Lo Lake or enLer upon Lhe possesslon of Lhe real properLv
lnvolved lf he deposlLs wlLh Lhe auLhorlzed aovernmenL deposlLarv an amounL equlvalenL Lo
Lhe assessed value of Lhe properLv for purposes of LaxaLlon Lo be held bv such bank sub[ecL
Lo Lhe orders of Lhe courLŦ Such deposlL shall be ln monevţ unless ln lleu Lhereof Lhe courL
auLhorlzes Lhe deposlL of a cerLlflcaLe of deposlL of a aovernmenL bank of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe
Þhlllpplnes pavable on demand Lo Lhe auLhorlzed aovernmenL deposlLarvŦ lf personal
properLv ls lnvolvedţ lLs value shall be provlslonallv ascerLalned and Lhe amounL Lo be
deposlLed shall be prompLlv flxed bv Lhe courLŦ xxx" (SecLlon 2ţ 8ule 67ţ 1997 8ules of Clvll
Þrocedure)
2Ŧ kevlotlootv
SecLlon 16(e) of Lhe CA8Þ Law provldes LhaL ºupon recelpL bv Lhe landowner of Lhe
correspondlna pavmenL orţ ln case of re[ecLlon or no response from Lhe landownerţ upon Lhe
deposlL wlLh an accesslble bank deslanaLed bv Lhe uA8 of Lhe compensaLlon ln cash or ln L8Þ
bonds ln accordance wlLh Lhls AcLţ Lhe uA8 shall Lake lmmedlaLe possesslon of Lhe land and
shall requesL Lhe proper 8ealsLer of ueeds Lo lssue a 1ransfer CerLlflcaLe of 1lLle (1C1) ln Lhe
name of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ 1he uA8 shall LhereafLer proceed wlLh Lhe
redlsLrlbuLlon of Lhe land Lo Lhe quallfled beneflclarlesŦ" (AssoclaLlon of Small Landowners ln
Lhe Þhlllpplnes lncŦ vsŦ SecreLarv of Aararlan 8eform żC8 78741ţ 14 !ulv 1989Ž)
8Ŧ MeJlom
Ŧ 1toJltlool
1he fundamenLal rule ln exproprlaLlon maLLers ls LhaL Lhe owner of Lhe properLv
exproprlaLed ls enLlLled Lo a [usL compensaLlonţ whlch should be nelLher more nor lessţ
whenever lL ls posslble Lo make Lhe assessmenLţ Lhan Lhe monev equlvalenL of sald properLvŦ
!usL compensaLlon has alwavs been undersLood Lo be Lhe [usL and compleLe equlvalenL of
Lhe loss whlch Lhe owner of Lhe Lhlna exproprlaLed has Lo suffer bv reason of Lhe
exproprlaLlonŦ (Manlla 8allroad CoŦ vŦ velasquezţ 32 ÞhllŦ 286)
!usL compensaLlon means Lhe equlvalenL for Lhe value of Lhe properLv aL Lhe Llme of lLs
LaklnaŦ AnvLhlna bevond LhaL ls moreţ and anvLhlna shorL of LhaL ls lessţ Lhan [usL
compensaLlonŦ lL means a falr and full equlvalenL for Lhe loss susLalnedţ whlch ls Lhe measure
of Lhe lndemnlLvţ noL whaLever aaln would accrue Lo Lhe exproprlaLlna enLlLvŦ 1he markeL
value of Lhe land Laken ls Lhe [usL compensaLlon Lo whlch Lhe owner of condemned properLv
ls enLlLledţ Lhe markeL value belna LhaL sum of monev whlch a person deslrousţ buL noL
compelled Lo buvţ and an ownerţ wllllnaţ buL noL compelled Lo sellţ would aaree on as a prlce
Lo be alven and recelved for such properLvŦ (!ŦMŦ 1uazon CoŦ vŦ Land 1enure AdmlnlsLraLlonţ
31 SC8A 413)
1he medlum of pavmenL of compensaLlon ls readv monev or cashŦ 1he condemnor cannoL
compel Lhe owner Lo accepL anvLhlna buL monevţ nor can Lhe owner compel or requlre Lhe
condemnor Lo pav hlm on anv oLher basls Lhan Lhe value of Lhe properLv ln monev aL Lhe
Llme and ln Lhe manner prescrlbed bv Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and Lhe sLaLuLesŦ When Lhe power of
emlnenL domaln ls resorLed Loţ Lhere musL be a sLandard medlum of pavmenLţ blndlna upon
boLh parLlesţ and Lhe law has flxed LhaL sLandard as monev ln cashŦ (Mandl vŦ ClLv of Þhoenlxţ
18 p 2d 273Ŧ)
ÞarL cash and deferred pavmenLs are noL and cannoLţ ln Lhe naLure of Lhlnasţ be reaarded as
a rellable and consLanL sLandard of compensaLlonŦ (SacremenLo SouLhern 8Ŧ CoŦ vŦ Pellbronţ
136 CalŦ 408ţ 104 ppŦ 979ţ 980Ŧ)
º!usL compensaLlon" for properLv Laken bv condemnaLlon means a falr equlvalenL ln monevţ
whlch musL be pald aL leasL wlLhln a reasonable Llme afLer Lhe Laklnaţ and lL ls noL wlLhln Lhe
power of Lhe LealslaLure Lo subsLlLuLe for such pavmenL fuLure obllaaLlonsţ bondsţ or oLher
valuable advanLaaeŦ (ClLv of WaLerburv vŦ ÞlaLL 8rosŦ Ǝ CoŦţ 36 A 836ţ 76 Connţ 433 clLlna
8uLler vŦ 8avlne 8oad Sewer Com'rsţ 39 nŦ!ŦLŦ 663Ť 8loodaood vŦ Mohawk vŦ PŦ8Ŧ8Ŧ CoŦţ nŦ?Ŧ
18 WendŦ 9 33ţ 31 AmŦ uecŦ 313Ť Sanborn vŦ Peldenţ 31 Cal 266Ť 8urllnaLon Ǝ CŦ8Ŧ CoŦ vŦ
SchwelkarLţ 14 pŦ 329ţ 10 Coloţ 178Ť 23 Words and Þhrasesţ plŦ 460Ŧ)
2Ŧ kevlotlootv
1he records of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon do noL provlde anv caLeaorlcal aareemenL
amona Lhe members reaardlna Lhe meanlna Lo be alven Lhe concepL of [usL compensaLlon as
applled Lo Lhe comprehenslve aararlan reform proaram belna conLemplaLedŦ 1here was Lhe
suaaesLlon Lo ºflne Lune" Lhe requlremenL Lo sulL Lhe demands of Lhe pro[ecL even as lL was
also felL LhaL Lhev should ºleave lL Lo Conaress" Lo deLermlne how pavmenL should be made
Lo Lhe landowner and relmbursemenL requlred from Lhe farmerŴbeneflclarlesŦ Such
lnnovaLlons as ºproaresslve compensaLlon" and ºSLaLeŴsubsldlzed compensaLlon" were also
proposedŦ ln Lhe endţ howeverţ no speclal deflnlLlon of Lhe [usL compensaLlon for Lhe lands
Lo be exproprlaLed was reached bv Lhe CommlsslonŦ (8ecord of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal
Commlsslonţ volŦ 2ţ ppŦ 647ţ 704Ť volŦ 3ţ ppŦ 16Ŵ20ţ 243Ŵ247Ŧ)
1he exproprlaLlon ln Comprehenslve Aararlan 8eform affecLs all prlvaLe aarlculLural lands
whenever found and of whaLever klnd as lona as Lhev are ln excess of Lhe maxlmum
reLenLlon llmlLs allowed Lhelr ownersŦ 1hls klnd of exproprlaLlon ls lnLended for Lhe beneflL
noL onlv of a parLlcular communlLv or of a small seamenL of Lhe populaLlon buL of Lhe enLlre
llllplno naLlonţ from all levels of our socleLvţ from Lhe lmpoverlshed farmer Lo Lhe landŴ
aluLLed ownerŦ lLs purpose does noL cover onlv Lhe whole LerrlLorv of Lhls counLrv buL aoes
bevond ln Llme Lo Lhe foreseeable fuLureţ whlch lL hopes Lo secure and edlfv wlLh Lhe vlslon
and Lhe sacrlflce of Lhe presenL aeneraLlon of llllplnosŦ Such a proaram wlll lnvolve noL mere
mllllons of pesos buL hundreds of bllllons of pesosţ far more lndeed Lhan Lhe amounL of Þ30
bllllon lnlLlallv approprlaLedŦ Such amounL ls ln facL noL even fullv avallable aL Lhls LlmeŦ Slnce
Lhere ls noLhlna ln Lhe records elLher LhaL mlllLaLes aaalnsL Lhe assumpLlons Lhe CourL ls
maklna of Lhe aeneral senLlmenLs and lnLenLlon of Lhe members on Lhe conLenL and manner
of Lhe pavmenL Lo be made Lo Lhe landowner ln Lhe llahL of Lhe maanlLude of Lhe
expendlLure and Lhe llmlLaLlons of Lhe exproprlaLorţ Lhe CourL declared LhaL Lhe conLenL and
manner of Lhe [usL compensaLlon provlded for ln SecLlon 18 of Lhe CA8Þ Law ls noL vlolaLlve
of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ 1he lnvalldaLlon of SecLlon 18 wlll resulL ln Lhe nulllflcaLlon of Lhe enLlre
proaramţ kllllna Lhe farmer's hopes even as Lhev approach reallzaLlon and resurrecLlna Lhe
specLre of dlsconLenL and dlssenL ln Lhe resLless counLrvsldeŦ 1haL ls noL Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlonŦ
SLCŦ 18Ŧ valuaLlon and Mode of CompensaLlonŦ Ÿ 1he L8Þ shall compensaLe Lhe landowner
ln such amounL as mav be aareed upon bv Lhe landowner and Lhe uA8 and Lhe L8Þţ ln
accordance wlLh Lhe crlLerla provlded for ln SecLlons 16 and 17ţ and oLher perLlnenL
provlslons hereofţ or as mav be flnallv deLermlned bv Lhe courLţ as Lhe [usL compensaLlon for
Lhe landŦ
1he compensaLlon shall be pald ln one of Lhe followlna modesţ aL Lhe opLlon of Lhe
landownerť
1Ŧ Cash pavmenLţ under Lhe followlna Lerms and condlLlonsť
aŦ lor lands above flfLv (30) hecLaresţ lnsofar as Lhe excess
hecLaraae ls concerned Ÿ 1wenLvŴflve percenL (23Ʒ) cashţ Lhe
balance Lo be pald ln aovernmenL flnanclal lnsLrumenLs
neaoLlable aL anv LlmeŦ
bŦ lor lands above LwenLvŴfour (24) hecLares and up Lo flfLv (30)
hecLares Ÿ 1hlrLv percenL (30Ʒ) cashţ Lhe balance Lo be pald ln
aovernmenL flnanclal lnsLrumenLs neaoLlable aL anv LlmeŦ
cŦ lor lands LwenLvŴfour (24) hecLares and below Ÿ 1hlrLvŴflve
percenL (33Ʒ) cashţ Lhe balance Lo be pald ln aovernmenL
flnanclal lnsLrumenLs neaoLlable aL anv LlmeŦ
2Ŧ Shares of sLock ln aovernmenLŴowned or conLrolled corporaLlonsţ L8Þ
preferred sharesţ phvslcal asseLs or oLher quallfled lnvesLmenLs ln
accordance wlLh auldellnes seL bv Lhe ÞA8CŤ
3Ŧ 1ax credlLs whlch can be used aaalnsL anv Lax llablllLvŤ
4Ŧ L8Þ bondsţ whlch shall have Lhe followlna feaLuresť
aŦ MarkeL lnLeresL raLes allaned wlLh 91Ŵdav Lreasurv blll raLesŦ
1en percenL (10Ʒ) of Lhe face value of Lhe bonds shall maLure
everv vear from Lhe daLe of lssuance unLll Lhe LenLh (10Lh) vearť
Þrovldedţ 1haL should Lhe landowner choose Lo foreao Lhe cash
porLlonţ wheLher ln full or ln parLţ he shall be pald
correspondlnalv ln L8Þ bondsŤ
bŦ 1ransferablllLv and neaoLlablllLvŦ Such L8Þ bonds mav be used
bv Lhe landownerţ hls successorsŴlnŴlnLeresL or hls asslansţ up
Lo Lhe amounL of Lhelr face valueţ for anv of Lhe followlnať
lŦ AcqulslLlon of land or oLher real properLles of Lhe
aovernmenLţ lncludlna asseLs under Lhe AsseL
ÞrlvaLlzaLlon Þroaram and oLher asseLs foreclosed bv
aovernmenL flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons ln Lhe same
provlnce or realon where Lhe lands for whlch Lhe
bonds were pald are slLuaLedŤ
llŦ AcqulslLlon of shares of sLock of aovernmenL owned
or conLrolled corporaLlons or shares of sLock owned
bv Lhe aovernmenL ln prlvaLe corporaLlonsŤ
lllŦ SubsLlLuLlon for sureLv or ball bonds for Lhe
provlslonal release of accused personsţ or for
performance bondsŤ
lvŦ SecurlLv for loans wlLh anv aovernmenL flnanclal
lnsLlLuLlonţ provlded Lhe proceeds of Lhe loans shall
be lnvesLed ln an economlc enLerprlseţ preferablv ln a
small and medlumŴscale lndusLrvţ ln Lhe same
provlnce or realon as Lhe land for whlch Lhe bonds
are paldŤ
vŦ ÞavmenL for varlous Laxes and fees Lo aovernmenLť
Þrovldedţ 1haL Lhe use of Lhese bonds for Lhese
purposes wlll be llmlLed Lo a cerLaln percenLaae of
Lhe ouLsLandlna balance of Lhe flnanclal lnsLrumenLsŤ
Þrovldedţ furLherţ 1haL Lhe ÞA8C shall deLermlne Lhe
percenLaaes menLloned aboveŤ
vlŦ ÞavmenL for LulLlon fees of Lhe lmmedlaLe famllv of
Lhe orlalnal bondholder ln aovernmenL unlverslLlesţ
colleaesţ Lrade schoolsţ and oLher lnsLlLuLlonsŤ
vllŦ ÞavmenL for fees of Lhe lmmedlaLe famllv of Lhe
orlalnal bondholder ln aovernmenL hosplLalŤ and
vlllŦ Such oLher uses as Lhe ÞA8C mav from Llme Lo Llme
allowŦ
""" cose(s)
43Ŧ AssocŦ of Small Landowners vŦ uA8ţ 173 SC8A 343 (1989)
44Ŧ uA8 vŦ CAţ 249 SC8A 149 (1993)

1rio/ with commissioners
ln an exproprlaLlon case where Lhe prlnclpal lssue ls Lhe deLermlnaLlon of [usL compensaLlonţ
a Lrlal before Lhe Commlssloners ls lndlspensable Lo allow Lhe parLles Lo presenL evldence on
Lhe lssue of [usL compensaLlonŦ 1rlal wlLh Lhe ald of Lhe commlssloners ls a subsLanLlal rlahL
LhaL mav noL be done awav wlLh caprlclouslv or for no reason aL allŦ (Manlla LlecLrlc
Companv (ML8ALCC) vsŦ Þlneda żC8 39791ţ 13 lebruarv 1992Ž)
""" cose(s)
43Ŧ Meralco vŦ Þlnedaţ 206 SC8A 196 (1992)
46Ŧ nÞC vŦ Pensonţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 129998ţ uecember 29ţ 1998


Leoo/ lnterest for £xpropriotion coses
ArLlcle 2209 of Lhe Clvll Codeţ whlch provldes LhaL ºlf Lhe obllaaLlon conslsLs ln Lhe pavmenL
of a sum of monevţ and Lhe debLor lncurs a delavţ Lhe lndemnlLv for damaaesţ Lhere belna no
sLlpulaLlon Lo Lhe conLrarvţ shall be Lhe pavmenL of Lhe lnLeresL aareed uponţ and ln Lhe
absence of sLlpulaLlonţ Lhe leaal lnLeresLţ whlch ls 6Ʒ per annumŦ" CenLral 8ank Clrcular 416
does noL applv as lL onlv applles Lo loan or forbearance of monevţ aoods or credlLs and Lo
[udamenLs lnvolvlna such loan or forbearance of monevţ aoods or credlLsŦ (naLlonal Þower
CorporaLlon vsŦ Anaas żC8 60223Ŵ26ţ 8 Mav 1992Ž)
""" cose(s)
47Ŧ nÞC vŦ Anaasţ 208 SC8A 342 (1992)
48Ŧ 8epubllc vŦ Salem lnvesLmenL CorpŦţ CŦ8Ŧ 137369 23 !une 2000
49Ŧ


writ of Possession
Ŧ lssoooce € tlt € ½ssesslo
A wrlL of execuLlon mav be lssued bv a courL upon Lhe flllna bv Lhe aovernmenL of a
complalnL for exproprlaLlon sufflclenL ln form and subsLance and upon deposlL made bv Lhe
aovernmenL of Lhe amounL equlvalenL Lo Lhe assessed value of Lhe properLv sub[ecL Lo
exproprlaLlonŦ upon compllance wlLh Lhese requlremenLsţ Lhe lssuance of Lhe wrlL of
possesslon becomes mlnlsLerlalŦ (8lalanaŴawa vŦ 8acallaţ C8 139927 and 139936ţ 22
november 2000Ŧ)
lL ls lmperaLlve LhaL before a wrlL of possesslon ls lssued bv Lhe CourL ln exproprlaLlon
proceedlnasţ Lhe followlna requlslLes musL be meLť (1) 1here musL be a ComplalnL for
exproprlaLlon sufflclenL lnform and ln subsLanceŤ (2) A provlslonal deLermlnaLlon of [usL
compensaLlon for Lhe properLles souahL Lo be exproprlaLed musL be made bv Lhe Lrlal courL
on Lhe basls of [udlclal (noL lealslaLlve or execuLlve) dlscreLlonŤ and (3) 1he deposlL
requlremenL under SecLlon 2ţ 8ule 67 musL be complled wlLhŦ (lanaclo vŦ Cuerrero żC8 LŴ
49088ţ 29 Mav 1987Ž)
2Ŧ kemeJv €t ½ottv ossollloo vollJltv € tlt € ½ssesslo
A peLlLlon for revlew could noL have been resorLed Lo lnasmuch as Lhe order of Lhe Lrlal courL
aranLlna a wrlL of possesslon was merelv lnLerlocuLorv from whlch no appeal could be LakenŦ
8ule 43ţ Ƈ1 of Lhe 1997 8ules of Clvll Þrocedure applles onlv Lo flnal [udamenLs or orders of
Lhe CourL of Appealsţ Lhe Sandlaanbavanţ and Lhe 8ealonal 1rlal CourLŦ A peLlLlon for
cerLlorarl ls Lhe sulLable remedv ln vlew of 8ule 63ţ Ƈ1 whlch provldes ºWhen anv Lrlbunalţ
board or offlcer exerclslna [udlclal or quaslŴ[udlclal funcLlons has acLed wlLhouL or ln excess of
lLs or hls [urlsdlcLlonţ or wlLh arave abuse of dlscreLlon amounLlna Lo lack or excess of
[urlsdlcLlonţ and Lhere ls no appealţ nor anv plalnţ speedvţ and adequaLe remedv ln Lhe
ordlnarv course of lawţ a person aaarleved Lherebv mav flle a verlfled peLlLlon ln Lhe proper
courLţ allealna Lhe facLs wlLh cerLalnLv and pravlna LhaL [udamenL be rendered annulllna or
modlfvlna Lhe proceedlnas of such Lrlbunalţ board or offlcerţ and aranLlna such lncldenLal
rellefs as law and [usLlce mav requlreŦ"
""" cose(s)
49Ŧ ClLv of Manlla vŦ Cscar Serranoţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 142304ţ !une 20ţ 2001

kŦ xpropr|at|on of Ut|||t|esţ Landed states and Mun|c|pa| 9roperty
ArtŦ kIIţ 5ecŦ 18
SecLlon 18Ŧ 1he SLaLe mavţ ln Lhe lnLeresL of naLlonal welfare or defenseţ esLabllsh and
operaLe vlLal lndusLrles andţ upon pavmenL of [usL compensaLlonţ Lransfer Lo publlc
ownershlp uLlllLles and oLher prlvaLe enLerprlses Lo be operaLed bv Lhe CovernmenLŦ
ArtŦ kIIIţ 5ecŦ 4
SecLlon 4Ŧ 1he SLaLe shallţ bv lawţ underLake an aararlan reform proaram founded on Lhe
rlahL of farmers and reaular farmworkers who are landlessţ Lo own dlrecLlv or collecLlvelv Lhe
lands Lhev Llll orţ ln Lhe case of oLher farmworkersţ Lo recelve a [usL share of Lhe frulLs
LhereofŦ 1o Lhls endţ Lhe SLaLe shall encouraae and underLake Lhe [usL dlsLrlbuLlon of all
aarlculLural landsţ sub[ecL Lo such prlorlLles and reasonable reLenLlon llmlLs as Lhe Conaress
mav prescrlbeţ Laklna lnLo accounL ecoloalcalţ developmenLalţ or equlLv conslderaLlonsţ and
sub[ecL Lo Lhe pavmenL of [usL compensaLlonŦ ln deLermlnlna reLenLlon llmlLsţ Lhe SLaLe shall
respecL Lhe rlahL of small landownersŦ 1he SLaLe shall furLher provlde lncenLlves for volunLarv
landŴsharlnaŦ
ArtŦ kIIIţ 5ecŦ 9
SecLlon 9Ŧ 1he SLaLe shallţ bv lawţ and for Lhe common aoodţ underLakeţ ln cooperaLlon wlLh
Lhe prlvaLe secLorţ a conLlnulna proaram of urban land reform and houslna whlch wlll make
avallable aL affordable cosLţ decenL houslna and baslc servlces Lo underŴprlvlleaed and
homeless clLlzens ln urban cenLers and reseLLlemenL areasŦ lL shall also promoLe adequaLe
emplovmenL opporLunlLles Lo such clLlzensŦ ln Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of such proaram Lhe SLaLe
shall respecL Lhe rlahLs of small properLv ownersŦ
ÞroperLv held bv a munlclpal corporaLlon ln lLs prlvaLe capaclLv ls noL sub[ecL Lo Lhe
unresLrlcLed conLrol of Lhe lealslaLureţ and Lhe munlclpallLv cannoL be deprlved of such
properLv aaalnsL lLs wlllţ excepL bv Lhe exerclse of emlnenL domaln wlLh pavmenL of full
compensaLlonŦ" (McCulllln Munlclpal CorporaLlonţ 2nd LdŦţ volŦ lţ ppŦ 670Ŵ681)Ŧ
ln lLs prlvaLe capaclLv a munlclpal corporaLlon ls whollv dlfferenLŦ 1he people of a compacL
communlLv usuallv requlre cerLaln convenlences whlch cannoL be furnlshed wlLhouL a
franchlse from Lhe SLaLe and whlch are elLher unnecessarv ln Lhe rural dlsLrlcLsţ such as a
svsLem of sewersţ or parks and open spacesţ or whlch on accounL of Lhe expenses lL would be
flnanclallv lmposslble Lo supplv excepL where Lhe populaLlon ls reasonablv denseţ such as
waLer or aasŦ 8uL ln so far as Lhe munlclpallLv ls Lhus auLhorlzed Lo exerclse Lhe funcLlons of a
prlvaLe corporaLlonţ lL ls cloLhed wlLh Lhe capaclLles of a prlvaLe corporaLlon and mav clalm
lLs rlahLs and lmmunlLlesţ even as aaalnsL Lhe soverelanţ and ls sub[ecL Lo Lhe llablllLles of
such a corporaLlonţ even as aaalnsL Lhlrd parLlesŦ (19 8ŦCŦLŦ pŦ 698)
""" cose(s)
30Ŧ ClLv of 8aaulo vsŦ nawasaţ 106 ÞhllŦ 114 (1939)
31Ŧ Zamboanaa del norLe vsŦ ClLv of Zamboanaaţ 22 SC8A 1334 (1968)
1997 ku|es of C|v|| 9rocedureţ as amendedţ effect|ve 1 Iu|y 1997
ku|e 67ţ xpropr|at|on
SecLlon 1Ŧ 1he complalnLŦ Ÿ 1he rlahL of emlnenL domaln shall be exerclsed bv Lhe flllna of a
verlfled complalnL whlch shall sLaLe wlLh cerLalnLv Lhe rlahL and purpose of exproprlaLlonţ
descrlbe Lhe real or personal properLv souahL Lo be exproprlaLedţ and [oln as defendanLs all
persons ownlna or clalmlna Lo ownţ or occupvlnaţ anv parL Lhereof or lnLeresL Lherelnţ
showlnaţ so far as pracLlcableţ Lhe separaLe lnLeresL of each defendanLŦ lf Lhe LlLle Lo anv
properLv souahL Lo be exproprlaLed appears Lo be ln Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ alLhouah
occupled bv prlvaLe lndlvldualsţ or lf Lhe LlLle ls oLherwlse obscure or doubLful so LhaL Lhe
plalnLlff cannoL wlLh accuracv or cerLalnLv speclfv who are Lhe real ownersţ avermenL Lo LhaL
effecL shall be made ln Lhe complalnLŦ (1a)
SecLlon 2Ŧ LnLrv of plalnLlff upon deposlLlna value wlLh auLhorlzed aovernmenL deposlLarvŦ Ÿ
upon Lhe flllna of Lhe complalnL or aL anv Llme LhereafLer and afLer due noLlce Lo Lhe
defendanLţ Lhe plalnLlff shall have Lhe rlahL Lo Lake or enLer upon Lhe possesslon of Lhe real
properLv lnvolved lf he deposlLs wlLh Lhe auLhorlzed aovernmenL deposlLarv an amounL
equlvalenL Lo Lhe assessed value of Lhe properLv for purposes of LaxaLlon Lo be held bv such
bank sub[ecL Lo Lhe orders of Lhe courLŦ Such deposlL shall be ln monevţ unless ln lleu Lhereof
Lhe courL auLhorlzes Lhe deposlL of a cerLlflcaLe of deposlL of a aovernmenL bank of Lhe
8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnes pavable on demand Lo Lhe auLhorlzed aovernmenL deposlLarvŦ
lf personal properLv ls lnvolvedţ lLs value shall be provlslonallv ascerLalned and Lhe amounL Lo
be deposlLed shall be prompLlv flxed bv Lhe courLŦ
AfLer such deposlL ls made Lhe courL shall order Lhe sherlff or oLher proper offlcer Lo
forLhwlLh place Lhe plalnLlff ln possesslon of Lhe properLv lnvolved and prompLlv submlL a
reporL Lhereof Lo Lhe courL wlLh servlce of coples Lo Lhe parLlesŦ (2a)
SecLlon 3Ŧ uefenses and ob[ecLlonsŦ Ÿ lf a defendanL has no ob[ecLlon or defense Lo Lhe
acLlon or Lhe Laklna of hls properLvţ he mav flle and serve a noLlce of appearance and a
manlfesLaLlon Lo LhaL effecLţ speclflcallv deslanaLlna or ldenLlfvlna Lhe properLv ln whlch he
clalms Lo be lnLeresLedţ wlLhln Lhe Llme sLaLed ln Lhe summonsŦ 1hereafLerţ he shall be
enLlLled Lo noLlce of all proceedlnas affecLlna Lhe sameŦ
lf a defendanL has anv ob[ecLlon Lo Lhe flllna of or Lhe alleaaLlons ln Lhe complalnLţ or anv
ob[ecLlon or defense Lo Lhe Laklna of hls properLvţ he shall serve hls answer wlLhln Lhe Llme
sLaLed ln Lhe summonsŦ 1he answer shall speclflcallv deslanaLe or ldenLlfv Lhe properLv ln
whlch he clalms Lo have an lnLeresLţ sLaLe Lhe naLure and exLenL of Lhe lnLeresL clalmedţ and
adduce all hls ob[ecLlons and defenses Lo Lhe Laklna of hls properLvŦ no counLerclalmţ crossŴ
clalm or LhlrdŴparLv complalnL shall be alleaed or allowed ln Lhe answer or anv subsequenL
pleadlnaŦ
A defendanL walves all defenses and ob[ecLlons noL so alleaed buL Lhe courLţ ln Lhe lnLeresL of
[usLlceţ mav permlL amendmenLs Lo Lhe answer Lo be made noL laLer Lhan Len (10) davs from
Lhe flllna LhereofŦ Poweverţ aL Lhe Lrlal of Lhe lssue of [usL compensaLlon wheLher or noL a
defendanL has prevlouslv appeared or answeredţ he mav presenL evldence as Lo Lhe amounL
of Lhe compensaLlon Lo be pald for hls properLvţ and he mav share ln Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of Lhe
awardŦ (n)
SecLlon 4Ŧ Crder of exproprlaLlonŦ Ÿ lf Lhe ob[ecLlons Lo and Lhe defenses aaalnsL Lhe rlahL of
Lhe plalnLlff Lo exproprlaLe Lhe properLv are overruledţ or when no parLv appears Lo defend
as requlred bv Lhls 8uleţ Lhe courL mav lssue an order of exproprlaLlon declarlna LhaL Lhe
plalnLlff has a lawful rlahL Lo Lake Lhe properLv souahL Lo be exproprlaLedţ for Lhe publlc use
or purpose descrlbed ln Lhe complalnLţ upon Lhe pavmenL of [usL compensaLlon Lo be
deLermlned as of Lhe daLe of Lhe Laklna of Lhe properLv or Lhe flllna of Lhe complalnLţ
whlchever came flrsLŦ
A flnal order susLalnlna Lhe rlahL Lo exproprlaLe Lhe properLv mav be appealed bv anv parLv
aaarleved LherebvŦ Such appealţ howeverţ shall noL prevenL Lhe courL from deLermlnlna Lhe
[usL compensaLlon Lo be paldŦ
AfLer Lhe rendlLlon of such an orderţ Lhe plalnLlff shall noL be permlLLed Lo dlsmlss or
dlsconLlnue Lhe proceedlna excepL on such Lerms as Lhe courL deems [usL and equlLableŦ (4a)
SecLlon 3Ŧ AscerLalnmenL of compensaLlonŦ Ÿ upon Lhe rendlLlon of Lhe order of
exproprlaLlonţ Lhe courL shall appolnL noL more Lhan Lhree (3) compeLenL and dlslnLeresLed
persons as commlssloners Lo ascerLaln and reporL Lo Lhe courL Lhe [usL compensaLlon for Lhe
properLv souahL Lo be LakenŦ 1he order of appolnLmenL shall deslanaLe Lhe Llme and place of
Lhe flrsL sesslon of Lhe hearlna Lo be held bv Lhe commlssloners and speclfv Lhe Llme wlLhln
whlch Lhelr reporL shall be submlLLed Lo Lhe courLŦ
Coples of Lhe order shall be served on Lhe parLlesŦ Cb[ecLlons Lo Lhe appolnLmenL of anv of
Lhe commlssloners shall be flled wlLh Lhe courL wlLhln Len (10) davs from servlceţ and shall be
resolved wlLhln LhlrLv (30) davs afLer all Lhe commlssloners shall have recelved coples of Lhe
ob[ecLlonsŦ (3a)
SecLlon 6Ŧ Þroceedlnas bv commlsslonersŦ Ÿ 8efore enLerlna upon Lhe performance of Lhelr
duLlesţ Lhe commlssloners shall Lake and subscrlbe an oaLh LhaL Lhev wlll falLhfullv perform
Lhelr duLles as commlsslonersţ whlch oaLh shall be flled ln courL wlLh Lhe oLher proceedlnas
ln Lhe caseŦ Lvldence mav be lnLroduced bv elLher parLv before Lhe commlssloners who are
auLhorlzed Lo admlnlsLer oaLhs on hearlnas before Lhemţ and Lhe commlssloners shallţ unless
Lhe parLles consenL Lo Lhe conLrarvţ afLer due noLlce Lo Lhe parLlesţ Lo aLLendţ vlew and
examlne Lhe properLv souahL Lo be exproprlaLed and lLs surroundlnasţ and mav measure Lhe
sameţ afLer whlch elLher parLv mavţ bv hlmself or counselţ araue Lhe caseŦ 1he
commlssloners shall assess Lhe consequenLlal damaaes Lo Lhe properLv noL Laken and deducL
from such consequenLlal damaaes Lhe consequenLlal beneflLs Lo be derlved bv Lhe owner
from Lhe publlc use or purpose of Lhe properLv Lakenţ Lhe operaLlon of lLs franchlse bv Lhe
corporaLlon or Lhe carrvlna on of Lhe buslness of Lhe corporaLlon or person Laklna Lhe
properLvŦ 8uL ln no case shall Lhe consequenLlal beneflLs assessed exceed Lhe consequenLlal
damaaes assessedţ or Lhe owner be deprlved of Lhe acLual value of hls properLv so LakenŦ (6a)
SecLlon 7Ŧ 8eporL bv commlssloners and [udamenL LhereuponŦ Ÿ 1he courL mav order Lhe
commlssloners Lo reporL when anv parLlcular porLlon of Lhe real esLaLe shall have been
passed upon bv Lhemţ and mav render [udamenL upon such parLlal reporLţ and dlrecL Lhe
commlssloners Lo proceed wlLh Lhelr work as Lo subsequenL porLlons of Lhe properLv souahL
Lo be exproprlaLedţ and mav from Llme Lo Llme so deal wlLh such properLvŦ 1he
commlssloners shall make a full and accuraLe reporL Lo Lhe courL of all Lhelr proceedlnasţ and
such proceedlnas shall noL be effecLual unLll Lhe courL shall have accepLed Lhelr reporL and
rendered [udamenL ln accordance wlLh Lhelr recommendaLlonsŦ LxcepL as oLherwlse
expresslv ordered bv Lhe courLţ such reporL shall be flled wlLhln slxLv (60) davs from Lhe daLe
Lhe commlssloners were noLlfled of Lhelr appolnLmenLţ whlch Llme mav be exLended ln Lhe
dlscreLlon of Lhe courLŦ upon Lhe flllna of such reporLţ Lhe clerk of Lhe courL shall serve coples
Lhereof on all lnLeresLed parLlesţ wlLh noLlce LhaL Lhev are allowed Len (10) davs wlLhln whlch
Lo flle ob[ecLlons Lo Lhe flndlnas of Lhe reporLţ lf Lhev so deslreŦ (7a)
SecLlon 8Ŧ AcLlon upon commlssloners' reporLŦ Ÿ upon Lhe explraLlon of Lhe perlod of Len
(10) davs referred Lo ln Lhe precedlna secLlonţ or even before Lhe explraLlon of such perlod
buL afLer all Lhe lnLeresLed parLles have flled Lhelr ob[ecLlons Lo Lhe reporL or Lhelr sLaLemenL
of aareemenL LherewlLhţ Lhe courL mavţ afLer hearlnaţ accepL Lhe reporL and render
[udamenL ln accordance LherewlLhţ orţ for cause shownţ lL mav recommlL Lhe same Lo Lhe
commlssloners for furLher reporL of facLsţ or lL mav seL aslde Lhe reporL and appolnL new
commlsslonersŤ or lL mav accepL Lhe reporL ln parL and re[ecL lL ln parL and lL mav make such
order or render such [udamenL as shall secure Lo Lhe plalnLlff Lhe properLv essenLlal Lo Lhe
exerclse of hls rlahL of exproprlaLlonţ and Lo Lhe defendanL [usL compensaLlon for Lhe
properLv so LakenŦ (8a)
SecLlon 9Ŧ uncerLaln ownershlpŤ confllcLlna clalmsŦ Ÿ lf Lhe ownershlp of Lhe properLv Laken
ls uncerLalnţ or Lhere are confllcLlna clalms Lo anv parL Lhereofţ Lhe courL mav order anv sum
or sums awarded as compensaLlon for Lhe properLv Lo be pald Lo Lhe courL for Lhe beneflL of
Lhe person ad[udaed ln Lhe same proceedlna Lo be enLlLled LhereLoŦ 8uL Lhe [udamenL shall
requlre Lhe pavmenL of Lhe sum or sums awarded Lo elLher Lhe defendanL or Lhe courL before
Lhe plalnLlff can enLer upon Lhe properLvţ or reLaln lL for Lhe publlc use or purpose lf enLrv
has alreadv been madeŦ (9a)
SecLlon 10Ŧ 8lahLs of plalnLlff afLer [udamenL and pavmenLŦ Ÿ upon pavmenL bv Lhe plalnLlff
Lo Lhe defendanL of Lhe compensaLlon flxed bv Lhe [udamenLţ wlLh leaal lnLeresL Lhereon
from Lhe Laklna of Lhe possesslon of Lhe properLvţ or afLer Lender Lo hlm of Lhe amounL so
flxed and pavmenL of Lhe cosLsţ Lhe plalnLlff shall have Lhe rlahL Lo enLer upon Lhe properLv
exproprlaLed and Lo approprlaLe lL for Lhe publlc use or purpose deflned ln Lhe [udamenLţ or
Lo reLaln lL should he have Laken lmmedlaLe possesslon Lhereof under Lhe provlslons of
secLlon 2 hereofŦ lf Lhe defendanL and hls counsel absenL Lhemselves from Lhe courLţ or
decllne Lo recelve Lhe amounL Lenderedţ Lhe same shall be ordered Lo be deposlLed ln courL
and such deposlL shall have Lhe same effecL as acLual pavmenL Lhereof Lo Lhe defendanL or
Lhe person ulLlmaLelv ad[udaed enLlLled LhereLoŦ (10a)
SecLlon 11Ŧ LnLrv noL delaved bv appealŤ effecL of reversalŦ Ÿ 1he rlahL of Lhe plalnLlff Lo
enLer upon Lhe properLv of Lhe defendanL and approprlaLe Lhe same for publlc use or
purpose shall noL be delaved bv an appeal from Lhe [udamenLŦ 8uL lf Lhe appellaLe courL
deLermlnes LhaL plalnLlff has no rlahL of exproprlaLlonţ [udamenL shall be rendered orderlna
Lhe 8ealonal 1rlal CourL Lo forLhwlLh enforce Lhe resLoraLlon Lo Lhe defendanL of Lhe
possesslon of Lhe properLvţ and Lo deLermlne Lhe damaaes whlch Lhe defendanL susLalned
and mav recover bv reason of Lhe possesslon Laken bv Lhe plalnLlffŦ (11a)
SecLlon 12Ŧ CosLsţ bv whom paldŦ Ÿ 1he fees of Lhe commlssloners shall be Laxed as a parL of
Lhe cosLs of Lhe proceedlnasŦ All cosLsţ excepL Lhose of rlval clalmanLs llLlaaLlna Lhelr clalmsţ
shall be pald bv Lhe plalnLlffţ unless an appeal ls Laken bv Lhe owner of Lhe properLv and Lhe
[udamenL ls afflrmedţ ln whlch evenL Lhe cosLs of Lhe appeal shall be pald bv Lhe ownerŦ (12a)
SecLlon 13Ŧ 8ecordlna [udamenLţ and lLs effecLŦ Ÿ 1he [udamenL enLered ln exproprlaLlon
proceedlnas shall sLaLe deflnlLelvţ bv an adequaLe descrlpLlonţ Lhe parLlcular properLv or
lnLeresL Lhereln exproprlaLedţ and Lhe naLure of Lhe publlc use or purpose for whlch lL ls
exproprlaLedŦ When real esLaLe ls exproprlaLedţ a cerLlfled copv of such [udamenL shall be
recorded ln Lhe realsLrv of deeds of Lhe place ln whlch Lhe properLv ls slLuaLedţ and lLs effecL
shall be Lo vesL ln Lhe plalnLlff Lhe LlLle Lo Lhe real esLaLe so descrlbed for such publlc use or
purposeŦ (13a)
SecLlon 14Ŧ Þower of auardlan ln such proceedlnasŦ Ÿ 1he auardlan or auardlan ad llLem of a
mlnor or of a person [udlclallv declared Lo be lncompeLenL mavţ wlLh Lhe approval of Lhe
courL flrsL hadţ do and perform on behalf of hls ward anv acLţ maLLerţ or Lhlna respecLlna Lhe
exproprlaLlon for publlc use or purpose of properLv belonalna Lo such mlnor or person
[udlclallv declared Lo be lncompeLenLţ whlch such mlnor or person [udlclallv declared Lo be
lncompeLenL could do ln such proceedlnas lf he were of aae or compeLenLŦ (14a)

1axat|on
AŦ Def|n|t|on and Nature
1Ŧ uefinition
oŦ 1oxotlo
O Lhe meLhod bv whlch enforced proporLlonal conLrlbuLlons are exacLedŦ
O Lhe power bv whlch Lhe soverelanţ Lhrouah lLs lawmaklna bodvţ ralses revenue Lo
defrav Lhe necessarv expenses of aovernmenLŦ
O a wav of apporLlonlna Lhe cosLs of aovernmenL amona Lhose who ln some measure
are prlvlleaed Lo en[ov lLs beneflLs and musL bear lLs burdenŦ
O a ºSvmbloLlc" relaLlonshlpţ wherebv ln exchanae for Lhe proLecLlon LhaL Lhe clLlzens
aeL from Lhe aovernmenLţ Laxes are paldŦ
bŦ 1oxes
1axes are enforced proporLlonal conLrlbuLlons from persons and properLv levled bv Lhe
lawmaklna bodv of Lhe SLaLe bv vlrLue of lLs soverelanLv for Lhe supporL of Lhe aovernmenL
and for publlc needsŦ (Coolevţ 1axaLlonţ 4Lh edlLlonţ SecLlon 1)
ulsLlncLlon wlLh llcense feesŦ 1he Lerm ºLax" applles Ÿ aenerallv speaklna Ÿ Lo all klnds of
exacLlons whlch become publlc fundsŦ 1he Lerm ls ofLen looselv used Lo lnclude levles for
revenue as well as levles for reaulaLorv purposesŦ 1hus llcense fees are commonlv called
LaxesŦ Leaallv speaklnaţ howeverţ llcense fee ls a leaal concepL qulLe dlsLlncL from LaxŤ Lhe
former ls lmposed ln Lhe exerclse of pollce power for purposes of reaulaLlonţ whlle Lhe laLLer
ls lmposed under Lhe Laxlna power for Lhe purpose of ralslna revenues (MacCullllnţ
Munlclpal CorporaLlonsţ volŦ 9ţ 3rd LdlLlonţ pŦ 26)Ŧ
ulsLlncLlon wlLh speclal assessmenLsŦ Whlle Lhe word ºLax" ln lLs broad meanlnaţ lncludes
boLh aeneral Laxes and speclal assessmenLsţ and ln a aeneral sense a Lax ls an assessmenLţ
and an assessmenL ls a Laxţ veL Lhere ls a recoanlzed dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhem ln LhaL
assessmenL ls conflned Lo local lmposlLlons upon properLv for Lhe pavmenL of Lhe cosL of
publlc lmprovemenLs ln lLs lmmedlaLe vlclnlLv and levled wlLh reference Lo speclal beneflLs Lo
Lhe properLv assessedŦ 1he dlfferences beLween a speclal assessmenL and a Lax are LhaL (1) a
speclal assessmenL can be levled onlv on landŤ (2) a speclal assessmenL cannoL (aL leasL ln
mosL sLaLes) be made a personal llablllLv of Lhe person assessedŤ (3) a speclal assessmenL ls
based whollv on beneflLsŤ and (4) a speclal assessmenL ls excepLlonal boLh as Lo Llme and
locallLvŦ 1he lmposlLlon of a charae on all properLvţ real and personalţ ln a prescrlbed areaţ ls
a Lax and noL an assessmenLţ alLhouah Lhe purpose ls Lo make a local lmprovemenL on a
sLreeL or hlahwavŦ A charae lmposed onlv on properLv owners beneflLed ls a speclal
assessmenL raLher Lhan a Lax noLwlLhsLandlna Lhe sLaLuLe calls lL a LaxŦ (AposLollc ÞrefecL of
Lhe MounLaln Þrovlnce vsŦ Lhe 1reasurer of 8aaulo ClLv żC8 47232ţ 18 Aprll 1941ŽŤ clLlna
Coolev)
Ŧ 4ttributes / chorocteristics of toxotion
1Ŧ A forced charaeţ lmposlLlon or conLrlbuLlon and as such lL operaLes ln lnvlLumŦ
(8ochesLer vsŦ 8lossţ 173 n? 42ţ 27 nL 794ţ 61 L8A żnSŽ Ann 7ţ CasŦ 13) 1axes are
noL ln Lhe naLure of conLracLs beLween Lhe parLv and parLv buL arow ouL of a duLv
Loţ and are Lhe poslLlve acLs of Lhe aovernmenLţ Lo Lhe maklna and enforclna of
whlchţ Lhe personal consenL of lndlvldual Laxpavers ls noL requlred (8epubllc vsŦ
Mambulao Lumber żC8 LŴ17723ţ 28 lebruarv 1962Ž)Ŧ
2Ŧ lL ls a pecunlarv burden pavable ln monevţ buL such a Lax ls noL necessarllv
conflned Lo Lhose pavable ln monev (1 Coolev 3)Ŧ
3Ŧ lL ls levled bv Lhe lealslaLlve bodv of Lhe SLaLe because Lhe Laxlna power ls
pecunlarv and excluslvelv lealslaLlve ln characLerŦ (31 AmŦ !rŦ 71)
4Ŧ lL ls assessed ln accordance wlLh some reasonable rule of apporLlonmenLţ
conformablv wlLh Lhe consLlLuLlonal mandaLe on proaresslvlLv of a Laxlna svsLemŦ
(ArLlcle vlţ SecLlon 28ż1Žţ 1987 ConsLlLuLlon)Ŧ
3Ŧ lL reaches even Lhe clLlzen abroad and hls lncome earned from sources ouLslde hls
SLaLeŤ as well as all lncome earned ln Lhe Laxlna SLaLeţ wheLher bv clLlzens or allensţ
and all lmmovable and Lanalble personal properLles found ln lLs LerrlLorvţ as well as
Lanalble personal properLv owned bv persons domlclled Lherelnţ are sub[ecL Lo lLs
Laxlna power (!usLlce Cruzţ ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ 2000 edlLlonţ 86)
6Ŧ A Lax ls levled for a publlc purpose as LaxaLlon lLself lnvolves a burden Lo provlde
revenue for publlc purposes of a aeneral naLureŦ
lŦ Noture of toxino power
O lnherenLŦ 1he power Lo Laxţ an lnherenL preroaaLlveţ has Lo be avalled of Lo assure
Lhe performance of vlLal sLaLe funcLlonsŦ lL ls Lhe source of Lhe bulk of publlc fundsŦ
1axes belna Lhe llfeblood of Lhe aovernmenLţ Lhelr prompL and cerLaln avallablllLv ls
of Lhe essenceŦ (Slson vŦ AncheLa żC8 LŴ39431ţ 23 !ulv 1984Ž)
O Plah preroaaLlve of soverelanLvŦ As Lhe power of LaxaLlon ls a hlah preroaaLlve of
soverelanLvţ Lhe rellnqulshmenL ls never presumed and anv reducLlon or
dlmlnuLlon Lhereof wlLh respecL Lo lLs mode or lLs raLeţ musL be sLrlcLlv consLruedţ
and Lhe same musL be coached ln clear and unmlsLakable Lerms ln order LhaL lL mav
be applledŦ (84 CŦ!ŦSŦ ppŦ 639Ŵ800)
O LealslaLlveŦ 1axlna power ls pecullarlv and excluslvelv lealslaLlve ln characLer and
remalns undlmlnlshed ln Lhe lealslaLlve ln characLer and remalns undlmlnlshed ln
Lhe lealslaLure ln Lhe absence of an express surrender Lhereofţ clear and expllclL ln
lLs LermsŦ (31 AmŦ !urŦ 71Ŵ73)
O ConsLlLuLlonallv llmlLedŦ 1he power Lo Lax ls an aLLrlbuLe of soverelanLvŦ lL ls Lhe
sLronaesL of all Lhe powers of aovernmenLŦ lor all lLs plenlLudeţ Lhe power Lo Lax
has resLrlcLlonsŦ 1he ConsLlLuLlon seLs forLh such llmlLsŦ Adverselv affecLlna as lL
does properLv rlahLsţ boLh Lhe due process and equal proLecLlon clauses mav
properlv be lnvoked Lo lnvalldaLe ln approprlaLe cases a revenue measureŦ (Slson vŦ
AncheLa żC8 LŴ39431ţ 23 !ulv 1984Ž)
8Ŧ 9urpose
1axes are Lhe llfeblood of Lhe aovernmenL and so should be collecLed wlLhouL unnecessarv
hlndranceŦ uesplLe Lhe naLural relucLance Lo surrender parL of one's hardŴearned lncome Lo
Lhe Laxlna auLhorlLlesţ everv person who ls able Lo musL conLrlbuLe hls share ln Lhe runnlna of
Lhe aovernmenLŦ 1he aovernmenL for lLs parLţ ls expecLed Lo respond ln Lhe form of Lanalble
and lnLanalble beneflLs lnLended Lo lmprove Lhe llves of Lhe people and enhance Lhelr moral
and maLerlal valuesŦ 1hls svmbloLlc relaLlonshlp ls Lhe raLlonale of LaxaLlon and should dlspel
Lhe erroneous noLlon LhaL lL ls an arblLrarv meLhod of exacLlon bv Lhose ln Lhe seaL of powerŦ
(Commlssloner of lnLernal 8evenue vŦ Alaue żC8 LŴ28896ţ 17 lebruarv 1988Ž)
1Ŧ 8evenueť 1he purpose of LaxaLlon ls Lo provlde funds or properLv wlLh whlch Lhe
SLaLe promoLes Lhe aeneral welfare and proLecLlon of lLs clLlzensŦ (31 AmŦ !urŦ 71Ŵ
73) 8alslna of revenues ls Lhe prlnclpal ob[ecL of LaxaLlonŦ (8aaaLslna vsŦ 8amlrez
żC8 LŴ41631ţ 17 uecember 1976Ž)
2Ŧ nonŴ8evenueť
aŦ 8eaulaLlonť 1axes mav also be lmposed for a reaulaLorv purpose as for
exampleţ ln Lhe promoLlonţ rehablllLaLlon and sLablllzaLlon of lndusLrv
whlch ls affecLed wlLh publlc lnLeresLŦ (See LuLz vsŦ AraneLa żC8 LŴ7839ţ
22 uecember 1933Ž ţ and CalLex Þhlllpplnes vsŦ Commlsslon on AudlL żC8
92383ţ 8 Mav 1992Ž)
bŦ ÞromoLlon of aeneral welfareť lf ob[ecLlve and meLhods are allke
consLlLuLlonallv valldţ no reason ls seen whv Lhe sLaLe mav noL be levv
Laxes Lo ralse funds for Lhelr prosecuLlon and aLLalnmenLŦ 1axaLlon mav
be made Lo lmplemenL Lhe sLaLe's pollce powerŦ (LuLz vŦ AraneLaţ 98 ÞhllŦ
148 ż1933ŽŤ clLlna CreaL ALlanLlc Ǝ Þaclflc 1ea CoŦ vŦ Cros[eanţ 301 uŦSŦ
412ţ 81 LŦ LdŦ 1193Ť uŦSŦ vŦ 8uLlerţ 297 uŦSŦ 1ţ 80 LŦ LdŦ 477Ť M'Culloch vŦ
Marvlandţ 4 WheaLţ 316ţ 4 LŦ LdŦ 379Ŧ )
cŦ 8educLlon of soclal lnequallLvť Made posslble Lhrouah Lhe proaresslve
svsLem of LaxaLlon where Lhe ob[ecLlve ls Lo prevenL Lhe undue
concenLraLlon of wealLh ln Lhe hands of a few lndlvldualsŦ (Abanţ
8en[amlnŦ Law of 8aslc 1axaLlon ln Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ Second LdlLlon 1994ţ
paae 6)Ŧ
dŦ Lncouraae economlc arowLhť ln Lhe realm of Lax exempLlons and Lax
rellefsţ Lhe purpose of LaxaLlon (Lhe power Lo Lax belna Lhe power also
noL Lo LaxŦ Ÿ LdŦ) ls Lo aranL lncenLlves or exempLlons ln order Lo
encouraae lnvesLmenLs and Lherebv promoLe Lhe counLrv's economlc
arowLhŦ (lbldŦ)
eŦ ÞroLecLlonlsmť ln some lmporLanL secLors of Lhe economvţ Laxes
someLlmes provlde proLecLlon Lo local lndusLrles llke proLecLlve Larlffs and
cusLoms duLlesŦ (lbldŦ)
!!! Case(s)
32Ŧ Cl8 vsŦ Alaueţ lncŦţ 138 SC8A 9 (1988)
33Ŧ Commlssloner vsŦ Makaslarţ 177 SC8A 27 (1989)

CŦ 5cope (1he power to tax |s the power to destroy)
Þhlllpplne lnLernal revenue laws are noL pollLlcal ln naLure and as such were conLlnued ln
force durlna Lhe perlod of enemv occupaLlon and ln effecL were acLuallv enforced bv Lhe
occupaLlon aovernmenLŦ As a maLLer of facLţ lncome Lax reLurns were flled durlna LhaL perlod
and lncome Lax pavmenL were effecLed and consldered valld and leaalŦ Such Lax laws are
deemed Lo be Lhe laws of Lhe occupled LerrlLorv and noL of Lhe occupvlna enemvŦ (Pllado vsŦ
Cl8 żC8Ŧ LŴ9408ţ 31 CcLober 1936ŦŽ)
So pervaslve ls Lhe power of LaxaLlon LhaL lL reaches even Lhe clLlzen abroad and hls lncome
earned from sources ouLslde hls SLaLeŦ ln oLher casesţ all lncome earned ln Lhe Laxlna SLaLeţ
wheLher bv clLlzens or allensţ and all lmmovable and Lanalble personal properLles found ln lLs
LerrlLorvţ as well as Lanalble personal properLv owned bv persons domlclled Lherelnţ are
sub[ecL Lo lLs Laxlna power (!usLlce Cruzţ ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ 2000 edlLlonţ 86) 1arlff and
cusLoms duLles are Laxes consLlLuLlna a slanlflcanL porLlon of Lhe publlc revenue whlch are
Lhe llfeblood LhaL enables Lhe aovernmenL Lo carrv ouL funcLlons lL has been lnsLlLuLed Lo
performŦ (Commlssloner of CusLoms vŦ Makaslar żC8 79307ţ 29 AuausL 1989Ž)
LealslaLlve Laxlna power or dlscreLlon exLends Lo Lhe followlnať
1Ŧ Sub[ecLs and ob[ecLs of Lax
2Ŧ AmounL and raLe of Lax
3Ŧ Þurpose for whlch Laxes are Lo be levled
4Ŧ ApporLlonmenL of Lhe Lax ( aeneralţ llmlLed Lo a parLlcular locallLvţ or mlxed)
3Ŧ SlLus of LaxaLlon
6Ŧ Manner and mode of enforcemenL and collecLlon
(Abanţ 8en[amlnŦ Law of 8aslc 1axaLlon ln Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ Second LdlLlon 1994ţ paae 8)Ŧ
1he Laxlna auLhorlLv can selecL Lhe sub[ecLs of LaxaLlon (Comez vsŦ Þalomar (C8 LŴ23643ţ 29
CcLober 1988)Ŧ 1he Laxlna power has Lhe auLhorlLv Lo make reasonable and naLural
classlflcaLlons for purposes of LaxaLlonŦ Where Lhe dlfferenLlaLlon conforms Lo Lhe pracLlcal
dlcLaLes of [usLlce and equlLvţ lL ls noL dlscrlmlnaLorv wlLhln Lhe meanlna of Lhls clause and ls
Lherefore unlformŦ 1here ls qulLe a slmllarlLv Lhen Lo Lhe sLandard of equal proLecLlon for all
LhaL ls requlred ls LhaL Lhe Lax applles equallv Lo all personsţ flrms and corporaLlons placed ln
slmllar slLuaLlonŦ 1axpavers mav be classlfled lnLo dlfferenL caLeaorlesŦ lL ls enouah LhaL Lhe
classlflcaLlon musL resL upon subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlons LhaL make real dlfferencesŦ (Slson vŦ
AncheLa żC8 LŴ39431ţ 23 !ulv 1984Ž) 1husţ a classlflcaLlon ls reasonable where (1) lL ls based
on subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlons whlch make real dlfferencesŤ (2) Lhese are aermane Lo Lhe purpose
of Lhe lawŤ (3) Lhe classlflcaLlon applles noL onlv Lo presenL condlLlons buL also Lo fuLure
condlLlons whlch are subsLanLlallv ldenLlcal Lo Lhose of Lhe presenLŤ (4) Lhe classlflcaLlon
applles onlv Lo Lhose who belona Lo Lhe same class (lelwa vŦ Salas żC8 LŴ26311ţ 29 CcL
1966Ž)Ŧ SLlllţ Lhe classlflcaLlonţ Lo be reasonableţ should be ln Lerms appllcable Lo fuLure
condlLlons as wellŦ (Crmoc Suaar Companv vsŦ 1reasurer of Crmoc ClLv żC8 LŴ23794ţ 17
lebruarv 1968Ž)
1haL Lhe power Lo Lax lnvolves Lhe power Lo desLrovŤ LhaL Lhe power Lo desLrov mav defeaL
and render useless Lhe power Lo creaLeŤ LhaL Lhere ls a plaln repuanance ln conferrlna on one
aovernmenL a power Lo conLrol Lhe consLlLuLlonal measures of anoLherţ whlch oLherţ wlLh
respecL Lo Lhose verv measuresţ ls declared Lo be supreme over LhaL whlch exerLs Lhe
conLrolţ are proposlLlons noL Lo be denledŦ 8uL all lnconslsLencles are Lo be reconclled bv Lhe
maalc of Lhe word confldenceŦ 1axaLlonţ lL ls saldţ does noL necessarllv and unavoldablv
desLrovŦ 1o carrv lL Lo Lhe excess of desLrucLlonţ would be an abuseţ Lo presume whlchţ
would banlsh LhaL confldence whlch ls essenLlal Lo all aovernmenLŦ (Chlef !usLlce Marshallţ
McCulloch vsŦ Marvlandţ 17 uS 316 ż1819Ž) ln Lhose davs (Lhe case of McCullouah vsŦ
Marvland ż1819Ž Ÿ LdŦ) lL was noL recoanlzed as lL ls Lodav LhaL mosL of Lhe dlsLlncLlons of
Lhe law are dlsLlncLlons of deareeŦ lf Lhe SLaLes had anv power lL was assumed LhaL Lhev had
all powerţ and LhaL Lhe necessarv alLernaLlve was Lo denv lL alLoaeLherŦ 8uL Lhls CourL whlch
so ofLen has defeaLed Lhe aLLempL Lo Lax ln cerLaln wavs can defeaL an aLLempL Lo
dlscrlmlnaLe or oLherwlse ao Loo far wlLhouL whollv abollshlna Lhe power Lo LaxŦ 1he power
Lo Lax ls noL Lhe power Lo desLrov whlle Lhls CourL slLsŦ 1he power Lo flx raLes ls Lhe power Lo
desLrov lf unllmlLedţ buL Lhls CourL whlle lL endeavors Lo prevenL conflscaLlon does noL
prevenL Lhe flxlna of raLesŦ (ulssenLlna oplnlon of !usLlce Polmesţ Þanhandle Cll CoŦ vsŦ SLaLe
of Mlsslsslppl Lx 8elŦ knoxţ 277 uS 218 ż1928Ž)Ŧ ConsLrulna Lhe ºpower Lo Lax ls Lhe power Lo
desLrovţ" lL merelv descrlbes ºnoL Lhe purposes for whlch Lhe Lax mav be used bL Lhe dearee
of vlaor wlLh whlch Lhe Laxlna power mav be emploved ln order Lo ralse revenue (1 Coolev
179Ŵ181)Ŧ
DŦ Who exerc|ses the power?
1Ŧ ln oenero/
1axlna power ls pecullarlv and excluslvelv lealslaLlve ln characLer and remalns undlmlnlshed
ln Lhe lealslaLlve ln characLer and remalns undlmlnlshed ln Lhe lealslaLure ln Lhe absence of
an express surrender Lhereofţ clear and expllclL ln lLs LermsŦ (31 AmŦ !urŦ 71Ŵ73) lL ls lnherenL
ln Lhe power Lo Lax LhaL a sLaLe be free Lo selecL Lhe sub[ecLs of LaxaLlonţ and lL has been
repeaLedlv held LhaL ºlnequallLles whlch resulL from a slnallna ouL of one parLlcular class for
LaxaLlonţ or exempLlon lnfrlnae no consLlLuLlonal llmlLaLlon" (Carmlchael vsŦ SouLhern Coal Ǝ
Coke CoŦţ 301 uŦ SŦ 493ţ 81 LŦ LdŦ 1243ţ clLlna numerous auLhorlLlesţ aL pŦ 1231)Ŧ
SLlllţ Lax collecLlon should be made ln accordance wlLh law as anv arblLrarlness wlll neaaLe
Lhe verv reason for aovernmenL lLselfŦ lL ls a requlremenL ln all democraLlc realmes LhaL lL be
exerclsed reasonablv and ln accordance wlLh Lhe prescrlbed procedureŦ lL ls Lherefore
necessarv Lo reconclle Lhe apparenLlv confllcLlna lnLeresLs of Lhe auLhorlLles and Lhe
Laxpavers so LhaL Lhe real purpose of LaxaLlonţ whlch ls Lhe promoLlon of Lhe common aoodţ
mav be achlevedŦ lf lL ls noLţ Lhen Lhe Laxpaver has a rlahL Lo complaln and Lhe courLs wlll
Lhen come Lo hls succorŦ lor all Lhe awesome power of Lhe Lax collecLorţ he mav sLlll be
sLopped ln hls Lracks lf Lhe Laxpaver can demonsLraLe LhaL Lhe law has noL been observedŦ
(Commlssloner of lnLernal 8evenue vŦ Alaue żC8 LŴ28896ţ 17 lebruarv 1988Ž)
Ŧ Loco/ 6overnment units
Þrevlouslvţ a munlclpal corporaLlon has no lnherenL power of LaxaLlonŦ 1o enacL a valld
ordlnanceţ Lhe ClLv musL flnd ln lLs charLer Lhe power Lo do soţ for sald power cannoL be
assumedŦ A munlclpal corporaLlonţ unllke a soverelan sLaLeţ ls cloLhed wlLh no lnherenL
power of LaxaLlonŦ lLs charLer musL plalnlv show an lnLenL Lo confer LhaL power or Lhe
corporaLlon cannoL assume lLŦ And Lhe power when aranLed ls Lo be consLrued sLrlcLlsslml
[urlsŦ Anv doubL or amblaulLv arlslna ouL of Lhe Lerm used musL be resolved aaalnsL Lhe
munlclpal corporaLlonŦ (SanLos Lumber CoŦ vsŦ ClLv of Cebuţ eL alŦţ 102 ÞhllŦţ 870Ť See also
Arona vsŦ 8afflnanţ 98 ÞhllŦţ 422)Ŧ nowţ dlrecL auLhorlLv has been conferred Lo local
aovernmenL unlLs bv Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlonţ speclflcallv SecLlon 3ţ ArLlcle x Lhereofţ whlch
provldes LhaL ºLach local aovernmenL unlL shall have Lhe power Lo creaLe lLs own sources of
revenues and Lo levv Laxesţ fees and charaes sub[ecL Lo such auldellnes and llmlLaLlons as Lhe
Conaress mav provldeţ conslsLenL wlLh Lhe baslc pollcv of local auLonomvŦ Such Laxesţ feesţ
and charaes shall accrue excluslvelv Lo Lhe local aovernmenLsŦ"
LxcepL as oLherwlse provlded ln Lhe Local CovernmenL Code (8A 7160)ţ Lhe provlnce mav
levv onlv Lhe Laxesţ feesţ and charaes as provlded ln ArLlcle lţ ChapLer llţ 1lLle lţ 8ook llŤ such
Lhe 1ax on 1ransfer of 8eal ÞroperLv CwnershlpŤ 1ax on 8uslness of ÞrlnLlna and ÞubllcaLlonŤ
lranchlse 1axŤ 1ax on Sandţ Cravel and CLher Cuarrv 8esourcesŤ Þrofesslonal 1axŤ
AmusemenL 1axŤ Annual llxed 1ax lor Lverv uellverv 1ruck or van of ManufacLurers or
Þroducersţ Wholesalers ofţ uealersţ or 8eLallers lnţ CerLaln ÞroducLs (SecLlon 134)Ŧ lurLherţ
munlclpallLles mav levv Laxesţ feesţ and charaes noL oLherwlse levled bv provlnces (SecLlon
142)Ŧ lurLhermoreţ Lhe clLvţ mav levv Lhe Laxesţ feesţ and charaes whlch Lhe provlnce or
munlclpallLv mav lmposeť Þrovldedţ howeverţ 1haL Lhe Laxesţ fees and charaes levled and
collecLed bv hlahlv urbanlzed and lndependenL componenL clLles shall accrue Lo Lhem and
dlsLrlbuLed ln accordance wlLh Lhe provlslons of Lhe Local CovernmenL Codeţ and Þrovlded
furLher LhaL Lhe raLes of Laxes LhaL Lhe clLv mav levv mav exceed Lhe maxlmum raLes allowed
for Lhe provlnce or munlclpallLv bv noL more Lhan 30Ʒ excepL Lhe raLes of professlonal and
amusemenL Laxes (SecLlon 131)Ŧ
SecLlon 130 of Lhe Local CovernmenL Code provldes for fundamenLal prlnclples LhaL shall
aovern Lhe exerclse of Lhe Laxlna and oLher revenueŴralslna powers of local aovernmenL
unlLsţ LhaL lsţ (a) 1axaLlon shall be unlform ln each local aovernmenL unlLŤ (b) 1axesţ feesţ
charaes and oLher lmposlLlons shallť (1) be equlLable and based as far as pracLlcable on Lhe
Laxpaver's ablllLv Lo pavŤ (2) be levled and collecLed onlv for publlc purposesŤ (3) noL be
un[usLţ excesslveţ oppresslveţ or conflscaLorvŤ (4) noL be conLrarv Lo lawţ publlc pollcvţ
naLlonal economlc pollcvţ or ln Lhe resLralnL of LradeŤ (c) 1he collecLlon of local Laxesţ feesţ
charaes and oLher lmposlLlons shall ln no case be leL Lo anv prlvaLe personŤ (d) 1he revenue
collecLed pursuanL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhe Local CovernmenL Code shall lnure solelv Lo Lhe
beneflL ofţ and be sub[ecL Lo Lhe dlsposlLlon bvţ Lhe local aovernmenL unlL levvlna Lhe Laxţ
feeţ charae or oLher lmposlLlon unless oLherwlse speclflcallv provlded herelnŤ andţ (e) Lach
local aovernmenL unlL shallţ as far as pracLlcableţ evolve a proaresslve svsLem of LaxaLlonŦ
ArtŦ VI 5ecŦ 28
5ect|on 28Ŧ
1Ŧ 1he rule of LaxaLlon shall be unlform and equlLableŦ 1he Conaress shall
evolve a proaresslve svsLem of LaxaLlonŦ
2Ŧ 1he Conaress mavţ bv lawţ auLhorlze Lhe ÞresldenL Lo flx wlLhln speclfled
llmlLsţ and sub[ecL Lo such llmlLaLlons and resLrlcLlons as lL mav lmposeţ
Larlff raLesţ lmporL and exporL quoLasţ Lonnaae and wharfaae duesţ and
oLher duLles or lmposLs wlLhln Lhe framework of Lhe naLlonal
developmenL proaram of Lhe CovernmenLŦ
3Ŧ CharlLable lnsLlLuLlonsţ churches and personaaes or convenLs
appurLenanL LhereLoţ mosquesţ nonŴproflL cemeLerlesţ and all landsţ
bulldlnasţ and lmprovemenLsţ acLuallvţ dlrecLlvţ and excluslvelv used for
rellalousţ charlLableţ or educaLlonal purposes shall be exempL from
LaxaLlonŦ
4Ŧ no law aranLlna anv Lax exempLlon shall be passed wlLhouL Lhe
concurrence of a ma[orlLv of all Lhe Members of Lhe ConaressŦ
ArtŦ kIVţ 5ecŦ 4 (3)
5ect|on 4Ŧ
xxx
3Ŧ All revenues and asseLs of nonŴsLockţ nonŴproflL educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons
used acLuallvţ dlrecLlvţ and excluslvelv for educaLlonal purposes shall be
exempL from Laxes and duLlesŦ upon Lhe dlssoluLlon or cessaLlon of Lhe
corporaLe exlsLence of such lnsLlLuLlonsţ Lhelr asseLs shall be dlsposed of
ln Lhe manner provlded bv lawŦ
ArtŦ kţ 5ecŦ 5
SecLlon 3Ŧ Lach local aovernmenL unlL shall have Lhe power Lo creaLe lLs own sources of
revenues and Lo levv Laxesţ fees and charaes sub[ecL Lo such auldellnes and llmlLaLlons as Lhe
Conaress mav provldeţ conslsLenL wlLh Lhe baslc pollcv of local auLonomvŦ Such Laxesţ feesţ
and charaes shall accrue excluslvelv Lo Lhe local aovernmenLsŦ
1ox £xemptions
Ŧ Notote
1ax exempLlons are elLher consLlLuLlonal or sLaLuLorvŦ LxempLlon ls aranLed rellalous and
charlLable lnsLlLuLlons because Lhev alve conslderable asslsLance Lo Lhe SLaLe ln Lhe
lmprovemenL of Lhe morallLv of Lhe people and Lhe care of Lhe lndlaenL and Lhe
handlcappedŦ (!usLlce Cruzţ ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ 2000 LdlLlonţ 92Ŵ93) SLaLuLorv excepLlons are
aranLed ln Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe lealslaLureţ buL such law should be passed wlLh Lhe
concurrence of a ma[orlLv of all Lhe Members of ConaressŦ Where Lhe LaxaLlon ls aranLed
araLulLouslvţ lL mav be valldlv revoked aL wlllţ wlLh or wlLhouL causeŦ Poweverţ lf Lhe
exempLlon ls aranLed for valuable conslderaLlon lL ls deemed Lo parLake of Lhe naLure of a
conLracL and Lhe obllaaLlon Lhereof ls proLecLed aaalnsL lmpalrmenL (lbldŦţ 94Ŵ93)
8v lLs verv naLureţ Lhe law LhaL exempLs one from Lax musL be clearlv expressed because Lhe
exempLlon cannoL be creaLed bv lmpllcaLlonŦ LxempLlon from LaxaLlon are hlahlv dlsfavored
ln lawŤ and he who clalms an exempLlon musL be able Lo [usLlfv hls clalm bv Lhe clearesL aranL
of oraanlc or sLaLuLe lawŦ An exempLlon from Lhe common burden cannoL be permlLLed Lo
exlsL upon vaaue lmpllcaLlonŦ (AslaLlc ÞeLroleum CoŦ vsŦ Llanesţ 49 ÞhllŦţ 466Ť See also Pouse
vsŦ Þosadasţ 33 ÞhllŦţ 338Ŧ)
1he LesL of exempLlon from LaxaLlon ls Lhe use of Lhe properLv for purposes menLloned ln Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon (AposLollc ÞrefecL of Lhe MounLaln Þrovlnce vsŦ Lhe 1reasurer of 8aaulo ClLv żC8
47232ţ 18 Aprll 1941Ž)Ŧ 1he phrase ºexempL from LaxaLlonţ" as emploved ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
should noL be lnLerpreLed Lo mean exempLlon from all klnds of LaxesŦ 1he exempLlon from
Lhe pavmenL of Laxes assessed on such properLles enumeraLed ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon are
properLv Laxesţ as conLraŴdlsLlnaulshed from exclse LaxesŦ A donee's alfL Lax ls noL a properLv
Lax buL an exclse Lax lmposed on Lhe Lransfer of properLv bv wav of alfL lnLer vlvosŦ lLs
assessmenL was noL on Lhe properLv LhemselvesŦ lL does noL resL upon aeneral ownershlpţ
buL an exclse upon Lhe use made of Lhe properLlesţ upon Lhe exerclse of Lhe prlvlleae of
recelvlna Lhe properLlesŦ 1he lmposlLlon of such exclse Lax on properLv used for rellalous
purposes do noL consLlLuLe an lmpalrmenL of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ (Lladoc vŦ Commlssloner of
lnLernal 8evenue żC8 LŴ19201ţ 16 !une 1963Ž)
As Lo franchlse aranLees and oLher enLlLles speclflcallv aranLed exempLlon bv Lhe lealslaLureţ
ºLax exempLlon musL be sLrlcLlv consLrued and LhaL Lhe exempLlon wlll noL be held Lo be
conferred unless Lhe Lerms under whlch lL ls aranLed clearlv and dlsLlncLlv show LhaL such
was Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhe parLlesŦ" (Þhlllpplne AceLvlene vsŦ Cl8 żC8 LŴ19707ţ 17 AuausL 1967Ž
2Ŧ 8otJeo € 9t€
1he cardlnal rule ln LaxaLlon ls LhaL exempLlons Lherefrom are hlahlv dlsfavored ln law and he
who clalms Lax exempLlon musL be able Lo [usLlfv hls clalm or rlahL LhereLo bv Lhe clearesL
aranL of oraanlc or sLaLuLe lawŦ (Wonder Mechanlcal Lnalneerlna vsŦ C1A żC8 LŴ22803 Ǝ LŴ
27838ţ 30 !une 1973Ž) 1he burden ls on Lhe Laxpaver Lo prove Lhe valldlLv of Lhe clalmed
deducLlonŦ lL ls Lhe unlversal rule LhaL he who clalms an exempLlon from hls share of Lhe
common burden of LaxaLlon musL [usLlfv hls clalm bv showlna LhaL Lhe LealslaLure lnLended
Lo exempL hlm bv words Loo plaln Lo be mlsLakenŦ (SLaLuLorv ConsLrucLlon bv lranclscoţ clLlna
CovernmenL of Þhlllpplne lslands vsŦ MonLe de Þledadţ 23 ÞhllŦ 42Ŧ)
lL ls axlomaLlc LhaL when publlc properLv ls lnvolvedţ exempLlon ls Lhe rule and LaxaLlonţ Lhe
excepLlonŦ (SSS vsŦ 8acolod ClLv żC8 LŴ33726ţ 21 !ulv 1982Ž)
""" cose(s)
34Ŧ ?MCA vsŦ Cl8ţ 33 ÞhllŦ 217 (1916)
33Ŧ 8lshop of nueva Seaovla vsŦ Þrovlnclal 8oardţ 31 ÞhllŦ 332 (1927)
36Ŧ Lladoc vsŦ Cl8ţ 14 SC8A 292 (1963)
37Ŧ Þrovlnce of Abra vsŦ Pernandoţ 107 SC8A 104 (1981)
38Ŧ Abra vallev Colleae vsŦ Aqulno ţ 162 SC8A 106 (1988)
39Ŧ Amerlcan 8lble SocleLv vsŦ ClLv of Manllaţ 101 ÞhllŦ 386 (1937)

uoub/e 1oxotion
1here ls double LaxaLlon when addlLlonal Laxes are lald on Lhe same sub[ecL bv Lhe same
Laxlna [urlsdlcLlon durlna Lhe same Laxlna perlod and for Lhe same purposeŦ (Coolev on
1axaLlonţ volŦ lţ 4Lh edŦţ pŦ 48) uouble LaxaLlon becomes obnoxlous onlv where Lhe Laxpaver
ls Laxed Lwlce for Lhe beneflL of Lhe same aovernmenLal enLlLv (cfŦ Manlla vsŦ lnLerlsland Cas
Servlceţ 32 CffŦ CazŦ 6379ţ ManufŦ Llfe lnsŦ CoŦ vsŦ Meerţ 89 ÞhllŦ 337)Ŧ
naLlonal vlsŴaŴvls localŦ Where one Lax ls lmposed bv Lhe sLaLe and Lhe oLher ls lmposed bv
Lhe clLvţ Lhe araumenL aaalnsL double LaxaLlon mav noL be lnvokedţ as Lhere ls noLhlna
lnherenLlv obnoxlous ln Lhe requlremenL LhaL llcense fees or Laxes be exacLed wlLh respecL Lo
Lhe same occupaLlonţ calllna or acLlvlLv bv boLh Lhe sLaLe and Lhe pollLlcal subdlvlslons
LhereofŦ (Þunsalan vŦ Munlclpal 8oard of Manlla żC8 LŴ4817ţ 26 Mav 1934Ž)
Þosslblv boLh localţ 1ax and llcense feeŦ 8oLh a llcense fee and a Lax mav be lmposed on Lhe
same buslness or occupaLlonţ or for selllna Lhe same arLlcleţ Lhls noL belna ln vlolaLlon of Lhe
rule aaalnsL double LaxaLlon (Companla Ceneral de 1abacos de llllplnas vsŦ Manlla żC8 LŴ
16619ţ 29 !une 1963ŽŤ clLlna 8enLlev Crav urv Coods CoŦţ vsŦ ClLv of 1ampa 137 llaŦ 641ţ 188
SCŦ 738Ť MacCullllnţ Munlclpal CorporaLlonsţ volŦ 9ţ 3rd LdlLlonţ pŦ 83)Ŧ
naLlonal vlsŴaŴvls anoLher counLrvŦ uouble LaxaLlon becomes obnoxlous onlv where Lhe
Laxpaver ls Laxed Lwlce for Lhe beneflL of Lhe same aovernmenLal enLlLv (cfŦ Manlla vsŦ
lnLerlsland Cas Servlceţ 32 CffŦ CazŦ 6379ţ ManufŦ Llfe lnsŦ CoŦ vsŦ Meerţ 89 ÞhllŦ 337)Ŧ Where
Lhe Laxpavers would have Lo pav Lwo Laxes on Lhe same lncome (one ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes and
one ln Lhe unlLed SLaLesţ for example)ţ Lhe Þhlllpplne aovernmenL onlv recelves Lhe proceeds
of one LaxŦ As beLween Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ where Lhe lncome was earned and where Lhe
Laxpaver ls domlclledţ and Lhe unlLed SLaLesţ where LhaL lncome was noL earned and where
Lhe Laxpaver dld noL resldeţ lL ls lndlspuLable LhaL [usLlce and equlLv demand LhaL Lhe Lax on
Lhe lncome should accrue Lo Lhe beneflL of Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ Anv rellef from Lhe alleaed double
LaxaLlon should come from Lhe unlLed SLaLesţ and noL from Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ slnce Lhe
former's rlahL Lo burden Lhe Laxpaver ls solelv predlcaLed on hls clLlzenshlpţ wlLhouL
conLrlbuLlna Lo Lhe producLlon of Lhe wealLh LhaL ls belna LaxedŦ (Cl8 vsŦ Lednlckv żC8 LŴ
18169ţ LŴ18286ţ Ǝ LŴ21434Ť 31 !ulv 1964ŦŽ)
""" cose(s)
60Ŧ Þunzalan vsŦ Munlclpal 8oard of Manllaţ 93 ÞhllŦ46 (1934)

License lees
1here are Lhree klnds of llcenses recoanlzed bv lawť (1) llcenses for Lhe reaulaLlon of useful
occupaLlonsŤ (2) llcenses for Lhe reaulaLlon or resLrlcLlon of nonŴuseful occupaLlons or
enLerprlsesŤ and (3) llcenses for revenue onlvŦ nonŴpavmenL of a llcense fee for a buslness
makes Lhe buslness llleaal unllke LaxŦ
1he amounL of Lhe fee or charae ls properlv consldered ln deLermlnlna wheLher lL ls a Lax or
an exerclse of Lhe pollce powerŦ 1he amounL mav be so larae as Lo lLself show LhaL Lhe
purpose was Lo ralse revenue and noL Lo reaulaLeţ buL ln reaard Lo Lhls maLLer Lhere ls a
marked dlsLlncLlon beLween llcense fees lmposed upon useful and beneflclal occupaLlons
whlch Lhe soverelan wlshes Lo reaulaLe buL noL resLrlcLţ and Lhose whlch are lnlmlcal and
danaerous Lo publlc healLhţ morals or safeLvŦ ln Lhe laLLer case Lhe fee mav be verv larae
wlLhouL necessarllv belna a LaxŦ (Coolev on 1axaLlonţ volŦ lvţ ppŦ 3316Ŵ17)
1he power Lo reaulaLe as an exerclse of pollce power does noL lnclude Lhe power Lo lmpose
fees for revenue purposesŦ lees for purelv reaulaLorv purposes ºmav onlv be of sufflclenL
amounL Lo lnclude Lhe expenses of lssulna Lhe llcense and Lhe cosL of Lhe necessarv
lnspecLlon or pollce survelllanceţ Laklna lnLo accounL noL onlv Lhe expense of dlrecL
reaulaLlon buL also lncldenLal expensesŦ (Cu un[lena vsŦ ÞaLsLoneţ 42 ÞhllŦ 818) 1he reaulaLorv
fee ºmusL be no more Lhan sufflclenL Lo cover Lhe acLual cosL of lnspecLlon or examlnaLlon as
nearlv as Lhe same can be esLlmaLedŦ lf lL were posslble Lo prove ln advance Lhe exacL cosLţ
LhaL would be Lhe llmlL of Lhe fee (Manlla LlecLrlc CoŦ vsŦ AudlLor Ceneralţ 73 ÞhllŦ 129Ŵ133)Ŧ
""" cose(s)
61Ŧ Þhvslcal 1herapv CraŦ vsŦ MunŦ 8oard of Manllaţ CŦ8Ŧ 10448ţ AuausL 30ţ 1937

VŴAŦ Ind|v|dua| k|ghtsť Due 9rocess
4rtŦ lllţ 5ecŦ l
no person shall be deprlved of llfeţ llberLvţ or properLv wlLhouL due process of lawţ nor shall
anv person be denled Lhe equal proLecLlon of Lhe lawsŦ

4rtŦ lllŦ 5ecŦ 14 {1)
no person shall be held Lo answer for a crlmlnal offense wlLhouL due process of lawŦ
1Ŧ Def|n|t|onţ Nature and 5cope
oŦ uefinition / concept
1he concepL of due process ls LhaL lL ls a law whlch hears before lL condemnsţ whlch
proceeds upon lnqulrvţ and renders [udamenL onlv afLer Lrlalţ so LhaL everv clLlzen shall hold
hls llfeţ llberLvţ properLvţ and lmmunlLles under Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe aeneral rules whlch
aovern socleLvŦ (PurLado vsŦ Þeople of SLaLe of Callfornla ż110 uŦSŦ 316ţ 3 March 1884Ž) lL ls
responslveness Lo Lhe supremacv of reasonţ obedlence Lo Lhe dlcLaLes of [usLlceŦ (LrmlLa
MalaLe PoLel Ǝ MoLel CperaLors AssoclaLlon vŦ ClLv of Manlla żC8 LŴ24693ţ 31 !ulv 1967Ž)
no aLLempL was made Lo spell ouL Lhe meanlna of due process or Lo deflne Lhe concepL wlLh
some dearee of exacLlLudeŦ uue process conLlnues Lo be dvnamlc and reslllenLţ adapLable Lo
everv slLuaLlon calllna for lLs appllcaLlonŦ 1he verv elasLlclLv of Lhe provlslon makes Lhls
posslble and Lhus enlaraes Lhe rlahLs of Lhe lndlvldual Lo hls llfeţ llberLv or properLvŦ (!usLlce
Cruzţ ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ 200 LdlLlonţ 98Ŵ99)
ºuue process of law" mean law ln lLs reaular course of admlnlsLraLlonţ accordlna Lo
prescrlbed formsţ and ln accordance wlLh Lhe aeneral rules for Lhe proLecLlon of lndlvldual
rlahLsŦ (PurLado vsŦ Callfornlaţ clLlna 8owan vŦ SLaLeţ 30 WlsŦ 129) uue processţ ln anv
parLlcular caseţ means such an exerclse of Lhe powers of Lhe aovernmenL as Lhe seLLled
maxlms of law permlL and sancLlon under such safeauards for Lhe proLecLlon of lndlvldual
rlahLs as Lhose maxlms prescrlbeŦ (lorbes vsŦ Chuoco 1lacoţ 16 ÞhllŦ 334ţ 372 ż1918Ž)
uue process ls descrlbed as ºresponslveness Lo Lhe supremacv of reasonţ obedlence Lo Lhe
dlcLaLes of [usLlce Ŧ"(LrmlLa MalaLe PoLel Ǝ MoLel CperaLors AssoclaLlon vŦ ClLv of Manlla żC8
LŴ24693ţ 31 !ulv 1967Ž) lL has been ldenLlfled as freedom from arblLrarlnessŦ lL ls Lhe
embodlmenL of Lhe sporLlna ldea of falr plavŦ (lrankfurLerţ MrŦ !usLlce Polmes and Lhe
Supreme CourL (1938) ppŦ 32Ŵ33Ŧ)
bŦ Noture
uvnamlcŦ uue process conLlnues Lo be dvnamlc and reslllenLţ adapLable Lo everv slLuaLlon
calllna for lLs appllcaLlonŦ 1he verv elasLlclLv of Lhe provlslon makes Lhls posslble and Lhus
enlaraes Lhe rlahLs of Lhe lndlvldual Lo hls llfeţ llberLv or properLvŦ (!usLlce Cruzţ
ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ 200 LdlLlonţ 98Ŵ99)
WalvableŦ 1he rlahL Lo be heard ls as ofLen walved as lL ls lnvokedţ and valldlv soţ as lona as
Lhe parLv ls alven an opporLunlLv Lo be heard on hls behalfŦ lf he opLs Lo be sllenL where he
has a rlahL Lo speakţ he cannoL laLer be heard Lo complaln LhaL he was undulv sllenced
(SLronahold lnsurance CoŦ lncŦ vsŦ CourL of Appeals żC8 88030ţ30 !anuarv 1990Ž)Ŧ
cŦ 5cope
uue process applles and proLecLs all personsţ wlLhouL reaard Lo anv dlfference of raceţ color
or naLlonallLvŦ ArLlflclal persons are covered bv Lhe proLecLlon buL onlv lnsofar as Lhelr
properLv ls concerned (SmlLh 8ell Ǝ CoŦ vsŦ naLlvldadţ 40 ÞhllŦ 163)Ŧ lL lncludes allens and
Lhelr means of llvellhood (vllleaas vŦ Plu Chlona 1sal Þao Po żC8 LŴ29646ţ 10 nov 1978Ž)Ŧ
Lven Lhe SLaLe ls enLlLled Lo due process (uv vsŦ CenaLoţ 37 SC8A 123ţ Þeople vsŦ 8ocarţ 138
SC8A 166)Ŧ
2Ŧ 9urpose of the guaranty
""" cose(s)
62Ŧ PurLado vŦ Callfornlaţ 110 uŦSŦ 316 (1884)

3Ŧ Mean|ng of L|feţ L|bertyţ and 9roperty
oŦ Life
Llfe lncludes Lhe rlahL of an lndlvldual Lo hls bodv ln lLs compleLenessţ and exLends Lo Lhe use
of CodŴalven faculLles whlch make llfe en[ovable (!usLlce Malcolmţ Þhlllpplne ConsLlLuLlonal
Lawţ 380Ť 8uck vsŦ 8ellţ 274 uS 200)Ŧ
1he consLlLuLlonal proLecLlon of Lhe rlahL Lo llfe ls noL [usL Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe rlahL Lo be
allve or Lo Lhe securlLv of one's llmb aaalnsL phvslcal harmŦ 1he rlahL Lo llfe ls also Lhe rlahL Lo
a aood llfeŦ (lrŦ 8ernasţ 1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnesť A
commenLarvţ 1996 LdlLlonţ 102)Ŧ
bŦ Liberty
LlberLv means Lhe rlahL Lo exlsL and Lhe rlahL Lo be free from arblLrarv personal resLralnL or
servlLudeŦ lL lncludes Lhe rlahL of Lhe clLlzen Lo be free Lo use faclllLles ln all lawful wavs (8ublţ
eLŦ alŦ vsŦ Þrovlnclal 8oard of Mlndoro żC8 14078ţ 7 March 1919Ž)
cŦ Property
ÞroperLv means anvLhlna LhaL can come under Lhe rlahL of ownershlp and be Lhe sub[ecL of
conLracLŦ lL represenLs more Lhan Lhe Lhlnas LhaL a person ownsŤ lL lncludes Lhe rlahL Lo
secure and dlspose of Lhem (1onaco vsŦ 1hompsonţ 263 uŦSŦ 197)Ŧ
ÞroLecLed properLv has been deemed Lo lnclude vesLed rlahLs as a perfecL mlnlna clalmţ or a
perfecLed homesLeadţ or a flnal [udamenLŦ lL also lncludes Lhe rlahL Lo work and Lhe rlahL Lo
earn a llvlna (lrŦ 8ernasţ 1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnesť A
commenLarvţ 1996 LdlLlonţ 101)Ŧ Cne's emplovmenLţ professlonţ Lradeţ or calllna ls proLecLed
properLv (CallanLa vsŦ CarnaLlon Þhlllpplnes lncŦţ 143 SC8A 268ţ 279 ż28 CcLober 1986Ž)Ŧ
A llcense ls noL consldered proLecLed properLvţ buL ls deemed a prlvlleae wlLhdrawn when
publlc lnLeresL requlred lLs wlLhdrawalŦ SLlllţ a prlvlleae mav evolve lnLo some form of
properLv proLecLed bv Lhe ConsLlLuLlon when a holder of such prlvlleae has been en[ovlna lL
for so lona and has puL ln subsLanLlal lnvesLmenL maklna Lhe buslness Lhe source of
emplovmenL for LhousandsŦ Cnce llcenses are lssuedţ conLlnued possesslon mav become
essenLlal ln Lhe pursulL f a llvellhoodŦ Suspenslon of lssued llcenses lnvolve sLaLe acLlon LhaL
ad[udlcaLed lmporLanL lnLeresLs of Lhe llcenseesŦ (8ell vsŦ 8ursonţ 402 uS 333ţ 339 ż1971Ž)
Þubllc offlce ls noL properLv buL a publlc LrusL or aaencvŦ 1he rlahL Lo offlceţ howeverţ ls
proLecLed rlahLŦ uue process mav be relled upon bv publlc offlclals Lo proLecL Lhe securlLv of
Lenure whlch ln Lhe llmlLed sense ls analoaous Lo properLv (Morfe vsŦ MuLucţ żC8 LŴ20387ţ 31
!anuarv 1968Ž)Ŧ
4Ŧ 5ubstant|ve Due 9rocess
SubsLanLlve due process requlres Lhe lnLrlnslc valldlLv of Lhe law ln lnLerferlna wlLh Lhe rlahLs
of Lhe person Lo hls llfeţ llberLv or properLvŦ 1he lnqulrv ls wheLher Lhe law ls a proper
exerclse of lealslaLlve powerŦ
keouisitesť
1Ŧ 1he means are reasonable for Lhe accompllshmenL of Lhe purpose of Lhe lawŤ and
2Ŧ 1he law musL be lnLended for Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe publlc raLher Lhan for prlvaLe
lnLeresLŦ
""" cose(s)
63Ŧ vllleaas vsŦ Pu Chona 1sal Þao Poţ 86 SC8A 273 (1978)
64Ŧ 8ubl vsŦ ÞrovŦ 8oard of Mlndoroţ 39 ÞhllŦ 660 (1919)
63Ŧ Cple vŦ 1orresţ 292 SC8A 141Ŧ (1998)
66Ŧ Lawrence and Carner vŦ 1exasţ 339 uŦSŦ 338 (2003)
67Ŧ LsLrada vŦ Sandlaanbavanţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 148360ţ november 19ţ 2001

5Ŧ 9rocedura| Due 9rocess
1he [usLlce LhaL procedural due process auaranLees ls Lhe one ºwhlch hears before lL
condemnsţ whlch proceeds upon lnqulrv and renders [udamenL onlv afLer LrlalŦ" (uanlel
WebsLerţ uarLmouLh Colleae vsŦ Woodwardţ 4 WheaLon 318) 1he Lwln requlremenLs of
noLlce and hearlna consLlLuLes Lhe essenLlal elemenLs of due process and nelLher of Lhese
elemenLs can be ellmlnaLed wlLhouL runnlna afoul of Lhe consLlLuLlonal auaranLvŦ (vlnLa
MarlLlme CoŦ lncŦ vsŦ nL8Cţ 286 SC8A 636)
keouisitesť
1Ŧ 1here musL be an lmparLlal Lrlbunal cloLhes wlLh [udlclal power Lo hear and
deLermlne Lhe maLLer before lLŦ
2Ŧ 1he courL musL have [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe person of Lhe defendanL and over Lhe
properLv whlch ls Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe proceedlnaţ lf anvŦ
3Ŧ 1here musL be opporLunlLv Lo be heardŦ
4Ŧ 1he [udamenL musL be rendered afLer Lrlal and ln accordance wlLh lawŦ
Pub/icotion keouirement
1he phrase ºunless lL ls oLherwlse provlded" refers noL Lo Lhe need of publlcaLlon buL Lo Lhe
requlremenL of 13 davsŦ 1he 13 davs can be lenaLhened or shorLened buL noL Lo Lhe polnL of
allowlna no publlcaLlon aL allŦ 1here can be no such Lhlna as a law LhaL ls effecLlve
lmmedlaLelvţ even lf Lhe law ls noL penal ln naLureŦ 1he underlvlna reason for Lhls rule ls LhaL
due processţ whlch ls a rule of falrnessţ requlres LhaL Lhose who musL obev a command musL
flrsL know Lhe commandŦ 8elaLed Lo Lhe rule on publlcaLlon ls Lhe rule on vaauenessŦ A law
LhaL ls uLLerlv vaaue ls defecLlve because lL falls Lo alve noLlce of whaL lL commandsŦ (lrŦ
8ernasţ 1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe Þhlllpplnesť A commenLarvţ 1996
LdlLlonţ 122)Ŧ As a ruleţ a sLaLuLe or acL mav be sald Lo be vaaue when lL lacks
comprehenslble sLandards LhaL men ºof common lnLelllaence musL necessarllv auess aL lLs
meanlna and dlffer as Lo lLs appllcaLlon (1rlbeţ Amerlcan ConsLlLuLlonal Law 718 (1987)ţ clLlna
Connallv vsŦ Ceneral ConsLrucLlon CoŦţ 269 uS 383 ż1926Ž)Ŧ lL ls repuananL Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
ln Lwo respecLsť (1) lL vlolaLes due process for fallure Lo accord personsţ especlallv Lhe parLles
LaraeLed bv lLţ falr noLlce of Lhe conducL Lo avoldŤ and (2) lL leaves law enforcers unbrldled
dlscreLlon ln carrvlna ouL lLs provlslons and becomes an arblLrarv flexlna of Lhe CovernmenL
muscleŦ (Þeople vsŦ nazarloţ 163 SC8A 186ţ 193Ŵ196)
""" cose(s)
68Ŧ 1anada vŦ 1uveraţ 146 SC8A 446 (1986)
69Ŧ Þl1C vŦ Anaelesţ 263 SC8A 421 (1996)
70Ŧ Þlllplnas kao vŦ CourL of Appealsţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 103014ţ uecember 18ţ 2001
71Ŧ 8epubllc vŦ LxLelcomţ CŦ8Ŧ 147096ţ !anuarv 13ţ 2002

lmportio/ court or 1ribuno/
A courL affecLed bv blas or pre[udlce cannoL be expecLed Lo render a falr and lmparLlal
declslonŦ Lverv llLlaanL ls enLlLled Lo Lhe cold neuLrallLv of an lmparLlal [udae (CuLlerrez vsŦ
SanLos żC8 LŴ13624ţ 30 Mav 1961Ž)Ŧ 1here cannoL be equal [usLlce where a sulLor approaches
a courL alreadv commlLLed Lo Lhe oLher parLv and wlLh a [udamenL alreadv walLlna onlv Lo be
formallzed afLer Lhe llLlaanLs shall have underaone Lhe charade of a formal hearlnaŦ 1he
[udae wlll reach hls concluslons onlv afLer all Lhe evldence ls ln and all Lhe araumenLs are
flledţ on Lhe basls of Lhe esLabllshed facLs and Lhe perLlnenL law (!avler vsŦ Commlsslon on
LlecLlonsţ 144 SC8A 194)Ŧ
SecLlon 1ţ 8ule 137 of Lhe 8evlsed 8ules of CourLŦ ulsquallflcaLlon of [udaesŦ Ÿ no [udae or
[udlclal offlcer shall slL ln anv case ln whlch heţ or hls wlfe or chlldţ ls pecunlarllv lnLeresLed as
helrţ leaaLeeţ credlLor or oLherwlseţ or ln whlch he ls relaLed Lo elLher parLv wlLhln Lhe slxLh
dearee of consanaulnlLv or afflnlLvţ or Lo counsel wlLhln Lhe fourLh deareeţ compuLed
accordlna Lo Lhe rules of Lhe clvll lawţ or ln whlch he has been execuLorţ admlnlsLraLorţ
auardlanţ LrusLee or counselţ or ln whlch he has been preslded ln anv lnferlor courL when hls
rullna or declslon ls Lhe sub[ecL of revlewţ wlLhouL Lhe wrlLLen consenL of all parLles ln
lnLeresLţ slaned bv Lhem and enLered upon Lhe recordŦ
A [udae mavţ ln Lhe exerclse of hls sound dlscreLlonţ dlsquallfv hlmself from slLLlna ln a caseţ
for [usL or valld reasons oLher Lhan Lhose menLloned aboveŦ
"""cose(s)
72Ŧ 1anada vsŦ ÞALCţ 141 SC8A 307 (1986)
73Ŧ Anzaldo vsŦ Clave ţ 119 SC8A 333 (1982)
74Ŧ 1umev vsŦ Chloţ 273 uŦSŦ 310 (1997)
73Ŧ Þeople vŦ CourL of Appealsţ 262 SC8A 432 (1996)
76Ŧ 1abuena vŦ Sandlaanbavanţ 268 SC8A 332 (1997)
77Ŧ Þeople vŦ Medenlllaţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 131636Ŵ39Ŧ March 23ţ 2001

Prejudicio/ Pub/icity
Þervaslve and pre[udlclal publlclLv under cerLaln clrcumsLances can deprlve an accused of hls
due process rlahL Lo falr LrlalŦ Poweverţ pervaslve publlclLv ls noL per se pre[udlclal Lo Lhe
rlahL of an accused Lo falr LrlalŦ 1he mere exposure of [udaes Lo publlcaLlons and publlclLv
sLunLs does noL per se faLallv lnfecL Lhelr lmparLlallLvŦ 1o warranL a flndlna of pre[udlclal
publlclLvţ Lhere musL be alleaaLlon and proof LhaL Lhe [udaes have been undulv lnfluenced bv
Lhe barraae of publlclLvŦ (Þeople vŦ Sanchez żC8 121039Ŵ43ţ 18 CcLober 2001Ž) SLlllţ Lhe
Supreme CourL remlnds a Lrlal [udae ln hlah proflle crlmlnal cases of hls/her duLv Lo conLrol
publlclLv pre[udlclal Lo Lhe falr admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlceŦ 1he ablllLv Lo dlspense lmparLlal
[usLlce ls an lssue ln everv Lrlal and ln everv crlmlnal prosecuLlonţ Lhe [udlclarv alwavs sLands
as a sllenL accusedŦ More Lhan convlcLlna Lhe aullLv and acqulLLlna Lhe lnnocenLţ Lhe buslness
of Lhe [udlclarv ls Lo assure fulflllmenL of Lhe promlse LhaL [usLlce shall be done and ls doneţ
and LhaL ls Lhe onlv wav for Lhe [udlclarv Lo aeL an acqulLLal from Lhe bar of publlc oplnlonŦ
(Webb vŦ de Leon żC8 121234ţ 23 AuausL 1993Ž)
""" cose(s)
78Ŧ Webb vŦ ue Leonţ 247 SC8A 632 (1993)
79Ŧ Þeople vŦ Sanchezţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 121039ţ CcLober 18ţ 2001

Notice ond neorinoť
noLlce Lo a parLv ls essenLlal Lo enable lL Lo adduce lLs own evldence and Lo meeL and refuLe
Lhe evldence submlLLed bv Lhe oLher parLvŦ A declslon rendered wlLhouL a hearlna ls null and
vold ab lnlLlo and mav be aLLacked dlrecLlv or collaLerallv (uavld vsŦ Aqulllzanţ 94 SC8A 707)Ŧ
uue process ls noL vlolaLed where a person ls noL heard because he has chosenţ for whaLever
reasonţ noL Lo be heardŦ lf he opLs Lo be sllenL where he has a rlahL Lo speakţ he cannoL laLer
be heard Lo complaln LhaL he was undulv sllenced (SLronahold lnsurance CoŦ lncŦ vsŦ CourL of
Appeals żC8 88030ţ30 !anuarv 1990Ž)Ŧ
""" cose(s)
80Ŧ Summarv ulsmlssal 8oard vŦ 1orclLaţ 330 SC8A 133 (2000)
81Ŧ SecreLarv of !usLlce vŦ LanLlonţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 139466ţ CcLober 17ţ 2000
82Ŧ Þeople vsŦ LsLrada CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 130487 !une 19ţ 2000
83Ŧ Llm vŦ CourL of Appealsţ CŦ8Ŧ 111397ţ AuausL 12ţ 2002
84Ŧ 8odrlauez vŦ CourL of Appealsţ CŦ8Ŧ 134278ţ AuausL 7ţ 2002
83Ŧ 8oxas vŦ vasquezţ CŦ8Ŧ 114944ţ !une 21ţ 2001

£xceptions to notice ond heorino reouirements
uue process as a consLlLuLlonal precepL does noLţ alwavs and ln all slLuaLlonsţ requlre LrlalŴ
Lvpe proceedlnasŦ 1he essence of due process ls Lo be found ln Lhe reasonable opporLunlLv Lo
be heard and Lo submlL anv evldence one mav have ln supporL of one's defenseŦ º'1o be
heard' does noL onlv mean verbal araumenLs ln courLŦ Cne mav be heard also Lhrouah
pleadlnasŦ Where opporLunlLv Lo be headţ elLher Lhrouah oral araumenLs or pleadlnasţ ls
accorded ţ Lhere ls no denlal of procedural due processŦ (Zaldlvar vsŦ Sandlaanbavanţ 166
SC8A 316)
Aslde from sLaLuLeţ Lhe necesslLv of noLlce and hearlna ln an admlnlsLraLlve proceedlna
depends on Lhe characLer of Lhe proceedlna and Lhe clrcumsLances lnvolvedŦ ln so far as
aenerallzaLlon ls posslble ln vlew of Lhe areaL varleLv of admlnlsLraLlve proceedlnasţ lL mav be
sLaLed as a aeneral rule LhaL noLlce and hearlna are noL essenLlal Lo Lhe valldlLv of
admlnlsLraLlve acLlon where Lhe admlnlsLraLlve bodv acLs ln Lhe exerclse of execuLlveţ
admlnlsLraLlveţ or lealslaLlve funcLlonsŤ buL where a publlc admlnlsLraLlve bodv acLs ln a
[udlclal or quaslŴ[udlclal maLLerţ and lLs acLs are parLlcular and lmmedlaLe raLher Lhan aeneral
and prospecLlveţ Lhe person whose rlahLs or properLv mav be affecLed bv Lhe acLlon ls
enLlLled Lo noLlce and hearlna (73 CŦ!ŦSŦ Þubllc AdmlnlsLraLlve 8odles and Þrocedureţ secŦ 130ţ
paaes 432 and 433Ť clLed ln ÞhllcomsaL vŦ Alcuaz żC8 84818ţ 18 uecember 1989Ž)Ŧ
1he rlahL Lo appeal ls noL essenLlal Lo Lhe rlahL Lo a hearlnaŦ LxcepL when auaranLeed bv Lhe
consLlLuLlonţ appeal mav be allowed or denled bv Lhe lealslaLure ln lLs dlscreLlonsŦ 8uL as lona
as Lhe law allows hlm Lo appealţ denlal of LhaL remedv ls a denlal of due processŦ 1he
lealslaLure cannoL deprlve anvone of Lhe rlahL Lo appeals ln (1) all cases ln whlch Lhe
consLlLuLlonallLv or valldlLv of anv LreaLvţ lnLernaLlonal or execuLlve aareemenLţ lawţ
presldenLlal decreeţ proclamaLlonţ orderţ lnsLrucLlonţ ordlnanceţ or reaulaLlon ls ln quesLlonŤ
(2) all cases lnvolvlna Lhe leaallLv of anv Laxţ lmposLţ assessmenLţ or Lollţ or anv penalLv
lmposed ln relaLlon LhereLoŤ (3) all cases ln whlch Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of anv lower courL ls ln
lssueŤ (4) all crlmlnal cases ln whlch Lhe penalLv lmposed ls recluslon perpeLua or hlaherŤ and
(3) all cases ln whlch onlv an error or quesLlon of law ls lnvolvedŤ as speclfled ln ArLlcle vlllţ
SecLlon 3 (2) of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlonŦ
""" cose(s)
86Ŧ ÞhllcomsaL vsŦ Alcuazţ 180 SC8A 218 (1989)
87Ŧ SunLav vsŦ Þeopleţ 101 ÞhllŦ 833 (1937)
88Ŧ ue 8lsshop vsŦ Calanaţ 8 SC8A 244 (1963)
89Ŧ var CrlenL Shlpplna CoŦţ lncŦ vsŦ Achacosoţ 161 SC8A 232 (1988)

6Ŧ Adm|n|strat|ve Due 9rocess
keouisitesť
1Ŧ 1here musL be a hearlnaţ whlch lncludes Lhe rlahL Lo presenL one's case and submlL
evldence ln supporL LhereofŤ
2Ŧ 1he Lrlbunal musL conslder Lhe evldence presenLedŤ
3Ŧ 1he declslon musL have someLhlna Lo supporL lLselfŤ
4Ŧ 1he evldence musL be subsLanLlalŤ
3Ŧ 1he declslon musL be rendered on Lhe evldence presenLed aL Lhe hearlna or aL leasL
conLalned ln Lhe record and dlsclosed Lo Lhe parLlesŤ
6Ŧ 1he Lrlbunal or anv of lLs [udaes musL acL on lLs or hls own lndependenL
conslderaLlon of Lhe facLs and Lhe law of Lhe conLroversvţ and noL slmplv accepL
Lhe vlews of a subordlnaLe ln arrlvlna aL a declslonŤ and
7Ŧ 1he board or bodv shouldţ ln all conLroverslal quesLlonsţ render lLs declslon ln such
a manner LhaL Lhe parLles Lo Lhe proceedlna can know Lhe varlous lssues lnvolvedţ
and Lhe reasons for Lhe declslonŦ
""" cose(s)
90Ŧ Ana 1lbav vsŦ Cl8ţ 69 ÞhllŦ 633 (1940)
91Ŧ MonLemavor vsŦ AraneLa unlverslLv loundaLlonţ 77 SC8A 321 (1977)
92Ŧ Meralco vsŦ ÞSCţ 11 SC8A 317 (1964)
93Ŧ ALeneo vsŦ CAţ 143 SC8A 100 (1986)
94Ŧ Alcuaz vsŦ ÞS8Aţ 161 SC8A 7 (1988)
93Ŧ non vsŦ PonŦ uamesţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 89317ţ Mav 30ţ 1990




qua| 9rotect|on
Def|n|t|on
Lqual proLecLlon slmplv means LhaL all persons or Lhlnas slmllarlv slLuaLed musL be LreaLed
allke boLh as Lo Lhe rlahLs conferred and Lhe llablllLles lmposedŦ (AssoclaLlon of Small
Landowners ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes lncŦ vsŦ SecreLarv of Aararlan 8eform żC8 78741ţ 14 !ulv 1989ŽŤ
lchona vsŦ Pernandezţ 11 ÞhllŦ 1133)
App||cat|on
1Ŧ £ouo/ 4pp/icotion
SubsLanLlve equallLv ls noL enouahŦ lL ls also requlred LhaL Lhe law be applled equallvŦ Lven lf
Lhe law ls falr and lmparLlal on lLs faceţ lL wlll sLlll vlolaLe equal proLecLlon lf lL ls admlnlsLered
ºwlLh an evll eve and an uneven handţ" so as Lo un[usLlv beneflL some and pre[udlce oLhersŦ
Ŧ vo/id c/ossificotion
1he clause ºequal proLecLlon of Lhe laws" does noL preclude classlflcaLlon of lndlvldualsţ who
mav be accorded dlfferenL LreaLmenL under Lhe law as lona as Lhe classlflcaLlon ls noL
unreasonable or arblLrarvŦ (Lozano vsŦ MarLlnezţ 146 SC8A 323)
ClasslflcaLlon has been deflned as Lhe arouplna of persons or Lhlnas slmllar Lo each oLher ln
cerLaln parLlculars and dlfferenL from each oLher ln Lhese same parLlcularsŦ (lnLernaLlonal
ParvesLer CoŦ vsŦ Mlssourlţ 234 uS 199) 1o be valldţ lL musL conform Lo Lhe followlna
requlremenLsť (1) lL musL be based on subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlonsŤ (2) lL musL be aermane Lo Lhe
purposes of Lhe lawŤ (3) lL musL noL be llmlLed Lo exlsLlna condlLlons onlvŤ and (4) lL musL
applv equallv Lo all Lhe members of Lhe classŦ (Þeople vŦ CavaLţ 68 ÞhllŦ 12)
9o||t|ca|ţ conom|c and 5oc|a| qua||ty
ArtŦ kIIIţ 5ecŦ 1 and 2 (soc|a| [ust|ce)
SecLlon 1Ŧ 1he Conaress shall alve hlahesL prlorlLv Lo Lhe enacLmenL of measures LhaL proLecL
and enhance Lhe rlahL of all Lhe people Lo human dlanlLvţ reduce soclalţ economlcţ and
pollLlcal lnequallLlesţ and remove culLural lnequlLles bv equlLablv dlffuslna wealLh and
pollLlcal power for Lhe common aoodŦ
1o Lhls endţ Lhe SLaLe shall reaulaLe Lhe acqulslLlonţ ownershlpţ useţ and dlsposlLlon of
properLv and lLs lncremenLsŦ
SecLlon 2Ŧ 1he promoLlon of soclal [usLlce shall lnclude Lhe commlLmenL Lo creaLe economlc
opporLunlLles based on freedom of lnlLlaLlve and selfŴrellanceŦ
IdŦţ 5ecŦ 3 (protect|on to |abor)
SecLlon 3Ŧ 1he SLaLe shall afford full proLecLlon Lo laborţ local and overseasţ oraanlzed and
unoraanlzedţ and promoLe full emplovmenL and equallLv of emplovmenL opporLunlLles for
allŦ
lL shall auaranLee Lhe rlahLs of all workers Lo selfŴoraanlzaLlonţ collecLlve baraalnlna and
neaoLlaLlonsţ and peaceful concerLed acLlvlLlesţ lncludlna Lhe rlahL Lo sLrlke ln accordance
wlLh lawŦ 1hev shall be enLlLled Lo securlLv of Lenureţ humane condlLlons of workţ and a llvlna
waaeŦ 1hev shall also parLlclpaLe ln pollcv and declslonŴmaklna processes affecLlna Lhelr
rlahLs and beneflLs as mav be provlded bv lawŦ
1he SLaLe shall promoLe Lhe prlnclple of shared responslblllLv beLween workers and
emplovers and Lhe preferenLlal use of volunLarv modes ln seLLllna dlspuLesţ lncludlna
conclllaLlonţ and shall enforce Lhelr muLual compllance LherewlLh Lo fosLer lndusLrlal peaceŦ
1he SLaLe shall reaulaLe Lhe relaLlons beLween workers and emploversţ recoanlzlna Lhe rlahL
of labor Lo lLs [usL share ln Lhe frulLs of producLlon and Lhe rlahL of enLerprlses Lo reasonable
reLurns Lo lnvesLmenLsţ and Lo expanslon and arowLhŦ
ArtŦ kIIţ 5ecŦ 10 (nat|ona||zat|on of bus|ness)
SecLlon 10Ŧ 1he Conaress shallţ upon recommendaLlon of Lhe economlc and plannlna aaencvţ
when Lhe naLlonal lnLeresL dlcLaLesţ reserve Lo clLlzens of Lhe Þhlllpplnes or Lo corporaLlons
or assoclaLlons aL leasL slxLv per cenLum of whose caplLal ls owned bv such clLlzensţ or such
hlaher percenLaae as Conaress mav prescrlbeţ cerLaln areas of lnvesLmenLsŦ 1he Conaress
shall enacL measures LhaL wlll encouraae Lhe formaLlon and operaLlon of enLerprlses whose
caplLal ls whollv owned bv llllplnosŦ
ln Lhe aranL of rlahLsţ prlvlleaesţ and concesslons coverlna Lhe naLlonal economv and
paLrlmonvţ Lhe SLaLe shall alve preference Lo quallfled llllplnosŦ
1he SLaLe shall reaulaLe and exerclse auLhorlLv over forelan lnvesLmenLs wlLhln lLs naLlonal
[urlsdlcLlon and ln accordance wlLh lLs naLlonal aoals and prlorlLlesŦ
ldŦţ SecŦ 2ţ parŦ 2 (reservaLlon of marlne resources)
5ect|on 2Ŧ xxx
1he SLaLe shall proLecL Lhe naLlon's marlne wealLh ln lLs archlpelaalc waLersţ LerrlLorlal seaţ
and excluslve economlc zoneţ and reserve lLs use and en[ovmenL excluslvelv Lo llllplno
clLlzensŦ
ArtŦ IIIţ 5ecŦ 11 (free access to the courts)
SecLlon 11Ŧ lree access Lo Lhe courLs and quaslŴ[udlclal bodles and adequaLe leaal asslsLance
shall noL be denled Lo anv person bv reason of poverLvŦ
ArtŦ VIIIţ 5ecŦ 5(5) (|ega| a|d to poor)
5ect|on 5Ŧ 1he 5upreme Court sha|| have the fo||ow|ng powersť
xxx
3Ŧ ÞromulaaLe rules concernlna Lhe proLecLlon and enforcemenL of
consLlLuLlonal rlahLsţ pleadlnaţ pracLlceţ and procedure ln all courLsţ Lhe
admlsslon Lo Lhe pracLlce of lawţ Lhe lnLearaLed barţ and leaal asslsLance
Lo Lhe underŴprlvlleaedŦ Such rules shall provlde a slmpllfled and
lnexpenslve procedure for Lhe speedv dlsposlLlon of casesţ shall be
unlform for all courLs of Lhe same aradeţ and shall noL dlmlnlshţ lncreaseţ
or modlfv subsLanLlve rlahLsŦ 8ules of procedure of speclal courLs and
quaslŴ[udlclal bodles shall remaln effecLlve unless dlsapproved bv Lhe
Supreme CourLŦ
ArtŦ IkŴCţ 5ecŦ 10 (protect|on of cand|dates)
SecLlon 10Ŧ 8ona flde candldaLes for anv publlc offlce shall be free from anv form of
harassmenL and dlscrlmlnaLlonŦ
ArtŦ IIţ 5ecŦ 26 (pub||c serv|ce)
SecLlon 26Ŧ 1he SLaLe shall auaranLee equal access Lo opporLunlLles for publlc servlce and
prohlblL pollLlcal dvnasLles as mav be deflned bv lawŦ
ArtŦ IIţ 5ecŦ 14 (equa||ty of women and men)
SecLlon 14Ŧ 1he SLaLe recoanlzes Lhe role of women ln naLlonŴbulldlnaţ and shall ensure Lhe
fundamenLal equallLv before Lhe law of women and menŦ
5exua| D|scr|m|nat|on
Where Lhe classlflcaLlon ls based on such dlsLlncLlons LhaL make a real dlfference as lnfancvţ
sexţ and sLaae of clvlllzaLlon of mlnorlLv aroupsţ Lhe beLLer rule ls Lo recoanlze lLs valldlLv onlv
lf Lhe vounaţ Lhe womenţ and Lhe culLural mlnorlLles are slnaled ouL for favorable LreaLmenLŦ
(ÞASLl żÞhlllpplne AssoclaLlon of Servlce LxporLers lncŽ vŦ urllon żC8 LŴ81938ţ 30 !une 1988Ž)
""" cose(s)
96Ŧ ÞhllŦ AssoclaLlon of Servlce LxporLers vsŦ urllonţ 163 SC8A 386 (1988)

1axat|on
1he rule of LaxaLlon shall be unlform and equlLableŦ 1hls requlremenL ls meL when Lhe Lax
operaLes wlLh Lhe same force and effecL ln everv place where Lhe sub[ecL mav be foundŦ 1he
rule of unlformlLv does noL call for perfecL unlformlLv or perfecL equallLvţ because Lhls ls
hardlv aLLalnableŦ 1axpavers mav be classlfled lnLo dlfferenL caLeaorlesŦ lL ls enouah LhaL Lhe
classlflcaLlon musL resL upon subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlons LhaL make real dlfferencesŦ (Slson vŦ
AncheLa żC8 LŴ39431ţ 23 !ulv 1984Ž)
""" cose(s)
97Ŧ Slson vsŦ AncheLaţ 130 SC8A 634 (1984)

Adm|n|strat|on of Iust|ce
AlLhouah Lhe consLlLuLlonal auaranLv requlres Lhe LreaLmenL allkeţ ln Lhe same place and
under llke clrcumsLances and condlLlonsţ of all persons sub[ecLed Lo sLaLe lealslaLlonŤ a sLaLeţ
as a parL of lLs pollce powerţ mav exerclse a larae measure of dlscreLlonţ wlLhouL vlolaLlna Lhe
equal proLecLlon auaranLvţ ln creaLlna and deflnlna crlmlnal offensesţ and mav make
classlflcaLlons as Lo persons amenable Lo punlshmenLţ so lona as Lhe classlflcaLlons are
reasonable and Lhe lealslaLlon bears equallv on all ln Lhe same classţ andţ where a reasonable
classlflcaLlon ls made as beLween persons or corporaLlonsţ Lhe persons or corporaLlons ln
each class mav be dealL wlLh ln a manner dlfferenL from LhaL emploved wlLh reaard Lo Lhe
persons or corporaLlons ln oLher classesŦ (Þeople vŦ lslnaln żC8 LŴ2837ţ 28 lebruarv 1930Ž)
Cnce a case has been flled before a courL of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlonţ Lhe maLLer of lLs
dlsmlssal or pursuance lles wlLhln Lhe full dlscreLlon and conLrol of Lhe [udaeţ once
[urlsdlcLlon ls acqulred bv Lhe Lrlal courLŦ 1he aovernmenL prosecuLor of lllŴaoLLen wealLh
casesţ cannoL auaranLee Lhe dlsmlssal of all such crlmlnal cases pendlna ln Lhe courLsţ for sald
dlsmlssal ls noL wlLhln lLs sole power and dlscreLlonŦ 1hls ls a dlrecL encroachmenL on [udlclal
powersţ parLlcularlv ln reaard Lo crlmlnal [urlsdlcLlonŦ (Chavez vŦ ÞCCC żC8 130716ţ 9
uecember 1998Ž)
1he classlflcaLlon beLween Lhose pendlna cases lnvolvlna Lhose whose Lrlal has noL veL
commenced and whose cases could have been affecLed bv Lhe amendmenLsţ as aaalnsL Lhose
cases where Lrlal had alreadv sLarLed as of Lhe approval of Lhe lawţ resLs on subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon LhaL makes real dlfferencesŦ ln Lhe flrsL lnsLanceţ evldence aaalnsL Lhem were noL
veL presenLedţ whereas ln Lhe laLLer Lhe parLles had alreadv submlLLed Lhelr respecLlve
proofsţ examlned wlLnesses and presenLed documenLsŦ Slnce lL ls wlLhln Lhe power of
Conaress Lo deflne Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of courLs sub[ecL Lo Lhe consLlLuLlonal llmlLaLlonsţ lL can be
reasonablv anLlclpaLed LhaL an alLeraLlon of LhaL [urlsdlcLlon would necessarllv affecL pendlna
casesţ whlch ls whv lL has Lo provlde for a remedv ln Lhe form of a LranslLorv provlslonŦ
(Lacson vŦ LxecuLlve SecreLarv żC8 128096ţ 20 !anuarv 1999Ž)
""" cose(s)
98Ŧ Þeople vsŦ Pernandezţ 99 ÞhllŦ 313 (1936)
99Ŧ Þeople vsŦ lslnalnţ 83 ÞhllŦ 648 (1930)
100Ŧ Chavez vŦ ÞCCCţ CŦ8Ŧ 130716ţ uecember 9ţ 1998
101Ŧ nunez vsŦ Sandlaanbavanţ 111 SC8A 433 (1982)
102Ŧ Lacson vŦ LxecuLlve SecreLarvţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 128096ţ !anuarv 20ţ 1999
103Ŧ Sorlano vŦ CŦAŦţ 304 SC8A 231 (1999)
9ub||c 9o||cy
""" cose(s)
104Ŧ unldo vsŦ CCMLLLCţ 104 SC8A 17 (1981)
103Ŧ Þ!A vsŦ Þradoţ 227 SC8A 703 (1993)
106Ŧ Cllvarez vŦ Sandlaanbavanţ 248 SC8A 700 (1993)
107Ŧ 1lu vŦ CourL of Appealsţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 127410ţ !anuarv 20ţ 1999
108Ŧ lSAL vŦ Culsumblnaţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 128843ţ !une 1ţ 2000
109Ŧ ÞPlL8LCA vsŦ ulLCţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 143076Ŧ !une 10ţ 2003




NonŴImpa|rment C|ause
ArtŦ IIIţ 5ecŦ 10
SecLlon 10Ŧ no law lmpalrlna Lhe obllaaLlon of conLracLs shall be passedŦ
ectlo JlssecteJ
aŦ LawŦ lL lncludes sLaLuLes enacLed bv Lhe naLlonal lealslaLureţ execuLlve orders and
admlnlsLraLlve reaulaLlons promulaaLed under a valld deleaaLlon of powerţ and
munlclpal ordlnances passed bv Lhe local lealslaLlve bodles (Llm vsŦ 8ealsLer of
ueedsţ 46 CC 3663)Ŧ lL does noL lnclude [udlclal declslons or ad[udlcaLlons made bv
admlnlsLraLlve bodles ln Lhe exerclse of Lhelr quaslŴ[udlclal powersŦ (!usLlce Cruzţ
ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ 2000 LdlLlonţ 233)
bŦ lmpalrmenLŦ lL ls anvLhlna LhaL dlmlnlshes Lhe efflcacv of Lhe conLracL (ClemenLs vsŦ
nolLlnaţ 42 ÞhllŦ 702)
cŦ CbllaaLlonŦ 1he obllaaLlon of a conLracL ls Lhe law or duLv whlch blnds Lhe parLles Lo
perform Lhelr underLaklna or aareemenL accordlna Lo lLs Lerms and lnLenLŦ
(SLuraees vsŦ Crownshleldsţ 4 WheaLŦ 122)
dŦ ConLracLsŦ lL refers Lo anv lawful aareemenL on properLv or properLv rlahLsţ
wheLher real or personalţ Lanalble or lnLanalbleŦ 1he aareemenL mav be execuLed
or execuLorvŦ (!usLlce Cruzţ ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ 2000 LdlLlonţ 232) lL does noL
lnclude llcenses and publlc offlceŦ
1Ŧ 9urpose
1he purpose of Lhe nonŴlmpalrmenL clause ls Lo safeauard Lhe lnLearlLv of valld conLracLual
aareemenLs aaalnsL unwarranLed lnLerference bv Lhe SLaLeŦ As a ruleţ Lhe wlll of Lhe obllaor
and Lhe obllaee musL be observed and Lhe obllaaLlon of Lhelr conLracL musL noL be lmpalredŦ
(!usLlce Cruzţ ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ 2000 LdlLlonţ 232)
2Ŧ When |mpa|rment occurs
1o lmpalrţ Lhe law musL reLroacL so as Lo affecL exlsLlna conLracLs concluded before lLs
enacLmenLŦ A laLer law (excepL lf lL lnvolves pollce power) whlch enlaraesţ abrldaesţ or ln anv
manner chanaes Lhe lnLenL of Lhe parLles Lo Lhe conLracL necessarllv lmpalrs Lhe conLracL
lLself and cannoL be alven reLroacLlve effecL wlLhouL vlolaLlna Lhe consLlLuLlonal prohlblLlon
aaalnsL lmpalrmenL of conLracLsŦ (Sanaalana vŦ lnLermedlaLe AppellaLe CourL (lAC) żC8 71169ţ
22 uecember 1988Ž)
lmpalrmenL ls anvLhlna LhaL dlmlnlshes Lhe efflcacv of Lhe conLracLŦ 1he dearee of dlmlnuLlon
ls lmmaLerlalŦ As lona as Lhe orlalnal rlahLs of elLher of Lhe parLles are chanaed Lo lLs
pre[udlceţ Lhere ls an lmpalrmenL of Lhe obllaaLlon of Lhe conLracLŦ (!usLlce Cruzţ
ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ 2000 LdlLlonţ 234Ŵ233)
ln case of remedlesţ Lhere wlll be lmpalrmenL onlv lf all of Lhem are wlLhdrawnţ wlLh Lhe
resulL LhaL elLher of Lhe parLles wlll be unable Lo enforce hls rlahLs under Lhe orlalnal
aareemenLŦ 1here wlll be no lmpalrmenL as lona as a subsLanLlal and efflcaclous remedv
remalnsŦ 1hls rule holds Lrue even lf Lhe remedv reLalned ls Lhe mosL dlfflculL Lo emplov and
lL ls Lhe easler ones LhaL are wlLhdrawnŦ (Manlla 1radlna CoŦ vsŦ 8evesţ 62 ÞhllŦ 461)
3Ŧ When a||owed
Whlle nonŴlmpalrmenL of conLracLs ls consLlLuLlonallv auaranLeedţ Lhe rule ls noL absoluLeţ
slnce lL has Lo be reconclled wlLh Lhe lealLlmaLe exerclse of pollce powerŦ (CrLlaas vŦ leaLl żC8
LŴ24670ţ 14 uecember 1979Ž) 1he prohlblLlon ls aeneralţ affordlna a broad ouLllne and
requlrlna consLrucLlon Lo flll ln Lhe deLallsŦ 1he prohlblLlon ls noL Lo read wlLh llLeral
exacLness llke a maLhemaLlcal formula for lL prohlblLs unreasonable lmpalrmenL onlvŦ ln splLe
of Lhe consLlLuLlonal prohlblLlon Lhe SLaLe conLlnues Lo possess auLhorlLv Lo safeauard Lhe
vlLal lnLeresLs of lLs peopleŦ (Abella vŦ nL8C żC8 71813ţ 20 !ulv 1987Ž)
A conLracL cannoL be ralsed as a deLerrenL Lo pollce powerţ deslaned preclselv Lo promoLe
healLhţ safeLvţ peaceţ and enhance Lhe common aoodţ aL Lhe expense of conLracLual rlahLsţ
whenever necessarvŦ (Sanaalana vŦ lnLermedlaLe AppellaLe CourL (lAC) żC8 71169ţ 22
uecember 1988Ž) LealslaLlon approprlaLe Lo safeauard sald lnLeresL mav modlfv or abroaaLe
conLracLs alreadv ln effecLŦ lor noL onlv are exlsLlna laws read lnLo conLracLs ln order Lo flx
Lhe obllaaLlons as beLween Lhe parLles buL Lhe reservaLlon of essenLlal aLLrlbuLes of soverelan
power ls also read lnLo conLracLs as a posLulaLe of Lhe leaal orderŦ All conLracLs made wlLh
reference Lo anv maLLer LhaL ls sub[ecL Lo reaulaLlon under Lhe pollce power musL be
undersLood as made ln reference Lo Lhe posslble exerclse of LhaL powerŦ (Abella vŦ nL8C żC8
71813ţ 20 !ulv 1987Ž)
Þollce power cannoL be surrendered or baraalned awav Lhrouah Lhe medlum of a conLracLŦ
Lverv conLracL affecLlna Lhe publlc lnLeresL suffers a conaenlLal lnflrmlLv ln LhaL lL conLalns an
lmplled reservaLlon of Lhe pollce power as a posLulaLe of Lhe exlsLlna leaal orderŦ 1hls power
can be acLlvaLed aL anv Llme Lo chanae Lhe provlslons of Lhe conLracLţ or even abroaaLe lL
enLlrelvţ for Lhe promoLlon or proLecLlon of Lhe aeneral welfareŦ (vlllanueva vŦ CasLaneda żC8
LŴ61311ţ 21 SepLember 1987Ž)
£meroency Powers
""" cose(s)
112Ŧ 8uLLer vsŦ LsLebanţ 93 ÞhllŦ 68 (1933)
2onino ond keou/otory Ordinonces
""" cose(s)
113Ŧ CrLlaas vsŦ leaLl 8ankţ 94 SC8A 333 (1980)
114Ŧ vlllanueva vsŦ CasLanedaţ 134 SC8A 142 (1987)
113Ŧ Sanaalana vsŦ lACţ 168 SC8A 634 (1988)
116Ŧ CrLlaas Ǝ CoŦ vŦ CAţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 126102ţ uecember 4ţ 2000
Lobor controcts
""" cose(s)
117Ŧ Abella vsŦ nL8C 132 SC8A 140 (1987)
4dministrotive keou/otions
""" cose(s)
118Ŧ1lro vsŦ PonLanosasţ 123 SC8A 697 (1983)
kento/ Lows
""" cose(s)
119Ŧ Caleon vsŦ Aaus uevelopmenL CorpŦţ 207 SC8A 748 (1992)

1ox £xemptions
Whlle Lax exempLlons conLalned ln speclal franchlses are ln Lhe naLure of conLracLs and a parL
of Lhe lnducemenL for carrvlna on Lhe franchlseţ Lhese exempLlonsţ neverLheless are far from
belna sLrlcLlv conLracLual ln naLureŦ ConLracLual Lax exempLlonsţ ln Lhe real sense of Lhe Lerm
and where Lhe nonŴlmpalrmenL clause of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon can rlahLlv be lnvokedţ are Lhose
aareed Lo bv Lhe Laxlna auLhorlLv ln conLracLsţ such as Lhose conLalned ln aovernmenL bonds
or debenLuresţ lawfullv enLered lnLo bv Lhem under enabllna laws ln whlch Lhe aovernmenLţ
acLlna ln lLs prlvaLe capaclLvţ sheds lLs cloak of auLhorlLv and walves lLs aovernmenLal
lmmunlLvŦ 1rulvţ Lax exempLlons of Lhls klnd mav noL be revoked wlLhouL lmpalrlna Lhe
obllaaLlons of conLracLsŦ 1hese conLracLual Lax exempLlonsţ howeverţ are noL Lo be confused
wlLh Lax exempLlons aranLed under franchlsesŦ A franchlse parLakes Lhe naLure of a aranL
whlch ls bevond Lhe purvlew of Lhe nonŴlmpalrmenL clause of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ (Meralco vŦ
Laauna żC8 131339ţ 3 Mav 1999Ž)
""" cose(s)
120Ŧ Meralco vŦ Þrovlnce of Laaunaţ 306 SC8A 730 (1999)

Arrestsţ 5earches and 5e|zures
4rtŦ lllţ 5ecŦ ond l
SecLlon 2Ŧ 1he rlahL of Lhe people Lo be secure ln Lhelr personsţ housesţ papersţ and effecLs
aaalnsL unreasonable searches and selzures of whaLever naLure and for anv purpose shall be
lnvlolableţ and no search warranL or warranL of arresL shall lssue excepL upon probable cause
Lo be deLermlned personallv bv Lhe [udae afLer examlnaLlon under oaLh or afflrmaLlon of Lhe
complalnanL and Lhe wlLnesses he mav produceţ and parLlcularlv descrlblna Lhe place Lo be
searched and Lhe persons or Lhlnas Lo be selzedŦ
5ect|on 3Ŧ
1Ŧ 1he prlvacv of communlcaLlon and correspondence shall be lnvlolable
excepL upon lawful order of Lhe courLţ or when publlc safeLv or order
requlres oLherwlseţ as prescrlbed bv lawŦ
2Ŧ Anv evldence obLalned ln vlolaLlon of Lhls or Lhe precedlna secLlon shall
be lnadmlsslble for anv purpose ln anv proceedlnaŦ

9re||m|nar|es
1Ŧ uefinitionţ 5ource ond construction of provision
oŦ ue€loltlo (seotcb ottoot)
A search warranL ls an order ln wrlLlna lssued ln Lhe name of Lhe Þeople of Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ
slaned bv a [udae and dlrecLed Lo a peace offlcerţ commandlna hlm Lo search for personal
properLv descrlbed Lhereln and brlna lL before Lhe courLŦ ( SecLlon 1ţ 8ule 126ţ 8evlsed 8ules
of CourL)
bŦ Otlolo
1he presenL consLlLuLlonal provlslon on Lhe auaranLee aaalnsL unreasonable search and
selzure had lLs orlaln ln Lhe 1933 CharLer (SecLlon 1 ż3Žţ ArLlcle lll) whlch was worded as º1he
rlahL of Lhe people Lo be secure ln Lhelr personsţ housesţ papers and effecLs aaalnsL
unreasonable searches and selzures shall noL be vlolaLedţ and no warranLs shall lssue buL
upon probable causeţ Lo be deLermlned bv Lhe [udae afLer examlnaLlon under oaLh or
afflrmaLlon of Lhe complalnanL and Lhe wlLnesses he mav produceţ and parLlcularlv
descrlblna Lhe place Lo be searchedţ and Lhe persons or Lhlnas Lo be selzedŦ" Sald provlslon
was ln Lurn derlved almosL verbaLlm from Lhe lourLh AmendmenL Lo Lhe unlLed SLaLes
ConsLlLuLlonţ whlch provlded LhaL º1he rlahL of Lhe people Lo be secure ln Lhelr personsţ
housesţ papers and effecLsţ aaalnsL unreasonable searches and selzuresţ shall noL be vlolaLedţ
and no warranLs shall lssueţ buL upon probable causeţ supporLed bv oaLh or afflrmaLlonţ and
parLlcularlv descrlblna Lhe place Lo be searchedţ and Lhe persons or Lhlnas Lo be selzedŦ"
(Þeople vsŦ Andre MarLl żC8 81361ţ 18 !anuarv 1991Ž)
cŦ costtoctlo
As Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe clLlzen and Lhe malnLenance of hls consLlLuLlonal rlahLs ls one of Lhe
hlahesL duLles and prlvlleaes of Lhe courLţ Lhese consLlLuLlonal auaranLles should be alven a
llberal consLrucLlon or a sLrlcL consLrucLlon ln favor of Lhe lndlvldualţ Lo prevenL sLealLhv
encroachmenL uponţ or aradual depreclaLlon ofţ Lhe rlahLs secured bv Lhem (SLaLe vsŦ CusLer
CounLvţ 198 ÞacŦţ 362Ť SLaLe vsŦ Mcuanlelţ 231 ÞacŦţ 963Ť 237 ÞacŦţ 373)Ŧ Slnce Lhe proceedlna
ls a drasLlc oneţ lL ls Lhe aeneral rule LhaL sLaLuLes auLhorlzlna searches and selzures or search
warranLs musL be sLrlcLlv consLrued (8ose vsŦ SLŦ Clalrţ 28 ledŦ ż2dŽţ 189Ť Leonard vsŦ uŦ SŦţ 6
ledŦ ż2dŽţ 333Ť Þerrv vsŦ uŦ SŦţ 14 ledŦ ż2dŽţ 88Ť Cofer vsŦ SLaLeţ 118 SoŦţ 613)Ŧ
1he lourLh AmendmenL's pollcv aaalnsL unreasonable searches and selzures auLhorlzes
warranLs Lo search for conLrabandţ frulLs or lnsLrumenLallLles of crlmeţ or ºanv properLv LhaL
consLlLuLes evldence of Lhe commlsslon of a crlmlnal offenseŦ" upon proper showlnaţ Lhe
warranL ls Lo lssue ºldenLlfvlna Lhe properLv and namlna or descrlblna Lhe person or place Lo
be searchedŦ" Þrobable cause for Lhe warranL musL be presenLedţ buL Lhere ls noLhlna ln Lhe
8ule lndlcaLlna LhaL Lhe offlcers musL be enLlLled Lo arresL Lhe owner of Lhe ºplace" Lo be
searched before a search warranL mav lssue and Lhe ºproperLv" mav be searched for and
selzedŦ 1he 8ule deals wlLh warranLs Lo searchţ and ls unrelaLed Lo arresLsŦ nor ls Lhere
anvLhlna ln Lhe lourLh AmendmenL lndlcaLlna LhaL absenL probable cause Lo arresL a Lhlrd
parLvţ resorL musL be had Lo a subpoenaŦ (Zurcher vsŦ SLanford uallv ż436 uS 347ţ 31 Mav
1978Ž)
Searches and selzuresţ ln a Lechnlcal senseţ are lndependenL ofţ raLher Lhan anclllarv Loţ
arresL and arralanmenL (ALlţ A Model Code of ÞreŴArralanmenL Þrocedureţ CommenLarv 491Ť
Þroposed CffŦ urafL 1973)Ŧ
Ŧ court´s lunctionţ os to 5eorch ond 5eiture
oŦ lssoooce € seotcb ottootsţ ooJ ½et t ooosb ottoots
lL ls undlspuLed LhaL onlv [udaes have Lhe power Lo lssue search warranLsŦ (Salazar vsŦ
Achacosoţ 183 SC8A 143 ż1990Ž) 1hls funcLlon ls excluslvelv [udlclalŦ lnherenL ln Lhe courLs'
power Lo lssue search warranLs ls Lhe power Lo quash warranLs alreadv lssuedŦ ln Lhls
connecLlonţ Lhe Supreme CourL has ruled LhaL Lhe moLlon Lo quash should be flled ln Lhe
courL LhaL lssued Lhe warranL unless a crlmlnal case has alreadv been lnsLlLuLed ln anoLher
courLţ ln whlch caseţ Lhe moLlon should be flled wlLh Lhe laLLerŦ (Þeople vsŦ CourL of Appealsţ
291 SC8A 400 ż1998Ž)Ŧ
8ecause of Lhe fundamenLal publlc lnLeresL ln lmplemenLlna Lhe crlmlnal lawţ Lhe search
warranLţ a hereLofore effecLlve and consLlLuLlonallv accepLable enforcemenL Loolţ should noL
be suppressed on Lhe basls of surmlse and wlLhouL solld evldence supporLlna Lhe chanaeŦ
lorblddlna Lhe warranL and lnslsLlna on Lhe subpoena lnsLead when Lhe cusLodlan of Lhe
ob[ecL of Lhe search ls noL Lhen suspecLed of crlmeţ lnvolves serlous hazards Lo crlmlnal
lnvesLlaaLlonŦ (Zurcher vsŦ SLanford uallv ż436 uS 347ţ 31 Mav 1978Ž)
bŦ uetetmlootlo € vollJltv € seotcb ooJ selzote
WhaL consLlLuLes a reasonable or even an unreasonable search ln anv parLlcular case ls
purelv a [udlclal quesLlonţ deLermlnable from a conslderaLlon of Lhe clrcumsLances lnvolvedŦ
(valmonLe vŦ ue vlllaţ 178 SC8A 211ţ 216 ż1989Ž)
1Ŧ 9urpose and Importance of the guaranty
oŦ Purpose
1he purpose of Lhe consLlLuLlonal provlslons aaalnsL unlawful searches and selzures ls Lo
prevenL vlolaLlons of prlvaLe securlLv ln person and properLvţ and unlawful lnvaslons of Lhe
sancLlLv of Lhe homeţ bv offlcers of Lhe law acLlna under lealslaLlve or [udlclal sancLlonţ and Lo
alve remedv aaalnsL such usurpaLlons when aLLempLedŦ (Adams vsŦ new ?orkţ 192 uŦ SŦţ 383Ŧ)
8uL lL does noL prohlblL Lhe CovernmenL from Laklna advanLaae of unlawful searches made
bv a prlvaLe person or under auLhorlLv of sLaLe lawŦ (Weeks vsŦ unlLed SLaLesţ 232 uŦ SŦţ 383Ť
8urdeau vsŦ Mcuowellţ 236 uŦ SŦţ 463Ŧ)
1he house of everv one ls Lo hlm as hls casLle and forLressţ as well for hls defence aaalnsL
ln[urv and vlolenceţ as for hls reposeŦ (Semavne's Caseţ 77 LnaŦ 8epŦ 194ţ 3 CoŦ 8epŦ 91aţ 91bţ
193 żkŦ 8ŦŽ) 1he overrldlna respecL for Lhe sancLlLv of Lhe home LhaL has been embedded ln
our LradlLlons slnce Lhe orlalns of Lhe 8epubllc" meanL LhaL absenL a warranL or exlaenL
clrcumsLancesţ pollce could noL enLer a home Lo make an arresLŦ An arresL warranL founded
on probable cause lmpllclLlv carrles wlLh lL Lhe llmlLed auLhorlLv Lo enLer a dwelllna ln whlch
Lhe suspecL llves when Lhere ls reason Lo belleve Lhe suspecL ls wlLhlnŦ (ÞavLon vŦ new ?ork ţ
443 uŦ SŦ 373ţ 603Ŵ604 (1980Ž)
bŦ lmportonce
As explalned ln Þeople vŦ 8uraos (144 SC8A 1) clLlna vlllanueva vŦ Cuerubln (48 SC8A 343)ť ºlL
ls deference Lo one's personallLv LhaL lles aL Lhe core of Lhls rlahL buL lL could be also looked
upon as a recoanlLlon of a consLlLuLlonallv proLecLed areaţ prlmarllv one's homeţ buL noL
necessarllv LhereLo conflnedŦ (CfŦ Poffa vŦ unlLed SLaLesţ 383 uS 293 ż1966Ž) WhaL ls souahL
Lo be auarded ls a man's preroaaLlve Lo choose who ls allowed enLrv Lo hls resldenceŦ ln LhaL
haven of refuaeţ hls lndlvlduallLv can asserL lLself noL onlv ln Lhe cholce of who shall be
welcome buL llkewlse ln Lhe klnd of ob[ecLs he wanLs around hlmŦ 1here Lhe sLaLeţ however
powerfulţ does noL as such have access excepL under Lhe clrcumsLances above noLedţ for ln
Lhe LradlLlonal formulaLlonţ hls houseţ however humbleţ ls hls casLleŦ 1hus ls ouLlawed anv
unwarranLed lnLruslon bv aovernmenLţ whlch ls called upon Lo refraln from anv lnvaslon of
hls dwelllna and Lo respecL Lhe prlvacles of hls llfeŦ (CfŦ Schmerber vŦ Callfornlaţ 384 uS 737
ż1966Žţ 8rennanţ !Ŧ and 8ovd vŦ unlLed SLaLesţ 116 630 ż1886Ž)Ŧ ln Lhe same velnţ Landvnskl ln
hls auLhorlLaLlve work (Search and Selzure and Lhe Supreme CourL ż1966Ž)ţ could flLlv
characLerlze consLlLuLlonal rlahL as Lhe embodlmenL of a `splrlLual concepLť Lhe bellef LhaL Lo
value Lhe prlvacv of home and person and Lo afford lLs consLlLuLlonal proLecLlon aaalnsL Lhe
lona reach of aovernmenL ls no less Lhan Lo value human dlanlLvţ and LhaL hls prlvacv musL
noL be dlsLurbed excepL ln case of overrldlna soclal needţ and Lhen onlv under sLrlnaenL
procedural safeauardsŦ (lbldţ pŦ 74)Ŧ"
""" cose(s)
121Ŧ Alvero vŦ ulzonţ 76 Þhll 637 (1946)

2Ŧ 1o Whom D|rected
1he consLlLuLlonal proscrlpLlon aaalnsL unlawful searches and selzures applles as a resLralnL
dlrecLed onlv aaalnsL Lhe aovernmenL and lLs aaencles Lasked wlLh Lhe enforcemenL of Lhe
lawŦ 1husţ lL could onlv be lnvoked aaalnsL Lhe SLaLe Lo whom Lhe resLralnL aaalnsL arblLrarv
and unreasonable exerclse of power ls lmposedŦ 1he modlflcaLlons lnLroduced ln Lhe 1987
ConsLlLuLlon (8Lť SecŦ 2ţ ArLŦ lllŤ ln relaLlon Lo Lhe phraseoloav of Lhe 1933 ConsLlLuLlon) relaLe
Lo Lhe lssuance of elLher a search warranL or warranL of arresL vlsŴaŴvls Lhe responslblllLv of
Lhe [udae ln Lhe lssuance LhereofŦ 1he modlflcaLlons lnLroduced devlaLe ln no manner as Lo
whom Lhe resLrlcLlon or lnhlblLlon aaalnsL unreasonable search and selzure ls dlrecLed
aaalnsLŦ 1he resLralnL sLaved wlLh Lhe SLaLe and dld noL shlfL Lo anvone elseŦ (Þeople vsŦ
Andre MarLl żC8 81361ţ 18 !anuarv 1991Ž)
1he consLlLuLlonal rlahL (aaalnsL unreasonable search and selzure) refers Lo Lhe lmmunlLv of
one's personţ wheLher clLlzen or allenţ from lnLerference bv aovernmenLţ lncluded ln whlch ls
hls resldenceţ hls papersţ and oLher possesslonsŦ 1here Lhe sLaLeţ however powerfulţ does
noL as such have Lhe access excepL under Lhe clrcumsLances above noLedţ for ln Lhe
LradlLlonal formulaLlonţ hls houseţ however humbleţ ls hls casLleŦ 1hus ls ouLlawed anv
unwarranLed lnLruslon bv aovernmenLţ whlch ls called upon Lo refraln from anv lnvaslon of
hls dwelllna and Lo respecL Lhe prlvacles of hls llfeŦ (vlllanueva vŦ Cuerublnţ 48 SC8A 343
ż1972ŽŤ CfŦ Schermerber vŦ Callfornlaţ 384 uS 737 ż1966Ž and 8ovd vŦ unlLed SLaLesţ 116 uS
616 ż1886Ž)Ŧ
1he lourLh AmendmenL alves proLecLlon aaalnsL unlawful searches and selzuresţ and lLs
proLecLlon applles Lo aovernmenLal acLlonŦ lLs orlaln and hlsLorv clearlv show LhaL lL was
lnLended as a resLralnL upon Lhe acLlvlLles of soverelan auLhorlLvţ and was noL lnLended Lo be
a llmlLaLlon upon oLher Lhan aovernmenLal aaenclesŤ as aaalnsL such auLhorlLv lL was Lhe
purpose of Lhe lourLh AmendmenL Lo secure Lhe clLlzen ln Lhe rlahL of unmolesLed
occupaLlon of hls dwelllna and Lhe possesslon of hls properLvţ sub[ecL Lo Lhe rlahL of selzure
bv process dulv servedŦ (8urdeau vŦ Mcuowellţ 236 uS 463 ż1921Žţ 41 S CLŦ 347Ť 63 LŦLdŦ
1048)
""" cose(s)
122Ŧ Þeople vsŦ Andre MarLlţ 193 SC8A 37 (1991)



3Ŧ Who May Invoke the k|ght?
oŦ ln oenero/
Alleaed vlolaLlons aaalnsL unreasonable search and selzure mav onlv be lnvoked aaalnsL Lhe
SLaLe bv an lndlvldual un[usLlv Lraduced bv Lhe exerclse of soverelan auLhorlLvŦ (Þeople vsŦ
Andre MarLl żC8 81361ţ 18 !anuarv 1991Ž)
1he leaallLv of a selzure can be conLesLed onlv bv Lhe parLv whose rlahLs have been lmpalred
Lherebvţ and LhaL Lhe ob[ecLlon Lo an unlawful search and selzure ls purelv personal and
cannoL be avalled of bv Lhlrd parLlesŦ (SLonehlllţ eL alŦ vsŦ uloknoţ eL alŦ żC8 LŴ19330ţ 19 !une
1967Ž)
bŦ corporotions
AlLhouahţ an offlcer of a corporaLlon whlch ls charaed wlLh a vlolaLlon of a sLaLuLe of Lhe
sLaLe of lLs creaLlonţ or of an acL of Conaress passed ln Lhe exerclse of lLs consLlLuLlonal
powersţ cannoL refuse Lo produce Lhe books and papers of such corporaLlonţ a corporaLlon ls
enLlLled Lo lmmunlLvţ under Lhe 4Lh AmendmenLţ aaalnsL unreasonable searches and
selzuresŦ A corporaLlon lsţ afLer allţ buL an assoclaLlon of lndlvlduals under an assumed name
and wlLh a dlsLlncL leaal enLlLvŦ ln oraanlzlna lLself as a collecLlve bodv lL walves no
consLlLuLlonal lmmunlLles approprlaLe Lo such bodvŦ lLs properLv cannoL be Laken wlLhouL
compensaLlonŦ lL can onlv be proceeded aaalnsL bv due process of lawţ and ls proLecLedţ
under Lhe 14Lh AmendmenLţ aaalnsL unlawful dlscrlmlnaLlonŦ (Pale vŦ Penkelţ 201 uŦSŦ 43ţ 30
LŦ edŦ 632Ŧ)
""" cose(s)
123Ŧ 8ache and CoŦţ vsŦ 8ulzţ 37 SC8A 323 (1971)
124Ŧ SLonehlll vŦ uloknoţ 20 SC8A 383 (1967)
123Ŧ Zurcher vsŦ SLanford uallvţ 436 uŦ SŦ 347 (1978)
126Ŧ Wllson vŦ Lavneţ 98Ŵ0083ţ Mav 24ţ 1999

4Ŧ Va||d warrant
A search warranL ls an order ln wrlLlnaţ lssued ln Lhe name of Lhe Þeople of Lhe Þhlllpplne
lslandsţ slaned bv a [udae or a [usLlce of Lhe peaceţ and dlrecLed Lo a peace offlcerţ
commandlna hlm Lo search for personal properLv and brlna lL before Lhe courLŦ (Alvarez vsŦ
CourL of llrsL lnsLance of 1avabas żC8 43338ţ 29 !anuarv 1937ŽŤ clLlna SecLlon 93ţ Ceneral
Crders 38ţ as amended bv secLlon 6 of AcL 2886)
Crlme should exlsL flrsLŦ ln Lhe lssuance of search warranLsţ Lhe 8ules of CourL requlres a
flndlna of probable cause ln connecLlon wlLh one speclflc offense Lo be deLermlned
personallv bv Lhe [udae afLer examlnaLlon of Lhe complalnanL and Lhe wlLnesses he mav
produceţ and parLlcularlv descrlblna Lhe place Lo be searched and Lhe Lhlnas Lo be selzedŦ
Penceţ slnce Lhere ls no crlme Lo speak ofţ Lhe search warranL does noL even bealn Lo fulflll
Lhese sLrlnaenL requlremenLs and ls Lherefore defecLlve on lLs faceŦ (Solld 1rlanale Sales CorpŦ
vsŦ SlLchon żC8 144309ţ 23 november 2001Ž)

conditions for o vo/id worront
o) £xistence of Probob/e couse
Ŧ 9tboble coose Je€loeJţ costtoeJ
Þrobable cause for a search ls deflned as such facLs and clrcumsLances whlch would lead a
reasonablv dlscreeL and prudenL man Lo belleve LhaL an offense has been commlLLed and
LhaL Lhe lLem(s)ţ arLlcle(s) or ob[ecL(s) souahL ln connecLlon wlLh sald offense or sub[ecL Lo
selzure and desLrucLlon bv law ls ln Lhe place Lo be searchedŦ (Þeople vsŦ AruLaţ 288 SC8A 262
ż1998ŽŤ 8uraos vŦ Chlef of SLaffţ AlÞ żC8 64261ţ 26 uecember 1984Ž) ln Lhe deLermlnaLlon of
probable causeţ Lhe courL musL necessarllv resolve wheLher or noL an offense exlsLs Lo [usLlfv
Lhe lssuance or quashal of Lhe search warranLŦ (Solld 1rlanale Sales CorpŦ vsŦ SlLchon żC8
144309ţ 23 november 2001Ž)
ln applvlna Lhe ºprobable cause" sLandard ºbv whlch a parLlcular declslon Lo search ls LesLed
aaalnsL Lhe consLlLuLlonal mandaLe of reasonablenessţ" lL ls necessarv ºLo focus upon Lhe
aovernmenLal lnLeresL whlch alleaedlv [usLlfles offlclal lnLruslon" and LhaL ln crlmlnal
lnvesLlaaLlons a warranL Lo search for recoverable lLems ls reasonable ºonlv when Lhere ls
'probable cause' Lo belleve LhaL Lhev wlll be uncovered ln a parLlcular dwelllnaŦ" 1he crlLlcal
elemenL ln a reasonable search ls noL LhaL Lhe owner of Lhe properLv ls suspecLed of crlme
buL LhaL Lhere ls reasonable cause Lo belleve LhaL Lhe speclflc ºLhlnas" Lo be searched for and
selzed are locaLed on Lhe properLv Lo whlch enLrv ls souahLŦ (Zurcher vsŦ SLanford uallv ż436
uS 347ţ 31 Mav 1978Ž)
2Ŧ 9tboble coose lo lssoooce € ottoots JlstlooolsbeJ €tm ½tboble coose lo ½tellmlootv
lovestlootlo
Whlle Lhe power Lo lssue search warranLs upon showlna probable cause ls a funcLlon whlch ls
excluslvelv [udlclalţ ºLhe deLermlnaLlon of probable cause durlna a prellmlnarv lnvesLlaaLlon
has been descrlbed as an execuLlve funcLlonŦ" (Þeople vsŦ CourL of Appealsţ 291 SC8A 400
ż1998Ž) 1he proceedlnas for Lhe lssuance/quashal of a search warranL before a courL on Lhe
one handţ and Lhe prellmlnarv lnvesLlaaLlon before an auLhorlzed offlcer on Lhe oLherţ are
proceedlnas enLlrelv lndependenL of each oLherŦ Cne ls noL bound bv Lhe oLher's flndlna as
reaards Lhe exlsLence of a crlmeŦ 1he purpose of each proceedlna dlffers from Lhe oLherŦ 1he
flrsL ls Lo deLermlne wheLher a warranL should lssue or be quashedţ and Lhe secondţ wheLher
an lnformaLlon should be flled ln courLŦ (Solld 1rlanale Sales CorpŦ vsŦ SlLchon żC8 144309ţ 23
november 2001Ž)
JŦ kelloble lo€tmotlo os bosls €t ½tboble coose
noLwlLhsLandlna Llps from confldenLlal lnformanLs and reaardless of Lhe facL LhaL Lhe search
vlelded conLrabandţ Lhe mere acL of looklna from slde Lo slde whlle holdlna one's abdomenţ
or of sLandlna on a corner wlLh one's eves movlna verv fasLţ looklna aL everv person who
came nearţ does noL [usLlfv a warranLless arresL under sald SecLlon 3 (a)Ŧ nelLher does puLLlna
someLhlna ln one's pockeLţ handlna over one's baaaaaeţ rldlna a moLorcvcleţ nor does
holdlna a baa on board a Lrlslkad sancLlon SLaLe lnLruslonŦ 1he same rule applles Lo crosslna
Lhe sLreeL per seŦ Þersonal knowledae was also requlred ln Lhe case of Þeople vŦ uorlaŦ
8ecenLlvţ ln Þeople vŦ 8lnad Sv Chuaţ Lhe CourL declared lnvalld Lhe arresL of Lhe accusedţ
who was walklna Lowards a hoLel cluLchlna a sealed ZesLŴC [ulce boxŦ lor Lhe excepLlon ln
SecLlon 3 (a)ţ 8ule 113 Lo applvţ Lhe CourL ruledţ Lwo elemenLs musL concurť (1) Lhe person Lo
be arresLed musL execuLe an overL acL lndlcaLlna he has [usL commlLLedţ ls acLuallv
commlLLlnaţ or ls aLLempLlna Lo commlL a crlmeŤ and (2) such overL acL ls done ln Lhe
presence or wlLhln Lhe vlew of Lhe arresLlna offlcerŦ 8ellable lnformaLlon alone ls lnsufflclenLŦ
ln Lhe followlna casesţ Lhe search was held Lo be lncldenLal Lo a lawful arresL because of
ºsusplclous" clrcumsLancesť Þeople vŦ 1anallben (accused was ºacLlna susplclouslv")ţ Þeople
vŦ MalmsLedL (a bulae on Lhe accused's walsL)ţ and Þeople vŦ de Cuzman (llkewlse a bulae on
Lhe walsL of Lhe accusedţ who was wearlna LlahLŴflLLlna cloLhes)Ŧ 1here lsţ howeverţ anoLher
seL of [urlsprudence LhaL deems ºrellable lnformaLlon" sufflclenL Lo [usLlfv a search lncldenL
Lo a warranLless arresL under SecLlon 3 (a)ţ 8ule 113ţ Lhus devlaLlna from 8uraosŦ 1o Lhls class
of cases belona Þeople vŦ Maspllţ !rŦţ Þeople vŦ 8aalsLaţ Þeople vŦ 8allnaanţ Þeople vŦ Llslnaţ
Þeople vŦ MonLlllaţ Þeople vŦ valdezţ and Þeople vŦ ConzalesŦ ln Lhese casesţ Lhe arresLlna
auLhorlLles were acLlna on lnformaLlon reaardlna an offense buL Lhere were no overL acLs or
susplclous clrcumsLances LhaL would lndlcaLe LhaL Lhe accused has commlLLedţ ls acLuallv
commlLLlnaţ or ls aLLempLlna Lo commlL Lhe sameŦ SlanlflcanLlvţ Lhese casesţ excepL Lhe lasL
Lwoţ come under some oLher excepLlon Lo Lhe rule aaalnsL warranLless searchesŦ 1husţ
Maspllţ !rŦ lnvolved a checkpolnL searchţ 8allnaan was a search of a movlna vehlcleţ 8aalsLa
was boLhţ and Llslna and MonLllla were consenLed searchesŦ neverLhelessţ Lhe areaL ma[orlLv
of cases conforms Lo Lhe rule ln 8uraosţ whlchţ ln Lurnţ more falLhfullv adheres Lo Lhe leLLer
of SecLlon 3(a)ţ 8ule 113Ŧ noLe Lhe phrase ºln hls presence" Lherelnţ connoLlna personal
knowledae on Lhe parL of Lhe arresLlna offlcerŦ (Þeople vsŦ 1udLud żC8 144037ţ 26 SepLember
2003Ž)
ln flneţ probable cause exlsLs ln Lhe followlna lnsLancesť (a) where Lhe dlsLlncLlve odor of
marl[uana emanaLed from Lhe plasLlc baa carrled bv Lhe accusedŤ (Þeople vŦ Claudloţ 160
SC8A 646 ż1988Ž) (b) where an lnformer poslLlvelv ldenLlfled Lhe accused who was observed
Lo be acLlna susplclouslvŤ (Þeople vŦ 1anallbenţ 184 SC8A 220 ż1990Ž) (c) where Lhe accused
who were rldlna a [eepnev were sLopped and searched bv pollcemen who had earller
recelved confldenLlal reporLs LhaL sald accused would LransporL a quanLlLv of marl[uanaŤ
(Þeople vŦ Maspllţ !rŦţ 188 SC8A 731 ż1990Ž) (d) where narcom aaenLs had recelved
lnformaLlon LhaL a Caucaslan comlna from Saaadaţ MounLaln Þrovlnce had ln hls possesslon
prohlblLed druas and when Lhe narcom aaenLs confronLed Lhe accused Caucaslan because of
a consplcuous bulae ln hls walsLllneţ he falled Lo presenL hls passporL and oLher ldenLlflcaLlon
papers when requesLed Lo do soŤ (Þeople vŦ MalmsLeadLţ 198 SC8A 401 ż1991Ž) (f) where Lhe
movlna vehlcle was sLopped and searched on Lhe basls of lnLelllaence lnformaLlon and
clandesLlne reporLs bv a deep peneLraLlon aaenL or spv Ÿ one who parLlclpaLed ln Lhe drua
smuaallna acLlvlLles of Lhe svndlcaLe Lo whlch Lhe accused belona Ÿ LhaL sald accused were
brlnalna prohlblLed druas lnLo Lhe counLrvŤ (Þeople vŦ Lo Po Wlnaţ 193 SC8A 122 ż1991Ž) (a)
where Lhe arresLlna offlcers had recelved a confldenLlal lnformaLlon LhaL Lhe accusedţ whose
ldenLlLv as a drua dlsLrlbuLor was esLabllshed ln a prevlous LesLŴbuv operaLlonţ would be
boardlna Mv uona vlralnla and probablv carrvlna shabu wlLh hlmŤ (Þeople vŦ Savconţ 236
SC8A 323 ż1994Ž) (h) where pollce offlcers recelved an lnformaLlon LhaL Lhe accusedţ who
was carrvlna a susplclousŴlooklna arav luaaaae baaţ would LransporL marl[uana ln a baa Lo
ManllaŤ (Þeople vŦ 8allnaanţ 241 SC8A 277 ż1993Ž) and (l) where Lhe appearance of Lhe
accused and Lhe color of Lhe baa he was carrvlna flLLed Lhe descrlpLlon alven bv a clvlllan
asseLŦ (Þeople vŦ valdezţ 304 SC8A 140 ż1999Ž)
""" cose(s)
127Ŧ 8uraos vsŦ Chlef of SLaffţ 133 SC8A 800 (1984)
128Ŧ Chandler vŦ Mlllerţ Aprll 13ţ 1997ţ uŴ96Ŵ126
129Ŧ Þeople vŦ Chua Po Sanţ 308 SC8A 432) (1999)
130Ŧ Þeople vŦ Mollnaţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 133917ţ lebruarv 19ţ 2001
131Ŧ Solld 1rlanale Sale vŦ Sherlffţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 144309 november 23ţ 2001
132Ŧ Þeople vŦ SalanaulLţ CŦ8Ŧ 133234ţ Aprll 18ţ 2001

b) Persono/ determinotion by judoe
Ŧ lo Ceoetol
Þersonal examlnaLlon bv Lhe [udae of Lhe complalnanL and hls wlLnesses ls necessarv Lo
enable hlm Lo deLermlne Lhe exlsLence or nonŴexlsLence of a probable causeţ pursuanL Lo
ArLlcle lllţ SecLlon 2ţ ArLlcle lll of Lhe 1987 consLlLuLlon ţ and SecLlon 4ţ 8ule 126 of Lhe
8evlsed 8ules of CourLţ boLh of whlch prohlblL Lhe lssuance of warranLs excepL ºupon
probable causeŦ" 1he deLermlnaLlon of wheLher or noL a probable cause exlsLs calls for Lhe
exerclse of [udamenL afLer a [udlclal appralsal of facLs and should noL be allowed Lo be
deleaaLed ln Lhe absence of anv rule Lo Lhe conLrarvŦ (8ache Ǝ CoŦ (ÞhllŦ) lncŦ vsŦ 8ulz żC8 LŴ
32409ţ 27 lebruarv 1971ŽŤ Codal references modlfled Lo sulL presenL ConsLlLuLlon and 8ules
of CourL)
2Ŧ Obsceoe Motetlols
1he case of ÞlLa vsŦ CourL of Appealsţ C8 80806ţ 3 CcLober 1989ţ (1) 1he auLhorlLles musL
applv for Lhe lssuance of a search warranL from a [udaeţ lf ln Lhelr oplnlonţ an obscenlLv rap ls
ln orderŤ (2) 1he auLhorlLles musL convlnce Lhe courL LhaL Lhe maLerlals souahL Lo be selzed
are ºobscene"ţ and pose a clear and presenL danaer of an evll subsLanLlve enouah Lo warranL
SLaLe lnLerference and acLlonŤ (3) 1he [udae musL deLermlne wheLher or noL Lhe same are
lndeed ºobsceneť" Lhe quesLlon ls Lo be resolved on a caseŴLoŴcase basls and on Pls Ponor's
sound dlscreLlonŦ (4) lfţ ln Lhe oplnlon of Lhe courLţ probable cause exlsLsţ lL mav lssue Lhe
search warranL praved forŤ (3) 1he proper sulL ls Lhen brouahL ln Lhe courL under ArLlcle 201
of Lhe 8evlsed Þenal CodeŤ and (6) Anv convlcLlon ls sub[ecL Lo appealŦ 1he appellaLe courL
mav assess wheLher or noL Lhe properLles selzed are lndeed ºobsceneŦ" 1he CourL sLaLesţ
howeverţ LhaL ºLhese do noL forecloseţ howeverţ defenses under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon or
appllcable sLaLuLesţ or remedles aaalnsL abuse of offlclal power under Lhe Clvll Code or Lhe
8evlsed Þenal codeŦ"
""" cose(s)
133Ŧ Amaraa vsŦ Abbasţ 98 ÞhllŦ 739 (1936)
134Ŧ SLaŦ 8osa Mlnlna CoŦţ vsŦ llscal Zabalaţ 133 SC8A 367 (1987)
133Ŧ Þeople vsŦ lnLlnaţ 187 SC8A 783 (1990)
136Ŧ Þaderanaa vsŦ urllonţ CŦ8Ŧ 96080ţ Aprll 19ţ 1991
137Ŧ ÞlLa vsŦ CAţ 178 SC8A 362 (1987)
138Ŧ Abdula vŦ CulanlŦ 326 SC8A 1 (2000)

c) £xominotion of witnesses
1he lmplemenLlna rule ln Lhe 8evlsed 8ules of CourLţ SecLlon 3ţ 8ule 126ţ ls more emphaLlc
and candldţ for lL requlres Lhe [udaeţ before lssulna a search warranLţ Lo ºpersonallv examlne
on oaLh or afflrmaLlon Lhe complalnanL and anv wlLnesses he mav produceŦ" (8ache Ǝ CoŦ
(ÞhllŦ) lncŦ vsŦ 8ulz żC8 LŴ32409ţ 27 lebruarv 1971ŽŤ Codal references modlfled Lo sulL presenL
ConsLlLuLlon and 8ules of CourL) Mere affldavlLs of Lhe complalnanL and hls wlLnesses are
Lhus noL sufflclenLŦ 1he examlnlna !udae has Lo Lake deposlLlons ln wrlLlna of Lhe complalnanL
and Lhe wlLnesses he mav produce and aLLach Lhem Lo Lhe recordŦ (8oan vŦ Conzalesţ C8
71410ţ 23 november 1986ţ 143 SC8A 694)
LlsLenlna Lo Lhe sLenoarapher's readlnas of her noLesţ Lo a few words of warnlna aaalnsL Lhe
commlsslon of per[urvţ and admlnlsLerlna Lhe oaLh Lo Lhe complalnanL and hls wlLnessŤ
cannoL be conslder a personal examlnaLlonŦ 1he readlna of Lhe sLenoaraphlc noLes Lo Lhe
!udae dld noL consLlLuLe sufflclenL compllance wlLh Lhe consLlLuLlonal mandaLe and Lhe ruleŤ
for bv LhaL manner Lhe !udae dld noL have Lhe opporLunlLv Lo observe Lhe demeanor of Lhe
complalnanL and hls wlLnessţ and Lo propound lnlLlal and followŴup quesLlons whlch Lhe
[udlclal mlndţ on accounL of lLs Lralnlnaţ was ln Lhe besL poslLlon Lo concelveŦ 1hese were
lmporLanL ln arrlvlna aL a sound lnference on Lhe allŴlmporLanL quesLlon of wheLher or noL
Lhere was probable causeŦ (8ache Ǝ CoŦ (ÞhllŦ) lncŦ vsŦ 8ulz żC8 LŴ32409ţ 27 lebruarv 1971Ž)
Sufflclencv of deposlLlon or affldavlLŦ 1he Lrue LesL of sufflclencv of a deposlLlon or affldavlL Lo
warranL lssuance of a search warranL ls wheLher lL has been drawn ln a manner LhaL per[urv
could be charaed Lhereon and Lhe afflanL be held llable for damaae causedŦ 1he oaLh
requlred musL refer Lo Lhe LruLh of Lhe facLs wlLhln Lhe personal knowledae of Lhe appllcanL
for search warranLţ and/or hls wlLnessesţ noL of Lhe facLs merelv reporLed bv a person whom
one conslders Lo be rellableŦ 1he oaLh requlred musL refer Lo Lhe LruLh of Lhe facLs wlLhln Lhe
personal knowledae of Lhe peLlLloner or hls wlLnessesţ because Lhe purpose Lhereof ls Lo
convlnce Lhe commlLLlna maalsLraLeţ noL Lhe lndlvldual maklna Lhe affldavlL and seeklna Lhe
lssuance of Lhe warranLţ of Lhe exlsLence of probable causeŦ (Alvarez vsŦ CourL of llrsL
lnsLance of 1avabas żC8 43338ţ 29 !anuarv 1937Ž)
""" cose(s)
139Ŧ Þaslon vdaŦ ue Carcla vsŦ Locslnţ 63 Þhll 68 (1938)
140Ŧ ?ee Sue kuv vsŦ Almedaţ 70 ÞhllŦ 141ţ (1940)
141Ŧ Alvarez vsŦ Cllţ 64 ÞhllŦ 33 (1937)
142Ŧ MaLa vsŦ 8avona ţ 128 SC8A 388 (1984)

d) Porticu/ority of description
ÞurposeŦ A search warranL should parLlcularlv descrlbe Lhe place Lo be searched and Lhe
Lhlnas Lo be selzedŦ 1he evldenL purpose and lnLenL of Lhls requlremenL ls Lo llmlL Lhe Lhlnas
Lo be selzed Lo Lhoseţ and onlv Lhoseţ parLlcularlv descrlbed ln Lhe search warranL Ÿ Lo leave
Lhe offlcers of Lhe law wlLh no dlscreLlon reaardlna whaL arLlcles Lhev shall selzeţ Lo Lhe end
LhaL ºunreasonable searches and selzures" mav noL be madeţ Ÿ LhaL abuses mav noL be
commlLLedŦ (uv khevLlnţ eL alŦ vsŦ vlllarealţ eLcŦţ eL alŦţ 42 ÞhllŦ 886ţ 896)
Ŧ uesctl½tlo € 9loce
1he rule ls LhaL a descrlpLlon of Lhe place Lo be searched ls sufflclenL lf Lhe offlcer wlLh Lhe
warranL canţ wlLh reasonable efforLţ ascerLaln and ldenLlfv Lhe place lnLended Lo be
searchedŦ (ÞrudenLe vsŦ uavrlL żC8 82870ţ 14 uecember 1989Ž)
2Ŧ uesctl½tlo € ltems t be selzeJ
Whlle lL ls Lrue LhaL Lhe properLv Lo be selzed under a warranL musL be parLlcularlv descrlbed
Lhereln and no oLher properLv can be Laken Lhereunderţ veL Lhe descrlpLlon ls requlred Lo be
speclflc onlv ln so far as Lhe clrcumsLances wlll ordlnarllv allowŦ (ln Þeople vŦ 8ubloţ 37 ÞhllŦ
384ţ 389 ż1932Ž) Where bv Lhe naLure of Lhe aoods Lo be selzedţ Lhelr descrlpLlon musL be
raLher aeneralţ lL ls noL requlred LhaL a Lechnlcal descrlpLlon be alvenţ as Lhls would mean
LhaL no warranL could lssueŦ As a corollarvţ howeverţ we could noL loalcallv conclude LhaL
where Lhe descrlpLlon of Lhose aoods Lo be selzed have been expressed Lechnlcallvţ all oLhers
of a slmllar naLure buL noL bearlna Lhe exacL Lechnlcal descrlpLlons could noL be lawfullv
sub[ecL Lo selzureŦ CLherwlseţ Lhe reasonable purpose of Lhe warranL lssued would be
defeaLed bv mere LechnlcallLlesŦ (?ousef AlŴChoul vsŦ CourL of Appeals żC8 126839ţ 4
SepLember 2001Ž)
1esLsŦ A search warranL mav be sald Lo parLlcularlv descrlbe Lhe Lhlnas Lo be selzed when Lhe
descrlpLlon Lhereln ls as speclflc as Lhe clrcumsLances wlll ordlnarllv allow (Þeople vsŦ 8ubloŤ
37 ÞhllŦ 384)Ť or when Lhe descrlpLlon expresses a concluslon of facL Ÿ noL of law Ÿ bv whlch
Lhe warranL offlcer mav be aulded ln maklna Lhe search and selzure (ldemŦţ dlssenL of Abad
SanLosţ !Ŧţ)Ť or when Lhe Lhlnas descrlbed are llmlLed Lo Lhose whlch bear dlrecL relaLlon Lo
Lhe offense for whlch Lhe warranL ls belna lssued (SecŦ 3ţ 8ule 126ţ 8evlsed 8ules of CourL)Ŧ
Cne of Lhe LesLs Lo deLermlne Lhe parLlcularlLv ln Lhe descrlpLlon of ob[ecLs Lo be selzed
under a search warranL ls when Lhe Lhlnas descrlbed are llmlLed Lo Lhose whlch bear dlrecL
relaLlon Lo Lhe offense for whlch Lhe warranL ls belna lssuedŦ (8ache and CoŦ żÞhllŦŽţ lncŦ vŦ
8ulzţ 37 SC8A 823ţ 833 ż1971Ž)
""" cose(s)
143Ŧ Claes vsŦ Þeopleţ 133 SC8A 486 (1987)
144Ŧ ÞrudenLe vsŦ !udae uavrlLţ 180 SC8A 69 (1989)
143Ŧ Chla vsŦ CollŦ of CusLomsţ 177 SC8A 733 (1989)
146Ŧ 20Lh CenLurv lox lllm CorpŦ vsŦ CAţ 164 SC8A 633 (1988)
147Ŧ nolasco vsŦ Cruz Þanoţ 132 SC8A 132 (1983)
148Ŧ ÞlCCÞ vŦ Asunclonţ 307 SC8A 233) (1999)
149Ŧ?ousef Al Choul vsŦ CŦAţ C8 noŦ126839ţ SepLember 4ţ 2001

5Ŧ Cb[ects of 5e|zure
ku|e 126ţ 5ecŦ 2
SecLlon 2Ŧ CourL where appllcaLlon for search warranL shall be flledŦ Ÿ An appllcaLlon for
search warranL shall be flled wlLh Lhe followlnať
1Ŧ Anv courL wlLhln whose LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon a crlme was commlLLedŦ
2Ŧ lor compelllna reasons sLaLed ln Lhe appllcaLlonţ anv courL wlLhln Lhe
[udlclal realon where Lhe crlme was commlLLed lf Lhe place of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme ls knownţ or anv courL wlLhln Lhe [udlclal realon
where Lhe warranL shall be enforcedŦ
Poweverţ lf Lhe crlmlnal acLlon has alreadv been flledţ Lhe appllcaLlon shall onlv be made ln
Lhe courL where Lhe crlmlnal acLlon ls pendlnaŦ
6Ŧ Warrant|ess searches
8ule 126ţ SecŦ 12
SecLlon 12Ŧ uellverv of properLv and lnvenLorv Lhereof Lo courLŤ reLurn and proceedlnas
LhereonŦ Ŷ
1Ŧ 1he offlcer musL forLhwlLh dellver Lhe properLv selzed Lo Lhe [udae who
lssued Lhe warranLţ LoaeLher wlLh a Lrue lnvenLorv Lhereof dulv verlfled
under oaLhŦ
2Ŧ 1en (10) davs afLer lssuance of Lhe search warranLţ Lhe lssulna [udae shall
ascerLaln lf Lhe reLurn has been madeţ and lf noneţ shall summon Lhe
person Lo whom Lhe warranL was lssued and requlre hlm Lo explaln whv
no reLurn was madeŦ lf Lhe reLurn has been madeţ Lhe [udae shall
ascerLaln wheLher secLlon 11 of Lhls 8ule has been complled wlLh and
shall requlre LhaL Lhe properLv selzed be dellvered Lo hlmŦ 1he [udae shall
see Lo lL LhaL subsecLlon (a) hereof has been complled wlLhŦ
3Ŧ 1he reLurn on Lhe search warranL shall be flled and kepL bv Lhe cusLodlan
of Lhe loa book on search warranLs who shall enLer Lhereln Lhe daLe of
Lhe reLurnţ Lhe resulLţ and oLher acLlons of Lhe [udaeŦ
A vlolaLlon of Lhls secLlon shall consLlLuLe conLempL of courLŦ
5ect|on 4Ŧ 8equlslLes for lssulna search warranLŦ Ÿ A search warranL shall noL lssue excepL
upon probable cause ln connecLlon wlLh one speclflc offense Lo be deLermlned personallv bv
Lhe [udae afLer examlnaLlon under oaLh or afflrmaLlon of Lhe complalnanL and Lhe wlLness he
mav produceţ and parLlcularlv descrlblna Lhe place Lo be searched and Lhe Lhlnas Lo be selzed
whlch mav be anvwhere ln Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ
1he ConsLlLuLlonal proscrlpLlon aaalnsL unreasonable searches and selzures does noLţ of
courseţ foresLall reasonable searches and selzureŦ verllvţ Lhe rule lsţ Lhe ConsLlLuLlon bars
SLaLe lnLruslons Lo a person's bodvţ personal effecLs or resldence excepL lf conducLed bv
vlrLue of a valld search warranL lssued ln compllance wlLh Lhe procedure ouLllned ln Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon and relLeraLed ln Lhe 8ules of CourLŤ ºoLherwlse such search and selzure become
'unreasonable' wlLhln Lhe meanlna of Lhe aforemenLloned consLlLuLlonal provlslonŦ" 1hls
lnLerdlcLlon aaalnsL warranLless searches and selzuresţ howeverţ ls noL absoluLe and such
warranLless searches and selzures have lona been deemed permlsslble bv [urlsprudence ln
lnsLances of (1) search of movlna vehlclesţ (2) selzure ln plaln vlewţ (3) cusLoms searchesţ (4)
walver or consenL searchesţ (3) sLop and frlsk slLuaLlons (1errv search)ţ and (6) search
lncldenLal Lo a lawful arresLŦ 1he lasL lncludes a valld warranLless search and selzure pursuanL
Lo an equallv valld warranLless arresLţ forţ whlle as a ruleţ an arresL ls consldered lealLlmaLe lf
effecLed wlLh a valld warranL of arresLţ Lhe 8ules of CourL recoanlze permlsslble warranLless
arresLsţ Lo wlLť (1) arresLs ln flaaranLe dellcLoţ (2) arresLs effecLed ln hoL pursulLţ and (3)
arresLs of escaped prlsonersŦ (Þeople vsŦ Chua Po San żC8 128222ţ 17 !une 1999Ž)
1he followlna lnsLances are noL deemed ºunreasonable" even ln Lhe absence of a warranLť
(1) WarranLless search lncldenLal Lo a lawful arresLŦ (SecŦ 12ţ 8ule 126 of Lhe 8ules of CourL
and prevalllna [urlsprudence)Ť (2) Search of evldence ln ºplaln vlew"Ť (3) Search of a movlna
vehlcleŦ Plahlv reaulaLed bv Lhe aovernmenLţ Lhe vehlcle's lnherenL moblllLv reduces
expecLaLlon of prlvacv especlallv when lLs LranslL ln publlc Lhorouahfares furnlshes a hlahlv
reasonable susplclon amounLlna Lo probable cause LhaL Lhe occupanL commlLLed a crlmlnal
acLlvlLvŤ (4) ConsenLed warranLless searchŤ (3) CusLoms searchŤ (6) SLop and lrlskŤ and (7)
LxlaenL and emeraencv clrcumsLancesŦ (Þeople vŦ 8olasaţ 378 ÞhllŦ 1073ţ 1078Ŵ1079 ż1999Ž)
o) vollJ wolvet
1he consLlLuLlonal lmmunlLv from unreasonable searches and selzuresţ belna a personal one
cannoL he walved bv anvone excepL Lhe person whose rlahLs are lnvaded or one who ls
expresslv auLhorlzed Lo do so ln hls or her behalf (ue Carcla vŦ Locslnţ 63 ÞhllŦ 689 693)Ŧ 1he
consenL musL be volunLarv ln order Lo valldaLe an oLherwlse llleaal deLenLlon and searchţ lŦeŦţ
Lhe consenL ls unequlvocalţ speclflcţ and lnLelllaenLlv alvenţ unconLamlnaLed bv anv duress or
coerclonŦ (68 Am !ur 2d Searches and Selzuresţ Ƈ133Ŧ) Penceţ consenL Lo a search ls noL Lo be
llahLlv lnferredţ buL musL be shown bv clear and convlnclna evldenceŦ (68 Am !ur 2d Searches
and Selzuresţ Ƈ136Ŧ)
1he Supreme CourL ls noL unmlndful of cases upholdlna Lhe valldlLv of consenLed warranLless
searches and selzureŦ 8uL ln Lhese casesţ Lhe pollce offlcers' requesL Lo search personnel
effecLs was orallv arLlculaLed Lo Lhe accused and ln such lanauaae LhaL lefL no room for doubL
LhaL Lhe laLLer fullv undersLood whaL was requesLedŦ ln some lnsLanceţ Lhe accused even
verballv replled Lo Lhe requesL demonsLraLlna LhaL he also undersLood Lhe naLure and
consequences of such requesLŦ (Þeople vsŦ Chua Po Sanţ 308 SC8A 432 ż1999Ž)
1he quesLlon wheLher a consenL Lo a search was ln facL volunLarv ls a quesLlon of facL Lo be
deLermlned from Lhe LoLallLv of all Lhe clrcumsLancesŦ (SchneckloLh vsŦ 8usLamonLeţ 412 uŦSŦ
218) ln case of consenLed searches or walver of Lhe consLlLuLlonal auaranLee aaalnsL
obLruslve searchesţ lL ls fundamenLal LhaL Lo consLlLuLe a walver of a consLlLuLlonal rlahLţ lL
musL flrsL appearţ flrsLţ LhaL Lhe rlahL exlsLsŤ secondlvţ LhaL Lhe person lnvolved had
knowledaeţ acLual or consLrucLlveţ of Lhe exlsLence of such a rlahLŤ and lasLlvţ LhaL sald
person had an acLual lnLenLlon Lo rellnqulsh Lhe rlahLŦ ( Þeople vŦ 8uraosţ 144 SC8A 1ţ 16
ż1986ŽŤ clLlna Þaslon vdaŦ de Carcla vŦ Locslnţ 63 Þhll 689 ż1938ŽŤ 67 CŦ !Ŧţ 299)
8elevanL Lo Lhls deLermlnaLlon are Lhe followlna characLerlsLlcs of Lhe person alvlna consenL
and Lhe envlronmenL ln whlch consenL ls alvenť (1) Lhe aae of Lhe defendanLŤ (2) wheLher he
was ln a publlc or secluded locaLlonŤ (3) wheLher he ob[ecLed Lo Lhe search or passlvelv
looked onŤ (4) Lhe educaLlon and lnLelllaence of Lhe defendanLŤ (3) Lhe presence of coerclve
pollce proceduresŤ (6) Lhe defendanL's bellef LhaL no lncrlmlnaLlna evldence wlll be foundŤ (7)
Lhe naLure of Lhe pollce quesLlonlnaŤ (8) Lhe envlronmenL ln whlch Lhe quesLlonlna Look
placeŤ and (9) Lhe posslblv vulnerable sub[ecLlve sLaLe of Lhe person consenLlnaŦ lL ls Lhe SLaLe
whlch has Lhe burden of provlnaţ bv clear and poslLlve LesLlmonvţ LhaL Lhe necessarv consenL
was obLalned and LhaL lL was freelv and volunLarllv alvenŦ (unlLed SLaLes vsŦ 1lllmanţ 963 lŦ 2d
137Ť llorlda vsŦ 8overţ 460 uŦSŦ 491Ť unlLed SLaLes vsŦ Mendenhallţ 446 uŦSŦ 344Ŧ)
lmplled acqulescence Lo Lhe searchţ lf Lhere was anvţ could noL have been more Lhan mere
passlve conformlLv alven under lnLlmldaLlna or coerclve clrcumsLances and ls Lhus consldered
no consenL aL all wlLhln Lhe purvlew of Lhe consLlLuLlonal auaranLeeŦ (Þeople vŦ Lnclnadaţ 280
SC8A 72ţ 91 ż1997ŽŤ clLlna Anloa vŦ Commlsslon on LlecLlonsţ 237 SC8A 424ţ 436Ŵ437 ż1994Ž)
ln anv evenLţ Lhe fallure Lo reslsL or ob[ecL Lo Lhe execuLlon of Lhe warranL does noL
consLlLuLe an lmplled walver of consLlLuLlonal rlahLŦ lL lsţ as !udae Coolev observesţ buL a
submlsslon Lo Lhe auLhorlLv of Lhe lawŦ (ConsLŦ LlmŦţ 8Lh edŦţ volŦ lţ lţ 630Ŧ) As Lhe
consLlLuLlonal auaranLv ls noL dependenL upon anv afflrmaLlve acL of Lhe clLlzenţ Lhe courLs
do noL place Lhe clLlzen ln Lhe poslLlon of elLher conLesLlna an offlcer's auLhorlLv bv forceţ or
walvlna hls consLlLuLlonal rlahLsŤ buL lnsLead Lhev hold LhaL a peaceful submlsslon Lo a search
or selzure ls noL a consenL or an lnvlLaLlon LhereLoţ buL ls merelv a demonsLraLlon of reaard
for Lhe supremacv of Lhe lawŦ (36 CŦ !Ŧţ ppŦ 1180ţ 1181Ŧ)
""" cose(s)
130Ŧ Þeople vsŦ Cmawenaţ 213 SC8A 462 (1992)
131Ŧ Þeople vŦ Correaţ 283 SC8A 679 (1998)
132Ŧ Þeople vsŦ 8amosţ CŦ8Ŧ 83401Ŵ02ţ !une 4ţ 1990
133Ŧ Þeople vŦ 8arrosţ 231 SC8A 337 (1994)
134Ŧ verov vsŦ Lavaaueţ 210 SC8A 97 (1992)
133Ŧ Þeople vsŦ uamasoţ 212 SC8A 437 (1992)
136Ŧ Lopez vsŦ CommŦ Cf CusLomsţ 68 SC8A 320 (1973)
137Ŧ Caballes vŦ CourL of Appealsţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 136292ţ !anuarv 3ţ 2002
138Ŧ Þeople vsŦ Aslsţ eLŦ alŦţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 142331ţ CcLober 13ţ 2002
139Ŧ Þeople vsŦ 1udLudţ eLŦ alŦţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 144037ţ SepLember 26ţ 2003

b) loclJeot t lo€ol ottest
1he mosL lmporLanL excepLlon Lo Lhe necesslLv for a search warranL ls Lhe rlahL of search and
selzure as an lncldenL Lo a lawful arresLŦ A lawful arresL mav be made elLher whlle a crlme ls
belna commlLLed or afLer lLs commlsslonŦ 1he rlahL Lo search lncludes ln boLh lnsLances LhaL
of searchlna Lhe person of hlm who ls arresLedţ ln order Lo flnd and selze Lhlnas connecLed
wlLh Lhe crlme as lLs frulLs or as Lhe means bv whlch lL was commlLLedŦ (Aanello vsŦ unlLed
SLaLesţ 269 uS 20Ŧ)
When one ls leaallv arresLed for an offenseţ whaLever ls found ln hls possesslon or ln hls
conLrol mav be selzed and used ln evldence aaalnsL hlmŤ and an offlcer has Lhe rlahL Lo make
an arresL wlLhouL a warranL of a person belleved bv Lhe offlcer upon reasonable arounds Lo
have commlLLed a felonvŦ (Carroll vsŦ unlLed SLaLesţ 267 uS 132Ŧ)
Whlle a conLemporaneous search of a person arresLed mav be effecLed Lo dellver danaerous
weapons or proofs or lmplemenLs used ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme and whlch search mav
exLend Lo Lhe area wlLhln hls lmmedlaLe conLrol where he mlahL aaln possesslon of a weapon
or evldence he can desLrovţ a valld arresL musL precede Lhe searchŦ 1he process cannoL be
reversedŦ (Þeople vsŦ Chua Po San żC8 128222ţ 17 !une 1999ŽŤ clLlna MalacaL vŦ CourL of
Appealsţ 283 SC8A 139ţ 173 ż1997ŽŦ)
A search lncldenL Lo a lawful arresL ls llmlLed Lo Lhe person of Lhe one arresLed and Lhe
premlses wlLhln hls lmmedlaLe conLrolŦ 1he raLlonale for permlLLlna such a search ls Lo
prevenL Lhe person arresLed from obLalnlna a weapon Lo commlL vlolenceţ or Lo reach for
lncrlmlnaLorv evldence and desLrov lLŦ (Þeople vsŦ SalanaulL żC8 133234Ŵ33ţ 19 Aprll 2001Ž)
When an arresL ls madeţ lL ls reasonable for Lhe arresLlna offlcer Lo search Lhe person
arresLed ln order Lo remove anv weapons LhaL Lhe laLLer mlahL seek Lo use ln order Lo reslsL
arresL or effecL hls escapeŦ CLherwlseţ Lhe offlcer's safeLv mlahL well be endanaeredţ and Lhe
arresL lLself frusLraLedŦ ln addlLlonţ lL ls enLlrelv reasonable for Lhe arresLlna offlcer Lo search
for and selze anv evldence on Lhe arresLee's person ln order Lo prevenL lLs concealmenL or
desLrucLlonŦ And Lhe area lnLo whlch an arresLee mlahL reach ln order Lo arab a weapon or
evldenLlarv lLems musLţ of courseţ be aoverned bv a llke ruleŦ A aun on a Lable or ln a drawer
ln fronL of one who ls arresLed can be as danaerous Lo Lhe arresLlna offlcer as one concealed
ln Lhe cloLhlna of Lhe person arresLedŦ 1here ls ample [usLlflcaLlonţ Lhereforeţ for a search of
Lhe arresLee's person and Lhe area 'wlLhln hls lmmedlaLe conLrol' Ÿ consLrulna LhaL phrase
Lo mean Lhe area from wlLhln whlch he mlahL aaln possesslon of a weapon or desLrucLlble
evldenceŦ 1here ls no comparable [usLlflcaLlonţ howeverţ for rouLlnelv searchlna anv room
oLher Lhan LhaL ln whlch an arresL occurs Ÿ orţ for LhaL maLLerţ for searchlna Lhrouah all Lhe
desk drawers or oLher closed or concealed areas ln LhaL room lLselfŦ (Chlmel vŦ CallfornlaŤ 23
LŦ LdŦ 2d 683ţ 23 !une 1969)
ku|e 126ţ 5ect|on 12ţ ku|es of Court
SecLlon 12Ŧ uellverv of properLv and lnvenLorv Lhereof Lo courLŤ reLurn and proceedlnas
LhereonŦ Ŷ
1Ŧ 1he offlcer musL forLhwlLh dellver Lhe properLv selzed Lo Lhe [udae who
lssued Lhe warranLţ LoaeLher wlLh a Lrue lnvenLorv Lhereof dulv verlfled
under oaLhŦ
2Ŧ 1en (10) davs afLer lssuance of Lhe search warranLţ Lhe lssulna [udae shall
ascerLaln lf Lhe reLurn has been madeţ and lf noneţ shall summon Lhe
person Lo whom Lhe warranL was lssued and requlre hlm Lo explaln whv
no reLurn was madeŦ lf Lhe reLurn has been madeţ Lhe [udae shall
ascerLaln wheLher secLlon 11 of Lhls 8ule has been complled wlLh and
shall requlre LhaL Lhe properLv selzed be dellvered Lo hlmŦ 1he [udae shall
see Lo lL LhaL subsecLlon (a) hereof has been complled wlLhŦ
3Ŧ 1he reLurn on Lhe search warranL shall be flled and kepL bv Lhe cusLodlan
of Lhe loa book on search warranLs who shall enLer Lhereln Lhe daLe of
Lhe reLurnţ Lhe resulLţ and oLher acLlons of Lhe [udaeŦ
A vlolaLlon of Lhls secLlon shall consLlLuLe conLempL of courLŦ
""" cose(s)
160Ŧ Chlmel vsŦ Callfornlaţ 393 uŦ SŦ 732 (1964)
161Ŧ Þeople vsŦ de la Cruzţ CŦ8Ŧ 83988ţ Aprll 18ţ 1990
162Ŧ Þeople vŦ kalublranţ 196 SC8A 643 (1991)
163Ŧ Þeople vŦ MalmsLedLţ 198 SC8A 401 (1991)
164Ŧ Þeople vŦ Cuencoţ CŦ8Ŧ 126277ţ november 16ţ 1988
163Ŧ Lspano vŦ CourL of Appealsţ 288 SC8A 338 (1998)
166Ŧ Þeople vsŦ 1anallbenţ 184 SC8A 220 (1990)
167Ŧ Þeople vŦ Che Chun 1lnaţ 328 SC8A 392 (2000)
168Ŧ Þeople vsŦ LsLrellaţ CŦ8Ŧ nosŦ 138339Ŵ40ţ !anuarv 21ţ 2003
169ŦÞeople vsŦ Llbnaoţ eL alŦţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 136860ţ !anuarv 20ţ 2003

c) 9lolo vle Jcttloe
Ŧ £lemeots
under Lhe ºplaln vlew docLrlneţ" unlawful ob[ecLs wlLhln Lhe ºplaln vlew" of an offlcer who
has Lhe rlahL Lo be ln Lhe poslLlon Lo have LhaL vlew are sub[ecL Lo selzure and mav be
presenLed ln evldenceŦ (Þeople vŦ Musa żC8 96177ţ 27 !anuarv 1993ŽŤ clLlna Parrls vŦ unlLed
SLaLesţ 390 uŦSŦ 234ţ 19 LŦLdŦ 2d 1067 ż1968Ž) lor Lhls docLrlne Lo applvţ Lhere musL beť (a)
prlor [usLlflcaLlonŤ (b ) lnadverLenL dlscoverv of Lhe evldenceŤ and (c) lmmedlaLe apparenL
llleaallLv of Lhe evldence before Lhe pollceŦ (Þeople vŦ Musa żC8 96177ţ 27 !anuarv 1993ŽŤ
clLlna Coolldae vŦ new Pampshlreţ 403 uŦSŦ 433ţ29 LŦ LdŦ 2d 364 ż1971Ž) 1he elemenLs of
plalnŴvlew areť (a) a prlor valld lnLruslon based on Lhe valld warranLless arresL ln whlch Lhe
pollce are leaallv presenL ln Lhe pursulL of Lhelr offlclal duLlesŤ (b) Lhe evldence was
lnadverLenLlv dlscovered bv Lhe pollce who have Lhe rlahL Lo be where Lhev areŤ (c) Lhe
evldence musL be lmmedlaLelv apparenLŤ (d) ºplaln vlew" [usLlfled mere selzure of evldence
wlLhouL furLher searchŦ (Þeople vŦ 8olasaţ 378 ÞhllŦ 1073ţ 1078Ŵ1079 ż1999Ž)
2Ŧ wbeo b©ect ls lo ½lolo vle
1he law enforcemenL offlcer musL lawfullv make an lnlLlal lnLruslon or properlv be ln a
poslLlon from whlch he can parLlcularlv vlew Lhe areaŦ (Parrls vŦ unlLed SLaLesţ supra) ln Lhe
course of such lawful lnLruslonţ he came lnadverLenLlv across a plece of evldence
lncrlmlnaLlna Lhe accusedŦ (Coolldae vŦ new Pampshlreţ supra) 1he ob[ecL musL be open Lo
eve and hand and lLs dlscoverv lnadverLenLŦ (8oan vŦ Conzalesţ 143 SC8A 687ţ 697 ż1986Ž) lL
ls clear LhaL an ob[ecL ls ln plaln vlew lf Lhe ob[ecL lLself ls plalnlv exposed Lo slahLŦ 1he
dlfflculLv arlses when Lhe ob[ecL ls lnslde a closed conLalnerŦ Where Lhe ob[ecL selzed was
lnslde a closed packaaeţ Lhe ob[ecL lLself ls noL ln plaln vlew and Lherefore cannoL be selzed
wlLhouL a warranLŦ Poweverţ lf Lhe packaae proclalms lLs conLenLsţ wheLher bv lLs dlsLlncLlve
conflauraLlonţ lLs Lransparencvţ or lf lLs conLenLs are obvlous Lo an observerţ Lhen Lhe
conLenLs are ln plaln vlew and mav be selzedŦ ln oLher wordsţ lf Lhe packaae ls such LhaL an
experlenced observer could lnfer from lLs appearance LhaL lL conLalns Lhe prohlblLed arLlcleţ
Lhen Lhe arLlcle ls deemed ln plaln vlewŦ (8obblns vŦ Callfornlaţ 433 uŦSŦ 420ţ 69 LŦ LdŦ 2d 744ţ
731 ż1981Ž) lL musL be lmmedlaLelv apparenL Lo Lhe pollce LhaL Lhe lLems LhaL Lhev observe
mav be evldence of a crlmeţ conLraband or oLherwlse sub[ecL Lo selzureŦ (Þeople vŦ Musa żC8
96177ţ 27 !anuarv 1993Ž)
JŦ 9loloŴvle b©ects os evlJeoce
1he warranLless search and selzureţ as an lncldenL Lo a suspecL's lawful arresLţ mav exLend
bevond Lhe person of Lhe one arresLed Lo lnclude Lhe premlses or surroundlnas under hls
lmmedlaLe conLrolŦ Cb[ecLs ln Lhe ºplaln vlew" of an offlcer who has Lhe rlahL Lo be ln Lhe
poslLlon Lo have LhaL vlew are sub[ecL Lo selzure and mav be presenLed as evldenceŦ When
Lhe dlscoverv of Lhe evldence dld noL consLlLuLe a searchţ buL where Lhe offlcer merelv saw
whaL was placed before hlm ln full vlewţ Lhe warranLless selzure of Lhe ob[ecL was leaal on
Lhe basls of Lhe ºplaln vlew" docLrlne and upheld Lhe admlsslblllLv of sald evldenceŦ (Þeople
vŦ Musa żC8 96177ţ 27 !anuarv 1993Ž) Merelv Lo observe and look aL LhaL whlch ls ln plaln
slahL ls noL a searchŦ Pavlna observed LhaL whlch ls openţ where no Lrespass has been
commlLLed ln ald Lhereofţ ls noL search (Chadwlck vŦ SLaLeţ 429 SW2d 133)Ŧ Where Lhe
conLraband arLlcles are ldenLlfled wlLhouL a Lrespass on Lhe parL of Lhe arresLlna offlcerţ
Lhere ls noL Lhe search LhaL ls prohlblLed bv Lhe consLlLuLlon (uS vŦ Lee 274 uS 339ţ 71 LŦLdŦ
1202 ż1927ŽŤ ker vŦ SLaLe of Callfornla 374 uS 23ţ 10 LŦLdŦ2dŦ 726 ż1963ŽŤ Moore vŦ SLaLeţ 429
SW2d 122 ż1968Ž)Ŧ
4Ŧ llmltotlos t ½loloŴvle
1he ºplaln vlew" docLrlne mav noL be used Lo launch unbrldled searches and lndlscrlmlnaLe
selzures nor Lo exLend a aeneral exploraLorv search made solelv Lo flnd evldence of
defendanL's aullLŦ 1he ºplaln vlew" docLrlne ls usuallv applled where a pollce offlcer ls noL
searchlna for evldence aaalnsL Lhe accusedţ buL noneLheless lnadverLenLlv comes across an
lncrlmlnaLlna ob[ecLŦ WhaL Lhe 'plaln vlew' cases have ln common ls LhaL Lhe pollce offlcer ln
each of Lhem had a prlor [usLlflcaLlon for an lnLruslon ln Lhe course of whlch he came
lnadverLenLlv across a plece of evldence lncrlmlnaLlna Lhe accusedŦ 1he docLrlne serves Lo
supplemenL Lhe prlor [usLlflcaLlon Ÿ wheLher lL be a warranL for anoLher ob[ecLţ hoL pursulLţ
search lncldenL Lo lawful arresLţ or some oLher lealLlmaLe reason for belna presenL
unconnecLed wlLh a search dlrecLed aaalnsL Lhe accused Ÿ and permlLs Lhe warranLless
selzureŦ Cf courseţ Lhe exLenslon of Lhe orlalnal [usLlflcaLlon ls lealLlmaLe onlv where lL ls
lmmedlaLelv apparenL Lo Lhe pollce LhaL Lhev have evldence before LhemŤ Lhe 'plaln vlew'
docLrlne mav noL be used Lo exLend a aeneral exploraLorv search from one ob[ecL Lo anoLher
unLll someLhlna lncrlmlnaLlna aL lasL emeraesŦ 1he ºplaln vlew" docLrlne nelLher [usLlfv Lhe
selzure of Lhe ob[ecL where Lhe lncrlmlnaLlna naLure of Lhe ob[ecL ls noL apparenL from Lhe
ºplaln vlew" of Lhe ob[ecLŦ (Þeople vŦ Musa żC8 96177ţ 27 !anuarv 1993Ž)
Cnce Lhe valld porLlon of Lhe search warranL has been execuLedţ Lhe ºplaln vlew docLrlne"
can no lonaer provlde anv basls for admlLLlna Lhe oLher lLems subsequenLlv foundŦ As has
been explalned LhaL ºWhaL Lhe 'plaln vlew' cases have ln common ls LhaL Lhe pollce offlcer ln
each of Lhem had a prlor [usLlflcaLlon for an lnLruslon ln Lhe course of whlch he came
lnadverLenLlv across a plece of evldence lncrlmlnaLlna Lhe accusedŦ 1he docLrlne serves Lo
supplemenL Lhe prlor [usLlflcaLlon ŶwheLher lL be a warranL for anoLher ob[ecLţ hoL pursulLţ
search lncldenL Lo lawful arresLţ or some oLher lealLlmaLe reason for belna presenL
unconnecLed wlLh a search dlrecLed aaalnsL Lhe accused Ÿ and permlLs Lhe warranLless
selzureŦ Cf courseţ Lhe exLenslon of Lhe orlalnal [usLlflcaLlon ls lealLlmaLe onlv where lL ls
lmmedlaLelv apparenL Lo Lhe pollce LhaL Lhev have evldence before LhemŤ Lhe 'plaln vlew'
docLrlne mav noL be used Lo exLend a aeneral exploraLorv search from one ob[ecL Lo anoLher
unLll someLhlna lncrlmlnaLlna aL lasL emeraesŦ" (Þeople vsŦ SalanaulL żC8 133234Ŵ33ţ 19 Aprll
2001Ž clLlna Coolldae vŦ new Pampshlreţ 403 uŦSŦ 433ţ29 LŦ LdŦ 2d 364 ż1971Ž)
""" cose(s)
170Ŧ Þadllla vŦ CAţ 269 SC8A 402 (1997)
171Ŧ Þeople vŦ valdezţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 129296ţ SepLember 23ţ 2000
172Ŧ Arlzona vŦ Plcksţ 480 uŦSŦ 321 ż1987Ž
173Ŧ Þeople vŦ Compaclonţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 124442ţ !ulv 20ţ 2001

J) £o€tcemeot € €lsblooţ costms ooJ lmmlototlo los
Ŧ llsbloo ooJ costms los
Search and selzure wlLhouL search warranL of vessels and alr crafLs for vlolaLlons of Lhe
cusLoms laws have been Lhe LradlLlonal excepLlon Lo Lhe consLlLuLlonal requlremenL of a
search warranLţ because Lhe vessel can be qulcklv moved ouL of Lhe locallLv or [urlsdlcLlon ln
whlch Lhe search warranL musL be souahL before such warranL could be securedŤ hence lL ls
noL pracLlcable Lo requlre a search warranL before such search or selzure can be
consLlLuLlonallv effecLed (Þapa vsŦ Maaoţ LŴ27360ţ lebŦ 28ţ 1968ţ 22 SC8A 837ţ 871Ŵ74Ť
Maaoncla vsŦ Þalacloţ 80 ÞhllŦ 770ţ 774Ť Carroll vsŦ uŦSŦ 267ţ ppŦ 132ţ 149ţ 138Ť !usLlce
lernandoţ 1he 8lll of 8lahLsţ 1972 edŦţ pŦ 223Ť Conzalesţ Þhlllpplne ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ 1966
edŦţ pŦ 300)Ŧ 1he same excepLlon should applv Lo selzures of flshlna vessels breachlna our
flsherv lawsť 1hev are usuallv equlpped wlLh powerful moLors LhaL enable Lhem Lo elude
pursulna shlps of Lhe Þhlllpplne navv or CoasL CuardŦ (8oldan vsŦ Arca żC8 LŴ23434ţ 23 !ulv
1973Ž)
2Ŧ lmmlototlo los
Þersons mav lose Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe search and selzure clause bv exposure of Lhelr
persons or properLv Lo Lhe publlc ln a manner reflecLlna a lack of sub[ecLlve expecLaLlon of
prlvacvţ whlch expecLaLlon socleLv ls prepared Lo recoanlze as reasonableŦ Such recoanlLlon ls
lmpllclL ln alrporL securlLv proceduresŦ WlLh lncreased concern over alrplane hl[acklna and
Lerrorlsm has come lncreased securlLv aL Lhe naLlon's alrporLsŦ Þassenaers aLLempLlna Lo
board an alrcrafL rouLlnelv pass Lhrouah meLal deLecLorsŤ Lhelr carrvŴon baaaaae as well as
checked luaaaae are rouLlnelv sub[ecLed Lo xŴrav scansŦ Should Lhese procedures suaaesL Lhe
presence of susplclous ob[ecLsţ phvslcal searches are conducLed Lo deLermlne whaL Lhe
ob[ecLs areŦ 1here ls llLLle quesLlon LhaL such searches are reasonableţ alven Lhelr mlnlmal
lnLruslvenessţ Lhe aravlLv of Lhe safeLv lnLeresLs lnvolvedţ and Lhe reduced prlvacv
expecLaLlons assoclaLed wlLh alrllne LravelŦ lndeedţ Lravelers are ofLen noLlfled Lhrouah
alrporL publlc address svsLemsţ slansţ and noLlces ln Lhelr alrllne LlckeLs LhaL Lhev are sub[ecL
Lo search andţ lf anv prohlblLed maLerlals or subsLances are foundţ such would be sub[ecL Lo
selzureŦ 1hese announcemenLs place passenaers on noLlce LhaL ordlnarv consLlLuLlonal
proLecLlons aaalnsL warranLless searches and selzures do noL applv Lo rouLlne alrporL
proceduresŦ (Þeople vsŦ !ohnson żC8 138881ţ 18 uecember 2000Ž)
""" cose(s)
173Ŧ 8oldan vsŦ Arcaţ 63 SC8A 320 (1973)
176Ŧ Plzon vŦ CourL of Appealsţ 263 SC8A 317 (1996)
177Ŧ Þeople vŦ CaLwardţ 267 SC8A 783 (1997)
178Ŧ Þeople vŦ !ohnsonţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 138881ţ uecember 18ţ 2000
179Ŧ Þeople vsŦ Suzuklţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 120670ţ CcLober 23ţ 2003)
180Ŧ 8ureau of CusLoms vŦ Caarloţ 329 SC8A 289 (2000)
e) ´t½ ooJ €tlsk´
Where a pollce offlcer observes unusual conducL whlch leads hlm reasonablv Lo conclude ln
llahL of hls experlence LhaL crlmlnal acLlvlLv mav be afooL and LhaL Lhe persons wlLh whom he
ls deallna mav be armed and presenLlv danaerousţ where ln Lhe course of lnvesLlaaLlna Lhls
behavlor he ldenLlfles hlmself as a pollceman and makes reasonable lnqulrlesţ and where
noLhlna ln Lhe lnlLlal sLaaes of Lhe encounLer serves Lo dlspel hls reasonable fear for hls own
or oLhers' safeLvţ he ls enLlLled for Lhe proLecLlon of hlmself and oLhers ln Lhe area Lo conducL
a carefullv llmlLed search of Lhe ouLer cloLhlna of such persons ln an aLLempL Lo dlscover
weapons whlch mlahL be used Lo assaulL hlmŦ Such a search ls a reasonable search under Lhe
lourLh AmendmenLţ and anv weapons selzed mav properlv be lnLroduced ln evldence aaalnsL
Lhe person from whom Lhev were LakenŦ (1errv vsŦ Chlo ż392 uS 1ţ 10 !une 1968Ž)
Whlle probable cause ls noL requlred Lo conducL a ºsLop and frlskţ" lL neverLheless holds LhaL
mere susplclon or a hunch wlll noL valldaLe a ºsLop and frlskŦ" A aenulne reason musL exlsLţ ln
llahL of Lhe pollce offlcer's experlence and surroundlna condlLlonsţ Lo warranL Lhe bellef LhaL
Lhe person deLalned has weapons concealed abouL hlmŦ llnallvţ a ºsLopŴandŴfrlsk" serves a
LwoŴfold lnLeresLť (1) Lhe aeneral lnLeresL of effecLlve crlme prevenLlon and deLecLlonţ whlch
underlles Lhe recoanlLlon LhaL a pollce offlcer mavţ under approprlaLe clrcumsLances and ln
an approprlaLe mannerţ approach a person for purposes of lnvesLlaaLlna posslble crlmlnal
behavlor even wlLhouL probable causeŤ and (2) Lhe more presslna lnLeresL of safeLv and selfŴ
preservaLlon whlch permlL Lhe pollce offlcer Lo Lake sLeps Lo assure hlmself LhaL Lhe person
wlLh whom he deals ls noL armed wlLh a deadlv weapon LhaL could unexpecLedlv and faLallv
be used aaalnsL Lhe pollce offlcerŦ (MalacaL vsŦ CourL of Appeals żC8 123393ţ 12 uecember
1997Ž)
""" cose(s)
181Ŧ 1errv vsŦ Chloţ 392 uS 1 (1968)
182Ŧ Þeople vŦ Solavaoţ 262 SC8A 233 (1996)
183Ŧ Manallll vŦ CourL of Appealsţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 113447ţ CcLober 7ţ 1997
184Ŧ MalacaL vŦ CourL of Appealsţ 283 SC8A 139 (1997)
183Ŧ llorlda vŦ !ŦLŦţ 98Ŵ1993ţ March 28ţ 2000
€) eotcb € mvloo veblcles
Ŧ kotloole
1he auLomoblle ls a swlfL and powerful vehlcle of recenL developmenLţ whlch has mulLlplled
bv quanLlLv producLlon and Laken possesslon of our hlahwavs ln baLLallonsţ unLll Lhe slowerţ
anlmalŴ drawn vehlclesţ wlLh Lhelr easllv noLed lndlvlduallLvţ are rareŦ ConsLrucLed as covered
vehlcles Lo sLandard form ln lmmense quanLlLlesţ and wlLh a capaclLv for speed rlvallna
express Lralnsţ Lhev furnlsh for successful commlsslon of crlme a dlsaulslna means of sllenL
approach and swlfL escape unknown ln Lhe hlsLorv of Lhe world before Lhelr advenLŦ 1he
quesLlon of Lhelr pollce conLrol and reasonable search on hlahwavs or oLher publlc places ls a
serlous quesLlon far deeper and broader Lhan Lhelr use ln soŴcalled ºbooLleaalna' or 'rum
runnlnaţ' whlch ls lLself ls no small maLLerŦ Whlle a possesslon ln Lhe sense of prlvaLe
ownershlpţ Lhev are buL a vehlcle consLrucLed for Lravel and LransporLaLlon on hlahwavsŦ
1helr acLlve use ls noL ln homes or on prlvaLe premlsesţ Lhe prlvacv of whlch Lhe law
especlallv auards from search and selzure wlLhouL processŦ 1he baffllna exLenL Lo whlch Lhev
are successfullv uLlllzed Lo faclllLaLe commlsslon of crlme of all deareesţ from Lhose aaalnsL
morallLvţ chasLlLvţ and decencvţ Lo robbervţ rapeţ buralarvţ and murderţ ls a maLLer of
common knowledaeŦ upon LhaL problem a condlLlonţ and noL a Lheorvţ confronLs proper
admlnlsLraLlon of our crlmlnal lawsŦ WheLher search of and selzure from an auLomoblle upon
a hlahwav or oLher publlc place wlLhouL a search warranL ls unreasonable ls ln lLs flnal
analvsls Lo be deLermlned as a [udlclal quesLlon ln vlew of all Lhe clrcumsLances under whlch
lL ls madeŦ (Þeople vŦ Case ż320 MlchŦţ 379ţ 190 nŦWŦţ 389ţ 27 AŦLŦ8Ŧţ 686Ž) Þeace offlcers mav
lawfullv conducL searches of movlna vehlcles Ÿ auLomobllesţ Lrucksţ eLcŦ Ÿ wlLhouL need of
a warranLţ lL noL belna pracLlcable Lo secure a [udlclal warranL before searchlna a vehlcleţ
slnce such vehlcle can be qulcklv moved ouL of Lhe locallLv or [urlsdlcLlon ln whlch Lhe
warranL mav be souahLŦ (Þeople vŦ 8arros żC8 90640ţ 29 March 1994Ž)
Plahlv reaulaLed bv Lhe aovernmenLţ Lhe vehlcle's lnherenL moblllLv reduces expecLaLlon of
prlvacv especlallv when lLs LranslL ln publlc Lhorouahfares furnlshes a hlahlv reasonable
susplclon amounLlna Lo probable cause LhaL Lhe occupanL commlLLed a crlmlnal acLlvlLvŦ
(Þadllla vsŦ CAţ eL alŦţ 269 SC8A 402 ż1997ŽŤ clLlna unlLed SLaLes vsŦ 8emţ 984 l 2d 806Ť unlLed
SLaLes vsŦ McCovţ 977 l 2d 706Ť unlLed SLaLes vsŦ 8usherţ 966 l 2d 868Ť unlLed SLaLes vsŦ
Þarkerţ 928 l 2d 363Ŧ) 1husţ Lhe rules aovernlna search and selzure have over Lhe vears been
sLeadllv llberallzed whenever a movlna vehlcle ls Lhe ob[ecL of Lhe search on Lhe basls of
pracLlcallLvŦ 1hls ls so conslderlna LhaL before a warranL could be obLalnedţ Lhe placeţ Lhlnas
and persons Lo be searched musL be descrlbed Lo Lhe saLlsfacLlon of Lhe lssulna [udae Ÿ a
requlremenL whlch borders on Lhe lmposslble ln Lhe case of smuaallna effecLed bv Lhe use of
a movlna vehlcle LhaL can LransporL conLraband from one place Lo anoLher wlLh lmpunlLvŦ A
warranLless search of a movlna vehlcle ls [usLlfled on Lhe around LhaL lL ls noL pracLlcable Lo
secure a warranL because Lhe vehlcle can be qulcklv moved ouL of Lhe locallLv or [urlsdlcLlon
ln whlch Lhe warranL musL be souahLŦ (Asunclon vsŦ CAţ eL alŦţ 302 SC8A 490 (1999)Ť Þeople
vsŦ Lo Po Wlnaţ 193 SC8A 122 ż1991Ž) Searches wlLhouL warranL of auLomoblles ls also
allowed for Lhe purpose of prevenLlna vlolaLlons of smuaallna or lmmlaraLlon lawsţ provlded
such searches are made aL borders or ºconsLrucLlve borders" llke checkpolnLs near Lhe
boundarv llnes of Lhe SLaLeŦ (AlmedlaŴSanchez vsŦ unlLed SLaLesţ 37 LŦedŦ 2d 396Ť Carrol vsŦ
unlLed SLaLesţ 267 uŦSŦ 132)
2Ŧ Moooet € seotcb
ln carrvlna ouL warranLless searches of movlna vehlclesţ howeverţ peace offlcers are llmlLed
Lo rouLlne checksţ LhaL lsţ Lhe vehlcles are nelLher reallv searched nor Lhelr occupanLs
sub[ecLed Lo phvslcal or bodv searchesţ Lhe examlnaLlon of Lhe vehlcles belna llmlLed Lo
vlsual lnspecLlonŦ (Þeople vŦ 8arros żC8 90640ţ 29 March 1994Ž) Whenţ howeverţ a vehlcle ls
sLopped and sub[ecLed Lo an exLenslve searchţ such a warranLless search would be
consLlLuLlonallv permlsslble onlv lf Lhe offlcers conducLlna Lhe search have reasonable or
probable cause Lo belleveţ before Lhe searchţ LhaL elLher Lhe moLorlsL ls a lawŴoffender or Lhe
conLenLs or carao of Lhe vehlcle are or have been lnsLrumenLs or Lhe sub[ecL maLLer or Lhe
proceeds of some crlmlnal offenseŦ (Þeople vŦ 8aalsLaţ 214 SC8A 63 ż1992ŽŤ valmonLe vŦ de
vlllaţ 183 SC8A 663 ż1990Ž)Ŧ
Cne such form of search of movlna vehlcles ls Lhe ºsLopŴandŴsearch" wlLhouL warranL aL
mlllLarv or pollce checkpolnLs whlch has been declared Lo be noL llleaal per se (Þeople vsŦ
Lxalaţ 221 SC8A 494 ż1993ŽŤ valmonLe vsŦ de vlllaţ 178 SC8A 211 ż1989Ž)ţ for as lona as lL ls
warranLed bv Lhe exlaencles of publlc order and conducLed ln a wav leasL lnLruslve Lo
moLorlsLs (Þeople vsŦ Lscanoţ 323 SC8A 734 ż2000Žţ clLlna uŦSŦ vsŦ MarLlnezŴluerLeţ 428 uŦSŦ
343)Ŧ A checkpolnL mav elLher be a mere rouLlne lnspecLlon or lL mav lnvolve an exLenslve
searchŦ 8ouLlne lnspecLlons are noL reaarded as vlolaLlve of an lndlvldual's rlahL aaalnsL
unreasonable searchŦ 1he search whlch ls normallv permlsslble ln Lhls lnsLance ls llmlLed Lo
Lhe followlna lnsLancesť (1) where Lhe offlcer merelv draws aslde Lhe curLaln of a vacanL
vehlcle whlch ls parked on Lhe publlc falr aroundsŤ (2) slmplv looks lnLo a vehlcleŤ (3) flashes a
llahL Lhereln wlLhouL openlna Lhe car's doorsŤ (4) where Lhe occupanLs are noL sub[ecLed Lo a
phvslcal or bodv searchŤ (3) where Lhe lnspecLlon of Lhe vehlcles ls llmlLed Lo a vlsual search
or vlsual lnspecLlonŤ and (6) where Lhe rouLlne check ls conducLed ln a flxed areaŦ
1he phvslcal lnLruslon of a parL of Lhe bodv of an aaenL lnLo Lhe vehlcle aoes bevond Lhe area
proLecLed bv Lhe lourLh AmendmenL (unlLed SLaLes vsŦ Þlerreţ 932 lŦ 2d 377 clLed ln
Permannţ Search and Selzure CheckllsLsţ 1994 edŦţ pŦ 246)Ŧ Cn Lhe oLher handţ when a vehlcle
ls sLopped and sub[ecLed Lo an exLenslve searchţ such a warranLless search would be
consLlLuLlonallv permlsslble onlv lf Lhe offlcers conducLlna Lhe search have reasonable or
probable cause Lo belleveţ before Lhe searchţ LhaL elLher Lhe moLorlsL ls a lawŴoffender or
Lhev wlll flnd Lhe lnsLrumenLallLv or evldence perLalnlna Lo a crlme ln Lhe vehlcle Lo be
searched (Cbraţ eL alŦ vsŦ CAţ eL alŦţ 317 SC8A 394 ż1999ŽŤ Þeople vsŦ 8aalsLaţ 214 SC8A 63
ż1992Ž)Ŧ
JŦ £xlsteoce € ½tboble coose
1he mere moblllLv of Lhese vehlclesţ howeverţ does noL alve Lhe pollce offlcers unllmlLed
dlscreLlon Lo conducL lndlscrlmlnaLe searches wlLhouL warranLs lf made wlLhln Lhe lnLerlor of
Lhe LerrlLorv and ln Lhe absence of probable causeŦ (Þeople vsŦ MalmsLedLţ 198 SC8A 401
(1991Ž)
1he CourL has ln Lhe pasL found probable cause Lo conducL wlLhouL a [udlclal warranL an
exLenslve search of movlna vehlcles ln slLuaLlons where (1) Lhere had emanaLed from a
packaae Lhe dlsLlncLlve smell of marl[uanaŤ (2) aaenLs of Lhe narcoLlcs Command ("narcom")
of Lhe Þhlllpplne naLlonal Þollce ("ÞnÞ") had recelved a confldenLlal reporL from lnformers
LhaL a slzeable volume of marl[uana would be LransporLed alona Lhe rouLe where Lhe search
was conducLedŤ (3) narcom aaenLs had recelved lnformaLlon LhaL a Caucaslan comlna from
Saaadaţ MounLaln Þrovlnceţ had ln hls possesslon prohlblLed druas and when Lhe narcom
aaenLs confronLed Lhe accused Caucaslanţ because of a consplcuous bulae ln hls walsLllneţ he
falled Lo presenL hls passporL and oLher ldenLlflcaLlon papers when requesLed Lo do soŤ (4)
narcom aaenLs had recelved confldenLlal lnformaLlon LhaL a woman havlna Lhe same phvslcal
appearance as LhaL of Lhe accused would be LransporLlna marl[uanaŤ (3) Lhe accused who
were rldlna a [eepnev were sLopped and searched bv pollcemen who had earller recelved
confldenLlal reporLs LhaL sald accused would LransporL a larae quanLlLv of marl[uanaŤ and (6)
where Lhe movlna vehlcle was sLopped and searched on Lhe basls of lnLelllaence lnformaLlon
and clandesLlne reporLs bv a deep peneLraLlon aaenL or spvŦ (Caballes vsŦ CourL of Appeals
żC8 136292ţ 13 !anuarv 2002Ž)
""" cose(s)
186Ŧ Þeople vŦ 8allnaanţ 241 SC8A 277 (1993)
187Ŧ Asunclon vŦ CourL of Appealsţ CŦ8Ŧ 123939ţ lebruarv 1ţ 1999
188Ŧ Þapa vsŦ Maaoţ 22 SC8A 837 (1968)
189Ŧ Þeople vsŦ Cll of 8lzalţ 101 SC8A 86 (1980)
190Ŧ Whren vŦ unlLed SLaLesţ 93Ŵ3841ţ !anuarv 10ţ 1996
191Ŧ Arkansas vŦ Sulllvanţ 00Ŵ00262ţ Mav 29ţ 2001
o) £metoeocv cltcomstooces
As Lhere was aeneral chaos and dlsorder aL LhaL Llme ŧ żLhaLŽ Lhe courLs ln Lhe surroundlna
areas were obvlouslv closed andţ for LhaL maLLerţ Lhe bulldlna and houses Lhereln were
deserLed ŧ żand LhaLŽ Lhe mlllLarv operaLlves ŧ had reasonable around Lo belleve LhaL a
crlme was belna commlLLedţ Lhe case falls under one of Lhe excepLlons Lo Lhe prohlblLlon
aaalnsL a warranLless searchŦ (Þeople vsŦ de Cracla żC8 102009Ŵ10ţ 6 !ulv 1994Ž)
""" cose(s)
192Ŧ Þeople vsŦ ue Cracla 233 SC8A 716 (1994)
b) cbeck½lots
Ŧ Mlolmol lotet€eteoce
8ouLlne checkpolnL sLops do noL lnLrude slmllarlv on Lhe moLorlna publlcŦ llrsLţ Lhe poLenLlal
lnLerference wlLh lealLlmaLe Lrafflc ls mlnlmalŦ MoLorlsLs uslna Lhese hlahwavs are noL Laken
bv surprlse as Lhev knowţ or mav obLaln knowledae ofţ Lhe locaLlon of Lhe checkpolnLs and
wlll noL be sLopped elsewhereŦ Second checkpolnL operaLlons boLh appear Lo and acLuallv
lnvolve less dlscreLlonarv enforcemenL acLlvlLvŦ 1he reaularlzed manner ln whlch esLabllshed
checkpolnLs are operaLed ls vlslble evldenceţ reassurlna Lo lawŴabldlna moLorlsLsţ LhaL Lhe
sLops are dulv auLhorlzed and belleved Lo serve Lhe publlc lnLeresLŦ 1he locaLlon of a flxed
checkpolnL ls noL chosen bv offlcers ln Lhe fleldţ buL bv offlclals responslble for maklna overall
declslons as Lo Lhe mosL effecLlve allocaLlon of llmlLed enforcemenL resourcesŦ We mav
assume LhaL such offlclals wlll be unllkelv Lo locaLe a checkpolnL where lL bears arblLrarllv or
oppresslvelv on moLorlsLs as a classţ and slnce fleld offlcers mav sLop onlv Lhose cars passlna
Lhe checkpolnLţ Lhere ls less room for abuslve or harasslna sLops of lndlvlduals Lhem Lhere
was ln Lhe case of rovlnaŴpaLrol sLopsŦ Moreoverţ a clalm LhaL a parLlcular exerclse of
dlscreLlon ln locaLlna or operaLlna a checkpolnL ls unreasonable ls sub[ecL Lo posLŴsLop
[udlclal revlewŦ (uŦSŦ vŦ MarLlnezŴluerLeţ 428 uS 343ţ 49 L LdŦ 2d 1116 ż1976Ž)
2Ŧ £xetclse € ½llce ½et
CheckpolnLs mav also be reaarded as measures Lo LhwarL ploLs Lo desLablllze Lhe
aovernmenLţ ln Lhe lnLeresL of publlc securlLvŦ AL Lhe cosL of occaslonal lnconvenlenceţ
dlscomforL and even lrrlLaLlon Lo Lhe clLlzenţ Lhe checkpolnLs durlna abnormal Llmesţ when
conducLed wlLhln reasonable llmlLsţ are parL of Lhe prlce we pav for an orderlv socleLv and a
peaceful communlLvŦ (valmonLe vsŦ de vlllaţ żC8 83988ţ 29 SepLember 1989Ž) under
excepLlonal clrcumsLancesţ as where Lhe survlval of oraanlzed aovernmenL ls on Lhe balanceţ
or where Lhe llves and safeLv of Lhe people are ln arave perllţ checkpolnLs mav be allowed
and lnsLalled bv Lhe aovernmenLŦ lmpllclL ln Lhls proposlLlon lsţ LhaL when Lhe slLuaLlon clears
and such arave perlls are removedţ checkpolnLs wlll have absoluLelv no reason Lo remalnŦ
AdmlLLedlvţ Lhe rouLlne checkpolnL sLop does lnLrudeţ Lo a cerLaln exLenLţ on moLorlsL's rlahL
Lo ºfree passaae wlLhouL lnLerrupLlon"ţ buL lL cannoL be denled LhaLţ as a ruleţ lL lnvolves onlv
a brlef deLenLlon of Lravellers durlna whlch Lhe vehlcle's occupanLs are requlred Lo answer a
brlef quesLlon or LwoŦ (valmonLe vsŦ de vlllaţ żC8 83988ţ 24 Mav1989Ž)
JŦ £xteot
lor as lona as Lhe vehlcle ls nelLher searched nor lLs occupanLs sub[ecLed Lo a bodv searchţ
and Lhe lnspecLlon of Lhe vehlcle ls llmlLed Lo a vlsual searchţ sald rouLlne checks cannoL be
reaarded as vlolaLlve of an lndlvldual's rlahL aaalnsL unreasonable searchŦ 1hese rouLlne
checksţ when conducLed ln a flxed areaţ are even less lnLruslveŦ (valmonLe vsŦ de vlllaţ żC8
83988ţ 24 Mav 1989Ž)
""" cose(s)
193Ŧ CenŦ ue vllla vsŦ valmonLe CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 83988 (Mav 24ţ 1990)
194Ŧ Anlaa vsŦ Comelecţ 237 SC8A 424 (1994)
193Ŧ Þeople vŦ usanaţ 323 SC8A 734 (2000)
l) los½ectlo € bollJloos
AdmlnlsLraLlve searches are slanlflcanL lnLruslons upon Lhe lnLeresLs proLecLed bv Lhe lourLh
AmendmenLţ LhaL such searches when auLhorlzed and conducLed wlLhouL a warranL
procedure lack Lhe LradlLlonal safeauards whlch Lhe lourLh AmendmenL auaranLees Lo Lhe
lndlvldualţ and LhaL Lhe reasons puL forLh ln lrank vŦ Marvland and ln oLher cases for
upholdlna Lhese warranLless searches are lnsufflclenL Lo [usLlfv so subsLanLlal a weakenlna of
Lhe lourLh AmendmenL's proLecLlonsŦ ConLrarv Lo Lhe assumpLlon of lrank vŦ Marvlandţ
lourLh AmendmenL lnLeresLs are noL merelv ºperlpheral" where munlclpal flreţ healLhţ and
houslna lnspecLlon proarams are lnvolved whose purpose ls Lo deLermlne Lhe exlsLence of
phvslcal condlLlons noL complvlna wlLh local ordlnancesŦ (Camara vsŦ Munlclpal CourL of Lhe
ClLv and CounLrv of San lranclsco ż387 uS 323ţ 3 !une 1967Ž)
""" cose(s)
196Ŧ Camara vsŦ Munlclpal CourLţ 387 uŦ SŦ 323 (1967)

7Ŧ Arrests w|th warrant
oŦ Probob/e couse defined
Þrobable cause means an acLual bellef or reasonable arounds of susplclonŦ 1he arounds of
susplclon are reasonable whenţ ln Lhe absence of acLual bellef of Lhe arresLlna offlcersţ Lhe
susplclon LhaL Lhe person Lo be arresLed ls probablv aullLv of commlLLlna Lhe offenseţ ls based
on acLual facLsţ lŦeŦţ supporLed bv clrcumsLances sufflclenLlv sLrona ln Lhemselves Lo creaLe
Lhe probable cause of aullL of Lhe person Lo be arresLedŦ A reasonable susplclon Lherefore
musL be founded on probable causeţ coupled wlLh aood falLh on Lhe parL of Lhe peace
offlcers maklna Lhe arresLŦ (Þeople vŦ uorlaţ 301 SC8A 668 ż1999ŽŤ clLlna umll vŦ 8amosţ 202
SC8A 231ţ 263 ż1991ŽŤ unlLed SLaLes vŦ SanLosţ 36 ÞhllŦ 831 ż1917ŽŤ Þeople vŦ 8aLlţ 189 SC8A
97 ż1990ŽŤ Þeople vŦ Sucroţ 193 SC8A 388 ż1990Ž and Þeople vŦ 8amos 186 SC8A 184 ż1990Ž)
1husţ Lhe Lerm probable cause had been undersLood Lo mean a reasonable around of
susplclon supporLed bv clrcumsLances sufflclenLlv sLrona ln Lhemselves Lo warranL a cauLlous
man's bellef LhaL Lhe person accused ls aullLv of Lhe offense wlLh whlch he ls charaedŦ
(Þeople vŦ Lnclnadaţ 280 SC8A 72ţ 83Ŵ86 ż1997Ž) Speclflcallv wlLh respecL Lo arresLsţ lL ls such
facLs and clrcumsLances whlch would lead a reasonablv dlscreeL and prudenL man Lo belleve
LhaL an offense has been commlLLed bv Lhe person souahL Lo be arresLedŦ (1 8ernas 87) ln
Þeople vŦ MonLlllaţ (283 SC8A 703 ż1998Ž) Lhe CourL acknowledaed LhaL ºLhe evldenLlarv
measure for Lhe proprleLv of flllna crlmlnal charaesţ and correlaLlvelvţ for effecLlna
warranLless arresLţ has been reduced and llberallzedŦ"
bŦ Probob/e couse distinouished from primo focie evidence
1he confuslna concepLs of ºprlma facle evldence" and ºprobable cause" were clarlfled and
seL arlahL bv Lhe 1983 amendmenL of Lhe 8ules of CourL whlch provldes ln 8ule 112 Lhereof
LhaL Lhe quanLum of evldence requlred ln prellmlnarv lnvesLlaaLlon ls such evldence as
sufflces Lo ºenaender as well founded bellef" as Lo Lhe facL of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme
and Lhe respondenL's probable aullL LhereofŦ lL has Lhe same meanlna as Lhe relaLed
phraseoloav used ln oLher parLs of Lhe same 8uleţ LhaL lsţ LhaL Lhe lnvesLlaaLlna flscal ºflnds
cause Lo hold Lhe respondenL for Lrlalţ" or where ºa probable cause exlsLsŦ" lL shouldţ
Lhereforeţ be ln LhaL senseţ whereln Lhe rlahL Lo effecL a warranLless arresL should be
consldered as leaallv auLhorlzedŦ (Þeople vŦ MonLlllaţ 283 SC8A 703ţ 720Ŵ721 ż1998Ž)
cŦ ke/iob/e informotion os bosis for probob/e couse
1he lonaŴsLandlna rule ln Lhls [urlsdlcLlonţ applled wlLh a areaL dearee of conslsLencvţ ls LhaL
ºrellable lnformaLlon" alone ls noL sufflclenL Lo [usLlfv a warranLless arresL under SecLlon 3
(a)ţ 8ule 113Ŧ 1he rule requlresţ ln addlLlonţ LhaL Lhe accused perform some overL acL LhaL
would lndlcaLe LhaL he ºhas commlLLedţ ls acLuallv commlLLlnaţ or ls aLLempLlna Lo commlL an
offenseŦ" 1husţ noLwlLhsLandlna Llps from confldenLlal lnformanLs and reaardless of Lhe facL
LhaL Lhe search vlelded conLrabandţ Lhe mere acL of looklna from slde Lo slde whlle holdlna
one's abdomenţ or of sLandlna on a corner wlLh one's eves movlna verv fasLţ looklna aL everv
person who came nearţ does noL [usLlfv a warranLless arresL under sald SecLlon 3 (a)Ŧ nelLher
does puLLlna someLhlna ln one's pockeLţ handlna over one's baaaaaeţ rldlna a moLorcvcleţ
nor does holdlna a baa on board a Lrlslkad sancLlon SLaLe lnLruslonŦ 1he same rule applles Lo
crosslna Lhe sLreeL per seŦ (Þeople vsŦ 1udLud żC8 144037ţ 26 SepLember 2003Ž)
dŦ Persono/ determinotion by judoe
WhaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon underscores ls Lhe excluslve and personal responslblllLv of Lhe lssulna
[udae Lo saLlsfv hlmself of Lhe exlsLence of probable causeŦ ln saLlsfvlna hlmself of Lhe
exlsLence of probable cause for Lhe lssuance of a warranL of arresLţ Lhe [udae ls noL requlred
Lo personallv examlne Lhe complalnanL and hls wlLnessesŦ lollowlna esLabllshed docLrlne and
procedureţ he shallť (1) personallv evaluaLe Lhe reporL and Lhe supporLlna documenLs
submlLLed bv Lhe flscal reaardlna Lhe exlsLence of probable cause andţ on Lhe basls Lhereofţ
lssue a warranL of arresLŤ or (2) lf on Lhe basls Lhereof he flnds no probable causeţ he mav
dlsreaard Lhe flscal's reporL and requlre Lhe submlsslon of supporLlna affldavlLs of wlLnesses
Lo ald hlm ln arrlvlna aL a concluslon as Lo Lhe exlsLence of probable causeŦ (Sollven vsŦ
Makaslarţ 167 SC8A 398)
llrsLţ as held ln lnLlnaţ Lhe deLermlnaLlon of probable cause bv Lhe prosecuLor ls for a
purpose dlfferenL from LhaL whlch ls Lo be made bv Lhe [udaeŦ WheLher Lhere ls reasonable
around Lo belleve LhaL Lhe accused ls aullLv of Lhe offense charaed and should be held for
Lrlal ls whaL Lhe prosecuLor passes uponŦ 1he [udaeţ on Lhe oLher handţ deLermlnes wheLher
a warranL of arresL should be lssued aaalnsL Lhe accusedţ lŦeŦţ wheLher Lhere ls a necesslLv for
placlna hlm under lmmedlaLe cusLodv ln order noL Lo frusLraLe Lhe ends of [usLlceŦ 1husţ even
lf boLh should base Lhelr flndlnas on one and Lhe same proceedlna or evldenceţ Lhere should
be no confuslon as Lo Lhelr dlsLlncL ob[ecLlvesŦ
Secondţ slnce Lhelr ob[ecLlves are dlfferenLţ Lhe [udae cannoL relv solelv on Lhe reporL of Lhe
prosecuLor ln flndlna probable cause Lo [usLlfv Lhe lssuance of a warranL of arresLŦ Cbvlouslv
and undersLandablvţ Lhe conLenLs of Lhe prosecuLor's reporL wlll supporL hls own concluslon
LhaL Lhere ls reason Lo charae Lhe accused for an offense and hold hlm for LrlalŦ Poweverţ Lhe
[udae musL declde lndependenLlvŦ Penceţ he musL have supporLlna evldenceţ oLher Lhan Lhe
prosecuLor's bare reporLţ upon whlch Lo leaallv susLaln hls own flndlnas on Lhe exlsLence (or
nonexlsLence) of probable cause Lo lssue an arresL orderŦ 1hls responslblllLv of deLermlnlna
personallv and lndependenLlv Lhe exlsLence or nonexlsLence of probable cause ls lodaed ln
hlm bv no less Lhan Lhe mosL baslc law of Lhe landŦ ÞarenLheLlcallvţ Lhe prosecuLor could ease
Lhe burden of Lhe [udae and speed up Lhe llLlaaLlon process bv forwardlna Lo Lhe laLLer noL
onlv Lhe lnformaLlon and hls bare resoluLlon flndlna probable causeţ buL also so much of Lhe
records and Lhe evldence on hand as Lo enable Lhe Pls Ponor Lo make hls personal and
separaLe [udlclal flndlna on wheLher Lo lssue a warranL of arresLŦ
LasLlvţ lL ls noL requlred LhaL Lhe compleLe or enLlre records of Lhe case durlna Lhe
prellmlnarv lnvesLlaaLlon be submlLLed Lo and examlned bv Lhe [udaeŦ We do noL lnLend Lo
undulv burden Lrlal courLs bv obllalna Lhem Lo examlne Lhe compleLe records of everv case
all Lhe Llme slmplv for Lhe purpose of orderlna Lhe arresL of an accusedŦ WhaL ls requlredţ
raLherţ ls LhaL Lhe [udae musL have sufflclenL supporLlna documenLs (such as Lhe complalnLţ
affldavlLsţ counLerŴaffldavlLsţ sworn sLaLemenLs of wlLnesses or LranscrlpL of sLenoaraphlc
noLesţ lf anv) upon whlch Lo make hls lndependenL [udamenL orţ aL Lhe verv leasLţ upon
whlch Lo verlfv Lhe flndlnas of Lhe prosecuLor as Lo Lhe exlsLence of probable causeŦ 1he
polnL lsť he cannoL relv solelv and enLlrelv on Lhe prosecuLor's recommendaLlonţ as
8espondenL CourL dld ln Lhls caseŦ AlLhouah Lhe prosecuLor en[ovs Lhe leaal presumpLlon of
reaularlLv ln Lhe performance of hls offlclal duLles and funcLlonsţ whlch ln Lurn alves hls
reporL Lhe presumpLlon of accuracvţ Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ we repeaLţ commands Lhe [udae Lo
personallv deLermlne probable cause ln Lhe lssuance of warranLs of arresLŦ 1hls CourL has
conslsLenLlv held LhaL a [udae falls ln hls bounden duLv lf he relles merelv on Lhe cerLlflcaLlon
or Lhe reporL of Lhe lnvesLlaaLlna offlcerŦ" (Po vsŦ Þeopleţ 280 SC8A 363)
1he quesLlon wheLher ºprobable cause" exlsLs or noL musL depend upon Lhe [udamenL and
dlscreLlon of Lhe [udae or maalsLraLe lssulna Lhe warranLŦ lL does noL mean LhaL parLlcular
facLs musL exlsL ln each parLlcular caseŦ lL slmplv means LhaL sufflclenL facLs musL be
presenLed Lo Lhe [udae or maalsLraLe lssulna Lhe warranL Lo convlnce hlmţ noL LhaL Lhe
parLlcular person has commlLLed Lhe crlmeţ buL LhaL Lhere ls probable cause for bellevlna
LhaL Lhe person whose arresL ls souahL commlLLed Lhe crlme charaedŦ no rule can be lald
down whlch wlll aovern Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe courL ln Lhls maLLerŦ lf he decldesţ upon Lhe
proof presenLedţ LhaL probable cause exlsLsţ no ob[ecLlon can be made upon consLlLuLlonal
arounds aaalnsL Lhe lssuance of Lhe warranLŦ Pls concluslon as Lo wheLher ºprobable cause"
exlsLed or noL ls flnal and concluslveŦ lf he ls saLlsfled LhaL ºprobable cause" exlsLs from Lhe
facLs sLaLed ln Lhe complalnLţ made upon Lhe lnvesLlaaLlon bv Lhe prosecuLlna aLLornevţ Lhen
hls concluslon ls sufflclenL upon whlch Lo lssue Lhe warranL for arresLŦ Pe mavţ howeverţ lf he
ls noL saLlsfledţ call such wlLnesses as he mav deem necessarv before lssulna Lhe warranLŦ 1he
lssuance of Lhe warranL of arresL ls prlma facle evldence LhaLţ ln hls [udamenL aL leasLţ Lhere
exlsLed ºprobable cause" for bellevlna LhaL Lhe person aaalnsL whom Lhe warranL ls lssued ls
aullLv of Lhe crlme charaedŦ 1here ls no law whlch prohlblLs hlm from reachlna Lhe concluslon
LhaL ºprobable cause" exlsLs from Lhe sLaLemenL of Lhe prosecuLlna aLLornev aloneţ or anv
oLher person whose sLaLemenL or affldavlL ls enLlLled Lo credlL ln Lhe oplnlon of Lhe [udae or
maalsLraLeŦ (uS vsŦ Ccampoţ 18 ÞhllŦ 1ţ 41Ŵ42)
Law and [urlsprudence ln facL requlre sLrlcLer arounds for valld arresLs and searches wlLhouL
warranL Lhan for Lhe lssuance of warranLs LhereforeŦ ln Lhe formerţ Lhe arresLlna person musL
have acLuallv wlLnessed Lhe crlme belna commlLLed or aLLempLed bv Lhe person souahL Lo be
arresLedŤ or he musL have personal knowledae of facLs lndlcaLlna LhaL Lhe person Lo be
arresLed perpeLraLed Lhe crlme LhaL had [usL occurredŦ ln Lhe laLLer caseţ Lhe [udae slmplv
deLermlnes personallv from LesLlmonles of wlLnesses LhaL Lhere exlsLs reasonable arounds Lo
belleve LhaL a crlme was commlLLed bv Lhe accusedŦ (Þeople vsŦ 1udLud żC8 144037ţ 26
SepLember 2003Ž)
8Ŧ Warrant|ess arrests
1he 8ules of CourL recoanlzes permlsslble warranLless arresLsŦ 1husţ a peace offlcer or a
prlvaLe person mavţ wlLhouL warranLţ arresL a personť (a) whenţ ln hls presenceţ Lhe person
Lo be arresLed has commlLLedţ ls acLuallv commlLLlnaţ or ls aLLempLlna Lo commlL an offense
(arresL ln flaaranLe dellcLo)Ť (b) when an offense has [usL been commlLLed and he has
probable cause Lo belleve based on personal knowledae of facLs or clrcumsLances LhaL Lhe
person Lo be arresLed has commlLLed lL (arresL effecLed ln hoL pursulL)Ť and (c) when Lhe
person Lo be arresLed ls a prlsoner who has escaped from a penal esLabllshmenL or a place
where he ls servlna flnal [udamenL or ls Lemporarllv conflned whlle hls case ls pendlnaţ or has
escaped whlle belna Lransferred from one conflnemenL Lo anoLher (arresL of escaped
prlsoners)Ŧ (Þeople vŦ Chua Po Sanţ 308 SC8A 432ţ 444 ż1999ŽŤ and Lhe 8evlsed 8ules on
Crlmlnal Þrocedure (as amended)ţ 8ule 113ţ SecLlon 3Ŧ)
1o consLlLuLe a valld ln flaaranLe dellcLo arresLţ Lwo requlslLes musL concurť (1) Lhe person Lo
be arresLed musL execuLe an overL acL lndlcaLlna LhaL he has [usL commlLLedţ ls acLuallv
commlLLlnaţ or ls aLLempLlna Lo commlL a crlmeŤ and (2) such overL acL ls done ln Lhe
presence or wlLhln Lhe vlew of Lhe arresLlna offlcerŦ (Concurrlna Cplnlon of !usLlce ArLemlo vŦ
Þanaanlban ln Þeople vŦ uorlaţ 301 SC8A 668ţ 720 ż1999Ž) As applled Lo ln flaaranLe dellcLo
arresLsţ lL ls seLLled LhaL ºrellable lnformaLlon" aloneţ absenL anv overL acL lndlcaLlve of a
felonlous enLerprlse ln Lhe presence and wlLhln Lhe vlew of Lhe arresLlna offlcersţ are noL
sufflclenL Lo consLlLuLe probable cause LhaL would [usLlfv an ln flaaranLe dellcLo arresLŦ
(Þeople vsŦ Mollna żC8 133917ţ 19 lebruarv 2001Ž)
ku|e 113ţ 5ecŦ 5
SecLlon 3Ŧ ArresL wlLhouL warranLŤ when lawfulŦ Ÿ A peace offlcer or a prlvaLe person mavţ
wlLhouL a warranLţ arresL a personť
1Ŧ Whenţ ln hls presenceţ Lhe person Lo be arresLed has commlLLedţ ls
acLuallv commlLLlnaţ or ls aLLempLlna Lo commlL an offenseŤ
2Ŧ When an offense has [usL been commlLLed and he has probable cause Lo
belleve based on personal knowledae of facLs or clrcumsLances LhaL Lhe
person Lo be arresLed has commlLLed lLŤ and
3Ŧ When Lhe person Lo be arresLed ls a prlsoner who has escaped from a
penal esLabllshmenL or place where he ls servlna flnal [udamenL or ls
Lemporarllv conflned whlle hls case ls pendlnaţ or has escaped whlle
belna Lransferred from one conflnemenL Lo anoLherŦ
ln cases falllna under paraaraphs (a) and (b) aboveţ Lhe person arresLed wlLhouL a warranL
shall be forLhwlLh dellvered Lo Lhe nearesL pollce sLaLlon or [all and shall be proceeded
aaalnsL ln accordance wlLh secLlon 7 of 8ule 112Ŧ
ArtŦ 125ţ kev|sed 9ena| Code
ArLlcle 123Ŧ uelav ln Lhe dellverv of deLalned persons Lo Lhe proper [udlclal auLhorlLlesŦ Ÿ
1he penalLles provlded ln Lhe nexL precedlna arLlcle shall be lmposed upon Lhe publlc offlcer
or emplovee who shall deLaln anv person for some leaal around and shall fall Lo dellver such
person Lo Lhe proper [udlclal auLhorlLles wlLhln Lhe perlod ofŤ Lwelve (12) hoursţ for crlmes or
offenses punlshable bv llahL penalLlesţ or Lhelr equlvalenLŤ elahLeen (18) hoursţ for crlmes or
offenses punlshable bv correcLlonal penalLlesţ or Lhelr equlvalenL and LhlrLvŴslx (36) hoursţ
for crlmesţ or offenses punlshable bv affllcLlve or caplLal penalLlesţ or Lhelr equlvalenLŦ
ln everv caseţ Lhe person deLalned shall be lnformed of Lhe cause of hls deLenLlon and shall
be allowed upon hls requesLţ Lo communlcaLe and confer aL anv Llme wlLh hls aLLornev or
counselŦ
kebe//ion os continuino Offense
1he arresL of persons lnvolved ln Lhe rebelllon wheLher as lLs flahLlna armed elemenLsţ or for
commlLLlna nonŴvlolenL acLs buL ln furLherance of Lhe rebelllonţ ls more an acL of capLurlna
Lhem ln Lhe course of an armed confllcLţ Lo quell Lhe rebelllonţ Lhan for Lhe purpose of
lmmedlaLelv prosecuLlna Lhem ln courL for a sLaLuLorv offenseŦ 1he arresLţ Lhereforeţ need
noL follow Lhe usual procedure ln Lhe prosecuLlon of offenses whlch requlres Lhe
deLermlnaLlon bv a [udae of Lhe exlsLence of probable cause before Lhe lssuance of a [udlclal
warranL of arresL and Lhe aranLlna of ball lf Lhe offense ls ballableŦ Cbvlouslv Lhe absence of a
[udlclal warranL ls no leaal lmpedlmenL Lo arresLlna or capLurlna persons commlLLlna overL
acLs of vlolence aaalnsL aovernmenL forcesţ or anv oLher mllder acLs buL reallv ln pursuance
of Lhe rebelllous movemenLŦ 1he arresL or capLure ls Lhus lmpelled bv Lhe exlaencles of Lhe
slLuaLlon LhaL lnvolves Lhe verv survlval of socleLv and lLs aovernmenL and dulv consLlLuLed
auLhorlLlesŦ lf kllllna and oLher acLs of vlolence aaalnsL Lhe rebels flnd [usLlflcaLlon ln Lhe
exlaencles of armed hosLlllLles whlch (are) of Lhe essence of waalna a rebelllon or
lnsurrecLlonţ mosL assuredlv so ln case of lnvaslonţ merelv selzlna Lhelr persons and deLalnlna
Lhem whlle anv of Lhese conLlaencles conLlnues cannoL be less [usLlfledŦ (umll vsŦ 8amos żC8
81367ţ 9 !ulv 1990Ž)
""" cose(s)
197Ŧ umll vsŦ 8amosţ CŦ 8Ŧ 81367ţ !ulv 9ţ 1990
committed in the Presence of Po/ice Officers
An offense ls commlLLed ln Lhe presence or wlLhln Lhe vlew of an offlcerţ wlLhln Lhe meanlna
of Lhe rule auLhorlzlna an arresL wlLhouL a warranLţ when Lhe offlcer sees Lhe offenseţ
alLhouah aL a dlsLanceţ or hears Lhe dlsLurbances creaLed Lherebv and proceeds aL once Lo
Lhe scene LhereofŦ (Þeople vsŦ Sucro żC8 93239ţ 18 March 1991Ž)
""" cose(s)
198Ŧ Þeople vŦ Sucroţ 193 SC8A 388 (1991)
199Ŧ Þeople vŦ uorlaţ 301 SC8A 668) (1999)
200Ŧ Þeople vŦ LulslLo Coţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 116001ţ March 14ţ 2001
201Ŧ Þeople vŦ ue Cuzmanţ C8 noŦ 117932Ŵ33ţ lebruarv 14ţ 2001
Persono/ know/edoe of the Offense
ln cases of ln flaaranLe dellcLo arresLsţ a peace offlcer or a prlvaLe person mav wlLhouL a
warranLţ arresL a personţ whenţ ln hls presenceţ Lhe person Lo be arresLed has commlLLedţ ls
acLuallv commlLLlnaţ or ls aLLempLlna Lo commlL an offenseŦ 1he arresLlna offlcerţ Lhereforeţ
musL have personal knowledae of such facL or as recenL case law adverLs Loţ personal
knowledae of facLs or clrcumsLances convlnclnalv lndlcaLlve or consLlLuLlve of probable
causeŦ (Þeople vsŦ Chua Po San żC8 128222ţ 17 !une 1999Ž)
""" cose(s)
202Ŧ Þeople vsŦ CerenLeţ 219 SC8A 736 (1993)
203Ŧ Þeople vŦ Slnocţ 273 SC8A 337 (1997)
204Ŧ Þeople vŦ 8aulaţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 132671ţ november 13ţ 2000
203Ŧ Þeople vŦ Cubcublnţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 136267ţ !ulv 10ţ 2001
1ime of 4rrest
Ŧ nt 9otsolt
Þaraaraph (b) of SecLlon 3 ls oLherwlse known as Lhe docLrlne of ºhoL pursulL" arresLsŦ 1hls
docLrlne ls based on Lhe rule LhaL an arresL can be made wlLhouL warranL when an offense
has [usL been commlLLed and Lhe arresLlna offlcer has probable cause Lo belleve based on
personal knowledae of facLs or clrcumsLances LhaL a crlme has [usL been commlLLedŦ lL ls noL
necessarv LhaL Lhe arresLlna offlcers have dlrecL knowledae of Lhe crlmeŦ 8uL Lhev musL have
dlrecL knowledae or vlew of Lhe crlme rlahL afLer lLs commlsslonŦ (Þeople vsŦ uorlaţ 301 SC8A
668)
2Ŧ ´nos ©ost beeo cmmltteJ´
lL ls noL sufflclenL LhaL a crlme was lndeed commlLLed buL lL ls requlred LhaL Lhe sald crlme
has [usL been commlLLedŦ 1he proxlmlLv of Llme of commlsslon of Lhe crlme musL be close Lo
Lhe Llme of Lhe arresLŦ CLherwlseţ Lhe arresL ls llleaalŦ (Þlnedaţ LrnesLo LŦţ 1he 8evlsed 8ules
on Crlmlnal Þrocedureţ 2003 LdlLlonţ 161Ŧ)
""" cose(s)
206Ŧ Þeople vsŦ 8odrlauezaţ 203 SC8A 791 (1992)
207Ŧ Co vsŦ CourL of Appealsţ 206 SC8A 386 (1992)
208Ŧ Þeople vŦ Callmllmţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 123980ţ AuausL 30Ŧ 2001
,orked ,oney
1he dlscoverv of Lhe marked monev on ża personŽ dld noL mean he was cauahL żln fraaranLe
dellcLoŽŦ 1he marked monev was noL prohlblLed per seŦ Lven lf lL wereţ LhaL facL alone would
noL reLroacLlvelv valldaLe Lhe warranLless search and selzureŦ (Þeople vsŦ Lnrlle żC8 74189ţ 26
Mav 1993Ž)
""" cose(s)
209Ŧ Þeople vsŦ Lnrlleţ 222 SC8A 386 (1993)

Lock of uroency
As a aeneral ruleţ Lhe procuremenL of a search warranL ls requlred before a law enforcer mav
valldlv search or selze Lhe personţ houseţ papers or effecLs of anv lndlvldualŦ When one was
noL cauahL ln flaaranLe nor was a crlme abouL Lo be commlLLed or had [usL been commlLLedţ
Lhere ls no [usLlflcaLlon for Lhe warranLless arresL allowed under 8ule 113 of Lhe 8ules of
CourLŦ Lven expedlencv could noL be lnvoked Lo dlspense wlLh Lhe obLenLlon of Lhe warranLŦ
WarranLless arresLs cannoL be resorLed Lo when pollce offlcers have ample opporLunlLv Lo
secure a warranL of arresLŦ
AppllcaLlons made durlna weekends and holldavsŦ 1he Supreme CourL's Clrcular 19ţ daLed 14
AuausL 1987ţ whlch reads º3Ŧ AppllcaLlons flled afLer offlce hoursţ durlna SaLurdavsţ Sundavs
and holldavs shall llkewlse be Laken coanlzance of and acLed upon bv anv [udae of Lhe courL
havlna [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe place Lo be searchedţ buL ln such cases Lhe appllcanL shall cerLlfv
and sLaLe Lhe facLs under oaLhţ Lo Lhe saLlsfacLlon of Lhe [udaeţ LhaL Lhe lssuance ls uraenL"
merelv provldes for a auldellneţ deparLure from whlch would noL necessarllv affecL Lhe
valldlLv of an oLherwlse valld search warranLŦ (ÞrudenLe vsŦ uavrlL żC8 82870ţ 14 uecember
1989Ž)
""" cose(s)
210Ŧ Þeople vŦ Þasudaaţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 128822ţ Mav 4ţ 2001
211Ŧ Þeople vsŦ Amlnnudlnţ 163 SC8A 402 (1988)

£ffect of £ntry of P/eo
8v pleadlna ºnoL aullLv" aL Lhelr arralanmenLţ Lhe accused submlLLed Lo Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe
Lrlal courLţ Lherebv curlna anv defecL ln Lhelr arresLţ for Lhe leaallLv of an arresL affecLs onlv
Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe courL over Lhelr personsŦ (Þeople vsŦ Þlana żC8 128283ţ 27 november
2001Ž)
""" cose(s)
212Ŧ Þeople vŦ Þlana CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 128283ţ november 27ţ 2001

vo/idity of conviction
1he llleaal arresL of an accused ls noL sufflclenL cause for seLLlna aslde a valld [udamenL
rendered upon a sufflclenL complalnL afLer Lrlal free from errorŦ (Þeople vsŦ ue Cuzmanţ 224
SC8A 93ţ 100 ż1993Ž)Ŧ 1he warranLless arresLţ even lf llleaalţ cannoL render vold all oLher
proceedlnas lncludlna Lhose leadlna Lo Lhe convlcLlon of Lhe appellanLs and hls coŴaccusedţ
nor can Lhe sLaLe be deprlved of lLs rlahL Lo convlcL Lhe aullLv when all Lhe facLs on record
polnL Lo Lhelr culpablllLvŦ (Þeople vsŦ Manluluţ 231 SC8A 701ţ 710 ż1994ŽŤ Þeople vsŦ ue Culaţ
227 SC8A 614ţ 626 ż1993Ž)
""" cose(s)
213Ŧ Þeople vŦ Condeţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 113269ţ Aprll 10ţ 2001





9r|vacy of Commun|cat|on Ǝ Correspondence
Art|c|e IIIţ 5ec 3 (1)
5ect|on 3Ŧ
1Ŧ 1he prlvacv of communlcaLlon and correspondence shall be lnvlolable
excepL upon lawful order of Lhe courLţ or when publlc safeLv or order
requlres oLherwlseţ as prescrlbed bv lawŦ

8ŦAŦ noŦ 4200 (AnLlŴWlre 1applna Law) (1963)
ArLsţ 290ţ 291ţ 292 and 299Ŧ 8evlsed Þenal CodeŦ
ArLlcle 290Ŧ ulscoverlna secreLs Lhrouah selzure of correspondenceŦ Ÿ 1he penalLv of prlslon
correcclonal ln lLs mlnlmum and medlum perlods and a flne noL exceedlna 300 pesos shall be
lmposed upon anv prlvaLe lndlvldual who ln order Lo dlscover Lhe secreLs of anoLherţ shall
selze hls papers or leLLers and reveal Lhe conLenLs LhereofŦ
lf Lhe offender shall noL reveal such secreLsţ Lhe penalLv shall be arresLo mavor and a flne noL
exceedlna 300 pesosŦ
1he provlslon shall noL be appllcable Lo parenLsţ auardlansţ or persons enLrusLed wlLh Lhe
cusLodv of mlnors wlLh respecL Lo Lhe papers or leLLers of Lhe chlldren or mlnors placed
under Lhelr care or sLudvţ nor Lo spouses wlLh respecL Lo Lhe papers or leLLers of elLher of
LhemŦ
ArLlcle 291Ŧ 8eveallna secreLs wlLh abuse of offlceŦ Ÿ 1he penalLv of arresLo mavor and a flne
noL exceedlna 300 pesos shall be lmposed upon anv manaaerţ emploveeţ or servanL whoţ ln
such capaclLvţ shall learn Lhe secreLs of hls prlnclpal or masLer and shall reveal such secreLsŦ
ArLlcle 292Ŧ 8evelaLlon of lndusLrlal secreLsŦ Ÿ 1he penalLv of prlslon correcclonal ln lLs
mlnlmum and medlum perlods and a flne noL exceedlna 300 pesos shall be lmposed upon Lhe
person ln charaeţ emplovee or workman of anv manufacLurlna or lndusLrlal esLabllshmenL
whoţ Lo Lhe pre[udlce of Lhe owner Lhereofţ shall reveal Lhe secreLs of Lhe lndusLrv of Lhe
laLLerŦ
ArLlcle 299Ŧ 8obberv ln an lnhablLed house or publlc bulldlna or edlflce devoLed Lo worshlpŦ
Ÿ Anv armed person who shall commlL robberv ln an lnhablLed house or publlc bulldlna or
edlflce devoLed Lo rellalous worshlpţ shall be punlshed bv recluslon Lemporalţ lf Lhe value of
Lhe properLv Laken shall exceed 230 pesosţ and lfť
aŦ 1he malefacLors shall enLer Lhe house or bulldlna ln whlch Lhe robberv
was commlLLedţ bv anv of Lhe followlna meansť
1Ŧ 1hrouah a openlna noL lnLended for enLrance or earessŦ
2Ŧ 8v breaklna anv wallţ roofţ or floor or breaklna anv door or
wlndowŦ
3Ŧ 8v uslna false kevsţ plcklocks or slmllar LoolsŦ
4Ŧ 8v uslna anv flcLlLlous name or preLendlna Lhe exerclse of
publlc auLhorlLvŦ
bŦ Cr lf Ŷ
1Ŧ 1he robberv be commlLLed under anv of Lhe followlna
clrcumsLancesť
2Ŧ 8v Lhe breaklna of doorsţ wardrobesţ chesLsţ or anv oLher klnd
of locked or sealed furnlLure or recepLacleŤ
3Ŧ 8v Laklna such furnlLure or ob[ecLs Lo be broken or forced open
ouLslde Lhe place of Lhe robbervŦ
When Lhe offenders do noL carrv armsţ and Lhe value of Lhe properLv Laken exceeds 230
pesosţ Lhe penalLv nexL lower ln dearee shall be lmposedŦ
1he same rule shall be applled when Lhe offenders are armedţ buL Lhe value of Lhe properLv
Laken does noL exceed 230 pesosŦ
When sald offenders do noL carrv arms and Lhe value of Lhe properLv Laken does noL exceed
230 pesosţ Lhev shall suffer Lhe penalLv prescrlbed ln Lhe Lwo nexL precedlna paraaraphsţ ln
lLs mlnlmum perlodŦ
lf Lhe robberv be commlLLed ln one of Lhe dependencles of an lnhablLed houseţ publlc
bulldlnaţ or bulldlna dedlcaLed Lo rellalous worshlpţ Lhe penalLles nexL lower ln dearee Lhan
Lhose prescrlbed ln Lhls arLlcle shall be lmposedŦ
""" cose(s)
214Ŧ Caanan vsŦ lACţ 143 SC8A 113 (1986)
213Ŧ kaLz vsŦ uŦSŦţ 389 uŦSŦ 347 (1967)
216Ŧ 8amlrez vsŦ CAţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 93833ţ SepLember 28ţ 1993

1Ŧ 9r|v||eged Commun|cat|ons
oŦ loundotion / 8osis
1he docLrlne of prlvlleaed communlcaLlon resLs upon publlc pollcvţ'whlch looks Lo Lhe free
and unfeLLered admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlceţ Lhouahţ as an lncldenLal resulLţ lL mav ln some
lnsLances afford an lmmunlLv Lo Lhe evllŴdlsposed and mallananL slandererŦ (AbboLL vsŦ
naLlonal 8ank of Commerce of 1acomaţ 173 uŦSŦţ 409ţ 411) Þubllc pollcv ls Lhe foundaLlon of
Lhe docLrlne of prlvlleae communlcaLlonsŦ lL ls based upon Lhe recoanlLlon of Lhe facL LhaL Lhe
rlahL of Lhe lndlvldual Lo en[ov lmmunlLv from Lhe publlcaLlon or unLruLhful charaes
deroaaLorv Lo hls characLer ls noL absoluLe and musL aL Llmes vleld Lo Lhe superlor necesslLv
of sub[ecLlna Lo lnvesLlaaLlon Lhe conducL of persons charaed wlLh wronaŴdolnaŦ ln order Lo
accompllsh Lhls purpose and Lo permlL prlvaLe persons havlnaţ or ln aood falLh bellevlna
Lhemselves Lo haveţ knowledae Lo such wrona dolnaţ Lo perform Lhe leaalţ moralţ soclal duLv
resulLlna from such knowledae or bellefţ wlLhouL resLralnlna Lhem bv Lhe fear LhaL an errorţ
no maLLer how lnnocenLlv or honesLlv madeţ mav sub[ecL Lhem Lo punlshmenL for
defamaLlonţ Lhe docLrlne of quallfled prlvlleae has been evolvedŦ (uŦSŦ vsŦ CaneLeţ eL alŦţ 38
ÞhllŦ 233)
bŦ when injunction opp/ies
1he consLlLuLlonal ln[uncLlon declarlna ºLhe prlvacv of communlcaLlon and correspondence
żLo beŽ lnvlolable" ls no less appllcable slmplv because lL ls Lhe wlfe (who Lhlnks herself
aaarleved bv her husband's lnfldellLv) who ls Lhe parLv aaalnsL whom Lhe consLlLuLlonal
provlslon ls Lo be enforcedŦ 1he onlv excepLlon Lo Lhe prohlblLlon ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls lf
Lhere ls a ºlawful order żfrom aŽ courL or when publlc safeLv or order requlres oLherwlseţ as
prescrlbed bv lawŦ" (ZulueLa vsŦ CourL of Appeals żC8 107383ţ 20 lebruarv 1996Ž)
cŦ when injunction does not opp/y
1he consLlLuLlonal rlahL of freedom of speech or rlahL Lo prlvacv cannoL be used as a shleld
for conLempLuous acLs aaalnsL Lhe CourLŦ (ln 8L LaureLa żC8 68633ţ 12 March 1987Ž)
""" cose(s)
217Ŧ ln 8e LaureLaţ 148 SC8A 382 (1987)
218Ŧ Þeople vsŦ Alboferaţ 132 SC8A 123 (1987)
219Ŧ ZulueLa vŦ CourL of Apealsţ 233 SC8A 699 (1996)
220Ŧ ueano vŦ Codlnezţ 12 SC8A 483 (1964)
221Ŧ WaLerhouse urua CorporaLlon vŦ nL8Cţ CŦ8Ŧ noŦ 113271Ŧ CcLober 16ţ 1997

2Ŧ xc|us|onary ku|e
ArLŦ lllţ SecŦ 3(2)
SecLlon 3Ŧ
xxx
2Ŧ Anv evldence obLalned ln vlolaLlon of Lhls or Lhe precedlna secLlon shall
be lnadmlsslble for anv purpose ln anv proceedlnaŦ

8ackaroundŦ lollowlna Lhe excluslonarv rule lald down ln Mapp vŦ Chlo bv Lhe uS lederal
Supreme CourL (367 uS 643ţ 81 SŦCLŦ 1684ţ 6 LŦLdŦ 1081 ż1961Ž)ţ Lhe Supreme CourLţ ln
SLonehlll vŦ ulokno (20 SC8A 383 ż1967Ž)ţ declared as lnadmlsslble anv evldence obLalned bv
vlrLue of a defecLlve search and selzure warranLţ abandonlna ln Lhe process Lhe rullna earller
adopLed ln Moncado vŦ Þeople's CourL (80 ÞhllŦ 1 ż1948Ž) whereln Lhe admlsslblllLv of
evldence was noL affecLed bv Lhe llleaallLv of lLs selzureŦ
8easonŦ 1he reason for Lhe excluslon of evldence compeLenL as suchţ whlch has been
unlawfullv acqulredţ ls LhaL excluslon ls Lhe onlv pracLlcal wav of enforclna Lhe consLlLuLlonal
prlvlleaeŦ ln earller Llmes Lhe acLlon of Lrespass aaalnsL Lhe offendlna offlclal mav have been
proLecLlon enouahŤ buL LhaL ls Lrue no lonaerŦ Cnlv ln case Lhe prosecuLlon whlch lLself
conLrols Lhe selzlna offlclalsţ knows LhaL lL cannoL proflL bv Lhelr wronaţ wlll LhaL wrona be
repressed"Ŧ (!udae Learned Pandţ Þuallese (1943) 133 lŦ 2dŦ 497Ŧ) WlLhouL Lhe excluslonarv
ruleţ Lhe rlahL Lo prlvacv would be a formţ of wordsţ valueless and undeservlna of menLlon ln
a perpeLual charLer of lnesLlmable human llberLlesŤ so Looţ wlLhouL Lhls ruleţ Lhe freedom
from sLaLe lnvaslons of prlvacv would be so ephemeral and so neaLlv severed from lLs
concepLual nexus wlLh Lhe freedom from all bruLlsh means of coerclna evldence as noL Lo
merlL Lhe CourL's hlah reaard as a freedom lmpllclL ln Lhe concepL of ordered llberLvŦ (Mapp
vŦ Chloţ 367 uŦSŦ 643ţ 81 SŦ CLŦ 1684ţ 6 LŦ edŦ 2d 1081ţ 1090 ż1961Ž)
lf leLLers and prlvaLe documenLs can Lhus be selzed and held and used ln evldence aaalnsL a
clLlzen accused of an offenseţ Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe fourLh AmendmenLţ declarlna hls rlahLs Lo
be secure aaalnsL such searches and selzuresţ ls of no valueţ andţ so far as Lhose Lhus placed
are concernedţ mlahL as well be sLrlcken from Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ 1he efforLs of Lhe courLs and
Lhelr offlclals Lo brlna Lhe aullLv Lo punlshmenLţ pralseworLhv as Lhev areţ are noL Lo be alded
bv Lhe sacrlflce of Lhose areaL prlnclples esLabllshed bv vears of endeavor and sufferlna whlch
have resulLed ln Lhelr embodlmenL ln Lhe fundamenLal law of Lhe landŦ (Weeks vsŦ unlLed
SLaLes (1914) 232 uS 383ţ 38 LŦ edţ 632ţ 34 SŦ CLŦ 341)
1he excluslon of such evldence ls Lhe onlv pracLlcal means of enforclna Lhe consLlLuLlonal
ln[uncLlon aaalnsL unreasonable searches and selzureŦ 1he nonŴexcluslonarv rule ls conLrarv
Lo Lhe leLLer and splrlL of Lhe prohlblLlon aaalnsL unreasonable searches and selzuresŦ
(SLonehlll vŦ uloknoţ 20 SC8A 383 ż1967ŽŦ)
LffecL of pleaŦ As sLaLed ln Lhe case of Þeople vŦ 8arros (231 SC8A 337 ż1994Ž)ţ ºlL mlahL be
supposed LhaL Lhe nonŴadmlsslblllLv of evldence secured Lhrouah an lnvalld warranLless
arresL or a warranLless search and selzure mav be walved bv an accused personŦ 1he a prlorl
araumenL ls LhaL Lhe lnvalldlLv of an un[usLlfled warranLless arresLţ or an arresL effecLed wlLh
a deLecLlve warranL of arresL mav be walved bv applvlna for and posLlna of ball for
provlslonal llberLvţ so as Lo esLop an accused from quesLlonlna Lhe leaallLv or
consLlLuLlonallLv of hls deLenLlon or Lhe fallure Lo accord hlm a prellmlnarv lnvesLlaaLlonŦ ż1he
CourL doesŽ noL belleveţ howeverţ LhaL walver of Lhe laLLer necessarllv consLlLuLesţ or carrles
wlLh lLţ walver of Lhe formerŦ Ŧ Ŧ Walver of Lhe nonŴadmlsslblllLv of Lhe " frulLs" of an lnvalld
warranLless arresL and of a warranLless search and selzure ls noL casuallv Lo be presumedţ lf
Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlahL aaalnsL unlawful searches and selzures ls Lo reLaln lLs vlLallLv for Lhe
proLecLlon of our peopleŦ"
""" cose(s)
222Ŧ SllverLhorne Lumber vsŦ uSţ 231 uS 383 (1920)
223Ŧ Þeople vŦ AruLaţ CŦ 8Ŧ 120913ţ Aprll 3Ŧ 1998
224Ŧ Þeople vŦ 8onderoţ CŦ8Ŧ 123687ţ uecember 9ţ 1999

3Ŧ L|ab|||ty for damages
ArLlcle 32 of Lhe Clvll Code provldes LhaL ºAnv publlc offlcer or emploveeţ or anv prlvaLe
lndlvldual who dlrecLlv or lndlrecLlv obsLrucLsţ defeaLsţ vlolaLes or ln anv manner lmpedes or
lmpalrs anv of Lhe followlna rlahLs and llberLles of anoLher person shall be llable Lo Lhe laLLer
for damaaesť
1Ŧ lreedom of rellalonŤ
2Ŧ lreedom of speechŤ
3Ŧ lreedom Lo wrlLe for Lhe press or Lo malnLaln a perlodlcal publlcaLlonŤ
4Ŧ lreedom from arblLrarv or llleaal deLenLlonŤ
3Ŧ lreedom of suffraaeŤ
6Ŧ 1he rlahL aaalnsL deprlvaLlon of properLv wlLhouL due process of lawŤ
7Ŧ 1he rlahL Lo a [usL compensaLlon when prlvaLe properLv ls Laken for publlc useŤ
8Ŧ 1he rlahL Lo Lhe equal proLecLlon of Lhe lawsŤ
9Ŧ 1he rlahL Lo be secure ln one's personţ houseţ papersţ and effecLs aaalnsL
unreasonable searches and selzuresŤ
10Ŧ 1he llberLv of abode and of chanalna Lhe sameŤ
11Ŧ 1he prlvacv of communlcaLlon and correspondenceŤ
12Ŧ 1he rlahL Lo become a member of assoclaLlons or socleLles for purposes noL
conLrarv Lo lawŤ
13Ŧ 1he rlahL Lo Lake parL ln a peaceable assemblv Lo peLlLlon Lhe CovernmenL for
redress of arlevancesŤ
14Ŧ 1he rlahL Lo be free from lnvolunLarv servlLude ln anv formŤ
13Ŧ 1he rlahL of Lhe accused aaalnsL excesslve ballŤ
16Ŧ 1he rlahL of Lhe accused Lo be heard bv hlmself and counselţ Lo be lnformed of Lhe
naLure and cause of Lhe accusaLlon aaalnsL hlmţ Lo have a speedv and publlc Lrlalţ
Lo meeL Lhe wlLnesses face Lo faceţ and Lo have compulsorv process Lo secure Lhe
aLLendance of wlLness ln hls behalfŤ
17Ŧ lreedom from belna compelled Lo be a wlLness aaalnsL one's selfţ or from belna
forced Lo confess aullLţ or from belna lnduced bv a promlse of lmmunlLv or reward
Lo make such confesslonţ excepL when Lhe person confesslna becomes a SLaLe
wlLnessŤ
18Ŧ lreedom from excesslve flnesţ or cruel and unusual punlshmenLţ unless Lhe same ls
lmposed or lnfllcLed ln accordance wlLh a sLaLuLe whlch has noL been [udlclallv
declared unconsLlLuLlonalŤ and
19Ŧ lreedom of access Lo Lhe courLsŦ
ln anv of Lhe cases referred Lo ln Lhls arLlcleţ wheLher or noL Lhe defendanL's acL or omlsslon
consLlLuLes a crlmlnal offenseţ Lhe aaarleved parLv has a rlahL Lo commence an enLlrelv
separaLe end dlsLlncL clvll acLlon for damaaesţ and for oLher rellefŦ Such clvll acLlon shall
proceed lndependenLlv of anv crlmlnal prosecuLlon (lf Lhe laLLer be lnsLlLuLed)ţ and mav be
proved bv a preponderance of evldenceŦ
1he lndemnlLv shall lnclude moral damaaesŦ Lxemplarv damaaes mav also be ad[udlcaLedŦ
1he responslblllLv hereln seL forLh ls noL demandable from a [udae unless hls acL or omlsslon
consLlLuLes a vlolaLlon of Lhe Þenal Code or oLher penal sLaLuLeŦ
ArLlcle 32 clearlv speaks of an offlcer or emplovee or person ºdlrecLlv" or ºlndlrecLlv"
responslble for Lhe vlolaLlon of Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlahLs and llberLles of anoLherŦ 1husţ lL ls
noL Lhe acLor alone (lŦeŦ Lhe one dlrecLlv responslble) who musL answer for damaaes under
ArLlcle 32Ť Lhe person lndlrecLlv responslble has also Lo answer for Lhe damaaes or ln[urv
caused Lo Lhe aaarleved parLvŦ 8v Lhls provlslonţ Lhe prlnclple of accounLablllLv of publlc
offlclals under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon acqulres added meanlna and assumes a laraer dlmenslonŦ no
lonaer mav a superlor offlclal relax hls vlallance or abdlcaLe hls duLv Lo supervlse hls
subordlnaLesţ secure ln Lhe LhouahL LhaL he does noL have Lo answer for Lhe Lransaresslons
commlLLed bv Lhe laLLer aaalnsL Lhe consLlLuLlonallv proLecLed rlahLs and llberLles of Lhe
clLlzenŦ (Aberca vsŦ ver żC8 LŴ69866ţ 13 Aprll 1988Ž)
""" cose(s)
223Ŧ Aberca vsŦ verţ 160 SC8A 390 (1989)

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f¾ %¾%    nf¾ I  .

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