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**Full Vehicle Dynamic Modeling for Chassis Controls
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Jaehoon Lee*, 1Jonghyun Lee, 2Seung-Jin, Heo Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin University, South Korea 2 School of Mechanic & Automotive Engineering, Kookmin University, South Korea

KEYWORDS – Dynamic Model, White Box Model, Black Box Mode, Horizontal Model, Vertical Model, Driving Test ABSTRACT – Most of reference models for chassis controls usually have low level degree of freedom like a bicycle model. However, these models include some different value in real vehicle motion and have a difficulty to adapt new technology. In addition, it is not good for real time that very high level degree of freedom like multibody dynamic analysis programs because of their long solving time. So, I developed adaptive full vehicle dynamic model that has 14 degree of freedom with theoretical equations and experimental data. INTRODUCTION Recently, development system of RCP (Rapid-Control Prototyping) Technology is adapted for the technology development of the electronic chassis control system. Therefore, a thesis of high fidelity real-time vehicle dynamics reference model is required. This paper studies technology for a thesis of vehicle dynamics model based on lumped parameter model to simulate driving characteristic of electronic control vehicle accurately. Matlab/Simulink based 14 DOF full vehicle model consists of modular white box vehicle models (horizontal direction, vertical direction) and black box vehicle models(tire characteristics, shock absorber characteristics). 14 DOF full vehicle model was compared with Carsim(the interpreter for vehicle dynamics) and real driving test(by KATECH – Korea Automotive Technology Institute) to verify the model. INDIVIDUAL VEHICLE MODELS In this paper, individual vehicle dynamics is represented white box and black box model. White box model is consist of horizontal, vertical model and black box modes have lookup table form. These individual models are module version.(1),(2) Horizontal Vehicle model Horizontal vehicle model is 3DOF. It is consist of longitudinal, lateral translation, and rotation of vehicle mass center.

roll. FR x β γ β RL Fy. This model has 3 DOF of mass center(vertical.Y y Fx. RR Lf β RR Fy. FL β FL δ Fy. RL y. FL x. RL x. FL y. RL y. . Fy L f . Lateral axis acceleration Longitudinal and Lateral force at each tire Front & Rear wheel base Vertical axis moment inertia Yaw angular acceleration Fx . pitch dynamic) and 4 DOF of each wheel(wheel vertical dynamic). FR ⎟ r ⎜ u . 1 track half car model for pitch dynamic and 2 track half car model for roll dynamic. Symbol M && . FL y. RL V δ P Fy. Lr I zz γ& Table 1: Horizontal vehicle model symbols Horizontal model gets lateral force and longitudinal force from tire model. RR ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (1)~(3) are horizontal dynamic equations and each symbols’ means are table 1. Based in these two forces. Horizontal model calculates Horizontal vehicle performance. Vertical Vehicle Model Vertical vehicle model is made of 7 DOF represented in figure 2. So. RL Vβ β FR Fx. RR m&& = F y +F +F +F y. FR Lt Fx. FL Fx. FR y. This model considers that 2 dimensions vertical dynamics. RR Lr O X Figure 1: 3 DOF Horizontal vehicle model m&& = F x +F +F +F x. RR (1) (2) (3) ⎞ ⎞ − L ⎛F I zzγ& = L ⎛ F +F +F f ⎜ y. && x y Parameter Vehicle total mass Longitudinal axis acceleration. FR x.

fl Kfr M fr Ktfr z y Ktfl Cfr Lt Lr Krl M rl Ktrl Crl Ktrr Lf Kfl M fl Cfl x Figure 2: 7 DOF Vertical vehicle model m && = F z + F + F + F +M / Lf − M / Lr s z . rl z . rr θ. rl . φ& Fz . rr θ.5M /L +F u u . rr Table 2: Vertical vehicle model symbols Vertical dynamic model calculates the vehicle vertical motion from road information. . Fz . Ft . Fz . l t t .fr Pitch M cg Roll Fz. Symbol ms . fr z.Fz. Ft . fl θ. fr θ. f φ . rr θ.rl Krr M rr Crr Fz. roll motion from tire model using lateral. rl z. rl . rl θ.5M /L +F u u. I yy & & θ& . 5 M m && z /( L f + Lr ) − 0.r && = 0. fl z .rr Ft . rl z . rr (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (4)~(10) are vertical dynamic equations and each symbols’ means are table 2. fl z.5M /L +F u u . and pitch. r =F − 0.5M /L +F u u. r t t . fr z. rr φ. fr z. Fz .cg Fz. &&u z z I xx .r f φ . f φ.5L F I θ − 0. fl z . r t t . rl =F + 0. fr .r f φ .5M m && z /( L + Lr ) − 0. f θ .5Lt F + 0. fr z . fr .5M m && z /( L + Lr ) + 0. longitudinal forces. vertical force and vehicle vertical motion's characteristics are sent out output.r & I θ& = − L f F − Lf F + Lr F + Lr F +M +M yy z. rl z. l t t . fl . fr =F + 0. mu Parameter Sprung mass & Unsprung mass Vertical acceleration at sprung mass & unsprung mass Longitudinal & Lateral axis moment inertia Pitch & Roll axis angular acceleration Vertical force at each suspension Vertical force at each tire && .5Lt F +M +M t xx z.5Lt F − 0. fl z. 5 M m && z /( L f + Lr ) + 0. Ft .rr Fz. So. fl =F − 0. fl z.l φ. fl . f θ.

Tire Model Tire model is 4DOF. longitudinal and lateral force are sent to the output by using nonlinear black box model. Figure 3: Nonlinear black box tire model ( Fx : Fz : λ & Fy : Fz : α ) 14 DOF FULL VEHICLE MODEL 14DOF full vehicle model consist of horizontal 3DOF. Steering Motions Vertical Dynamic Vertical. both vehicle velocity and yaw angular velocity. Based on input data. To enhance the tire model's accuracy. It is easy to individual system's adjustment. horizontal. vertical 7DOF. It is basically consist of longitudinal 1DOF of each tire. repletion and understanding of signals. Individual motion of each model's input-output relation is following figure 4. . Tire model received steering input. and vertical model. and vertical force from driver. and tire 4DOF model. Rolling Motions Vertical tire force (each wheel) Driver Model Y position Yaw angular velocity Steering wheel angle Longitudinal velocity Lateral velocity Yaw angular velocity Longitudinal tire force (each wheel) Lateral tire force (each wheel) Tire Model Wheel Rotations Acceleration & deceleration torque Longitudinal tire force (each wheel) Lateral tire force (each wheel) Alternating friction conditions Figure 4: Modular architecture of vehicle model Full vehicle model in Matlab/Simulink 14DOF full vehicle model based on Matlab/Simulink is individual motion module version in figure 5. Pitching. First and second figure show that characteristic data of 3-dimension related force and slip angle. this paper use black box form in figure 3.(3). Yawing.(4) Steering wheel angle Horizontal Dynamic Longitudinal/Lateral.

Lateral Acceleration Yaw Rate Roll Angle Figure 6: J-turn result (14DOF model vs Carsim vs Real Test) Lateral Acceleration and Yaw Rate show that difference of 15%. .Vehicle parameters Inintial conditions Y aw angular v elocity [rad/s] S/W angle [rad] Y position [m] Longitudinal v elocity [m/s] S/W angle [rad] Longitudinal tire f orce(4) [N] Driver model Lateral v elocity [m/s] Lateral tire f orce(4) [N] Y aw angular v elocity [rad/s] Vertical tire f orce(4) [N] Wheel output 1 Drive & brake force Driv e & brake f orce(4) [Nm] 4DOF Wheel dynamic Longitudinal v elocity [m/s] S/W angle [rad] Lateral v elocity [m/s] Longitudinal tire f orce(4) [N] Y aw angular v elocity [rad/s] Y position [m] Lateral tire f orce(4) [N] Horizontal output 1 Vehicle output 3DOF Horizontal dynamic Longitudinal tire f orce(4) [N] Vertical tire f orce(4) [N] Lateral tire f orce(4) [N] 2 Sus damping force 3 Road unevenness Damping f orce(4) [N] Vertical output Road disturbance heights(4) [m] 7DOF Vertical dynamic Figure 5: Modular vehicle model in Matlab/Simulink Simulation Result 14DOF full vehicle model based on Matlab/Simulink is verified by using Carsim(vehicle dynamic analysis software). Figure 6 show that result of J-turn simulation of 14DOF model. Carsim and practical data in same condition. Figure 7 show that result of Single-Lane-Change simulation of 14DOF model. Carsim and practical data in same condition. and practical experiment data which is conducted by KATECH (Korea Automotive Technology Institute). Roll Angle which is representation of vertical motion is more accuracy than Carsim.

465. CONCLUSION In vehicle control part.Lateral Acceleration Yaw Rate Roll Angle Figure 7: Single Lane Change result (14DOF model vs Carsim vs Real Test) 14DOF model show that accuracy of lateral acceleration and yaw rate in single lane change. But. develop the 14DOF model. Forschritt-Berichte VDI. pp. Heo. 2001 . individual dynamics link as module version each other so. 2001 S. Nr. 2000 C. little error is considered ignoring the difference of suspension's kinematics and compliance effect. road condition not reflected on model is one of the errors. expect the more accuracy result than existing simple control reference model.467. 14DOF model show that accuracy of 85~98% according to. this model has difference of 17% error in roll angle. “Adaptive semiphysikalische Echtzeitsimulation der Kraftfahrzeug– dynamik im bewegten Fahrzueg”. Generally. American Control Conference. Munundang. kind of result. Weinheim. Afterwards. It is consider of whole direction of dynamic. But. considering effect of suspension's kinematics and compliance. Also.4019-4024. “Adaptive Kraftfahrzeugdynamik-Echtzeitsimulation mit Hybriden Modellen”.H. and calculating the real road condition will make more accuracy model. 2001 H. “Active Suspension Control of Ground Vehicle based on a Full-Vehicle Model”. Also. Forschritt-Berichte VDI. Ikehaga. “Vehicle Dynamics an Introduction”. It represents alike result using Carsim. Holzman. REFERENCES (1) (2) (3) (4) Sueng-Jin. and real time analysis is possible using less low DOF than commercial program. Nr.

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