Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

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CRM Manual

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Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

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5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

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9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

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CRM Manual

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1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

1.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2. assisted by the facilitator. leadership and team management. and team management skills.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre . This will be delivered during the ground school phase. and a series of role-plays.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor.2. 1. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools. The candidates will conduct their own debrief. 2 Modules Content 2. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC).2.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1.2.

Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.4 Leadership.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.

MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. This includes everything from the design of a tool. to the brightness required of an electronic display. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. Flight Crew Training Centre . and with other humans. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. environment. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. knowledge. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. design and engine reliability. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. in part. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. 3. This is due. Despite improvements in technology. HPL. home. to the design of a checklist. skill and attitude.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. 3. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element.

but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. 3. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills. In particular this means designing for error. encompassing the best of previous generations. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. Flight Crew Training Centre . which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. 1990.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity.5 Human Error Reason (Reason. 3. especially on a long. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. J. Most of these errors are small. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. 3. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance.

the last line of defense. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. Rather.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. Others were management failures. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. Some were latent failures. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. Occasionally. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. occurring years ago on the drawing board. For example. Reason used Swiss cheese. it snaps. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. It was but it is not an isolated case.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. In isolation it is insignificant. the holes will line up. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. Without assigning a principle cause. 3. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. Flight Crew Training Centre . of which the operating crew are the last link. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. If they can break the chain. but placed together they form a robust wall. the accident does not occur. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese.

e. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one. (Errors made by other people ATC. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew. Threats and errors are unavoidable. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. 3.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. performing a checklist from memory. the start of an accident chain. 3. Regulators etc are threats to the crew.External influences Errors . in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. Flight Crew Training Centre . Management. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated.e. safe operations are the norm.e. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. but as long as the holes do not line up. the accident chain is broken. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i. because despite the risks. and it is up to us to break the chain. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. at any level. Engineering.) Threats .

3.12 Avoid. These have been termed warning flags. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. However. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. However in all cases. 3.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. Trap.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist. nine common factors existed. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. such as an unstabilized approach.

3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side. collectivism. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. such as organizational. Again. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. cohesive in-groups. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. On the collectivist side. 4. not to the state. regarding all societies in the world. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre .4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. professional and safety culture. often extended families (with uncles. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. (which are predominantly male). versus its opposite. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. Uncertainty Avoidance. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. 4. 4. Power Distance.

Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. surprising. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. not from above. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. and different from usual.   4. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. but some are more unequal than others. uncertainty accepting cultures. safety and security measures. they try to have as few rules as possible. This represents inequality (more versus less). Unstructured situations are novel. unknown. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. and motivated by inner nervous energy. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. Power and inequality. but defined from below. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. of course. It suggests that the followers.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. The opposite type. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth.

either physical or cognitive. Furthermore. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. (Norbert Wiener) 5. Flight Crew Training Centre . Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. against a conflicting trend. 5. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. by a machine function. or an organizational culture can prevail. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. navigators and flight engineers. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. such as pilots. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. not what we thought we told them to do. there can be anomalies where a professional group. In particular. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. including radio operators.

“Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. In practice this does not always happen. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. 5.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. Flight Crew Training Centre . The latter will not be discussed here. In particular. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines. accuracy and reduced costs. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. not to mention the human (social) effects. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work.

Poor spoken material. accurate. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. fast. M. Whiteside.Good inductive. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. Poor program. difficult to re. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . J & George. easy to re program.” (Good. T. detecting messages in noise. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. narrow range. slow. Spine. P. inaccurate. Rather. 1986.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. Good quantitative assessment. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans.

including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . In the aviation scenario. resulting in further reduced workload. so the overall workload is drastically reduced. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. Overall result is reduced workload. 5. Although in some systems. Pilots will dynamically move between levels.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. with different cognitive skills required. vigilance and complacency may become issues. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. There is a reduced cognitive load. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. an area of weakness in interface design. according to any change in tactical goal. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. – This is a high workload situation. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress.

having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. For this new knowledge and skills are required.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. Habsheim etc).6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness. 5. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. Flight Crew Training Centre . The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. will disengage or will revert to another mode. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. communications and monitoring. In particular. Unfortunately. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. Cali.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. 5. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking.

or subtle. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . but not replace. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. A lack of. Consequently. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated. easy-to-use systems. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. 5. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. 5. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive.

In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. 5.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. which is assigned. Humans are capable of devising strategies. which is acquired. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined. the Captain is the designated “leader”. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. 6. Through the use of example and persuasion. Flight Crew Training Centre . Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. We must guard against the threats posed by automation. In the flight-deck environment. the leader becomes a means of change and influence. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. and authority.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others.

any limitations of this knowledge must be identified.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. the team and the individual. In addition. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. 6. 6. and Manage Decision-Making Model. and a duty. Personal qualities required are those of courage. to decide on a course of action. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. In fact. with use of the Assess.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. will power. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. Action.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. The leader must balance the demands of the task. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. from a practical view point the Captain has a right. and be able to maintain team morale. initiative and integrity.

1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6.5 Task To achieve the task.8. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck. manage and direct the flow of information. suggestions Giving opinions. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions. With a wide variety of background.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs.

how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6.8. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6. In between.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader.8.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative.8. Flight Crew Training Centre .

rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. using information available at that time. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. but not if things are going wrong. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. a different style is adopted according to the situation.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. For most effective leadership. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. Together. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone.

1988. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. Flight Crew Training Centre . While this might be an individual’s view.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. passive/critical. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. 6. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. For successful team performance. T. Hughes. active/uncritical and active/critical. since there are a number of nationalities. 1997. The optimum gradient. R. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. and followership is a skill in its own right. RE. supportive followers are as important as a leader. cited by Kern. which may differ between individuals and national cultures. Followers are a vital part of a team.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. along with good communication skills. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. Ginnett. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. R & Curphy. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. The role is much like that of a chairman. G2. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. G (Eds). 6.

not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. Survivors are the Company men. The only way to ensure this is.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. 6. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. Flight Crew Training Centre . but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. unless identified and brought “back onside”. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. Sheep are akin to human automatons. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. because they actively support without thinking. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. Making a good first impression is vital. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo.

insulting. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. in communication within a crew. This can be verbal or non-verbal information. This chapter describes the principles of communication.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. noise is still a factor. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre . While modern flight decks are well insulated. along with methods of eliminating them. 7.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7.e. The actual words used accounting for about 10%.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. Barriers to communication are also identified. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. However. rank could impinge on communication as well. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck. as much as 90%. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. Between a Captain and a First Officer. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. the words used tend to be very important. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit. degrading language. In the case of Jade Cargo International. culture plays a large part.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. 7. So. and very rarely are raised voices heard. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations.

Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. 7. Flight Crew Training Centre .4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority. 7. By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced. whether on the needs of others or your own. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down. and the manner. supportive and submissive.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. assertive. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. two aspects of the message content will be considered.4. the focus. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. aggressive. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model.

They put themselves down. 7.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. such as during training or non-normal situations. are avoided at all times.4.4. However this may change depending on circumstances.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. Flight Crew Training Centre . Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such.downs. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. not recommended but part of life. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves. It is unlikely to motivate the team. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated. Therefore.4. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. and will likely isolate the aggressor. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. 7. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. However. In a non-critical situation.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. Referring to the matrix. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”.

be supportive. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. Dealing with aggression is not easy. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. If the other person is submissive. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. it is likely communication that will break down completely. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. An assertive response might also be effective. Each individual and in fact every team. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. In other words. Flight Crew Training Centre . will find a style that works well for them. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. If someone is submissive. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. their needs will be overlooked. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs.

You must give to get. High respect for mutual support. Differences in perceiving motives. productivity will diminish or stop. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. There is more than one way to do anything. No one makes major concessions. When conflict is dealt with constructively. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. No one person or idea is perfect.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. trust and support will deteriorate.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. collaborate or compromise. If conflict does occur. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. 7.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. Flight Crew Training Centre . Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. Animosities can develop. which will lead to better results. actions and situations. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. the results may be positive or negative. words. objectives and values. Assertive and cooperative. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. the stage is set for potential conflict. When sides are chosen. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. Unwillingness to work through issues. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. test their position and beliefs. and stretch their imagination.favorable versus unfavorable. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. communications may breakdown. Differing expectations of outcomes .

Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. or good or bad outcomes. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. Advocacy. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. either for routine or novel situations. Flight Crew Training Centre . Action and Critique. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world. It is not which model that is used that is important. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. However. 8. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. It is the end result that we are interested in. once in a while.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making. Conflict Resolution. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. rather that a model is used.

2. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided.2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP). Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”. 8.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International. Flight Crew Training Centre . This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions. as well as the appropriate CRM principals. further modification to the RMM was required.2. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. 8. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following.

A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. By staying below the line as much as possible. The situation can be considered in two separate domains.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . seeking more information about it. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action. This does not always produce the best solution. the problem and the solution.Information seeking. Whenever a problem is encountered at work.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. to make sure we fully understand the implications. Flight Crew Training Centre . there are two typical responses. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. its implications and how much time is available. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation.

losing vital feedback. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. Open questions allow more options. A solution in the form of a question however. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. others may be less time dependent. EFIS architecture. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. is a valuable problem. critical.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. but will probably be accepted.  Time Critical situations require immediate action. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. Time can be considered as. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). may at best get a query in response.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. A fast decision may not always be the correct one.solving resource. 8. In all cases. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). In the latter case. when there is little available. Once a time frame has been established. available and required. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. this limits the opportunity for assessment.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. using a traffic light system. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. On the other hand. immediate action is required. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time.

prioritize. Good teamwork needs good communication. NAVIGATE. test understanding. Flight Crew Training Centre . 8. seek information. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. the Captain must manage. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. prioritize. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. test understanding. delegation] Remember that in complex situations.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. propose. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. test understanding propose.

the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line. the team and the individual. Flight Crew Training Centre . Once the Group is informed and placated. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions. including the navigation away from terrain. It is a circular or iterative process. When the process is complete.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. For example in the first stages of a diversion. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. the task need is paramount. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. all the circles are the same size. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. obstacles and weather. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. Once this is under control. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. However. it is time to manage. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. 8. 8. An important point here is that you do not rush. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques.

INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. but functionally can be quite accurate. 9. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. these are known as “mental models”. do something with that information and then act on it. we receive information. output functions and an internal processing function. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. Flight Crew Training Centre . they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. In the same way. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9. individuals create internal representations of how systems work.

smell and taste. During a busy. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this. but only a limited signal can be conveyed. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. touch. sound. Perception is incredibly powerful. sound and touch. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. but it is not being ignored completely.4 Input functions 9. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. not all of them get through to the processing stage.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. 9. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise.4. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time. are actually switching from one to the other. even though they do not have the loudest voice. This is quite normal. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time.4.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task.4. if we miss-perceive an event. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name).Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. 9. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us. 9. Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. sight. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre .1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. so much that.

and contact 119. Flight Crew Training Centre . short-term and long-term. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds.6. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. you have as little as 0. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. which really belongs with the input functions.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost.6. 9. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory.6.6 Processing Functions 9. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. and retained by conscious attention. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible. 9. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. Another type of memory is sensory memory. unless it is consciously being dealt with. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information.72”. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears. 9. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. the original message has been replayed by the mind.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. speed 310. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. expect 150 by xxx.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. descend 180.

For example. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. even if the correct data has never been learned. manageable by most. but with inability to retrieve or access the information.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. long after the event. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. However the problem is not with forgetting. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver …. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. Trap. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. but becomes irretrievable due to interference. 9. patterns or mini theories. such as ATM (Avoid. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. and Mitigate). if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. 9.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines.6.6.. Flight Crew Training Centre . but it is top secret.

The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. 9. The events of September 11. this is when the action has become a learned routine.6. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. however it is a single channel device. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance.6. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre . This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. It can only deal with one issue at a time. in particular responses to RTO. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. 9. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. as they are referred to by the date itself.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are.

In this respect. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre . 9.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body. Some of these place physical strains on the body. This chapter covers the effects of stress. others mental strains.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. Our interest is human performance. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. Performance varies with a number of factors. stress and fatigue produce similar results. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. including workload and circadian rhythms. some a combination of both.

Flight Crew Training Centre . overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. for example. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. performance improves. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. upset stomach. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. and other symptoms. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise. largely impossible. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. consider that arousal refers to stress. but too much is exhausting. After a certain point. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. and then falls away.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. Too little stress causes complacency. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. such as take-off and landing. 10. In the diagram above.3. tension headaches. By the same token. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. require the crew to be at optimal performance. 10. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. Critical phases of flight. from being somewhat dormant. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. is exhilarating early in the day. As stress increases further. performance actually peaks. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short.stimulation. as stress increases. Initially. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate. acute and chronic. into the optimum performance range (shaded). The right side shows over stimulation.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below.

and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. it does.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. their child's occasional problems at school. and depression. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. generally requiring professional help. shortness of breath.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. but always late. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. who suffer acute stress frequently. and irritable bowel syndrome. and it is highly treatable and manageable. stomach.3. Often. heart palpitations. anxiety.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. the loss of an important contract. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. a deadline they're rushing to meet. sweaty palms. and chest pain. have too many irons in the fire. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. 10. and heart disease. If something can go wrong. hypertension. jaw pain. They take on too much." Always in a hurry. rapid heartbeat. They're always in a rush. constipation. Because it is short term. irritable. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. shorttempered. back pain. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. diarrhea. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. The work becomes a very stressful place for them. migraine headaches. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. migraines. chest pain. cold hands or feet. anxious. dizziness. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. and so on. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. Flight Crew Training Centre . they tend to be abrupt. the three stress emotions. acid stomach. and tense. however. flatulence. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. muscular problems including tension headache.

Frequently. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition.3. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. violence. More precisely. It's the stress of poverty. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. perhaps.g. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. Flight Crew Training Centre . year after year. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. and sometimes. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. Chronic stress destroys bodies. and.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. Generally. which exhibits as either a physical response e. environmental and cognitive. 10. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. They blame their woes on other people and external events. of dysfunctional families. 10. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. fatal breakdown. almost comfortable. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time.3. hyperventilation. With no hope. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. heart arrhythmia. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. minds and lives. This could come in many different forms. familiar. even cancer. the individual gives up searching for solutions. heart attack.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. sweating. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are.e. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new.3. or a mental response such as irritability.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. they see their lifestyle.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. chronic stress is not. They forget it's there. promotion to Captain). stroke. People wear down to a final. Chronic stress kills through suicide. tremors. 10. change in job or responsibilities (i. their patterns of interacting with others..

Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind.3. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. and mismanage priorities.deck. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). but with a dissimilar function. 10. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. 10. either on the apron. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information. or in the flight. Noise arouses the individual. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. this will be covered later in the chapter.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. However.3.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. Two common examples could be heat and noise. especially when it involves an operating pilot. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. When workload is high. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. In the long-term. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident.

this continues to improve performance until. After some time of being awake. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. self. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. As in the case of stress.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. On a night flight.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. after reaching a peak. they may become bogged down in processing the data. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. thereby inducing further errors. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. or state of awake ness. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. 10. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). Although this can be an effective strategy.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. the range of optimal performance is reached. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. when workload is at an absolute minimum. Response time. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. with an inability to sleep further. Typically. Depending on the individual. However. This might be due to time since awake. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. workload (physical exertion). Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). 10. It cannot be stored. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. For example. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. Immediately after awakening. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying.

External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. However. This is known as jet-lag. on the wrong time zone. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. which extend the operating day. 10. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. sleep is deeper rather than longer. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not.

is the duty of every crewmember. Managing stress and sleep effectively. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief. In accidents involving human error. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role. with dire consequences in the aviation industry.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. Others prefer mental stimulation. As any medical practitioner will verify. when conducted in a structured fashion. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. In the modern world. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports. this is a potentially dangerous practice. This chapter will explain what it is. providing awareness and in need of management.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. 10. 11. 11 Situational Awareness 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. the Flight Crew Training Centre . It is another warning flag. 10. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. However it is often quoted without really being explained.

systems. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. and Communicate. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. 11. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. one must understand and think ahead. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. It is not just enough to notice a situation. fuel and time). automation modes. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. In a well-known phrase: Aviate. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required.” This is quite complex. Navigate. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. Flight Crew Training Centre . If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA). The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. In addition to three levels of SA.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. crew. which mitigates part of the problem. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. passengers and company).

less time is available for noticing and avoiding. Flight Crew Training Centre . When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. fixation and confusion. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies . These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. After descent initiation. there is much to be concerned about here. Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport.Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity. Results from observations at several different airlines. during the take-off and landing phases.vague or incomplete statements 11.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation . The trapping phase begins at top-of. if potential problems can be identified in time.4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground.descent and leads up to the approach. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. Trap. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. Prior to descent. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity . The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this.uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA.focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . fuel burn.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively . Avoiding error is the initial course of action. minimums. A three-stage model “Avoid. fixation and confusion exist.

task management and prioritization. too high. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. scan patterns and checklist use. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. there is very little time left to correct it. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA]. and use the speed brake if necessary. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. 11. self-monitoring.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. unstabilized approach. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. Human error is inevitable. too fast etc) must be avoided. communications. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. Should such a state occur.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. However.e. 11. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA]. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. attention-sharing. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. so that we can take action to improve it. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL).” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands.” Flight Crew Training Centre . this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. 11. an undesired aircraft state (i. Skills relating to spatial ability. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. Finally. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. contingency planning.

Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. Project ahead and consider contingencies. Rotate attention from plane to path to people . maintenance. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. ATC. Speak up when you see SA breaking down. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. Flight Crew Training Centre . Focus on the details and scan the big picture. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. etc. dispatch. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA.don't fixate.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication.

Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2. 1997. R. A. Helmreich. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Merritt.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4).L.. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. Indonesia. A. R. Colombus. J. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture.A. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project. April). (1997). & Merritt. W. P. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar. (1996). Ooi. 1996. (1991). A. R. R. Sydney.0 (International) & 2. (1995). CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium.R. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. (1997). Merritt. & Sherman.C. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. Colombus. 1996..S. Helmreich.. November 26-28. CRM Advocate.. November 20-24..C. 8-12. Jakarta.C. R.C.C. Wilhelm. Taggart. (1995).J. Ohio..C. (1995).L.L. 1991. T. CRM: I hate it.. 1995. Flight Crew Training Centre . & Helmreich.. Auckland. Cultural influences on flight operations.L. A.C. 1. April. & Helmreich. Merritt.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. (1996). Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. May 1995. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference. R....L. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.. P.. stress. A. April 23-25. what is it? (Error. Columbus: Ohio State University. Guangzhou. Ohio.. Merritt. Merritt. April-May.C.. A. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries. & Helmreich.R. A. (1996. A. Merritt. (1996).C. New Zealand. & Merritt. Cultural issues in crew resource management. 1997.L. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. April-May.

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