Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

Page: TOC-1

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

Page: TOC-3

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

Page: TOC-3

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

Page: 4

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

The candidates will conduct their own debrief. assisted by the facilitator. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking. This will be delivered during the ground school phase.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes.2. 2 Modules Content 2. leadership and team management.2. and team management skills.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor. 1.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course.2.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2. and a series of role-plays. 1.

Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.4 Leadership.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .

HPL.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. home. 3. knowledge. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. to the brightness required of an electronic display. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. Despite improvements in technology. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. and with other humans. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. design and engine reliability. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. to the design of a checklist.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. 3. environment. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. skill and attitude. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. This includes everything from the design of a tool. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. in part. This is due. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline.

Most of these errors are small. 1990.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance. encompassing the best of previous generations. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training.5 Human Error Reason (Reason. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance. 3. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management. Flight Crew Training Centre . Not only is this more predictable and measurable. In particular this means designing for error. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. J. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. 3. 3. especially on a long. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback.

existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. the holes will line up. the last line of defense.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. Occasionally.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. 3. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. Reason used Swiss cheese. If they can break the chain. Without assigning a principle cause. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. It was but it is not an isolated case. For example. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. of which the operating crew are the last link. but placed together they form a robust wall. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. Others were management failures. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. occurring years ago on the drawing board. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. In isolation it is insignificant. Some were latent failures.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. Flight Crew Training Centre . This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. Rather. it snaps. the accident does not occur.

performing a checklist from memory. but as long as the holes do not line up. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i. Management. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances.) Threats .e. Flight Crew Training Centre .10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. the start of an accident chain. 3. Engineering. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. Regulators etc are threats to the crew.e. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. Threats and errors are unavoidable. safe operations are the norm.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. and it is up to us to break the chain. 3. because despite the risks. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. the accident chain is broken.e.External influences Errors . A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. (Errors made by other people ATC. at any level. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard.

and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . 3. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger. such as an unstabilized approach. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. Trap. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. nine common factors existed. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state.12 Avoid. However in all cases. 3.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist. However. These have been termed warning flags. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing.

A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre . The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. Again. professional and safety culture. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. often extended families (with uncles.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. not to the state. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. such as organizational. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. collectivism. (which are predominantly male). is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. Uncertainty Avoidance. On the collectivist side.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side. regarding all societies in the world. 4. 4. Power Distance. cohesive in-groups. 4. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. versus its opposite. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit.

are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. The opposite type. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. but defined from below. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. and motivated by inner nervous energy. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. of course. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. but some are more unequal than others. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. Unstructured situations are novel. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. they try to have as few rules as possible.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. and different from usual. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. Power and inequality. safety and security measures. unknown. not from above. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. It suggests that the followers. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. uncertainty accepting cultures. surprising. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. This represents inequality (more versus less).   4. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs.

promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. or an organizational culture can prevail. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. either physical or cognitive. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. In particular. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. including radio operators. not what we thought we told them to do. Furthermore.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. Flight Crew Training Centre . and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. there can be anomalies where a professional group. navigators and flight engineers. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. (Norbert Wiener) 5. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. such as pilots. against a conflicting trend.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. 5.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. by a machine function. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise.

roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. In particular. In practice this does not always happen. 5.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. Flight Crew Training Centre . often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines. not to mention the human (social) effects.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. The latter will not be discussed here. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. accuracy and reduced costs.

some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. narrow range. 1986. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. M. slow. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. slow communication Better for principles and strategies.” (Good. Spine.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. easy to re program. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. detecting messages in noise. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. fast. Rather. Whiteside. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. accurate.Good inductive. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. inaccurate. T. difficult to re. Good quantitative assessment. Poor program. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. Poor spoken material. J & George. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. P.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better.

but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. 5. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. – This is a high workload situation. resulting in further reduced workload.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. with different cognitive skills required. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. There is a reduced cognitive load. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . Although in some systems. Overall result is reduced workload. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. according to any change in tactical goal.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. an area of weakness in interface design. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. vigilance and complacency may become issues. In the aviation scenario. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. so the overall workload is drastically reduced.

The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. Flight Crew Training Centre . For this new knowledge and skills are required. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. In particular. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. Unfortunately. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. 5. 5.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. Cali. Habsheim etc). the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. communications and monitoring. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. will disengage or will revert to another mode.

Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. 5. but not replace. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. or subtle. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. A lack of.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. 5. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear. Consequently. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective. easy-to-use systems.

the leader becomes a means of change and influence. Humans are capable of devising strategies. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. Flight Crew Training Centre . 6. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. which is acquired. In the flight-deck environment. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. the Captain is the designated “leader”. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. 5. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. We must guard against the threats posed by automation. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. and authority. which is assigned. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. Through the use of example and persuasion. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership.

As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. from a practical view point the Captain has a right. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. 6. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. and a duty. In fact. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. The leader must balance the demands of the task. Action. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. the team and the individual. to decide on a course of action. In addition. 6. with use of the Assess.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. and Manage Decision-Making Model. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . Personal qualities required are those of courage. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. and be able to maintain team morale. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. initiative and integrity. will power. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems.

ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6. suggestions Giving opinions.5 Task To achieve the task. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6. manage and direct the flow of information.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate. With a wide variety of background.8.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6.

there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative. In between.8. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making.8.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation.8.

Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. but not if things are going wrong. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. a different style is adopted according to the situation.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. using information available at that time. Together. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. For most effective leadership. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually.

Followers are a vital part of a team. supportive followers are as important as a leader. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. Ginnett. R. active/uncritical and active/critical. and followership is a skill in its own right. The role is much like that of a chairman. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. For successful team performance. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. Flight Crew Training Centre .10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. Hughes. passive/critical. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. 6. which may differ between individuals and national cultures. 1988.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. along with good communication skills. The optimum gradient.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. While this might be an individual’s view. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. G2. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. since there are a number of nationalities. cited by Kern. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. T. RE. 6. R & Curphy. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. G (Eds). A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. 1997.

An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. because they actively support without thinking. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. unless identified and brought “back onside”. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. Sheep are akin to human automatons. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. The only way to ensure this is. 6. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. Survivors are the Company men. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. Making a good first impression is vital. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. Flight Crew Training Centre . A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo.

This can be verbal or non-verbal information. culture plays a large part. Between a Captain and a First Officer.e. 7.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. In the case of Jade Cargo International. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. insulting. 7. and very rarely are raised voices heard. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. The actual words used accounting for about 10%. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. as much as 90%. Barriers to communication are also identified. degrading language. This chapter describes the principles of communication. noise is still a factor. However. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. So. along with methods of eliminating them. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. the words used tend to be very important.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. in communication within a crew. rank could impinge on communication as well. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. While modern flight decks are well insulated.

a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. 7. and the manner. By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. two aspects of the message content will be considered. Flight Crew Training Centre . It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority.4. 7. whether on the needs of others or your own.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. the focus.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. assertive. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. aggressive. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. supportive and submissive.

7. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. In a non-critical situation.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. and will likely isolate the aggressor.4. are avoided at all times. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such. However. Referring to the matrix. such as during training or non-normal situations. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. Flight Crew Training Centre . Therefore. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression.4. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language. It is unlikely to motivate the team. 7. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. However this may change depending on circumstances.downs. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves. They put themselves down. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive.4. not recommended but part of life.

and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. In other words. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time. Dealing with aggression is not easy. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. it is likely communication that will break down completely. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. If someone is submissive. their needs will be overlooked. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. Flight Crew Training Centre . If the other person is submissive. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. An assertive response might also be effective. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. will find a style that works well for them. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. Each individual and in fact every team. be supportive. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs.

Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. When sides are chosen. objectives and values. and stretch their imagination. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. trust and support will deteriorate. Animosities can develop. communications may breakdown. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. actions and situations. Assertive and cooperative. You must give to get. Differences in perceiving motives. No one makes major concessions.favorable versus unfavorable.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. collaborate or compromise. the stage is set for potential conflict. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. test their position and beliefs. but unfortunately does occur a great deal.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. Differing expectations of outcomes . productivity will diminish or stop. Flight Crew Training Centre . No one person or idea is perfect. If conflict does occur. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. 7. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. which will lead to better results. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. There is more than one way to do anything. High respect for mutual support. Unwillingness to work through issues. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. When conflict is dealt with constructively.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. words. the results may be positive or negative.

however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. Advocacy. Flight Crew Training Centre . The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. 8. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. Action and Critique.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world. once in a while. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. Conflict Resolution. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. It is the end result that we are interested in. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. either for routine or novel situations. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. rather that a model is used. It is not which model that is used that is important. or good or bad outcomes. However.

Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. further modification to the RMM was required. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. Flight Crew Training Centre . 8. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. as well as the appropriate CRM principals.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following.2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP).2. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures.2. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However. 8.

questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. Flight Crew Training Centre . immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. Whenever a problem is encountered at work. This does not always produce the best solution. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] .3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action.Information seeking. its implications and how much time is available. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. there are two typical responses. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation. seeking more information about it. By staying below the line as much as possible. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. to make sure we fully understand the implications. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. the problem and the solution. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained.

recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. when there is little available. A fast decision may not always be the correct one.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. 8. using a traffic light system.solving resource. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. available and required. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. others may be less time dependent. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS).  Time Critical situations require immediate action. immediate action is required. EFIS architecture. but will probably be accepted. may at best get a query in response. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. is a valuable problem. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. this limits the opportunity for assessment. losing vital feedback. critical. On the other hand. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. Time can be considered as. A solution in the form of a question however. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. Once a time frame has been established. In the latter case. Open questions allow more options. In all cases.

test understanding. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. seek information.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. prioritize. the Captain must manage. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. 8. prioritize. Flight Crew Training Centre . This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. test understanding propose. Good teamwork needs good communication. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. propose. NAVIGATE. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. test understanding.

the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. obstacles and weather. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. including the navigation away from terrain. the team and the individual. all the circles are the same size.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. When the process is complete. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. Flight Crew Training Centre . it is time to manage.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. Once this is under control. It is a circular or iterative process. However. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line. the task need is paramount. Once the Group is informed and placated. 8. 8. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. For example in the first stages of a diversion. An important point here is that you do not rush. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to.

Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. In the same way. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. output functions and an internal processing function.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. do something with that information and then act on it. Flight Crew Training Centre . Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. 9.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. but functionally can be quite accurate. these are known as “mental models”. we receive information. individuals create internal representations of how systems work. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9.

at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time. are actually switching from one to the other. During a busy.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. if we miss-perceive an event.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. This is quite normal. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us.4. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues.4 Input functions 9. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. but it is not being ignored completely. 9.4. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation. smell and taste. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. touch. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. 9. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. so much that. not all of them get through to the processing stage.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. sight. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . but only a limited signal can be conveyed.4. Perception is incredibly powerful. sound and touch. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this. even though they do not have the loudest voice. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. 9. sound.

3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible. which really belongs with the input functions. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. 9. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. 9.6.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. unless it is consciously being dealt with. short-term and long-term. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds. speed 310.6 Processing Functions 9. Another type of memory is sensory memory.72”. the original message has been replayed by the mind.6. 9. and contact 119. descend 180.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain. expect 150 by xxx. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. and retained by conscious attention. you have as little as 0. Sensory memory data is lost by decay.6.

6. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. manageable by most.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. Trap. Flight Crew Training Centre . whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. but it is top secret.. For example. 9. such as ATM (Avoid. but becomes irretrievable due to interference.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. long after the event. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines. 9. However the problem is not with forgetting. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. even if the correct data has never been learned. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver ….6. and Mitigate). but with inability to retrieve or access the information. patterns or mini theories. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage.

a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. It can only deal with one issue at a time. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000].6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. 9.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. as they are referred to by the date itself. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. however it is a single channel device. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance.6. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre . Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. The events of September 11. in particular responses to RTO. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. 9. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category. this is when the action has become a learned routine. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence.

stress and fatigue produce similar results. some a combination of both. Our interest is human performance. Some of these place physical strains on the body. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. This chapter covers the effects of stress. including workload and circadian rhythms. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. 9. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre . Performance varies with a number of factors. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. In this respect. others mental strains.

acute and chronic. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. As stress increases further. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. tension headaches. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. consider that arousal refers to stress. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. Initially. 10. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. After a certain point. 10. and then falls away. from being somewhat dormant. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. is exhilarating early in the day. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. require the crew to be at optimal performance. Too little stress causes complacency. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. for example. The right side shows over stimulation. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate. By the same token. performance actually peaks. such as take-off and landing. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. In the diagram above.stimulation. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. performance improves. largely impossible.3. upset stomach.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. into the optimum performance range (shaded). Critical phases of flight. as stress increases. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. and other symptoms. but too much is exhausting. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. Flight Crew Training Centre . Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. A fast run down a challenging ski slope.

3. migraine headaches. jaw pain. Because it is short term. chest pain. stomach. and chest pain. Often. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. it does. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. rapid heartbeat.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. sweaty palms. constipation. muscular problems including tension headache. who suffer acute stress frequently. and it is highly treatable and manageable. The work becomes a very stressful place for them. and heart disease. back pain. cold hands or feet. their child's occasional problems at school. dizziness. the three stress emotions. however. If something can go wrong. They take on too much. generally requiring professional help. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. migraines. shorttempered. irritable. and irritable bowel syndrome. shortness of breath. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. acid stomach. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. hypertension. but always late. They're always in a rush. they tend to be abrupt. anxious. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. diarrhea. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress." Always in a hurry. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. flatulence.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. heart palpitations. 10. the loss of an important contract. a deadline they're rushing to meet. and tense. and depression. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. anxiety. Flight Crew Training Centre . and so on. have too many irons in the fire.

10. They forget it's there. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. perhaps. With no hope. the individual gives up searching for solutions. heart attack. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. sweating.e.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. More precisely. fatal breakdown. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress.g. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. they see their lifestyle. familiar.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. heart arrhythmia. of dysfunctional families. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. chronic stress is not.. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. They blame their woes on other people and external events. 10. 10. environmental and cognitive. promotion to Captain). minds and lives. year after year. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. Chronic stress destroys bodies. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. violence. their patterns of interacting with others. stroke. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. and. Frequently. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. This could come in many different forms. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. and sometimes. It's the stress of poverty. Chronic stress kills through suicide.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. hyperventilation.3. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. or a mental response such as irritability. which exhibits as either a physical response e. People wear down to a final. almost comfortable. Flight Crew Training Centre . tremors.3. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. even cancer.3. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. Generally. change in job or responsibilities (i.

7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). 10. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. In the long-term. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG.3. and mismanage priorities. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. Two common examples could be heat and noise. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. However. 10. When workload is high. or in the flight. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. especially when it involves an operating pilot. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. but with a dissimilar function.3. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans.deck. Noise arouses the individual. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. this will be covered later in the chapter. either on the apron. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre .

Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. 10. It cannot be stored. As in the case of stress. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. workload (physical exertion). The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . they may become bogged down in processing the data. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). when workload is at an absolute minimum. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. After some time of being awake. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. this continues to improve performance until. On a night flight. Response time. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. Although this can be an effective strategy.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. or state of awake ness. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. 10. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. Typically.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. Depending on the individual. This might be due to time since awake. self. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). thereby inducing further errors. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. after reaching a peak. For example. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. However. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. the range of optimal performance is reached. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. Immediately after awakening.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. with an inability to sleep further.

not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. However. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. sleep is deeper rather than longer. 10. inattentive and has an increased reaction time.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. which extend the operating day. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. This is known as jet-lag. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. on the wrong time zone. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations.

when conducted in a structured fashion. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. is the duty of every crewmember. with dire consequences in the aviation industry.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. In the modern world. this is a potentially dangerous practice.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. It is another warning flag. As any medical practitioner will verify. This chapter will explain what it is. the Flight Crew Training Centre . However it is often quoted without really being explained. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role. Managing stress and sleep effectively. 10. In accidents involving human error. providing awareness and in need of management. 11 Situational Awareness 11. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief. Others prefer mental stimulation. 11. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. 10. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained.

systems. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. 11. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. fuel and time). and Communicate. one must understand and think ahead. which mitigates part of the problem. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA).3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. automation modes. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. In addition to three levels of SA. passengers and company). It is not just enough to notice a situation. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future.” This is quite complex. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. In a well-known phrase: Aviate. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. crew. Navigate. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness.

After descent initiation. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming. fixation and confusion exist.descent and leads up to the approach. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies . less time is available for noticing and avoiding. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity.4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. if potential problems can be identified in time. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity .contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively .focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . Trap. there is much to be concerned about here. minimums. Avoiding error is the initial course of action. during the take-off and landing phases. fixation and confusion.vague or incomplete statements 11. fuel burn. Flight Crew Training Centre . etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. A three-stage model “Avoid. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. Results from observations at several different airlines.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation . clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this. The trapping phase begins at top-of. Prior to descent.uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport.Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase.

7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). scan patterns and checklist use. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. task management and prioritization. 11. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. Should such a state occur. so that we can take action to improve it. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. Finally. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. and use the speed brake if necessary. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. unstabilized approach. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. 11. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. too fast etc) must be avoided. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. self-monitoring. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA].e. contingency planning. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. communications. 11. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. However. attention-sharing.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. Human error is inevitable.” Flight Crew Training Centre . then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA].Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. there is very little time left to correct it. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. Skills relating to spatial ability. an undesired aircraft state (i.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. too high.

ATC.don't fixate. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. etc. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. Project ahead and consider contingencies. Flight Crew Training Centre . Focus on the details and scan the big picture. maintenance. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. Speak up when you see SA breaking down. Rotate attention from plane to path to people .8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. dispatch. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level.

Flight Crew Training Centre .L. & Helmreich. 1995. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar. R. 1996.. Taggart. Guangzhou. & Merritt. & Helmreich.C.. Merritt. Ohio. Merritt. November 26-28. Colombus.C.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4). April). 1991. & Merritt. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium.J.. New Zealand.L.. & Sherman. CRM: I hate it. Wilhelm. R.. Cultural issues in crew resource management. May 1995..C. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. 1997.L. Merritt. Columbus: Ohio State University. A.C. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries. A.L.. Cultural influences on flight operations. CRM Advocate. Auckland. 1. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. 1996. J. Ooi. Merritt. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project. (1995). A..S. & Helmreich. 8-12.R.A.L.R. April-May. A. Jakarta. what is it? (Error. (1995).C. W. (1996). April 23-25. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture. April.C. April-May. T. (1996). Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference.C. Merritt.. P.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. R. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. (1991).. R. Sydney.0 (International) & 2. R. (1995). Ohio.. P. A. 1997. (1997). Colombus. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. Merritt. (1996. November 20-24. R. A. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China.C.. (1996)..L..C. Helmreich. Helmreich. A. stress. A. (1997).. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar. Indonesia.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful