Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

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Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

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5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

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9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

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1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

assisted by the facilitator.2. 1.2. 1.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). 2 Modules Content 2. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre . The candidates will conduct their own debrief.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course. leadership and team management.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process. and team management skills. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2. This will be delivered during the ground school phase.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1.2. and a series of role-plays.

6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.4 Leadership.

because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. design and engine reliability. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. knowledge. HPL. and with other humans. Flight Crew Training Centre . 3. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. This includes everything from the design of a tool. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. skill and attitude. home. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. environment. to the brightness required of an electronic display.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. 3. This is due. to the design of a checklist.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. Despite improvements in technology. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. in part.

but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. encompassing the best of previous generations. 3. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance. 3. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. J. Most of these errors are small. Flight Crew Training Centre .5 Human Error Reason (Reason. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management. 1990.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. 3. especially on a long. In particular this means designing for error. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback.

3. Occasionally. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. Reason used Swiss cheese. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. It was but it is not an isolated case. the holes will line up. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. occurring years ago on the drawing board. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. Rather. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. but placed together they form a robust wall. If they can break the chain. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. Without assigning a principle cause. In isolation it is insignificant. Some were latent failures.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. the accident does not occur.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. Flight Crew Training Centre . the last line of defense. For example. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. Others were management failures. of which the operating crew are the last link. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. it snaps. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield.

Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. and it is up to us to break the chain. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. 3. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence. at any level. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. Flight Crew Training Centre .e. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one. 3. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. but as long as the holes do not line up. Management.e. Regulators etc are threats to the crew.) Threats . Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising. because despite the risks. the start of an accident chain. the accident chain is broken. safe operations are the norm.e. performing a checklist from memory. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. Threats and errors are unavoidable. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i. Engineering. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. (Errors made by other people ATC. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i.External influences Errors .

Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist. such as an unstabilized approach. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. However. nine common factors existed. 3. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. These have been termed warning flags. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger. 3. Trap. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre .12 Avoid. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. However in all cases. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing.

1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. cohesive in-groups. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. (which are predominantly male).2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. versus its opposite. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. such as organizational. regarding all societies in the world. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. Uncertainty Avoidance. Power Distance. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. often extended families (with uncles. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre . 4. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. On the collectivist side. 4. professional and safety culture. Again.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. not to the state.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. 4. collectivism. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups.

they try to have as few rules as possible. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . safety and security measures. Power and inequality. It suggests that the followers. uncertainty accepting cultures.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. The opposite type. but defined from below. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality.   4. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. and motivated by inner nervous energy.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. Unstructured situations are novel. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. not from above. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. surprising. but some are more unequal than others. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. This represents inequality (more versus less). People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. unknown. of course. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck. and different from usual. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth.

by a machine function. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. such as pilots.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. either physical or cognitive. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. Furthermore. including radio operators. or an organizational culture can prevail. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. against a conflicting trend. (Norbert Wiener) 5. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. not what we thought we told them to do. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. 5. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. In particular. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues. there can be anomalies where a professional group. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. Flight Crew Training Centre . navigators and flight engineers. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew.

not to mention the human (social) effects. 5. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. Flight Crew Training Centre . In practice this does not always happen. The latter will not be discussed here. accuracy and reduced costs. In particular. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines.

Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. Poor spoken material. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. Poor program. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. M. Whiteside. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. J & George. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. difficult to re. narrow range. 1986. accurate. slow. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. P. Rather. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. Good quantitative assessment. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive.” (Good. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. T.Good inductive. inaccurate. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. detecting messages in noise. easy to re program. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. Spine. fast.

resulting in further reduced workload. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. There is a reduced cognitive load. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. vigilance and complacency may become issues.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. an area of weakness in interface design. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. with different cognitive skills required. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. according to any change in tactical goal. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. Although in some systems. Overall result is reduced workload. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. so the overall workload is drastically reduced. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. – This is a high workload situation. 5. In the aviation scenario. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre .

communications and monitoring.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. Flight Crew Training Centre . 5. Unfortunately.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. In particular. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. Cali. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. For this new knowledge and skills are required. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. will disengage or will revert to another mode. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness. 5. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. Habsheim etc).Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5.

9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. 5. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear. Consequently. 5. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat. but not replace. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . A lack of. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. easy-to-use systems.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. or subtle.

Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. Humans are capable of devising strategies. 6. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. In the flight-deck environment. Through the use of example and persuasion. which is acquired. We must guard against the threats posed by automation.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. 5. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. which is assigned. the leader becomes a means of change and influence. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. the Captain is the designated “leader”. Flight Crew Training Centre . by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. and authority. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader.

Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. from a practical view point the Captain has a right.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. In addition. will power. Action. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. initiative and integrity. the team and the individual.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. The leader must balance the demands of the task. with use of the Assess. and be able to maintain team morale. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. and a duty. Personal qualities required are those of courage. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. and Manage Decision-Making Model. In fact. 6. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. to decide on a course of action. 6. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems.

manage and direct the flow of information.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task.5 Task To achieve the task. suggestions Giving opinions. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . With a wide variety of background. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate.8.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6.

Flight Crew Training Centre .8. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader.8.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6. In between.8.

Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. For most effective leadership. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . but not if things are going wrong. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. using information available at that time. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. Together. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. a different style is adopted according to the situation. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them.

T. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. Ginnett. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. passive/critical. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. While this might be an individual’s view. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. supportive followers are as important as a leader. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. cited by Kern. 6. active/uncritical and active/critical. G2.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. RE. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. The optimum gradient. R & Curphy. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. and followership is a skill in its own right. 1997.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. along with good communication skills. G (Eds). A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. R. The role is much like that of a chairman. which may differ between individuals and national cultures. Hughes. Followers are a vital part of a team.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. 6. since there are a number of nationalities. For successful team performance. 1988. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. Flight Crew Training Centre .

Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. unless identified and brought “back onside”. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. Sheep are akin to human automatons. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. Making a good first impression is vital. Survivors are the Company men. because they actively support without thinking. Flight Crew Training Centre . Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. The only way to ensure this is. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. 6.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision.

degrading language. the words used tend to be very important.e. However.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. rank could impinge on communication as well. 7. In the case of Jade Cargo International. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. Barriers to communication are also identified. Between a Captain and a First Officer. The actual words used accounting for about 10%. and very rarely are raised voices heard.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. noise is still a factor.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck. culture plays a large part. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. This can be verbal or non-verbal information. 7. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. While modern flight decks are well insulated. as much as 90%. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. This chapter describes the principles of communication. along with methods of eliminating them. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. in communication within a crew. So. insulting. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre . This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations.

From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. and the manner. whether on the needs of others or your own. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. assertive. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority. While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. 7. supportive and submissive. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. Flight Crew Training Centre . Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. the focus. two aspects of the message content will be considered.4.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. 7. aggressive. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).

3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves. However this may change depending on circumstances. It is unlikely to motivate the team.downs. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. Flight Crew Training Centre . It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. 7.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. and will likely isolate the aggressor. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”.4. However. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put.4. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team. 7.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. are avoided at all times. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression.4. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. In a non-critical situation. Therefore.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. Referring to the matrix. not recommended but part of life. such as during training or non-normal situations. They put themselves down.

be supportive. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. Dealing with aggression is not easy. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. will find a style that works well for them. If someone is submissive. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. In other words. An assertive response might also be effective. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. Flight Crew Training Centre . In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. Each individual and in fact every team.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. their needs will be overlooked. it is likely communication that will break down completely. If the other person is submissive. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior.

Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. You must give to get. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. Differences in perceiving motives. objectives and values. Unwillingness to work through issues. If conflict does occur.favorable versus unfavorable.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. There is more than one way to do anything. Differing expectations of outcomes . Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. Flight Crew Training Centre . Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. the results may be positive or negative. the stage is set for potential conflict. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. 7.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. When sides are chosen. productivity will diminish or stop. words. Animosities can develop. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. collaborate or compromise. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. Assertive and cooperative. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. When conflict is dealt with constructively. test their position and beliefs. and stretch their imagination. High respect for mutual support. communications may breakdown. which will lead to better results.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. trust and support will deteriorate. actions and situations. No one person or idea is perfect. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. No one makes major concessions.

1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making. However. once in a while. Advocacy. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. 8. or good or bad outcomes. Flight Crew Training Centre . This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. It is not which model that is used that is important. either for routine or novel situations. rather that a model is used. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. Conflict Resolution. It is the end result that we are interested in. Action and Critique. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience.

2. as well as the appropriate CRM principals. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following. further modification to the RMM was required.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP). it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. 8. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures. 8. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International.2. Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided.

By staying below the line as much as possible.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. the problem and the solution. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). there are two typical responses. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution.Information seeking. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. seeking more information about it. Whenever a problem is encountered at work. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action. Flight Crew Training Centre . This does not always produce the best solution. to make sure we fully understand the implications. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. its implications and how much time is available. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] .

Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. Open questions allow more options. 8. others may be less time dependent. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. immediate action is required. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. is a valuable problem. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). In all cases. A fast decision may not always be the correct one. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. using a traffic light system. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. On the other hand. losing vital feedback. this limits the opportunity for assessment. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE].4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. EFIS architecture. all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. but will probably be accepted. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS.  Time Critical situations require immediate action. Once a time frame has been established. critical.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. A solution in the form of a question however. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. Time can be considered as. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . may at best get a query in response. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. when there is little available. In the latter case. available and required.solving resource.

Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. NAVIGATE. test understanding. 8. Good teamwork needs good communication. prioritize. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. propose. prioritize.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. seek information. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. test understanding. Flight Crew Training Centre . the Captain must manage. test understanding propose. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize.

the task need is paramount. An important point here is that you do not rush. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. Once this is under control. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line. 8. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. all the circles are the same size. including the navigation away from terrain. It is a circular or iterative process. For example in the first stages of a diversion. Once the Group is informed and placated. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. obstacles and weather. 8. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. it is time to manage. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. Flight Crew Training Centre . However. When the process is complete. the team and the individual. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase.

Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. do something with that information and then act on it. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. we receive information. Flight Crew Training Centre . Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. output functions and an internal processing function. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9. In the same way. 9. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. individuals create internal representations of how systems work. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. but functionally can be quite accurate. these are known as “mental models”. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result.

9. 9. touch. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. sound and touch. This is quite normal. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. but it is not being ignored completely. 9.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information.4 Input functions 9.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time. sound. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation. smell and taste. are actually switching from one to the other. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this. but only a limited signal can be conveyed. Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. sight. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. if we miss-perceive an event. Perception is incredibly powerful.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise.4. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. even though they do not have the loudest voice.4. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task. During a busy.4. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. not all of them get through to the processing stage. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. so much that. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us.

New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory.6 Processing Functions 9. you have as little as 0. which really belongs with the input functions.6. short-term and long-term. 9. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost. Another type of memory is sensory memory. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. speed 310.72”. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain. descend 180. and contact 119.6.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. 9. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked.6. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. Flight Crew Training Centre . Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. 9. and retained by conscious attention. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. the original message has been replayed by the mind. unless it is consciously being dealt with.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. expect 150 by xxx. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information.

and Mitigate). For example. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines. 9. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. but with inability to retrieve or access the information. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. long after the event. but becomes irretrievable due to interference. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal.6.. such as ATM (Avoid. Flight Crew Training Centre . Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. Trap. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. but it is top secret. 9. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. However the problem is not with forgetting.6. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. manageable by most. patterns or mini theories. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver ….5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. even if the correct data has never been learned.

Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. The events of September 11. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. in particular responses to RTO. the assassination of JFK [November 1963].6. It can only deal with one issue at a time. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre . Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. 9. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. as they are referred to by the date itself.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category. this is when the action has become a learned routine.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. 9.6. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. however it is a single channel device.

Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. others mental strains. stress and fatigue produce similar results. some a combination of both. including workload and circadian rhythms. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. In this respect. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre . This chapter covers the effects of stress. 9. Our interest is human performance. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. Performance varies with a number of factors. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. Some of these place physical strains on the body. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both.

10. In the diagram above. Initially. acute and chronic. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. for example. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. 10. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate. performance improves. from being somewhat dormant. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. By the same token. into the optimum performance range (shaded). The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. upset stomach. and other symptoms. such as take-off and landing. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. as stress increases. tension headaches.stimulation.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. After a certain point. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. consider that arousal refers to stress. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. Too little stress causes complacency. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise.3.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. require the crew to be at optimal performance. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. The right side shows over stimulation. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. performance actually peaks. is exhilarating early in the day. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. and then falls away. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. As stress increases further. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve. Critical phases of flight. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. Flight Crew Training Centre . The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. but too much is exhausting. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. largely impossible.

most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. If something can go wrong. acid stomach. Flight Crew Training Centre . The work becomes a very stressful place for them. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. diarrhea. the three stress emotions. and so on. cold hands or feet. constipation. 10. but always late. who suffer acute stress frequently. shorttempered. stomach.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. flatulence. jaw pain. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. generally requiring professional help. migraine headaches. anxious. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. migraines. and chest pain. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. They're always in a rush. they tend to be abrupt. heart palpitations.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. Often. back pain. have too many irons in the fire. They take on too much. hypertension. irritable.3. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. shortness of breath. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. however. and irritable bowel syndrome." Always in a hurry. sweaty palms. the loss of an important contract. muscular problems including tension headache. and tense. a deadline they're rushing to meet. rapid heartbeat. it does. and heart disease. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. chest pain. anxiety. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. and it is highly treatable and manageable. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. and depression. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. dizziness. Because it is short term. their child's occasional problems at school. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility.

. heart attack. year after year. familiar. even cancer. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. They blame their woes on other people and external events.3. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. which exhibits as either a physical response e. sweating. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. or a mental response such as irritability. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. hyperventilation. of dysfunctional families. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. almost comfortable.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it.3. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. environmental and cognitive. Flight Crew Training Centre .3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. promotion to Captain). chronic stress is not. perhaps. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. Chronic stress kills through suicide.g. This could come in many different forms. violence.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. heart arrhythmia. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. and. 10. fatal breakdown. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. change in job or responsibilities (i. People wear down to a final. they see their lifestyle. 10. 10. the individual gives up searching for solutions. minds and lives. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. They forget it's there. More precisely. It's the stress of poverty. stroke.e.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. Generally. their patterns of interacting with others. and sometimes. Chronic stress destroys bodies. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. With no hope.3. tremors. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. Frequently.

6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. 10. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. 10. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). and mismanage priorities. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information. Two common examples could be heat and noise. but with a dissimilar function. When workload is high. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing.deck.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person.3. especially when it involves an operating pilot. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors.3. However. In the long-term.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. this will be covered later in the chapter. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. either on the apron. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. or in the flight. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind. Noise arouses the individual. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties.

10. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. when workload is at an absolute minimum. However. As in the case of stress. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. workload (physical exertion). lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. 10.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. For example. On a night flight. the range of optimal performance is reached. This might be due to time since awake. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. this continues to improve performance until. thereby inducing further errors. It cannot be stored. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. they may become bogged down in processing the data. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. Depending on the individual. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. After some time of being awake. Typically. with an inability to sleep further. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. Response time. self. Although this can be an effective strategy. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). or state of awake ness.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). Immediately after awakening. after reaching a peak. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities.

on the wrong time zone. sleep is deeper rather than longer. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . This is known as jet-lag. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. 10. which extend the operating day. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. However. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms.

circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. Others prefer mental stimulation. In the modern world. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. However it is often quoted without really being explained. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. 10. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. 10. 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. when conducted in a structured fashion. with dire consequences in the aviation industry.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. As any medical practitioner will verify. this is a potentially dangerous practice. 11 Situational Awareness 11. This chapter will explain what it is. Managing stress and sleep effectively. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. providing awareness and in need of management.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports. In accidents involving human error. is the duty of every crewmember. It is another warning flag. the Flight Crew Training Centre . computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role.

automation modes. Flight Crew Training Centre . then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. In addition to three levels of SA. fuel and time). It is not just enough to notice a situation. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA). Navigate. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. crew. one must understand and think ahead. 11.” This is quite complex. which mitigates part of the problem. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. passengers and company). In a well-known phrase: Aviate. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. systems.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. and Communicate. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC.

A three-stage model “Avoid. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. Avoiding error is the initial course of action. during the take-off and landing phases. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. less time is available for noticing and avoiding. The trapping phase begins at top-of. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport. fixation and confusion exist. Results from observations at several different airlines. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur.uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA.Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity.descent and leads up to the approach. Trap. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming.focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . there is much to be concerned about here. minimums.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation . regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies . Mitigate” is one solution to the problem.vague or incomplete statements 11. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity . fuel burn. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. Prior to descent. After descent initiation.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively . identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. Flight Crew Training Centre . fixation and confusion.4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. if potential problems can be identified in time. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this.

otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. self-monitoring.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. 11. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. Human error is inevitable. Should such a state occur. contingency planning. 11. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL).6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. an undesired aircraft state (i. too high.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. so that we can take action to improve it. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. there is very little time left to correct it. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. scan patterns and checklist use. unstabilized approach. attention-sharing. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA]. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. 11. if mitigation seems to be the key factor.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. communications. task management and prioritization. Finally. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. and use the speed brake if necessary. too fast etc) must be avoided. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around.e.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands.” Flight Crew Training Centre . indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA]. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. However. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. Skills relating to spatial ability.

Speak up when you see SA breaking down. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. Rotate attention from plane to path to people . etc. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. dispatch.don't fixate. Focus on the details and scan the big picture. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. ATC. Project ahead and consider contingencies.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. maintenance. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. Flight Crew Training Centre .

University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project. & Helmreich.. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. W.. 1991. J.L... & Helmreich..S.L. Indonesia.C. 8-12.. Guangzhou. T. (1995). (1995).L.J. (1997).C. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture. R. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar. Merritt. Ohio.C. Jakarta.C. R. R. A.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4). Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues.. Ooi. (1996). what is it? (Error. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. April-May. 1. (1991). April). & Merritt.. & Helmreich. November 20-24. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. 1997. Sydney. Colombus. (1995). 1996. A. Merritt.R.. Helmreich. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar. November 26-28. P. (1996).C.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. A. New Zealand.C. R. Wilhelm. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China.. April 23-25. A. (1996). CRM: I hate it. Merritt.0 (International) & 2. P.C. R. A. Taggart.C. 1997. May 1995. Cultural issues in crew resource management. R...C. Flight Crew Training Centre . Helmreich. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference.R.L. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Columbus: Ohio State University.A. & Merritt. CRM Advocate. Merritt. Cultural influences on flight operations.. Ohio.. A. A.L. Merritt.L. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2. (1997). Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries.. stress. Merritt. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. (1996. 1995. 1996. April-May. Auckland. April. & Sherman. Colombus. A.

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