Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

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CRM Manual

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Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

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5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

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9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

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CRM Manual

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1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

2. This will be delivered during the ground school phase. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course. leadership and team management.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre .2. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process. assisted by the facilitator. and a series of role-plays. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor. The candidates will conduct their own debrief. and team management skills. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). 2 Modules Content 2.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses.2. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1. 1.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2. 1. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools.

6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre . Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.4 Leadership.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.

and with other humans. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. in part. to the brightness required of an electronic display. This is due. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. HPL. knowledge. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. Flight Crew Training Centre . skill and attitude. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. design and engine reliability. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. This includes everything from the design of a tool. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. Despite improvements in technology. to the design of a checklist. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. 3. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. environment. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. home. 3. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training.

Most of these errors are small. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback. In particular this means designing for error. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. 3. 1990. Flight Crew Training Centre . especially on a long. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. encompassing the best of previous generations.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. J. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. 3. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. 3.5 Human Error Reason (Reason. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills.

Reason used Swiss cheese. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. In isolation it is insignificant. the accident does not occur. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. It was but it is not an isolated case. of which the operating crew are the last link. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. it snaps. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. the last line of defense. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. but placed together they form a robust wall. Occasionally. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. Some were latent failures. Others were management failures. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. Rather. the holes will line up.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. For example. Without assigning a principle cause. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. Flight Crew Training Centre . Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. If they can break the chain. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. occurring years ago on the drawing board. 3.

Flight Crew Training Centre . the start of an accident chain.e. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense.e. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. 3. because despite the risks. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential.) Threats . The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. 3. Management. (Errors made by other people ATC. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. Threats and errors are unavoidable. and it is up to us to break the chain. Regulators etc are threats to the crew.e. safe operations are the norm. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events.External influences Errors . the accident chain is broken. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. but as long as the holes do not line up.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising. performing a checklist from memory. Engineering. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence. at any level.

The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. These have been termed warning flags. nine common factors existed. Trap. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. such as an unstabilized approach. However. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger.12 Avoid. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. 3.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. 3. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed. However in all cases.

He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. Again. often extended families (with uncles.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. cohesive in-groups. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre . we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. 4. (which are predominantly male). Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. Power Distance. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. versus its opposite. Uncertainty Avoidance. such as organizational. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. collectivism. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. 4. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. not to the state.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. professional and safety culture. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. 4. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. On the collectivist side. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. regarding all societies in the world.

People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. Power and inequality. they try to have as few rules as possible. This represents inequality (more versus less). “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. It suggests that the followers. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. but some are more unequal than others. safety and security measures. The opposite type. but defined from below. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules.   4. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. of course. and motivated by inner nervous energy. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Unstructured situations are novel. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. not from above. and different from usual. surprising. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. uncertainty accepting cultures. unknown. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.

2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. including radio operators.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. by a machine function. not what we thought we told them to do. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. Furthermore. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. (Norbert Wiener) 5. against a conflicting trend. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. or an organizational culture can prevail. navigators and flight engineers.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. In particular. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. Flight Crew Training Centre . though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. either physical or cognitive. there can be anomalies where a professional group. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. such as pilots. 5. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues.

accuracy and reduced costs. The latter will not be discussed here. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job. Flight Crew Training Centre . In practice this does not always happen.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. not to mention the human (social) effects. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. In particular. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. 5.

T. Poor spoken material.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. narrow range. P. J & George. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. inaccurate. fast.” (Good.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. easy to re program. accurate. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. slow.Good inductive. difficult to re. Rather. Spine. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. M. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. detecting messages in noise. 1986. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. Poor program. Whiteside. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. Good quantitative assessment.

this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. Although in some systems. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. so the overall workload is drastically reduced. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. 5. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. an area of weakness in interface design. resulting in further reduced workload. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. with different cognitive skills required. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. – This is a high workload situation. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. Overall result is reduced workload. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. In the aviation scenario. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. vigilance and complacency may become issues. according to any change in tactical goal. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. There is a reduced cognitive load. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft.

communications and monitoring.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. Habsheim etc). The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. Unfortunately.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. Cali. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness. will disengage or will revert to another mode. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. For this new knowledge and skills are required. 5. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. In particular. 5. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that. Flight Crew Training Centre . the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope.

Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective. but not replace.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. A lack of. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. easy-to-use systems. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive. 5.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. 5. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . or subtle. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat. Consequently.

5. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. 6.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. which is acquired. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. We must guard against the threats posed by automation. Through the use of example and persuasion. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. the Captain is the designated “leader”.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. and authority. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. Flight Crew Training Centre . Humans are capable of devising strategies. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. which is assigned. In the flight-deck environment. the leader becomes a means of change and influence.

The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. In addition. the team and the individual. will power. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. and Manage Decision-Making Model. and a duty. 6. Personal qualities required are those of courage. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. 6. to decide on a course of action. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . from a practical view point the Captain has a right. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. In fact. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. The leader must balance the demands of the task. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. Action. initiative and integrity. with use of the Assess.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. and be able to maintain team morale. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided.

experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs. suggestions Giving opinions.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6.5 Task To achieve the task. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6. With a wide variety of background.8. manage and direct the flow of information.

In between.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative. Flight Crew Training Centre . coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6.8. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.8.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader.

“VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    .Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. For most effective leadership. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. a different style is adopted according to the situation. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. Together. but not if things are going wrong. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. using information available at that time.

T. 6. cited by Kern. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. R. Flight Crew Training Centre . Followers are a vital part of a team. 1997. RE. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. active/uncritical and active/critical. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. since there are a number of nationalities.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. 1988. Ginnett.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. R & Curphy. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. along with good communication skills. passive/critical. which may differ between individuals and national cultures. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. 6. The optimum gradient. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. Hughes. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. and followership is a skill in its own right. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. The role is much like that of a chairman. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. While this might be an individual’s view. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. G (Eds). For successful team performance. G2. supportive followers are as important as a leader.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution.

Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. Making a good first impression is vital. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. because they actively support without thinking. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. 6. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. Sheep are akin to human automatons. unless identified and brought “back onside”. Flight Crew Training Centre . The only way to ensure this is. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. Survivors are the Company men. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important.

Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. in communication within a crew. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre .1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. Between a Captain and a First Officer. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit. So.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. along with methods of eliminating them.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i.e. 7. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. Barriers to communication are also identified. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck. The actual words used accounting for about 10%. as much as 90%. While modern flight decks are well insulated. noise is still a factor. insulting. This can be verbal or non-verbal information. 7. the words used tend to be very important. This chapter describes the principles of communication. However. rank could impinge on communication as well. degrading language. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. and very rarely are raised voices heard. culture plays a large part. In the case of Jade Cargo International.

It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. supportive and submissive. whether on the needs of others or your own. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). 7. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. 7. assertive. While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority. the focus.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. Flight Crew Training Centre . From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model.4. aggressive.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. two aspects of the message content will be considered. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. and the manner. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced.

the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team.4. and will likely isolate the aggressor. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. However this may change depending on circumstances. Referring to the matrix. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. Flight Crew Training Centre . However. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such.4. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. It is unlikely to motivate the team. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression. They put themselves down. are avoided at all times.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. Therefore.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human.downs. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated. such as during training or non-normal situations. not recommended but part of life. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. 7. 7. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. In a non-critical situation. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth.4.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7.

In other words. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. their needs will be overlooked. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. Flight Crew Training Centre . will find a style that works well for them. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. Each individual and in fact every team. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. If someone is submissive. If the other person is submissive. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. be supportive. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. An assertive response might also be effective. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. Dealing with aggression is not easy. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. it is likely communication that will break down completely.

people can be stimulated to greater creativity. productivity will diminish or stop. collaborate or compromise. communications may breakdown. and stretch their imagination. Unwillingness to work through issues. the results may be positive or negative. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7.favorable versus unfavorable. actions and situations. High respect for mutual support. the stage is set for potential conflict. Flight Crew Training Centre . Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. words. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. trust and support will deteriorate.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. Animosities can develop. If conflict does occur. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. Assertive and cooperative. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. Differences in perceiving motives. When sides are chosen. objectives and values. You must give to get.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. Differing expectations of outcomes . No one person or idea is perfect. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. test their position and beliefs. When conflict is dealt with constructively. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. 7. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. No one makes major concessions. which will lead to better results. There is more than one way to do anything.

Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. 8. Advocacy. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. once in a while. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. or good or bad outcomes. either for routine or novel situations. It is not which model that is used that is important. rather that a model is used.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. Flight Crew Training Centre . Action and Critique. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making. It is the end result that we are interested in. Conflict Resolution. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. However.

it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP).Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions.2. 8. Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. as well as the appropriate CRM principals. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following. further modification to the RMM was required. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures.2. 8. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”.

Information seeking. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. the problem and the solution. Flight Crew Training Centre . to make sure we fully understand the implications. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). By staying below the line as much as possible.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. This does not always produce the best solution. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. its implications and how much time is available. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation. seeking more information about it. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. there are two typical responses. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] .3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. Whenever a problem is encountered at work.

immediate action is required. In all cases. this limits the opportunity for assessment. all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. On the other hand. A fast decision may not always be the correct one. is a valuable problem. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. when there is little available. EFIS architecture. using a traffic light system. Once a time frame has been established. but will probably be accepted. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. others may be less time dependent.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response.  Time Critical situations require immediate action. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. critical. available and required.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). Time can be considered as. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). Open questions allow more options. A solution in the form of a question however. losing vital feedback. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. may at best get a query in response. 8. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS.solving resource. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. In the latter case. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving.

propose. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. seek information. prioritize. prioritize. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. Flight Crew Training Centre . COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. the Captain must manage. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. NAVIGATE. test understanding. Good teamwork needs good communication. test understanding propose. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. test understanding.

all the circles are the same size. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. Flight Crew Training Centre . 8.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. 8. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. An important point here is that you do not rush. the team and the individual. It is a circular or iterative process. However. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. Once the Group is informed and placated. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions. including the navigation away from terrain. When the process is complete. For example in the first stages of a diversion. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. it is time to manage. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. obstacles and weather. the task need is paramount. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. Once this is under control.

output functions and an internal processing function. these are known as “mental models”. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. Flight Crew Training Centre . INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. 9. do something with that information and then act on it. but functionally can be quite accurate. individuals create internal representations of how systems work. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. we receive information. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. In the same way.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations.

Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. sound.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. so much that. but only a limited signal can be conveyed.4. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . Perception is incredibly powerful. sound and touch. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). sight. 9. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. touch. 9.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time. During a busy. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise.4.4 Input functions 9. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. not all of them get through to the processing stage. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task. 9. This is quite normal. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this. smell and taste. Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. are actually switching from one to the other. even though they do not have the loudest voice.4. but it is not being ignored completely. if we miss-perceive an event.

However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. expect 150 by xxx. and contact 119. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears. short-term and long-term. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory.6 Processing Functions 9. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory. you have as little as 0. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible. 9. Another type of memory is sensory memory. speed 310. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. Flight Crew Training Centre . Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions.72”. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. 9.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. unless it is consciously being dealt with.6. descend 180.6. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. the original message has been replayed by the mind. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. which really belongs with the input functions. 9. and retained by conscious attention. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information.6.

9. manageable by most. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever. long after the event. and Mitigate). but with inability to retrieve or access the information. Trap. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. patterns or mini theories. However the problem is not with forgetting. such as ATM (Avoid..6. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver …. but it is top secret.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. For example. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. but becomes irretrievable due to interference.6. Flight Crew Training Centre . if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. 9. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. even if the correct data has never been learned. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition.

a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. however it is a single channel device. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. It can only deal with one issue at a time. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre . There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. The events of September 11. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. 9. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category. the assassination of JFK [November 1963].7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. in particular responses to RTO.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. this is when the action has become a learned routine. as they are referred to by the date itself.6. 9.

others mental strains.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. some a combination of both.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body. stress and fatigue produce similar results. Performance varies with a number of factors. including workload and circadian rhythms. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre . This chapter covers the effects of stress. 9. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. Some of these place physical strains on the body. In this respect. Our interest is human performance.

stimulation. and then falls away. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. Critical phases of flight. Flight Crew Training Centre . Initially. In the diagram above. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. largely impossible. As stress increases further. consider that arousal refers to stress. 10. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. such as take-off and landing. upset stomach. into the optimum performance range (shaded). tension headaches. and other symptoms. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. require the crew to be at optimal performance. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human.3. After a certain point.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. as stress increases. which differs according to individuals and within individuals.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. performance improves. performance actually peaks. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. Too little stress causes complacency. The right side shows over stimulation. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. from being somewhat dormant. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. acute and chronic. 10. is exhilarating early in the day. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. for example. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. By the same token. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. but too much is exhausting. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise.

the three stress emotions. have too many irons in the fire. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. and chest pain. diarrhea. jaw pain. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. Because it is short term. If something can go wrong. and it is highly treatable and manageable.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. irritable. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. They're always in a rush. and irritable bowel syndrome. anxiety. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. however. anxious. shortness of breath. migraine headaches. acid stomach. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. flatulence. shorttempered." Always in a hurry. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. heart palpitations. muscular problems including tension headache. stomach.3. it does. Often. who suffer acute stress frequently. sweaty palms. The work becomes a very stressful place for them. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. a deadline they're rushing to meet. chest pain. Flight Crew Training Centre . transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. and so on. their child's occasional problems at school. generally requiring professional help. the loss of an important contract. cold hands or feet. hypertension. and heart disease. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. back pain. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. 10.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. rapid heartbeat. and depression. They take on too much. migraines. and tense. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. they tend to be abrupt. but always late. constipation.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. dizziness.

3. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. People wear down to a final. 10. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. It's the stress of poverty. More precisely. which exhibits as either a physical response e.g.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. the individual gives up searching for solutions. They blame their woes on other people and external events. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. chronic stress is not. stroke. Frequently. perhaps. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. year after year. 10. heart arrhythmia. Generally. Some examples are: marriage or divorce.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress.. hyperventilation. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. almost comfortable. or a mental response such as irritability.3. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. Chronic stress destroys bodies. 10. and sometimes.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. familiar. sweating. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. they see their lifestyle. With no hope. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. their patterns of interacting with others.3. This could come in many different forms. promotion to Captain). change in job or responsibilities (i. Flight Crew Training Centre . a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. even cancer. heart attack. Chronic stress kills through suicide. of dysfunctional families.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. minds and lives. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. environmental and cognitive. They forget it's there.e. fatal breakdown. and. violence. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. tremors.

as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. 10. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. When workload is high. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing.deck. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans.3. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. either on the apron. However. especially when it involves an operating pilot. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. Two common examples could be heat and noise. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG.3. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. Noise arouses the individual. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. or in the flight. 10. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. and mismanage priorities. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. In the long-term. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. but with a dissimilar function. this will be covered later in the chapter. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind.

Response time. Although this can be an effective strategy. the range of optimal performance is reached. Depending on the individual. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. thereby inducing further errors. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. As in the case of stress.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . This might be due to time since awake. workload (physical exertion). this continues to improve performance until. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. On a night flight.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. Immediately after awakening. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. after reaching a peak. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). they may become bogged down in processing the data. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. or state of awake ness. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. when workload is at an absolute minimum. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. It cannot be stored. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. with an inability to sleep further. 10. 10.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). However. self.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. Typically. For example. After some time of being awake.

It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. 10. on the wrong time zone. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. This is known as jet-lag. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. sleep is deeper rather than longer. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. which extend the operating day. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. However. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary.

The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. It is another warning flag. Managing stress and sleep effectively. However it is often quoted without really being explained. providing awareness and in need of management. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. the Flight Crew Training Centre . The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. This chapter will explain what it is.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. Others prefer mental stimulation. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports. In accidents involving human error. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. with dire consequences in the aviation industry. is the duty of every crewmember. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. 11. 10. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. when conducted in a structured fashion. 10. 11 Situational Awareness 11. In the modern world. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. As any medical practitioner will verify. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. this is a potentially dangerous practice.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face.

systems. and Communicate. It is not just enough to notice a situation. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. Flight Crew Training Centre . which mitigates part of the problem. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next. fuel and time). 11. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. passengers and company). then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. In a well-known phrase: Aviate. Navigate. crew. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA).” This is quite complex. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. one must understand and think ahead. automation modes. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. In addition to three levels of SA. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness.

fixation and confusion exist. The trapping phase begins at top-of. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity . Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. less time is available for noticing and avoiding. fixation and confusion. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation . When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. Avoiding error is the initial course of action.vague or incomplete statements 11. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively .uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies .4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. Flight Crew Training Centre .focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . After descent initiation. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. A three-stage model “Avoid. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. if potential problems can be identified in time.descent and leads up to the approach. minimums. during the take-off and landing phases. there is much to be concerned about here. Results from observations at several different airlines. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming. Trap. fuel burn. identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. Prior to descent.Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity.

e. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands. Finally. 11. too high. and use the speed brake if necessary. Human error is inevitable. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. so that we can take action to improve it. Should such a state occur. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA]. 11. However. communications. unstabilized approach. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA]. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. scan patterns and checklist use.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. contingency planning. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. self-monitoring. Skills relating to spatial ability. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. there is very little time left to correct it. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. too fast etc) must be avoided. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. if mitigation seems to be the key factor.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). attention-sharing. 11.” Flight Crew Training Centre . an undesired aircraft state (i. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. task management and prioritization. By analyzing how we deal with the problem.

maintenance.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. Speak up when you see SA breaking down. dispatch. ATC.don't fixate.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Focus on the details and scan the big picture. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. Rotate attention from plane to path to people . It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. Flight Crew Training Centre . Project ahead and consider contingencies. etc.

Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. J. & Helmreich.L. 1996. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. 1996. Merritt.. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance..1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4)... April-May. A. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2.C.C. 1991. & Merritt.L. R.. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. & Merritt. (1997). Ooi. P. (1995).R. stress. 1. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar.. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project.J. R. Colombus. Merritt. (1995).. Helmreich. November 20-24. Columbus: Ohio State University. & Helmreich. Ohio.L.. R. (1991). Flight Crew Training Centre .L. (1996). Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. New Zealand. Colombus. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference. & Sherman... Cultural influences on flight operations. (1996).L. April. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. 1997. April). A.C.S. 1997.C. & Helmreich.C. (1995). Cultural issues in crew resource management.C. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture. Guangzhou. April 23-25. what is it? (Error. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Merritt. May 1995. Merritt.C. R. Sydney. (1997). Taggart. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. Wilhelm. November 26-28. A. (1996).0 (International) & 2. Auckland. 1995.C..A. CRM Advocate. T. A.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. W.C. Indonesia. P. Helmreich. Merritt.. A. April-May.L. (1996. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar.. Merritt. A... Ohio.R. 8-12. CRM: I hate it. R. Jakarta. A. R. A.

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