Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

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CRM Manual

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Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

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5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

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9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

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CRM Manual

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1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

2.2. 1. and team management skills.2. assisted by the facilitator. 2 Modules Content 2. leadership and team management.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2. This will be delivered during the ground school phase.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process. 1. The candidates will conduct their own debrief.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. and a series of role-plays.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC).5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre .

6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.4 Leadership.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre . Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.

3. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. knowledge.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. to the design of a checklist. This includes everything from the design of a tool.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. Despite improvements in technology. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. 3. design and engine reliability. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. environment. HPL. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. This is due. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. and with other humans. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. to the brightness required of an electronic display. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. skill and attitude. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. in part. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. home. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue.

Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback. Flight Crew Training Centre . Not only is this more predictable and measurable. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. especially on a long.5 Human Error Reason (Reason. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. J. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. In particular this means designing for error. Most of these errors are small. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. encompassing the best of previous generations.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance. 1990. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. 3. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. 3. 3. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance.

For example. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. it snaps. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. occurring years ago on the drawing board. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. Without assigning a principle cause. Flight Crew Training Centre . Occasionally. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. It was but it is not an isolated case. Some were latent failures. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. 3.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. the last line of defense. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. the accident does not occur. but placed together they form a robust wall. If they can break the chain. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. of which the operating crew are the last link. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. In isolation it is insignificant. Reason used Swiss cheese. Others were management failures. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. Rather. the holes will line up.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. but when the mouse tries to take the bait.

9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one.e. Management.) Threats .External influences Errors .Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. Engineering. performing a checklist from memory. 3. safe operations are the norm.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising. because despite the risks. Regulators etc are threats to the crew. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events. Threats and errors are unavoidable. the start of an accident chain. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. and it is up to us to break the chain. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. at any level. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i. the accident chain is broken. (Errors made by other people ATC. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i. 3. but as long as the holes do not line up. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew.e. Flight Crew Training Centre .10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence.e. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew.

presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger. However in all cases.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. such as an unstabilized approach. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state.12 Avoid. Trap. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. nine common factors existed. 3. 3. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. These have been termed warning flags. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. However. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry.

4. not to the state. Uncertainty Avoidance. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre .3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. collectivism. regarding all societies in the world. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. (which are predominantly male). Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. such as organizational. often extended families (with uncles. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. 4. versus its opposite. cohesive in-groups. 4.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. On the collectivist side. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. professional and safety culture. Again. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. Power Distance.

“there can only be one Truth and we have it”. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. not from above. uncertainty accepting cultures. Unstructured situations are novel. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. unknown.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. they try to have as few rules as possible. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. The opposite type. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient.   4. surprising. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. and different from usual. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. safety and security measures. Power and inequality. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. but some are more unequal than others. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck. but defined from below. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. of course. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. and motivated by inner nervous energy. It suggests that the followers. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. This represents inequality (more versus less).5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.

Furthermore. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. either physical or cognitive. or an organizational culture can prevail. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. In particular.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent. navigators and flight engineers. by a machine function. not what we thought we told them to do. (Norbert Wiener) 5. Flight Crew Training Centre . there can be anomalies where a professional group. against a conflicting trend. 5. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. such as pilots. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. including radio operators. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic.

The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation. The latter will not be discussed here. In particular. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. not to mention the human (social) effects. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. 5. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. In practice this does not always happen. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. accuracy and reduced costs. Flight Crew Training Centre .

” (Good. T. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. Poor program. Rather. 1986. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. accurate. J & George. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. P. Poor at at detecting messages in noise.Good inductive.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. detecting messages in noise. narrow range. Spine. Good quantitative assessment. inaccurate. slow. M. easy to re program. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . Whiteside. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. difficult to re. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. fast. Poor spoken material.

The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. Although in some systems. with different cognitive skills required. Overall result is reduced workload. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. according to any change in tactical goal. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. 5. There is a reduced cognitive load. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. so the overall workload is drastically reduced. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. – This is a high workload situation. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. an area of weakness in interface design. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. vigilance and complacency may become issues.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. resulting in further reduced workload. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. In the aviation scenario. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre .    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime.

The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. will disengage or will revert to another mode. Flight Crew Training Centre . It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. For this new knowledge and skills are required. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. Habsheim etc). Cali.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. 5. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. In particular. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness. Unfortunately.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that. communications and monitoring. 5. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated.

or subtle. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated. but not replace.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . 5. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. Consequently.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective. 5. A lack of. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. easy-to-use systems. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating.

by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. and authority. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. the Captain is the designated “leader”. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses. There is a fundamental difference between leadership.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. which is assigned. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. 6. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. the leader becomes a means of change and influence.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. In the flight-deck environment. which is acquired. Humans are capable of devising strategies. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. Flight Crew Training Centre . 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. We must guard against the threats posed by automation. 5. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. Through the use of example and persuasion.

6.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. and a duty. initiative and integrity. Personal qualities required are those of courage. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. In addition. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. the team and the individual.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. 6. to decide on a course of action. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. with use of the Assess. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . and Manage Decision-Making Model. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. will power. Action.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. from a practical view point the Captain has a right. and be able to maintain team morale. In fact. The leader must balance the demands of the task. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided.

consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead.8.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre .1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6. suggestions Giving opinions. manage and direct the flow of information. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.5 Task To achieve the task. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions. With a wide variety of background.

8.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6.8. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative. Flight Crew Training Centre . coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation. In between. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.8.

Together. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. a different style is adopted according to the situation. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. using information available at that time. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. For most effective leadership. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. but not if things are going wrong. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude.

Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. passive/critical. Flight Crew Training Centre . 1988. supportive followers are as important as a leader. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. which may differ between individuals and national cultures. The role is much like that of a chairman. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. R. 6.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. along with good communication skills. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. While this might be an individual’s view. G2. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. The optimum gradient. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. active/uncritical and active/critical. and followership is a skill in its own right. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. 6. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. T. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. RE. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. cited by Kern. Followers are a vital part of a team. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. since there are a number of nationalities. Ginnett. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. For successful team performance. G (Eds). levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. 1997. R & Curphy. Hughes.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain.

The only way to ensure this is. 6. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. Survivors are the Company men. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. because they actively support without thinking. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. unless identified and brought “back onside”.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. Sheep are akin to human automatons.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. Flight Crew Training Centre . Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. Making a good first impression is vital. and actively supportive without being “yes men”.

the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. This chapter describes the principles of communication. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. culture plays a large part. as much as 90%. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. noise is still a factor. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre .1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. So. Between a Captain and a First Officer. rank could impinge on communication as well. insulting. degrading language. The actual words used accounting for about 10%. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. This can be verbal or non-verbal information.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. along with methods of eliminating them. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. in communication within a crew.e. In the case of Jade Cargo International. 7. 7.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. While modern flight decks are well insulated. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations. the words used tend to be very important. and very rarely are raised voices heard. However. Barriers to communication are also identified.

whether on the needs of others or your own. assertive.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced. While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. 7.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others.4. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. two aspects of the message content will be considered. 7. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. Flight Crew Training Centre . aggressive. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. supportive and submissive. and the manner. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. the focus.

4. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression. 7.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. Therefore. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves. It is unlikely to motivate the team. However this may change depending on circumstances. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such. This is a “no-go” area for us at work.4. 7. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. such as during training or non-normal situations. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. Referring to the matrix. and will likely isolate the aggressor. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth.downs. They put themselves down. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated. However. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language. In a non-critical situation. not recommended but part of life.4. are avoided at all times.

their needs will be overlooked.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. it is likely communication that will break down completely. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. Dealing with aggression is not easy. If the other person is submissive. If someone is submissive. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. Flight Crew Training Centre . Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. Each individual and in fact every team. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. be supportive. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. In other words. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. An assertive response might also be effective. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. will find a style that works well for them.

No one makes major concessions. You must give to get. actions and situations. High respect for mutual support. words. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. collaborate or compromise. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. objectives and values.favorable versus unfavorable. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. test their position and beliefs. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. Unwillingness to work through issues.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. trust and support will deteriorate. When sides are chosen. communications may breakdown. No one person or idea is perfect. the stage is set for potential conflict. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. productivity will diminish or stop. Differences in perceiving motives.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. When conflict is dealt with constructively. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. Differing expectations of outcomes . Animosities can develop. and stretch their imagination. which will lead to better results. 7. the results may be positive or negative.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. If conflict does occur. There is more than one way to do anything. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. Flight Crew Training Centre .8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. Assertive and cooperative.

or good or bad outcomes. 8. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world. once in a while. Flight Crew Training Centre . It is the end result that we are interested in. Action and Critique. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. Conflict Resolution. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. It is not which model that is used that is important. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. rather that a model is used. However.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. Advocacy. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. either for routine or novel situations. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model.

it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”. as well as the appropriate CRM principals. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”.2. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own.2. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents.2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP). The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. further modification to the RMM was required. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However. Flight Crew Training Centre . Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions. 8. 8.

This does not always produce the best solution. seeking more information about it. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. Flight Crew Training Centre . Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. the problem and the solution. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. Whenever a problem is encountered at work. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution. to make sure we fully understand the implications.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action.Information seeking. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. there are two typical responses. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. its implications and how much time is available. By staying below the line as much as possible.

Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). On the other hand. Time can be considered as. A solution in the form of a question however. Once a time frame has been established. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern.  Time Critical situations require immediate action.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. may at best get a query in response. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. when there is little available. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . but will probably be accepted.solving resource. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. losing vital feedback. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. A fast decision may not always be the correct one. critical. available and required. using a traffic light system. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. this limits the opportunity for assessment. is a valuable problem. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. In all cases. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. In the latter case. EFIS architecture. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. others may be less time dependent. 8. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. immediate action is required. Open questions allow more options. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving.

test understanding propose. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. seek information. NAVIGATE. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. the Captain must manage. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. prioritize.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. test understanding. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. prioritize. propose. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. 8. Flight Crew Training Centre . Good teamwork needs good communication. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. test understanding.

When the process is complete. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. Flight Crew Training Centre . it is time to manage. Once the Group is informed and placated. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. 8.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. including the navigation away from terrain. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. all the circles are the same size. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. It is a circular or iterative process.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. the task need is paramount. 8. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. For example in the first stages of a diversion. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. the team and the individual.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. Once this is under control. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. obstacles and weather. However. An important point here is that you do not rush.

3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. do something with that information and then act on it. these are known as “mental models”. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. output functions and an internal processing function. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. 9. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. In the same way. we receive information. Flight Crew Training Centre . individuals create internal representations of how systems work.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. but functionally can be quite accurate.

are actually switching from one to the other. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. Perception is incredibly powerful. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). sound and touch. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. but it is not being ignored completely. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. During a busy. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. 9. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. so much that. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . if we miss-perceive an event. This is quite normal.4.4. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. 9. touch. sight. smell and taste.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. 9.4.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. sound. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task.4 Input functions 9. not all of them get through to the processing stage. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this. Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. even though they do not have the loudest voice. but only a limited signal can be conveyed.

and contact 119. Flight Crew Training Centre . unless it is consciously being dealt with. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked.6 Processing Functions 9. 9. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. 9. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. you have as little as 0.72”. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. short-term and long-term. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible.6. the original message has been replayed by the mind.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. descend 180. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. 9. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears. speed 310.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain.6. Another type of memory is sensory memory. expect 150 by xxx. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. which really belongs with the input functions. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. and retained by conscious attention.6. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory.

This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. 9. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. but it is top secret. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. patterns or mini theories. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. However the problem is not with forgetting. but with inability to retrieve or access the information. but becomes irretrievable due to interference. 9. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events.6. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver …. even if the correct data has never been learned. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree.. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. such as ATM (Avoid.6. Trap. manageable by most.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. Flight Crew Training Centre . long after the event. For example. and Mitigate). This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever.

the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986].6. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre .6. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. in particular responses to RTO. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. as they are referred to by the date itself. 9. It can only deal with one issue at a time. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. this is when the action has become a learned routine. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. The events of September 11. however it is a single channel device.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. 9. the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks.

Our interest is human performance. Performance varies with a number of factors. Some of these place physical strains on the body. In this respect. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. This chapter covers the effects of stress. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body. stress and fatigue produce similar results. some a combination of both. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre . sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. 9. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. including workload and circadian rhythms. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both. others mental strains.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10.

Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. acute and chronic. As stress increases further. but too much is exhausting. Too little stress causes complacency. into the optimum performance range (shaded). Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. 10. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. After a certain point. Initially. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate.3. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. performance improves. Critical phases of flight. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. require the crew to be at optimal performance. performance actually peaks. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. tension headaches. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. 10. is exhilarating early in the day. By the same token. largely impossible. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. upset stomach. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short.stimulation. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. consider that arousal refers to stress. such as take-off and landing. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. for example. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. as stress increases. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. In the diagram above. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. from being somewhat dormant.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. and then falls away. and other symptoms. Flight Crew Training Centre . The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. The right side shows over stimulation. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10.

10. and depression. however. constipation. their child's occasional problems at school. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. shorttempered. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. sweaty palms. Often. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. and so on. and tense. it does. Because it is short term. and chest pain. rapid heartbeat. stomach. cold hands or feet. shortness of breath. they tend to be abrupt. They take on too much. acid stomach. anxious. migraines. irritable. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. a deadline they're rushing to meet. They're always in a rush. the three stress emotions. anxiety. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. the loss of an important contract. and it is highly treatable and manageable. If something can go wrong. diarrhea. muscular problems including tension headache. hypertension. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. generally requiring professional help. migraine headaches. heart palpitations. who suffer acute stress frequently. flatulence. and heart disease. and irritable bowel syndrome.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. have too many irons in the fire. back pain. chest pain.3. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. The work becomes a very stressful place for them.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. jaw pain. but always late. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused." Always in a hurry. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. Flight Crew Training Centre . dizziness.

change in job or responsibilities (i. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. and.. Chronic stress kills through suicide. or a mental response such as irritability. promotion to Captain).4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. perhaps. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. tremors. fatal breakdown. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. People wear down to a final. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. violence. hyperventilation. and sometimes. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. sweating. With no hope. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. year after year. almost comfortable. familiar.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. even cancer.e. their patterns of interacting with others. they see their lifestyle. chronic stress is not. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. Generally.3. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. the individual gives up searching for solutions. 10. environmental and cognitive. minds and lives. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. Chronic stress destroys bodies. heart arrhythmia. of dysfunctional families. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. They blame their woes on other people and external events. heart attack. 10.3. stroke. This could come in many different forms. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. More precisely. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it.g. They forget it's there. 10. which exhibits as either a physical response e.3. Flight Crew Training Centre . Frequently. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. It's the stress of poverty.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting.

humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. When workload is high.3. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. but with a dissimilar function. this will be covered later in the chapter. and mismanage priorities.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. 10. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. Two common examples could be heat and noise. especially when it involves an operating pilot. However. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. or in the flight. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation.deck. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. Noise arouses the individual. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing.3. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. either on the apron. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. In the long-term. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. 10. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation.

10. this continues to improve performance until. Immediately after awakening. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). For example. It cannot be stored. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. they may become bogged down in processing the data. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. Response time. On a night flight. the range of optimal performance is reached.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. Depending on the individual. after reaching a peak. This might be due to time since awake. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. Although this can be an effective strategy. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). However. After some time of being awake. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. self. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. Typically. As in the case of stress. workload (physical exertion).5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. or state of awake ness. with an inability to sleep further. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. 10.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. when workload is at an absolute minimum. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. thereby inducing further errors.

sleep is deeper rather than longer. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. 10. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. on the wrong time zone. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. This is known as jet-lag. However. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. which extend the operating day. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not.

with dire consequences in the aviation industry. the Flight Crew Training Centre . Managing stress and sleep effectively. Others prefer mental stimulation. However it is often quoted without really being explained.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. It is another warning flag. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief. 10. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. 10. is the duty of every crewmember. As any medical practitioner will verify.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. 11. when conducted in a structured fashion. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. This chapter will explain what it is. In the modern world. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief. providing awareness and in need of management. 11 Situational Awareness 11. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. In accidents involving human error. this is a potentially dangerous practice.

Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. Navigate. one must understand and think ahead. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. which mitigates part of the problem. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next. systems. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. fuel and time). and Communicate. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. passengers and company). In a well-known phrase: Aviate. 11. crew.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. It is not just enough to notice a situation.” This is quite complex. Flight Crew Training Centre . automation modes. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA). In addition to three levels of SA.

during the take-off and landing phases. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. fixation and confusion. Flight Crew Training Centre . Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity .descent and leads up to the approach. Results from observations at several different airlines. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport.uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. Avoiding error is the initial course of action. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this.focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion .vague or incomplete statements 11. Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. fuel burn. fixation and confusion exist. The trapping phase begins at top-of. if potential problems can be identified in time. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. minimums. After descent initiation. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. A three-stage model “Avoid. Trap.4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. less time is available for noticing and avoiding. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies . there is much to be concerned about here. Prior to descent.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively .information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation .Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity.

attention-sharing. However.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. scan patterns and checklist use.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. Should such a state occur. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up. 11. contingency planning. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. Skills relating to spatial ability. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA].” Flight Crew Training Centre . too fast etc) must be avoided. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands. an undesired aircraft state (i. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. communications. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA]. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. and use the speed brake if necessary. Human error is inevitable. self-monitoring. Finally. task management and prioritization. too high.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. there is very little time left to correct it. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at.e. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. 11. 11. so that we can take action to improve it. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. unstabilized approach. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around.

dispatch. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. Project ahead and consider contingencies. etc. Speak up when you see SA breaking down.don't fixate. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. ATC. Rotate attention from plane to path to people . Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. maintenance. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Flight Crew Training Centre . Focus on the details and scan the big picture.

(1995). (1991).. & Merritt. Auckland. Indonesia.L. 1997. T. Sydney. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. A. A. P. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference. & Sherman. A.L.L. (1996).S. 1997.L. Guangzhou. J. New Zealand. Colombus. 1995. R. & Helmreich.L.A. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2.. May 1995. 1996. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Ooi. (1996. November 26-28.R.C. & Helmreich.R.J. 8-12. Flight Crew Training Centre . Wilhelm.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich.L. & Merritt. R. November 20-24.. 1991. Colombus. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4). University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project.. A.C. April. R. CRM: I hate it. Merritt.C.C. (1997). A. April 23-25. Merritt. April). R.. W.C..C. A. (1995).C.. Merritt. (1995).. Cultural influences on flight operations. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar. (1997). Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.. stress. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. Columbus: Ohio State University. Taggart. Helmreich.. Cultural issues in crew resource management. Merritt. Merritt. April-May..C.0 (International) & 2. & Helmreich. 1996.C. Ohio. Helmreich. 1. April-May. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. P. CRM Advocate. A. Merritt.. Ohio. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. what is it? (Error. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. A. (1996).. Jakarta. (1996). R.. R..

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