Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

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CRM Manual

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Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

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5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

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9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

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CRM Manual

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1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course. 2 Modules Content 2. and a series of role-plays.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes. assisted by the facilitator. 1. 1.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre .1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type.2. leadership and team management. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking. and team management skills. The candidates will conduct their own debrief. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor.2. This will be delivered during the ground school phase. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC).2.

7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.4 Leadership.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.

MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. 3. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. in part. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. and with other humans. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. Despite improvements in technology. home. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. to the design of a checklist. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. 3.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. HPL. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. This includes everything from the design of a tool.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. knowledge.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. skill and attitude. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. This is due. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. environment. design and engine reliability. to the brightness required of an electronic display. Flight Crew Training Centre .

5 Human Error Reason (Reason. 1990. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. In particular this means designing for error. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. especially on a long. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback. 3.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. J. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. 3. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance. 3. Flight Crew Training Centre . Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. Most of these errors are small. encompassing the best of previous generations.

Occasionally. In isolation it is insignificant. it snaps. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. Some were latent failures. 3. Others were management failures. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. the last line of defense. the accident does not occur. occurring years ago on the drawing board. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. Flight Crew Training Centre . Reason used Swiss cheese. For example. but placed together they form a robust wall. Without assigning a principle cause. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. If they can break the chain. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. the holes will line up. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. Rather. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. It was but it is not an isolated case. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. of which the operating crew are the last link. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years.

the start of an accident chain. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising. safe operations are the norm.e.e. 3. (Errors made by other people ATC.) Threats . Management. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. at any level. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i. Flight Crew Training Centre . but as long as the holes do not line up. Regulators etc are threats to the crew. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors.External influences Errors . external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. Engineering. and it is up to us to break the chain. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. the accident chain is broken. Threats and errors are unavoidable. 3. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. because despite the risks.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. performing a checklist from memory. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard.e.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one.

However.12 Avoid. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. 3. 3. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist. However in all cases. Trap. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. nine common factors existed. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. such as an unstabilized approach. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. These have been termed warning flags. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors.

collectivism.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. 4. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. 4. versus its opposite. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre . Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. 4. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. (which are predominantly male). regarding all societies in the world. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. professional and safety culture.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. cohesive in-groups. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. Power Distance. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. Uncertainty Avoidance. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. not to the state. such as organizational. often extended families (with uncles. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. Again. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. On the collectivist side. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups.

It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. Power and inequality. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. uncertainty accepting cultures.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. The opposite type. and motivated by inner nervous energy.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. Unstructured situations are novel. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. not from above. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. they try to have as few rules as possible. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . of course. It suggests that the followers. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs.   4. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck. and different from usual. safety and security measures. but some are more unequal than others. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. unknown. but defined from below. This represents inequality (more versus less). surprising.

This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent. navigators and flight engineers. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. there can be anomalies where a professional group. including radio operators. not what we thought we told them to do. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. by a machine function. either physical or cognitive. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. Furthermore. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. Flight Crew Training Centre . though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. In particular. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. such as pilots. (Norbert Wiener) 5.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. 5. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. or an organizational culture can prevail. against a conflicting trend.

engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. Flight Crew Training Centre .” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. 5. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. In particular. The latter will not be discussed here. not to mention the human (social) effects.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. accuracy and reduced costs. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job. In practice this does not always happen.

easy to re program. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. slow. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. Good quantitative assessment. 1986. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. P. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. narrow range.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. M. Poor program. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. accurate.” (Good. fast.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. Whiteside. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. Rather. Poor spoken material. T. inaccurate. difficult to re. J & George.Good inductive. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. detecting messages in noise. Spine.

The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. so the overall workload is drastically reduced. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. – This is a high workload situation. Although in some systems. resulting in further reduced workload. according to any change in tactical goal. In the aviation scenario. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. Overall result is reduced workload. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. with different cognitive skills required. vigilance and complacency may become issues. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre .    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. 5.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. There is a reduced cognitive load. an area of weakness in interface design.

as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. For this new knowledge and skills are required. 5.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. will disengage or will revert to another mode. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. 5. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. communications and monitoring. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. Flight Crew Training Centre . The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. In particular. Cali. Unfortunately. Habsheim etc). The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996.

Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. Consequently. A lack of. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre .9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating. 5. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . but not replace. 5. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. easy-to-use systems. or subtle.

An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. which is acquired. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. We must guard against the threats posed by automation. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. 6. Through the use of example and persuasion. 5. In the flight-deck environment. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. which is assigned. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. the Captain is the designated “leader”. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. Humans are capable of devising strategies. and authority. Flight Crew Training Centre .12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. the leader becomes a means of change and influence. There is a fundamental difference between leadership.

6. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. from a practical view point the Captain has a right. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. 6. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. to decide on a course of action. In fact. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. Personal qualities required are those of courage. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. the team and the individual.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. In addition. and a duty. and be able to maintain team morale. The leader must balance the demands of the task. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. Action. will power. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. and Manage Decision-Making Model. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. initiative and integrity. with use of the Assess.

experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck.5 Task To achieve the task. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate. With a wide variety of background. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . suggestions Giving opinions.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6.8.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. manage and direct the flow of information.

8. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6.8.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making. In between. Flight Crew Training Centre .

but not if things are going wrong. For most effective leadership. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. Together. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. a different style is adopted according to the situation.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. using information available at that time. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    .

along with good communication skills.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. 6. passive/critical. and followership is a skill in its own right. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. cited by Kern. since there are a number of nationalities. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. Flight Crew Training Centre . and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. supportive followers are as important as a leader.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. 6. While this might be an individual’s view. T. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. R & Curphy. For successful team performance. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. Followers are a vital part of a team. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. Ginnett. 1988. active/uncritical and active/critical. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. The optimum gradient. which may differ between individuals and national cultures. 1997. The role is much like that of a chairman. Hughes. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. G2.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. RE. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. G (Eds). Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. R.

Sheep are akin to human automatons. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. unless identified and brought “back onside”. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew. The only way to ensure this is. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. because they actively support without thinking. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. Flight Crew Training Centre . Making a good first impression is vital. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. Survivors are the Company men. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. 6.

Barriers to communication are also identified. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. rank could impinge on communication as well. 7.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. the words used tend to be very important. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. Between a Captain and a First Officer. degrading language. While modern flight decks are well insulated. and very rarely are raised voices heard. So. However. The actual words used accounting for about 10%. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. in communication within a crew. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. This chapter describes the principles of communication. This can be verbal or non-verbal information.e. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. insulting. culture plays a large part. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. In the case of Jade Cargo International. noise is still a factor. along with methods of eliminating them. as much as 90%. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre . There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit. 7.

While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. Flight Crew Training Centre .4. whether on the needs of others or your own. the focus. two aspects of the message content will be considered.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. supportive and submissive. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. 7. aggressive. and the manner. assertive. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. 7. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down.

With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. Therefore. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. In a non-critical situation. 7. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. However this may change depending on circumstances. such as during training or non-normal situations.4. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated. not recommended but part of life. 7. However. Referring to the matrix.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. They put themselves down. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role.4. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. Flight Crew Training Centre . the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language. are avoided at all times. and will likely isolate the aggressor.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7.downs. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such. It is unlikely to motivate the team.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves. This is a “no-go” area for us at work.4.

In other words.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. If someone is submissive. their needs will be overlooked. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. be supportive. Each individual and in fact every team. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. Dealing with aggression is not easy. An assertive response might also be effective. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. it is likely communication that will break down completely. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. will find a style that works well for them. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. Flight Crew Training Centre . Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. If the other person is submissive. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time.

Animosities can develop. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. High respect for mutual support. trust and support will deteriorate. actions and situations. There is more than one way to do anything. which will lead to better results. collaborate or compromise. the stage is set for potential conflict. Unwillingness to work through issues. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. You must give to get. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. Flight Crew Training Centre . Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. words. No one makes major concessions. and stretch their imagination. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. No one person or idea is perfect. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis.favorable versus unfavorable. If conflict does occur.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. the results may be positive or negative. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. test their position and beliefs. communications may breakdown. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. When sides are chosen. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. Differences in perceiving motives. objectives and values.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. Differing expectations of outcomes . When conflict is dealt with constructively. productivity will diminish or stop. Assertive and cooperative. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. 7. and the damage is usually difficult to repair.

Conflict Resolution. or good or bad outcomes. It is the end result that we are interested in. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. rather that a model is used. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. Flight Crew Training Centre . Advocacy. 8. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making. It is not which model that is used that is important. once in a while. either for routine or novel situations.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. Action and Critique. However. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience.

    Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided.2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP). Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. further modification to the RMM was required. 8. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. Flight Crew Training Centre . The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following. Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions. as well as the appropriate CRM principals. 8.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However.2.2.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”.

Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. Whenever a problem is encountered at work. This does not always produce the best solution. By staying below the line as much as possible. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] .Information seeking. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. there are two typical responses. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. seeking more information about it. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. the problem and the solution.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution. its implications and how much time is available. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation. to make sure we fully understand the implications. Flight Crew Training Centre .

EFIS architecture. but will probably be accepted. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. immediate action is required. this limits the opportunity for assessment. available and required. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). A fast decision may not always be the correct one.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. losing vital feedback. Time can be considered as. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. may at best get a query in response. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE].   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. is a valuable problem. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. In the latter case.  Time Critical situations require immediate action.solving resource. In all cases. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. 8. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). On the other hand. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. others may be less time dependent. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . Once a time frame has been established. using a traffic light system. when there is little available. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. critical. A solution in the form of a question however. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. Open questions allow more options.

Flight Crew Training Centre . propose. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. prioritize. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. test understanding. seek information. 8. NAVIGATE. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. Good teamwork needs good communication. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. the Captain must manage. test understanding propose. prioritize. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. test understanding.

all the circles are the same size. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions. it is time to manage. An important point here is that you do not rush.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. It is a circular or iterative process. the team and the individual. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. However.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. Flight Crew Training Centre . obstacles and weather.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. including the navigation away from terrain. When the process is complete. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. 8. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. For example in the first stages of a diversion. Once this is under control. Once the Group is informed and placated. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. the task need is paramount. 8.

3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. Flight Crew Training Centre . A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. we receive information. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. do something with that information and then act on it. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. these are known as “mental models”. 9.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9. individuals create internal representations of how systems work. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. output functions and an internal processing function. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. In the same way. but functionally can be quite accurate.

This is quite normal. are actually switching from one to the other. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task. 9. During a busy. touch.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. not all of them get through to the processing stage. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it.4. even though they do not have the loudest voice. but it is not being ignored completely. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . sight. if we miss-perceive an event.4. 9. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. sound. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. 9.4 Input functions 9. so much that.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). Perception is incredibly powerful. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise. smell and taste.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. but only a limited signal can be conveyed. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. sound and touch. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this.4.

New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. Flight Crew Training Centre . The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. and retained by conscious attention.72”.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost. descend 180. you have as little as 0.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. which really belongs with the input functions.6.6 Processing Functions 9. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds. 9. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory. 9.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain.6. short-term and long-term. expect 150 by xxx. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. Another type of memory is sensory memory. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. and contact 119. speed 310. 9. the original message has been replayed by the mind.6. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. unless it is consciously being dealt with. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285.

and Mitigate). Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever.6. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. such as ATM (Avoid. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. For example.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. Flight Crew Training Centre . patterns or mini theories. Trap. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. even if the correct data has never been learned. but with inability to retrieve or access the information. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. However the problem is not with forgetting. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines. 9. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver ….4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. 9. long after the event. manageable by most. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. but it is top secret. but becomes irretrievable due to interference..6.

Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. It can only deal with one issue at a time. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially.6. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. in particular responses to RTO. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. however it is a single channel device. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance.6. this is when the action has become a learned routine. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. 9. 9. The events of September 11. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre . as they are referred to by the date itself. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000].

1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body. others mental strains. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. Our interest is human performance. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. including workload and circadian rhythms. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. 9.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. Performance varies with a number of factors. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre . In this respect. stress and fatigue produce similar results.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. some a combination of both. Some of these place physical strains on the body. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both. This chapter covers the effects of stress.

It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. By the same token. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise.3. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate. 10. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. acute and chronic. but too much is exhausting. as stress increases. from being somewhat dormant. Critical phases of flight. largely impossible. Flight Crew Training Centre . Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. consider that arousal refers to stress. In the diagram above. After a certain point. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. and then falls away. upset stomach. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. tension headaches. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. such as take-off and landing. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. for example. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. is exhilarating early in the day. require the crew to be at optimal performance. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. Too little stress causes complacency. and other symptoms. into the optimum performance range (shaded).Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. performance actually peaks. 10. As stress increases further. Initially. performance improves. The right side shows over stimulation. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter.stimulation. A fast run down a challenging ski slope.

Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. a deadline they're rushing to meet. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. the three stress emotions.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. Flight Crew Training Centre . muscular problems including tension headache. dizziness. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. have too many irons in the fire. stomach. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. their child's occasional problems at school. Often. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. and tense. and chest pain. and irritable bowel syndrome. constipation. Because it is short term. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. acid stomach. If something can go wrong. They take on too much. who suffer acute stress frequently. anxious. flatulence. jaw pain. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. irritable. they tend to be abrupt. but always late. however. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. sweaty palms. diarrhea. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. shorttempered. They're always in a rush. and depression. it does. The work becomes a very stressful place for them.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. heart palpitations. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. and so on." Always in a hurry. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. and heart disease. anxiety. the loss of an important contract. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. 10.3. shortness of breath. rapid heartbeat. generally requiring professional help. and it is highly treatable and manageable. migraines. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. migraine headaches. back pain. cold hands or feet. chest pain. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. hypertension. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender.

chronic stress is not. and sometimes. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors.3. sweating. Frequently. promotion to Captain). tremors. perhaps. the individual gives up searching for solutions. Generally.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. minds and lives. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. familiar. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. even cancer. They forget it's there. fatal breakdown. Flight Crew Training Centre . People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. which exhibits as either a physical response e. 10. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition.3. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. of dysfunctional families. or a mental response such as irritability. year after year. This could come in many different forms. stroke. More precisely. 10. they see their lifestyle. Chronic stress destroys bodies. It's the stress of poverty. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. They blame their woes on other people and external events.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. With no hope. Chronic stress kills through suicide. violence.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. heart attack. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. People wear down to a final.e. heart arrhythmia. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress.g. their patterns of interacting with others. change in job or responsibilities (i.3.. environmental and cognitive. and. hyperventilation. almost comfortable. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. 10. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it.

High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident. 10. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information.3. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors.3. and mismanage priorities. However. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. Noise arouses the individual. 10. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. In the long-term. especially when it involves an operating pilot. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. Two common examples could be heat and noise. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. When workload is high. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. but with a dissimilar function. this will be covered later in the chapter. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. either on the apron.deck. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. or in the flight. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”.

when workload is at an absolute minimum. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. after reaching a peak. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. This might be due to time since awake. As in the case of stress. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. with an inability to sleep further. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. After some time of being awake. 10. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. this continues to improve performance until. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . It cannot be stored. thereby inducing further errors.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. Depending on the individual. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. 10. Typically. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. For example. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. they may become bogged down in processing the data. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. Although this can be an effective strategy. or state of awake ness. Immediately after awakening. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. Response time. On a night flight. the range of optimal performance is reached. workload (physical exertion). However. self. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM).

which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. 10. sleep is deeper rather than longer. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. However. which extend the operating day. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. This is known as jet-lag. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. on the wrong time zone. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary.

Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. In the modern world. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. 10. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. This chapter will explain what it is. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. It is another warning flag. Others prefer mental stimulation.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. In accidents involving human error. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief. the Flight Crew Training Centre . this is a potentially dangerous practice. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. is the duty of every crewmember. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. 11 Situational Awareness 11. 10. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. As any medical practitioner will verify. However it is often quoted without really being explained. providing awareness and in need of management. 11. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. Managing stress and sleep effectively. with dire consequences in the aviation industry. when conducted in a structured fashion. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports.

why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. It is not just enough to notice a situation. systems. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. crew. which mitigates part of the problem. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. automation modes. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next.” This is quite complex. In addition to three levels of SA. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. In a well-known phrase: Aviate. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. and Communicate.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. Flight Crew Training Centre .3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. passengers and company). one must understand and think ahead. Navigate. fuel and time). 11. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA).

during the take-off and landing phases. identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase.descent and leads up to the approach. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies . These may indicate that an error chain is in progress.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation .Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity.uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA. Prior to descent. Trap. fixation and confusion exist. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. less time is available for noticing and avoiding. fuel burn. Avoiding error is the initial course of action.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively . Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming. After descent initiation. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport. Flight Crew Training Centre . The trapping phase begins at top-of. if potential problems can be identified in time. A three-stage model “Avoid. Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. minimums.focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion .4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. there is much to be concerned about here. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity .vague or incomplete statements 11. Results from observations at several different airlines. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity. fixation and confusion.

Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. too fast etc) must be avoided.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology.e. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. Human error is inevitable.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. so that we can take action to improve it.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. self-monitoring. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA]. 11. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA].” Flight Crew Training Centre . if mitigation seems to be the key factor. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent. However. 11. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. Skills relating to spatial ability. contingency planning. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. and use the speed brake if necessary. an undesired aircraft state (i. 11. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. unstabilized approach. too high. attention-sharing. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. task management and prioritization. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. scan patterns and checklist use. Should such a state occur. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). Finally. there is very little time left to correct it. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. communications.

but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. ATC. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. Flight Crew Training Centre .8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. dispatch. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. Focus on the details and scan the big picture. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. Rotate attention from plane to path to people . Project ahead and consider contingencies.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. maintenance. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. Speak up when you see SA breaking down. etc.don't fixate.

. A. 8-12. CRM: I hate it. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar. Taggart. April).. A. Ooi. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar. April-May. 1997. (1995).L. 1996.L. A. (1996). & Helmreich. & Helmreich.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. (1997).L. November 20-24. 1991.. & Merritt. Ohio.R. Flight Crew Training Centre . W. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project. Wilhelm..S.. New Zealand.A. A.. (1997). Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4). 1997.. stress.. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium.0 (International) & 2. April 23-25. A.C. 1. & Merritt. R. 1996. J. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture. 1995. Merritt.C.C. R. & Sherman. P. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. April-May. April. Columbus: Ohio State University. Merritt. Merritt. A. Merritt. Jakarta. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries. Indonesia.L.C. & Helmreich. R. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium.J. Cultural issues in crew resource management. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. (1995). Merritt. May 1995..C.. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference.. Cultural influences on flight operations. R. Ohio. Merritt.R.. what is it? (Error. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. (1995).C. A. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. Colombus.C. (1991).. T. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.L.. Sydney.L. A. R. Auckland. R. Helmreich. (1996). Helmreich. (1996. Colombus.C.C. November 26-28. Guangzhou. (1996). P. CRM Advocate..

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