Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

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Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

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5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

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9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

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1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

2 Modules Content 2. This will be delivered during the ground school phase. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process. and a series of role-plays.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type.2. and team management skills.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). The candidates will conduct their own debrief.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course. leadership and team management. 1. assisted by the facilitator.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor. 1.2. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools.2.

4 Leadership.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.

which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. and with other humans. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. This is due. knowledge. to the brightness required of an electronic display. environment. in part. home. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. to the design of a checklist.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. 3. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. skill and attitude. This includes everything from the design of a tool. Flight Crew Training Centre . 3. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. HPL. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. design and engine reliability.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. Despite improvements in technology. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories.

In particular this means designing for error.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management. encompassing the best of previous generations. 3.5 Human Error Reason (Reason. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. especially on a long. 1990. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. Flight Crew Training Centre . Most of these errors are small. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance. J. 3.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. 3. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills.

3. but placed together they form a robust wall. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. Reason used Swiss cheese. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. of which the operating crew are the last link. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. In isolation it is insignificant. For example. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. Some were latent failures. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. Rather. it snaps. If they can break the chain.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. It was but it is not an isolated case. Flight Crew Training Centre . that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. the holes will line up. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. the accident does not occur. occurring years ago on the drawing board. Others were management failures. Without assigning a principle cause. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. the last line of defense. Occasionally. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation.

3.e. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard. Regulators etc are threats to the crew. but as long as the holes do not line up. the accident chain is broken.) Threats . Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. at any level.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising. and it is up to us to break the chain.e. Management. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. because despite the risks. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i.External influences Errors . There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. (Errors made by other people ATC. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events. safe operations are the norm. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. 3. Threats and errors are unavoidable. performing a checklist from memory.e. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. Flight Crew Training Centre . external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. Engineering. the start of an accident chain.

Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. These have been termed warning flags. such as an unstabilized approach. 3. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities.12 Avoid. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. However. 3. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . Trap. nine common factors existed. However in all cases. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors.

This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. cohesive in-groups. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. 4. 4. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. often extended families (with uncles. such as organizational.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. 4.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. regarding all societies in the world. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. Power Distance. professional and safety culture. On the collectivist side.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. Uncertainty Avoidance. (which are predominantly male). not to the state. versus its opposite. Again. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. collectivism. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre .

Unstructured situations are novel. but some are more unequal than others.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. uncertainty accepting cultures. The opposite type. surprising. they try to have as few rules as possible. This represents inequality (more versus less). “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. and different from usual. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. of course. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. safety and security measures. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. but defined from below. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth.   4. not from above. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. and motivated by inner nervous energy. Power and inequality. unknown. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. It suggests that the followers. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality.

1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. either physical or cognitive. navigators and flight engineers. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. there can be anomalies where a professional group. Furthermore. Flight Crew Training Centre . by a machine function. including radio operators.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. not what we thought we told them to do. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. or an organizational culture can prevail. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. (Norbert Wiener) 5.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. 5. against a conflicting trend. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. In particular. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. such as pilots.

In particular. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. not to mention the human (social) effects. 5. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. In practice this does not always happen. Flight Crew Training Centre . accuracy and reduced costs. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. The latter will not be discussed here.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job.

Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. fast. Good quantitative assessment. slow. 1986. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. detecting messages in noise.” (Good. P. narrow range. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. difficult to re. easy to re program. accurate. M. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. Poor spoken material. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. inaccurate.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. T. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. Poor program.Good inductive. J & George. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. Whiteside. Spine. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. Rather.

– This is a high workload situation. with different cognitive skills required. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. an area of weakness in interface design. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. vigilance and complacency may become issues. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. Although in some systems. resulting in further reduced workload. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . Overall result is reduced workload. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. 5. according to any change in tactical goal. There is a reduced cognitive load. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. In the aviation scenario. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. so the overall workload is drastically reduced.

it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. will disengage or will revert to another mode. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. Cali. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. Habsheim etc). The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. In particular. 5. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. communications and monitoring. 5. Flight Crew Training Centre . For this new knowledge and skills are required. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. Unfortunately.

These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating. A lack of. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre .Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear. or subtle.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. but not replace. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. Consequently.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive. 5. 5.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. easy-to-use systems. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change.

Humans are capable of devising strategies. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. 5. Flight Crew Training Centre . We must guard against the threats posed by automation.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. which is acquired. and authority. the Captain is the designated “leader”. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. 6. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. which is assigned. Through the use of example and persuasion. the leader becomes a means of change and influence. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. In the flight-deck environment. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations.

will power. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. from a practical view point the Captain has a right.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. Action. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. and Manage Decision-Making Model. 6. to decide on a course of action. 6. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. Personal qualities required are those of courage. with use of the Assess. and be able to maintain team morale. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. In fact. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. The leader must balance the demands of the task. the team and the individual. and a duty. In addition. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. initiative and integrity. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified.

suggestions Giving opinions.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6.5 Task To achieve the task.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . manage and direct the flow of information.8. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs. With a wide variety of background.

there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6. Flight Crew Training Centre . In between.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader.8. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making.8.8.

For most effective leadership. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. a different style is adopted according to the situation. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. Together. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. but not if things are going wrong. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. using information available at that time.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone.

A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. and followership is a skill in its own right. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. R & Curphy. R. supportive followers are as important as a leader. The optimum gradient. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. Ginnett. Followers are a vital part of a team. 6. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. Flight Crew Training Centre . G (Eds). avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. 6. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. since there are a number of nationalities. T. While this might be an individual’s view. active/uncritical and active/critical. For successful team performance.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. 1997. along with good communication skills. The role is much like that of a chairman. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. 1988. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. passive/critical. G2. RE. cited by Kern. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. Hughes. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. which may differ between individuals and national cultures. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions.

unless identified and brought “back onside”. Flight Crew Training Centre . They are also the foundation for teambuilding. Survivors are the Company men. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. Sheep are akin to human automatons. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. The only way to ensure this is. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. 6.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. Making a good first impression is vital. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. because they actively support without thinking. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew.

the words used tend to be very important.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. and very rarely are raised voices heard. 7. insulting. culture plays a large part. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre . degrading language. The actual words used accounting for about 10%.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. Between a Captain and a First Officer. In the case of Jade Cargo International. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. as much as 90%. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. So. While modern flight decks are well insulated. noise is still a factor. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. along with methods of eliminating them. Barriers to communication are also identified. However.e. 7. in communication within a crew. rank could impinge on communication as well.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. This can be verbal or non-verbal information. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck. This chapter describes the principles of communication. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language.

4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. supportive and submissive. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced. aggressive. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others.4. the focus. assertive. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. Flight Crew Training Centre . Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. 7. whether on the needs of others or your own. and the manner. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. 7. two aspects of the message content will be considered.

They put themselves down. In a non-critical situation. Referring to the matrix.4. not recommended but part of life. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves.downs. are avoided at all times.4. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. However this may change depending on circumstances. Flight Crew Training Centre . The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language.4. and will likely isolate the aggressor. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. However. 7.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. Therefore.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. It is unlikely to motivate the team. such as during training or non-normal situations.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. 7. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression.

Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. be supportive. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. In other words. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. Dealing with aggression is not easy. will find a style that works well for them. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. An assertive response might also be effective. Flight Crew Training Centre . their needs will be overlooked. If someone is submissive. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. it is likely communication that will break down completely. If the other person is submissive. Each individual and in fact every team.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time.

When conflict is dealt with constructively. High respect for mutual support. the stage is set for potential conflict. 7. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. Flight Crew Training Centre . productivity will diminish or stop. which will lead to better results. Animosities can develop. If conflict does occur. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. No one person or idea is perfect. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. Differences in perceiving motives.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. actions and situations. the results may be positive or negative. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. There is more than one way to do anything. collaborate or compromise. and stretch their imagination.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. communications may breakdown. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. Unwillingness to work through issues. No one makes major concessions. Assertive and cooperative. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. depending on how those involved choose to approach it.favorable versus unfavorable. test their position and beliefs. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. words. Differing expectations of outcomes . When sides are chosen. You must give to get.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. trust and support will deteriorate. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. objectives and values.

rather that a model is used. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. or good or bad outcomes. Conflict Resolution. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. once in a while. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. Action and Critique. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. However. either for routine or novel situations. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. It is not which model that is used that is important. Advocacy. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. 8. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. It is the end result that we are interested in. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter.

Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided.2. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”. further modification to the RMM was required. as well as the appropriate CRM principals. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International. 8. 8. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied.2. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”. Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. Flight Crew Training Centre . Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA.2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP).

Flight Crew Training Centre . Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. Whenever a problem is encountered at work. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. its implications and how much time is available. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . seeking more information about it. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation.Information seeking. This does not always produce the best solution.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. the problem and the solution. The situation can be considered in two separate domains.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. to make sure we fully understand the implications. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. By staying below the line as much as possible. there are two typical responses. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution.

might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. when there is little available. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. immediate action is required. others may be less time dependent. using a traffic light system. this limits the opportunity for assessment.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. Open questions allow more options.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. 8. A fast decision may not always be the correct one. In the latter case. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. On the other hand. EFIS architecture. Once a time frame has been established. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. but will probably be accepted. available and required. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. is a valuable problem. all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?].  Time Critical situations require immediate action. Time can be considered as. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. critical.solving resource. A solution in the form of a question however. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. losing vital feedback. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. In all cases.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. may at best get a query in response. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). it is possible to prioritize accordingly. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM).

This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. Good teamwork needs good communication. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. prioritize. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. Flight Crew Training Centre . GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. NAVIGATE. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. test understanding. seek information. 8. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. test understanding. propose. test understanding propose. prioritize. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. the Captain must manage. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK.

Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. all the circles are the same size.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. Flight Crew Training Centre . When the process is complete. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. An important point here is that you do not rush. it is time to manage. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. obstacles and weather. However. Once the Group is informed and placated. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. including the navigation away from terrain.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. It is a circular or iterative process. the team and the individual. the task need is paramount. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. 8. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. For example in the first stages of a diversion. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. Once this is under control. 8.

The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. Flight Crew Training Centre . Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. 9. output functions and an internal processing function. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. these are known as “mental models”. we receive information. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. but functionally can be quite accurate.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. do something with that information and then act on it. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. In the same way. individuals create internal representations of how systems work.

Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. 9. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task. so much that. sight. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this.4. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. not all of them get through to the processing stage. are actually switching from one to the other.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time.4 Input functions 9. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. 9. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. if we miss-perceive an event. sound. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals.4. This is quite normal.4. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). but only a limited signal can be conveyed. Perception is incredibly powerful. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. During a busy. sound and touch. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. 9. touch. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us. smell and taste. but it is not being ignored completely. even though they do not have the loudest voice.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9.

and contact 119. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. descend 180. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. unless it is consciously being dealt with.6.6. which really belongs with the input functions. Sensory memory data is lost by decay.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem.6 Processing Functions 9. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. and retained by conscious attention. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. 9. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. the original message has been replayed by the mind. 9. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. expect 150 by xxx. 9.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. short-term and long-term.72”. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears. speed 310. you have as little as 0. Flight Crew Training Centre .6. Another type of memory is sensory memory.

if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. 9. and Mitigate). Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. For example.. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. even if the correct data has never been learned.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. such as ATM (Avoid. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. manageable by most. but with inability to retrieve or access the information. 9. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree.6. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines. Trap. but it is top secret.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. but becomes irretrievable due to interference. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver …. However the problem is not with forgetting. patterns or mini theories.6. Flight Crew Training Centre . long after the event.

or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre .6.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986].6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. this is when the action has become a learned routine. however it is a single channel device. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. 9. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”.6. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. in particular responses to RTO. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. as they are referred to by the date itself. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. The events of September 11. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category. It can only deal with one issue at a time. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. 9. 2001 are slightly different in this respect.

9.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. including workload and circadian rhythms. This chapter covers the effects of stress.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. In this respect.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body. some a combination of both. stress and fatigue produce similar results. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. Some of these place physical strains on the body. others mental strains. Our interest is human performance. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. Performance varies with a number of factors. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre .

The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. for example. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. consider that arousal refers to stress. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. tension headaches. Too little stress causes complacency. Flight Crew Training Centre . That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing.3. largely impossible. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. As stress increases further. such as take-off and landing.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve. and then falls away. The right side shows over stimulation. upset stomach.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. as stress increases. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. performance actually peaks. After a certain point. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate. Critical phases of flight.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. is exhilarating early in the day. and other symptoms. performance improves. Initially. 10. from being somewhat dormant.stimulation. into the optimum performance range (shaded). By the same token. 10. acute and chronic. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. In the diagram above. require the crew to be at optimal performance. but too much is exhausting. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human.

muscular problems including tension headache. however. diarrhea. If something can go wrong. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. generally requiring professional help. flatulence. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. hypertension. anxiety. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. and it is highly treatable and manageable. 10. heart palpitations. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. a deadline they're rushing to meet. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. and chest pain. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. They're always in a rush. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. anxious. acid stomach. they tend to be abrupt. constipation. dizziness. shortness of breath. it does. The work becomes a very stressful place for them. and heart disease.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life." Always in a hurry. Flight Crew Training Centre . the three stress emotions. rapid heartbeat. Because it is short term. and tense.3. and so on. and irritable bowel syndrome. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. chest pain. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. shorttempered. Often. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. and depression. migraines. cold hands or feet. migraine headaches. have too many irons in the fire. irritable. but always late. jaw pain. sweaty palms. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. They take on too much. stomach. their child's occasional problems at school. back pain.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. who suffer acute stress frequently. the loss of an important contract.

It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. It's the stress of poverty. They forget it's there. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. change in job or responsibilities (i. 10. or a mental response such as irritability. and. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. promotion to Captain). The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. violence. and sometimes.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. This could come in many different forms. hyperventilation. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. Chronic stress kills through suicide. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors.3. sweating.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. the individual gives up searching for solutions. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. They blame their woes on other people and external events. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. environmental and cognitive. the illness or death of a close relative or friend.3. they see their lifestyle. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. even cancer. People wear down to a final. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. heart arrhythmia. More precisely. almost comfortable. heart attack. familiar. their patterns of interacting with others. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. 10.3. Chronic stress destroys bodies. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. which exhibits as either a physical response e. 10. Generally. Flight Crew Training Centre ..g. minds and lives. of dysfunctional families. fatal breakdown. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. year after year. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. tremors. Frequently. With no hope. stroke. perhaps.e. chronic stress is not.

Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. When workload is high. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. this will be covered later in the chapter. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. but with a dissimilar function.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. Two common examples could be heat and noise. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. and mismanage priorities. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. either on the apron. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since.3. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. However. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. especially when it involves an operating pilot.deck. or in the flight. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. 10. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. In the long-term. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. Noise arouses the individual. 10.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG.3. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine).

workload (physical exertion). 10. After some time of being awake. Although this can be an effective strategy. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. they may become bogged down in processing the data. On a night flight. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. Response time. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. or state of awake ness. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. Typically. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. Immediately after awakening. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. with an inability to sleep further. thereby inducing further errors. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. For example. This might be due to time since awake. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. It cannot be stored.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. However. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. As in the case of stress. when workload is at an absolute minimum. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. the range of optimal performance is reached. after reaching a peak. self. this continues to improve performance until. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. Depending on the individual. 10. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM).

10. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. sleep is deeper rather than longer. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. This is known as jet-lag. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. which extend the operating day. on the wrong time zone. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. However. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms.

1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief. 11 Situational Awareness 11. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. As any medical practitioner will verify. the Flight Crew Training Centre . Others prefer mental stimulation. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports. with dire consequences in the aviation industry. 11. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role. However it is often quoted without really being explained. In the modern world. This chapter will explain what it is. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. is the duty of every crewmember. when conducted in a structured fashion.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. 10. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. this is a potentially dangerous practice. In accidents involving human error. providing awareness and in need of management. 10. It is another warning flag. Managing stress and sleep effectively.

11. systems. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. one must understand and think ahead. Navigate. fuel and time). The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next. passengers and company). the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. Flight Crew Training Centre . but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. crew. and Communicate. It is not just enough to notice a situation. In addition to three levels of SA. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. automation modes. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required.” This is quite complex. which mitigates part of the problem. In a well-known phrase: Aviate. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA).

Avoiding error is the initial course of action.Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity. Prior to descent.vague or incomplete statements 11. less time is available for noticing and avoiding. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. during the take-off and landing phases. there is much to be concerned about here. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation . Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming. fixation and confusion. fixation and confusion exist. minimums. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. Flight Crew Training Centre . Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity .descent and leads up to the approach. Trap.focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this. identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. if potential problems can be identified in time. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. After descent initiation. fuel burn.4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. The trapping phase begins at top-of. Results from observations at several different airlines. A three-stage model “Avoid. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport.uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies . Mitigate” is one solution to the problem.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively .

and use the speed brake if necessary. attention-sharing. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. self-monitoring. too high. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands. However. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. Skills relating to spatial ability. 11. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA]. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. 11. task management and prioritization. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. so that we can take action to improve it.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. Should such a state occur.e. 11. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. Human error is inevitable. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA].” Flight Crew Training Centre . identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. unstabilized approach. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). there is very little time left to correct it. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. contingency planning. scan patterns and checklist use. an undesired aircraft state (i. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. communications. too fast etc) must be avoided. Finally.

Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. Speak up when you see SA breaking down. Rotate attention from plane to path to people .don't fixate.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. dispatch. Focus on the details and scan the big picture. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. Project ahead and consider contingencies. maintenance. ATC. Flight Crew Training Centre . etc.

Columbus: Ohio State University. R. 1996.C. Merritt. A. A. (1996.. November 26-28. Guangzhou. A.L. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Flight Crew Training Centre . CRM Advocate. A. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. A. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Colombus. Merritt.. Wilhelm. Cultural influences on flight operations. April.C. November 20-24. P.A. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference.. R. & Merritt. 1991.L. what is it? (Error.C. Taggart.J. A. 1.0 (International) & 2. May 1995. Ooi. April 23-25.C. Ohio. R.L. 1997. & Helmreich. Colombus. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project. Indonesia.R. (1997). R.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. 1997. (1995). (1996). Cultural issues in crew resource management... (1995). Merritt. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.C. (1991). 8-12. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries. Ohio.C.. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture.. J. W. April-May. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar. (1996). R.. & Sherman. P.C.L.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4)... CRM: I hate it. Auckland. Helmreich. Merritt. (1995). Merritt. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. (1997). Sydney. T. & Merritt.. 1995.C... 1996. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar.L. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. & Helmreich. A. R.R. Jakarta.S. April). New Zealand. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. Merritt.L. (1996). stress.. April-May. & Helmreich.. Helmreich.C. A.

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