Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

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Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

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5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
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9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

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1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). 2 Modules Content 2.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor.2. 1.2. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process. This will be delivered during the ground school phase. 1. and a series of role-plays.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2. leadership and team management. assisted by the facilitator.2. The candidates will conduct their own debrief. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type. and team management skills.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre .

Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.4 Leadership.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.

3. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. home. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. to the brightness required of an electronic display. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. environment. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. This is due. to the design of a checklist. Flight Crew Training Centre . skill and attitude. design and engine reliability. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. This includes everything from the design of a tool.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. and with other humans. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. HPL. knowledge. 3.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. in part. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. Despite improvements in technology. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations.

Flight Crew Training Centre . especially on a long. Most of these errors are small.5 Human Error Reason (Reason. 1990. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. 3.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance. J. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. encompassing the best of previous generations. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. 3. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. 3. In particular this means designing for error. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance.

The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. it snaps. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. Rather. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. If they can break the chain. the last line of defense.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. the accident does not occur. It was but it is not an isolated case. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. of which the operating crew are the last link. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. Without assigning a principle cause. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. In isolation it is insignificant. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. Reason used Swiss cheese. Occasionally. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. but placed together they form a robust wall. the holes will line up.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. For example. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. Some were latent failures. occurring years ago on the drawing board. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. 3. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. Flight Crew Training Centre . Others were management failures.

because despite the risks. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. Flight Crew Training Centre . the start of an accident chain. performing a checklist from memory.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one. Management. safe operations are the norm. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew. Regulators etc are threats to the crew. (Errors made by other people ATC. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising.e. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. and it is up to us to break the chain. 3. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. the accident chain is broken.e.) Threats .10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence. but as long as the holes do not line up. Engineering. 3. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential.e.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. Threats and errors are unavoidable.External influences Errors .Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. at any level.

Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. 3. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. However in all cases. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . such as an unstabilized approach.12 Avoid. 3. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist. These have been termed warning flags. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. However. Trap.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. nine common factors existed.

4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. Again. On the collectivist side. (which are predominantly male). The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. professional and safety culture. such as organizational. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. 4. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. regarding all societies in the world. versus its opposite.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side. not to the state. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. Power Distance. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. 4. often extended families (with uncles. Uncertainty Avoidance. collectivism. cohesive in-groups.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre .

safety and security measures. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. and motivated by inner nervous energy. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. This represents inequality (more versus less). surprising. not from above. uncertainty accepting cultures. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. but some are more unequal than others. It suggests that the followers.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal.   4. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. but defined from below. Power and inequality. unknown. of course. and different from usual. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . The opposite type. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. they try to have as few rules as possible. Unstructured situations are novel. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. and not expected by their environment to express emotions.

(Norbert Wiener) 5. including radio operators. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. 5. either physical or cognitive. there can be anomalies where a professional group. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. or an organizational culture can prevail. against a conflicting trend. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. not what we thought we told them to do. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. Furthermore. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. In particular. Flight Crew Training Centre . navigators and flight engineers. by a machine function. such as pilots.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues.

accuracy and reduced costs. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines. The latter will not be discussed here. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. In practice this does not always happen. Flight Crew Training Centre . engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. not to mention the human (social) effects. In particular. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. 5.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate.

Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. T. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. Spine. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction.” (Good. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. Good quantitative assessment. Poor spoken material. inaccurate. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. easy to re program. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. 1986. narrow range. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. Whiteside. accurate. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. M. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. Poor program. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . J & George. fast. P. Rather. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. difficult to re. slow.Good inductive. detecting messages in noise.

Overall result is reduced workload. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. with different cognitive skills required. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. resulting in further reduced workload. according to any change in tactical goal. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. 5. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. an area of weakness in interface design. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. – This is a high workload situation. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . so the overall workload is drastically reduced. vigilance and complacency may become issues. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. Pilots will dynamically move between levels.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. In the aviation scenario. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. Although in some systems. There is a reduced cognitive load. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting.

having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. will disengage or will revert to another mode.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. Flight Crew Training Centre . The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness. 5. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. Cali. For this new knowledge and skills are required. communications and monitoring. Unfortunately. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. Habsheim etc). the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. 5. In particular.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that.

Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. but not replace. easy-to-use systems. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. 5. or subtle. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. A lack of. Consequently. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive .Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . 5.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear.

the leader becomes a means of change and influence. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. which is assigned. and authority.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. We must guard against the threats posed by automation. Flight Crew Training Centre . the Captain is the designated “leader”. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. Humans are capable of devising strategies. 5. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. In the flight-deck environment.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. which is acquired. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. Through the use of example and persuasion. 6. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined.

6. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. Personal qualities required are those of courage.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. The leader must balance the demands of the task. Action. with use of the Assess. the team and the individual. and a duty. initiative and integrity. and be able to maintain team morale. In fact. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. In addition. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . 6. from a practical view point the Captain has a right. will power. to decide on a course of action. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. and Manage Decision-Making Model. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility.

manage and direct the flow of information.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6.5 Task To achieve the task. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.8. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate. With a wide variety of background. suggestions Giving opinions. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions.

In between. Flight Crew Training Centre .8.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6.8. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative.8.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation.

getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. a different style is adopted according to the situation. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . but not if things are going wrong.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. Together. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. using information available at that time. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. For most effective leadership.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude.

A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. The role is much like that of a chairman. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. 6. and followership is a skill in its own right. Ginnett. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. 1988. supportive followers are as important as a leader. cited by Kern. Flight Crew Training Centre . G2. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. G (Eds). Hughes. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. passive/critical. T. since there are a number of nationalities. 1997. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. While this might be an individual’s view. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. which may differ between individuals and national cultures. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. 6. R. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. The optimum gradient. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. For successful team performance.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. RE. along with good communication skills. active/uncritical and active/critical. R & Curphy. Followers are a vital part of a team. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot.

6. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. because they actively support without thinking.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. The only way to ensure this is. unless identified and brought “back onside”. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. Survivors are the Company men. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. Making a good first impression is vital. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. Flight Crew Training Centre . to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. Sheep are akin to human automatons. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves.

This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. degrading language. Barriers to communication are also identified. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre . the words used tend to be very important. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. 7. in communication within a crew. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. culture plays a large part. This can be verbal or non-verbal information. along with methods of eliminating them. The actual words used accounting for about 10%.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. So. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. and very rarely are raised voices heard. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. This chapter describes the principles of communication. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit. However. In the case of Jade Cargo International. noise is still a factor. 7. as much as 90%. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. rank could impinge on communication as well. insulting.e. While modern flight decks are well insulated. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. Between a Captain and a First Officer. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information.

7. whether on the needs of others or your own. assertive. 7. By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced. and the manner.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications.4. aggressive. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. two aspects of the message content will be considered.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. the focus. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). supportive and submissive. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. Flight Crew Training Centre .

4. are avoided at all times. It is unlikely to motivate the team. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language.4. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. However. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. Therefore. 7. However this may change depending on circumstances. 7. such as during training or non-normal situations. In a non-critical situation. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such. not recommended but part of life. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. Flight Crew Training Centre .4. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. They put themselves down.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves. Referring to the matrix. and will likely isolate the aggressor.downs. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors.

5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. If someone is submissive. In other words. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. Flight Crew Training Centre . Dealing with aggression is not easy. it is likely communication that will break down completely. their needs will be overlooked. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time. Each individual and in fact every team. If the other person is submissive. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. be supportive. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. An assertive response might also be effective. will find a style that works well for them. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. but leads to good understanding when accomplished.

favorable versus unfavorable. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. the results may be positive or negative. When sides are chosen. Differing expectations of outcomes . words. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. trust and support will deteriorate. productivity will diminish or stop. which will lead to better results. test their position and beliefs. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. the stage is set for potential conflict.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. Flight Crew Training Centre . Animosities can develop. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. actions and situations. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. 7. Differences in perceiving motives. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. communications may breakdown.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. When conflict is dealt with constructively.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. Assertive and cooperative. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. and stretch their imagination. If conflict does occur. You must give to get. collaborate or compromise.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. There is more than one way to do anything. objectives and values. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. Unwillingness to work through issues. No one makes major concessions. High respect for mutual support. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. No one person or idea is perfect.

The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. Conflict Resolution. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. Flight Crew Training Centre . either for routine or novel situations. Advocacy. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. It is not which model that is used that is important. It is the end result that we are interested in. or good or bad outcomes. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. rather that a model is used. once in a while. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. 8. Action and Critique. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. However. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making.

it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. further modification to the RMM was required.2. 8. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP). indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. 8. Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM.2. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions. as well as the appropriate CRM principals.

it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. The situation can be considered in two separate domains.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. Whenever a problem is encountered at work. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. there are two typical responses. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. This does not always produce the best solution.Information seeking. seeking more information about it. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation. the problem and the solution. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. By staying below the line as much as possible. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution. its implications and how much time is available. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. Flight Crew Training Centre . to make sure we fully understand the implications. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line).

Time can be considered as. available and required. but will probably be accepted. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. using a traffic light system. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. In the latter case. others may be less time dependent. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. 8. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. critical. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS).Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. In all cases. Open questions allow more options. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. this limits the opportunity for assessment. is a valuable problem. when there is little available. losing vital feedback.solving resource. may at best get a query in response. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. On the other hand. Once a time frame has been established. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. A fast decision may not always be the correct one. A solution in the form of a question however.  Time Critical situations require immediate action. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. immediate action is required. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. EFIS architecture.

Good teamwork needs good communication. NAVIGATE. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. prioritize. 8. the Captain must manage. test understanding. test understanding propose. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. prioritize. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. Flight Crew Training Centre . propose. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. test understanding. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. seek information. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE.

we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions. An important point here is that you do not rush. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. it is time to manage. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. all the circles are the same size. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. For example in the first stages of a diversion. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. Flight Crew Training Centre . It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. It is a circular or iterative process. 8. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. the task need is paramount. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. When the process is complete. Once the Group is informed and placated. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. Once this is under control. However. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. obstacles and weather. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. including the navigation away from terrain. 8. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. the team and the individual. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications.

but functionally can be quite accurate.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. 9. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. output functions and an internal processing function. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. do something with that information and then act on it. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. Flight Crew Training Centre . we receive information. In the same way.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. these are known as “mental models”. individuals create internal representations of how systems work.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9.

sound.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. 9. even though they do not have the loudest voice. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. not all of them get through to the processing stage. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. 9. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. This is quite normal. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. are actually switching from one to the other. sound and touch. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. Perception is incredibly powerful.4.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. sight. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. smell and taste. touch. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. but it is not being ignored completely. if we miss-perceive an event. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. so much that. 9.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task.4. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. but only a limited signal can be conveyed. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us.4 Input functions 9. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues.4. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise. During a busy. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously.

for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. speed 310.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information.6.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. the original message has been replayed by the mind. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. unless it is consciously being dealt with. 9.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. and contact 119. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions.6.72”. descend 180. Flight Crew Training Centre . An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. Another type of memory is sensory memory. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory.6 Processing Functions 9.6. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. short-term and long-term. you have as little as 0. and retained by conscious attention. which really belongs with the input functions. expect 150 by xxx. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. 9. 9.

long after the event. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. such as ATM (Avoid..4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver …. For example. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever. However the problem is not with forgetting. even if the correct data has never been learned. and Mitigate). but becomes irretrievable due to interference. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. but with inability to retrieve or access the information.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace.6.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. patterns or mini theories. manageable by most. Flight Crew Training Centre . 9. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. but it is top secret. 9. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. Trap. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car.6.

the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre . 9. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category. this is when the action has become a learned routine. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. the assassination of JFK [November 1963].6. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. however it is a single channel device. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986].6. as they are referred to by the date itself. 9.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. The events of September 11. in particular responses to RTO. It can only deal with one issue at a time.

Our interest is human performance. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both. This chapter covers the effects of stress. In this respect. others mental strains. Performance varies with a number of factors. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre . Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. some a combination of both.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body. 9. Some of these place physical strains on the body. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. stress and fatigue produce similar results. including workload and circadian rhythms.

Flight Crew Training Centre . The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. Too little stress causes complacency.stimulation. By the same token. require the crew to be at optimal performance. 10. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. but too much is exhausting. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses.3. and then falls away. tension headaches. As stress increases further. for example. as stress increases. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. performance actually peaks. After a certain point.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. into the optimum performance range (shaded). The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. largely impossible. Initially. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. Critical phases of flight. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. acute and chronic. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. and other symptoms. upset stomach. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. consider that arousal refers to stress. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. performance improves. is exhilarating early in the day. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. In the diagram above. The right side shows over stimulation. from being somewhat dormant. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. such as take-off and landing. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. 10.

Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. however. muscular problems including tension headache. and irritable bowel syndrome. their child's occasional problems at school." Always in a hurry. anxious. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. the three stress emotions. they tend to be abrupt. have too many irons in the fire. Often. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. jaw pain. dizziness. migraine headaches. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. stomach. and it is highly treatable and manageable. chest pain. and so on. flatulence. hypertension. acid stomach. a deadline they're rushing to meet. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. If something can go wrong. migraines.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. The work becomes a very stressful place for them. and depression. but always late.3.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. rapid heartbeat.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. irritable. generally requiring professional help. diarrhea. back pain. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. Because it is short term. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. and chest pain. the loss of an important contract. and heart disease. sweaty palms. shorttempered. Flight Crew Training Centre . it does. 10. anxiety. heart palpitations. constipation. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. and tense. shortness of breath. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. cold hands or feet. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. They're always in a rush. They take on too much. who suffer acute stress frequently. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches.

and. They forget it's there. 10.3. promotion to Captain).5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. familiar. the illness or death of a close relative or friend.3.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. Some examples are: marriage or divorce.g.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. almost comfortable. 10. 10. minds and lives. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. With no hope. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. chronic stress is not. heart arrhythmia.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. sweating. Chronic stress kills through suicide. More precisely. perhaps. People wear down to a final. or a mental response such as irritability. year after year. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. heart attack. their patterns of interacting with others. Generally. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors.. Flight Crew Training Centre . There are three broad sources of stressor: life. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. which exhibits as either a physical response e. they see their lifestyle. environmental and cognitive. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it.3. fatal breakdown. even cancer. stroke. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. This could come in many different forms. and sometimes. Frequently. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. It's the stress of poverty. change in job or responsibilities (i.e. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. of dysfunctional families. violence. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. They blame their woes on other people and external events. the individual gives up searching for solutions. Chronic stress destroys bodies. hyperventilation. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. tremors.

either on the apron. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual.deck. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. 10. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. especially when it involves an operating pilot. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”.3.3. and mismanage priorities. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. Noise arouses the individual. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . Two common examples could be heat and noise. or in the flight. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. but with a dissimilar function. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. this will be covered later in the chapter. In the long-term. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. However. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. When workload is high. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. 10. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties.

it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. 10. As in the case of stress. the range of optimal performance is reached. this continues to improve performance until. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. After some time of being awake. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. workload (physical exertion). a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. Immediately after awakening. when workload is at an absolute minimum. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). or state of awake ness. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. thereby inducing further errors. after reaching a peak. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. they may become bogged down in processing the data. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. self. It cannot be stored. On a night flight.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. However. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). For example. Response time. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. Depending on the individual.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. Typically. Although this can be an effective strategy. This might be due to time since awake. with an inability to sleep further. 10.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying.

Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. which extend the operating day. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. sleep is deeper rather than longer. 10. However. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. on the wrong time zone. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. This is known as jet-lag.

Managing stress and sleep effectively. However it is often quoted without really being explained.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. 11 Situational Awareness 11. In accidents involving human error. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role. this is a potentially dangerous practice. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. It is another warning flag. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. the Flight Crew Training Centre . Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports. 11. 10. This chapter will explain what it is.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. Others prefer mental stimulation. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. In the modern world. is the duty of every crewmember. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief. with dire consequences in the aviation industry. 10. when conducted in a structured fashion. providing awareness and in need of management. As any medical practitioner will verify.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face.

The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. 11. crew. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. automation modes. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. Flight Crew Training Centre . one must understand and think ahead.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA). fuel and time). It is not just enough to notice a situation. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. systems. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. passengers and company). In a well-known phrase: Aviate. Navigate.” This is quite complex. In addition to three levels of SA. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. which mitigates part of the problem. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. and Communicate. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection.

fixation and confusion exist.Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation . Mitigate” is one solution to the problem.vague or incomplete statements 11. Trap. if potential problems can be identified in time. fuel burn.uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA. A three-stage model “Avoid.descent and leads up to the approach.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively . so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this. identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. minimums. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress.4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies . Flight Crew Training Centre . In fact most are within seven miles of the airport. Avoiding error is the initial course of action. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming. there is much to be concerned about here. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity. fixation and confusion. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. less time is available for noticing and avoiding. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity . After descent initiation. during the take-off and landing phases. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”.focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. Prior to descent. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. The trapping phase begins at top-of. Results from observations at several different airlines.

so that we can take action to improve it. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. 11. communications. self-monitoring. and use the speed brake if necessary. 11.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands. too fast etc) must be avoided.e. However. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA]. Should such a state occur. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. contingency planning. task management and prioritization. unstabilized approach. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. Skills relating to spatial ability. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). Human error is inevitable. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. scan patterns and checklist use.” Flight Crew Training Centre .6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. an undesired aircraft state (i. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. attention-sharing. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent. there is very little time left to correct it. Finally. too high. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. 11. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA].

Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. Project ahead and consider contingencies.don't fixate. Speak up when you see SA breaking down. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. dispatch. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. Focus on the details and scan the big picture. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. Rotate attention from plane to path to people . Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. maintenance.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Flight Crew Training Centre . etc. ATC.

Colombus.C. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project. April-May. W..C. A.L. & Helmreich. (1996).C. Cultural issues in crew resource management.. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. May 1995. & Merritt. A.J. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. Helmreich.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4). Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference. (1996).L.C.0 (International) & 2. & Helmreich. R. P. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar. Merritt. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar... Merritt. Merritt. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. R.. April-May.A. New Zealand. A. (1997). CRM: I hate it. Wilhelm. (1995).C. 1995. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. Ooi.C. (1995). Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. Ohio. Sydney.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. Guangzhou.C.. April..C. Colombus. R. November 20-24. T.L. Cultural influences on flight operations.C. (1995). Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. Merritt. A. Flight Crew Training Centre . 1996. Ohio. 8-12. 1997. April 23-25.R. A. 1997. (1997).. Columbus: Ohio State University. & Merritt. CRM Advocate. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2.R. J... & Sherman. (1991). 1991. April). R. Helmreich. what is it? (Error. A. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.. R.L.S. 1996. R. Jakarta. (1996. A... (1996). P. Indonesia. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture.. 1. Taggart. Merritt.L. stress. Auckland.. & Helmreich. Merritt. November 26-28. A.L.

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