Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

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CRM Manual

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Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

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5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

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9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

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CRM Manual

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1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). leadership and team management.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre .1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2.2. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type. This will be delivered during the ground school phase. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1. The candidates will conduct their own debrief. assisted by the facilitator. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes.2. 1. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process. and team management skills. 1. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. and a series of role-plays.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools. 2 Modules Content 2.2.

9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.4 Leadership.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.

Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. in part. and with other humans. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. 3.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. home. to the design of a checklist. 3. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. to the brightness required of an electronic display. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. HPL. This is due.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. environment. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. knowledge. This includes everything from the design of a tool. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. Despite improvements in technology. design and engine reliability. Flight Crew Training Centre . skill and attitude. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace.

Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback. 3. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. 3. 3. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. Flight Crew Training Centre . J. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. 1990. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance. Most of these errors are small.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry.5 Human Error Reason (Reason. especially on a long. encompassing the best of previous generations.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. In particular this means designing for error. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training.

It was but it is not an isolated case. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. Without assigning a principle cause. Others were management failures. the holes will line up. Occasionally. occurring years ago on the drawing board. Reason used Swiss cheese. the accident does not occur. 3. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. In isolation it is insignificant. but placed together they form a robust wall. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. Rather. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. If they can break the chain. Some were latent failures. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. For example. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. the last line of defense. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. Flight Crew Training Centre . Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. of which the operating crew are the last link. it snaps.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation.

Regulators etc are threats to the crew.e. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising. Management.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. 3. the start of an accident chain.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. but as long as the holes do not line up. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i. safe operations are the norm. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. and it is up to us to break the chain. at any level.e. Flight Crew Training Centre . but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. 3.External influences Errors . Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. performing a checklist from memory. Threats and errors are unavoidable. because despite the risks. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i.) Threats . A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. the accident chain is broken.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one.e. Engineering. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence. (Errors made by other people ATC. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events.

3. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger. 3. such as an unstabilized approach. However in all cases. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. nine common factors existed.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. However. Trap. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist.12 Avoid. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. These have been termed warning flags. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry.

4. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. Power Distance. often extended families (with uncles. versus its opposite. Uncertainty Avoidance. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre . The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. professional and safety culture. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. regarding all societies in the world.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. 4.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. On the collectivist side. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. such as organizational. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. cohesive in-groups. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. collectivism. Again. 4. not to the state. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. (which are predominantly male).4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities.

but some are more unequal than others. It suggests that the followers. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. safety and security measures. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. and motivated by inner nervous energy. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. but defined from below. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. of course. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. and different from usual. The opposite type. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. surprising. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. This represents inequality (more versus less). not from above. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. Power and inequality. uncertainty accepting cultures. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4.   4. Unstructured situations are novel. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre .5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. unknown. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. they try to have as few rules as possible. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative.

An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. including radio operators.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. Furthermore. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. navigators and flight engineers. In particular. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. (Norbert Wiener) 5. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. either physical or cognitive. there can be anomalies where a professional group. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. not what we thought we told them to do. or an organizational culture can prevail. such as pilots. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. by a machine function. Flight Crew Training Centre .7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. 5. against a conflicting trend.

Flight Crew Training Centre . In practice this does not always happen. 5.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. The latter will not be discussed here. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. In particular.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. accuracy and reduced costs. not to mention the human (social) effects. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work.

Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. M. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. narrow range. Rather. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . J & George. detecting messages in noise. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. difficult to re. easy to re program. slow. 1986. Spine. accurate. fast. T.” (Good. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. inaccurate.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable.Good inductive. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. Poor program. Whiteside. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. P. Poor spoken material. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. Good quantitative assessment. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges.

Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. with different cognitive skills required. In the aviation scenario. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. resulting in further reduced workload. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. Although in some systems. 5.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. according to any change in tactical goal. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. vigilance and complacency may become issues. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. so the overall workload is drastically reduced. Overall result is reduced workload. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. an area of weakness in interface design. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. – This is a high workload situation. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. There is a reduced cognitive load.

If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. In particular. The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. Flight Crew Training Centre .6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. communications and monitoring. For this new knowledge and skills are required. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. Cali. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. Unfortunately. 5. Habsheim etc). The report identified links between automation and situational awareness. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. 5.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. will disengage or will revert to another mode.

but not replace. easy-to-use systems. 5. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear. Consequently. 5.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . A lack of. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. or subtle.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items.

either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. Humans are capable of devising strategies. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. and authority. Through the use of example and persuasion. We must guard against the threats posed by automation. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. which is assigned. the Captain is the designated “leader”. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. 6. 5. the leader becomes a means of change and influence.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. In the flight-deck environment. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. which is acquired. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. Flight Crew Training Centre . Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses.

Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. from a practical view point the Captain has a right. to decide on a course of action.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. Action. The leader must balance the demands of the task. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. In fact. with use of the Assess. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. will power. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. the team and the individual. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre .4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. In addition. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. and a duty. 6. initiative and integrity. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. Personal qualities required are those of courage. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. and be able to maintain team morale. 6. and Manage Decision-Making Model.

suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions. With a wide variety of background.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task. manage and direct the flow of information. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6.8.5 Task To achieve the task.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6. suggestions Giving opinions. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6.

3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”. In between.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.8.8. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation. Flight Crew Training Centre . there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6.8.

These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. For most effective leadership. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. Together. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. but not if things are going wrong. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. using information available at that time. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. a different style is adopted according to the situation.

1988. R & Curphy. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. and followership is a skill in its own right.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. For successful team performance. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. supportive followers are as important as a leader. Followers are a vital part of a team. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. G2. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. T. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. 6. Flight Crew Training Centre . R. cited by Kern. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. RE. The role is much like that of a chairman. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. Hughes. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. Ginnett. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. passive/critical. 1997. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. G (Eds). A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. along with good communication skills. 6. since there are a number of nationalities. The optimum gradient. While this might be an individual’s view. active/uncritical and active/critical. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. which may differ between individuals and national cultures.

Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. unless identified and brought “back onside”. Making a good first impression is vital. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. 6. Survivors are the Company men. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. because they actively support without thinking. Flight Crew Training Centre . but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. Sheep are akin to human automatons. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. The only way to ensure this is. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation.

in communication within a crew.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. insulting. as much as 90%. In the case of Jade Cargo International.e. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. Barriers to communication are also identified.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. This can be verbal or non-verbal information. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit. So. However. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre . 7.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. and very rarely are raised voices heard.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations. 7. culture plays a large part. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. Between a Captain and a First Officer. The actual words used accounting for about 10%. noise is still a factor. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. This chapter describes the principles of communication. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck. rank could impinge on communication as well. the words used tend to be very important. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. While modern flight decks are well insulated. degrading language. along with methods of eliminating them.

By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. 7.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. assertive. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. supportive and submissive. and the manner.4. whether on the needs of others or your own. 7. Flight Crew Training Centre . the focus. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). aggressive. While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. two aspects of the message content will be considered.

With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. It is unlikely to motivate the team. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human.4. 7.4. Flight Crew Training Centre . Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated. are avoided at all times.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves.4.downs. They put themselves down. Therefore. and will likely isolate the aggressor. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. In a non-critical situation. However. Referring to the matrix. such as during training or non-normal situations. However this may change depending on circumstances. not recommended but part of life. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. This is a “no-go” area for us at work.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language. 7. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such.

In other words. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. will find a style that works well for them. Flight Crew Training Centre . be supportive. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. Dealing with aggression is not easy. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. An assertive response might also be effective. their needs will be overlooked.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time. Each individual and in fact every team. If someone is submissive. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. it is likely communication that will break down completely. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. If the other person is submissive. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult.

actions and situations. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. Unwillingness to work through issues.favorable versus unfavorable.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. You must give to get.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. words. Differences in perceiving motives. Differing expectations of outcomes . 7. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. which will lead to better results. the results may be positive or negative. Animosities can develop. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. the stage is set for potential conflict. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. If conflict does occur. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. objectives and values. High respect for mutual support. collaborate or compromise. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. No one makes major concessions. When conflict is dealt with constructively.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. Flight Crew Training Centre .8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. There is more than one way to do anything. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. and stretch their imagination. communications may breakdown. Assertive and cooperative. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. No one person or idea is perfect. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. test their position and beliefs. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. When sides are chosen. productivity will diminish or stop. trust and support will deteriorate.

This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. Action and Critique. It is not which model that is used that is important. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. rather that a model is used. 8.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. or good or bad outcomes. Advocacy. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. either for routine or novel situations. However. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. It is the end result that we are interested in. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. Flight Crew Training Centre . once in a while. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. Conflict Resolution.

Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. as well as the appropriate CRM principals. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following. Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit.2. Flight Crew Training Centre . Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM.2. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However.2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP). “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”. 8. 8. further modification to the RMM was required.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International.

Whenever a problem is encountered at work. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. its implications and how much time is available.Information seeking. By staying below the line as much as possible. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. there are two typical responses.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. This does not always produce the best solution.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). the problem and the solution. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action. seeking more information about it. to make sure we fully understand the implications. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. Flight Crew Training Centre .

all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. A fast decision may not always be the correct one. On the other hand.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. may at best get a query in response. Time can be considered as. when there is little available. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. Open questions allow more options. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. losing vital feedback.  Time Critical situations require immediate action. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. is a valuable problem. immediate action is required. EFIS architecture. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. this limits the opportunity for assessment. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. using a traffic light system. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision.solving resource. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. but will probably be accepted.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. 8. In the latter case. others may be less time dependent. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. In all cases. critical. Once a time frame has been established. A solution in the form of a question however. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. available and required. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time.

NAVIGATE. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. test understanding. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. test understanding propose. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. the Captain must manage. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. prioritize. seek information. delegation] Remember that in complex situations.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. Good teamwork needs good communication. test understanding. Flight Crew Training Centre . Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. 8. propose. prioritize. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS.

if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. Flight Crew Training Centre . obstacles and weather. For example in the first stages of a diversion. It is a circular or iterative process. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. However. Once this is under control. the team and the individual. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. Once the Group is informed and placated. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. including the navigation away from terrain. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. When the process is complete.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. it is time to manage. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. all the circles are the same size. 8. the task need is paramount. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. 8. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. An important point here is that you do not rush. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required.

A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. 9. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. Flight Crew Training Centre . individuals create internal representations of how systems work. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. do something with that information and then act on it. but functionally can be quite accurate. In the same way. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. output functions and an internal processing function. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. these are known as “mental models”. we receive information.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works.

9. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this. but it is not being ignored completely. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. Perception is incredibly powerful. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. sound. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. even though they do not have the loudest voice. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us. smell and taste. not all of them get through to the processing stage. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name).1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. so much that. sound and touch. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously.4.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time. if we miss-perceive an event. This is quite normal. touch.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. 9. but only a limited signal can be conveyed. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task. During a busy. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise.4. are actually switching from one to the other. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. 9.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight.4. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation. sight. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal.4 Input functions 9.

An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation.6. descend 180. and retained by conscious attention. short-term and long-term. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information. speed 310.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost. unless it is consciously being dealt with. expect 150 by xxx.6. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. and contact 119. which really belongs with the input functions. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. Another type of memory is sensory memory. 9. you have as little as 0. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem.6. the original message has been replayed by the mind.6 Processing Functions 9.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation.72”. 9. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain. 9.

It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. patterns or mini theories. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. long after the event. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. even if the correct data has never been learned. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines. Trap. but with inability to retrieve or access the information. and Mitigate). 9.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. However the problem is not with forgetting. For example. Flight Crew Training Centre . 9. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. but it is top secret.6.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver …. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car.6.. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. but becomes irretrievable due to interference. manageable by most. such as ATM (Avoid. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics.

The events of September 11. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. however it is a single channel device. in particular responses to RTO. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. this is when the action has become a learned routine.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. 9.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful.6. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre . Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. It can only deal with one issue at a time. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”.6. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. 9. as they are referred to by the date itself.

In this respect. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. some a combination of both. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. others mental strains.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. Some of these place physical strains on the body. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. Performance varies with a number of factors. stress and fatigue produce similar results. This chapter covers the effects of stress. Our interest is human performance. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. 9. including workload and circadian rhythms.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre .

Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. Initially. require the crew to be at optimal performance. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. performance actually peaks. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. as stress increases. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate. tension headaches. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. As stress increases further. consider that arousal refers to stress. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. 10. acute and chronic. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. upset stomach. into the optimum performance range (shaded). and then falls away. 10.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. and other symptoms. is exhilarating early in the day. Too little stress causes complacency.3. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. largely impossible.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise. Flight Crew Training Centre . performance improves. for example. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. In the diagram above. Critical phases of flight. such as take-off and landing.stimulation. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. By the same token. The right side shows over stimulation. After a certain point. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. from being somewhat dormant. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. but too much is exhausting.

The work becomes a very stressful place for them. acid stomach. and it is highly treatable and manageable. jaw pain. heart palpitations. have too many irons in the fire. migraines. and irritable bowel syndrome. and so on. they tend to be abrupt. flatulence. Flight Crew Training Centre . The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. and tense. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. anxious. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. back pain. stomach. Often. it does.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. 10. sweaty palms. a deadline they're rushing to meet. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention." Always in a hurry. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. and depression. shortness of breath.3. and heart disease.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. rapid heartbeat. diarrhea. irritable. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. If something can go wrong. constipation. the loss of an important contract. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. migraine headaches. hypertension. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. anxiety. They take on too much. They're always in a rush. the three stress emotions. however. Because it is short term. and chest pain. their child's occasional problems at school. but always late. chest pain. muscular problems including tension headache. cold hands or feet. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. who suffer acute stress frequently. shorttempered. dizziness. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. generally requiring professional help. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems.

Chronic stress destroys bodies. heart attack. 10. of dysfunctional families.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. This could come in many different forms. familiar. almost comfortable. their patterns of interacting with others. promotion to Captain).3. change in job or responsibilities (i.g. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. or a mental response such as irritability. tremors. sweating. fatal breakdown. 10. perhaps.3. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new.3. They forget it's there. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. which exhibits as either a physical response e. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. It's the stress of poverty. violence.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. People wear down to a final.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. Flight Crew Training Centre . they ignore chronic stress because it is old. minds and lives. They blame their woes on other people and external events. heart arrhythmia. Chronic stress kills through suicide. the individual gives up searching for solutions. environmental and cognitive. 10. Frequently. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. Generally. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. they see their lifestyle.e. year after year.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. chronic stress is not. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. stroke. With no hope.. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. even cancer. More precisely. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. and. hyperventilation. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. and sometimes.

When workload is high. either on the apron. Two common examples could be heat and noise. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”.3. especially when it involves an operating pilot. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. or in the flight. but with a dissimilar function. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. In the long-term. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. However.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. and mismanage priorities. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. Noise arouses the individual. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. 10. 10. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. this will be covered later in the chapter. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information.3.deck. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation.

4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. with an inability to sleep further. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. Although this can be an effective strategy. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. 10. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM).Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). the range of optimal performance is reached. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. they may become bogged down in processing the data. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. It cannot be stored. 10. self. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. As in the case of stress. This might be due to time since awake. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. thereby inducing further errors. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. Typically. or state of awake ness. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. For example. However. when workload is at an absolute minimum. After some time of being awake. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. Depending on the individual. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. Immediately after awakening.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. this continues to improve performance until. after reaching a peak. On a night flight. Response time. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. workload (physical exertion).

10.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. on the wrong time zone. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. This is known as jet-lag. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. However. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. which extend the operating day. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. sleep is deeper rather than longer. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment.

who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. 11. It is another warning flag. 10. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role. In accidents involving human error. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. This chapter will explain what it is. As any medical practitioner will verify. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. this is a potentially dangerous practice. Others prefer mental stimulation. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. providing awareness and in need of management. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. 11 Situational Awareness 11. the Flight Crew Training Centre . Managing stress and sleep effectively. 10. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief. is the duty of every crewmember. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. when conducted in a structured fashion. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. with dire consequences in the aviation industry. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief. In the modern world. However it is often quoted without really being explained.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents.

there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. one must understand and think ahead. In addition to three levels of SA. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. fuel and time). which mitigates part of the problem. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA). why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. It is not just enough to notice a situation. passengers and company).” This is quite complex. crew. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. In a well-known phrase: Aviate. Flight Crew Training Centre . automation modes. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. 11. and Communicate. Navigate. systems. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow.

clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this.uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA.focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. less time is available for noticing and avoiding. Avoiding error is the initial course of action. minimums. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. Prior to descent. The trapping phase begins at top-of. Flight Crew Training Centre . there is much to be concerned about here.Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. fixation and confusion exist. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation . A three-stage model “Avoid. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. After descent initiation.vague or incomplete statements 11. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity . When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively . fixation and confusion. fuel burn. Trap. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies .4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. Results from observations at several different airlines. during the take-off and landing phases. if potential problems can be identified in time. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity.descent and leads up to the approach. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”.

this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. there is very little time left to correct it.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. 11. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. so that we can take action to improve it. Skills relating to spatial ability. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. task management and prioritization. Finally. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA].” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. too fast etc) must be avoided. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. an undesired aircraft state (i. Human error is inevitable. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. self-monitoring. scan patterns and checklist use. Should such a state occur. attention-sharing.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA].e.” Flight Crew Training Centre . The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. too high. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). contingency planning. and use the speed brake if necessary. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. unstabilized approach.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. 11. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent. communications. However. 11.

8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight.don't fixate. Speak up when you see SA breaking down.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. etc. ATC. maintenance. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. dispatch. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Project ahead and consider contingencies. Rotate attention from plane to path to people . Flight Crew Training Centre . Focus on the details and scan the big picture.

. 1995. Helmreich.C. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference. Helmreich. A. New Zealand.L. 8-12.C. R.C. Merritt.C. Colombus. A. April). Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. (1997). May 1995. April 23-25..C. Colombus. (1995).. T. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar.A. A. what is it? (Error.R. W.L. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. R.. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. R.L. Cultural issues in crew resource management. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. R. (1995). J. Merritt.C. April.. & Merritt. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar.. (1991).. November 26-28. 1.S.L.. Ohio. & Sherman. (1995).J. (1996. Cultural influences on flight operations. A. A. A. Merritt. Columbus: Ohio State University. A. 1996. November 20-24. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. (1997). Jakarta. Merritt. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2. P. Taggart. Ooi.. Indonesia..0 (International) & 2. & Helmreich.. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries. CRM: I hate it. Flight Crew Training Centre .C. (1996). R. (1996). Merritt. stress. (1996).1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4).. April-May. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium.R. CRM Advocate. Guangzhou.C.. & Merritt. & Helmreich. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.C. April-May. Wilhelm. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. 1996.. R.L. Ohio. & Helmreich. 1991. 1997. Auckland. Merritt. P.L. Sydney. A. 1997. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project..

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