Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

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Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

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5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

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9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

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1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre . 1.2. assisted by the facilitator. The candidates will conduct their own debrief. and team management skills. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2. This will be delivered during the ground school phase.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). 1. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process.2. 2 Modules Content 2. and a series of role-plays. leadership and team management.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course.

4 Leadership.8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.

design and engine reliability. Flight Crew Training Centre . and with other humans. HPL. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. home. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. in part. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. 3. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. This includes everything from the design of a tool. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. Despite improvements in technology. skill and attitude. knowledge.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. This is due.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. environment. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. 3. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. to the brightness required of an electronic display. to the design of a checklist.

Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills. J. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. Flight Crew Training Centre . In particular this means designing for error. encompassing the best of previous generations. 1990. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. Most of these errors are small.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. 3.5 Human Error Reason (Reason. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. especially on a long. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. 3. 3.

the accident does not occur. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. it snaps. If they can break the chain.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. In isolation it is insignificant. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. Reason used Swiss cheese. the last line of defense. Others were management failures. Rather. 3. the holes will line up. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. but placed together they form a robust wall. For example. Flight Crew Training Centre . of which the operating crew are the last link. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. occurring years ago on the drawing board. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. Occasionally.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. Without assigning a principle cause. It was but it is not an isolated case. Some were latent failures. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss.

flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. 3. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events. performing a checklist from memory. (Errors made by other people ATC. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. and it is up to us to break the chain.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence.e. the start of an accident chain. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. but as long as the holes do not line up. safe operations are the norm. at any level.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. 3. the accident chain is broken.e. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising. Management. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. Engineering. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard.e. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. Regulators etc are threats to the crew. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential.External influences Errors . Threats and errors are unavoidable. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i.) Threats .9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one. because despite the risks. Flight Crew Training Centre .

3. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable.12 Avoid. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . such as an unstabilized approach. Trap. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed. 3. These have been termed warning flags. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. However. nine common factors existed. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. However in all cases. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities.

4. collectivism. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. Again. 4. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. versus its opposite. Uncertainty Avoidance. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. 4. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. not to the state.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. cohesive in-groups. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. such as organizational.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. regarding all societies in the world. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. (which are predominantly male).4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. professional and safety culture. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. often extended families (with uncles. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. Power Distance. On the collectivist side.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre .1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce.

and not expected by their environment to express emotions. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. and different from usual. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. uncertainty accepting cultures. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. Power and inequality.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. not from above. but some are more unequal than others. safety and security measures. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. Unstructured situations are novel. unknown. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. The opposite type. they try to have as few rules as possible. It suggests that the followers. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck. This represents inequality (more versus less). People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. surprising. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. but defined from below. and motivated by inner nervous energy. of course. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient.   4.

or an organizational culture can prevail.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. (Norbert Wiener) 5. In particular. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. such as pilots. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. Furthermore. by a machine function. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. there can be anomalies where a professional group. Flight Crew Training Centre . Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. navigators and flight engineers. against a conflicting trend. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues. 5.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. not what we thought we told them to do. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent. either physical or cognitive. including radio operators.

not to mention the human (social) effects. accuracy and reduced costs. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job. In practice this does not always happen. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. 5. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. The latter will not be discussed here. Flight Crew Training Centre . In particular. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation.

fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. accurate. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. slow communication Better for principles and strategies.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. Good quantitative assessment. Poor program. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. Spine. error correction Good at error correction Specialized.” (Good. slow. Poor spoken material. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. M. Rather. fast. T. P. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. J & George. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . narrow range.Good inductive. difficult to re. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. Whiteside. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. easy to re program. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. inaccurate. 1986. detecting messages in noise.

   The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . so the overall workload is drastically reduced. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. There is a reduced cognitive load. Pilots will dynamically move between levels.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. Overall result is reduced workload. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. – This is a high workload situation. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. 5. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. resulting in further reduced workload. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. vigilance and complacency may become issues. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. In the aviation scenario. Although in some systems. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. according to any change in tactical goal. an area of weakness in interface design. with different cognitive skills required. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course.

Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. will disengage or will revert to another mode. Cali. For this new knowledge and skills are required. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness. Flight Crew Training Centre . The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. 5. Habsheim etc). Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. communications and monitoring. Unfortunately. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. 5.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. In particular. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage.

The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat. 5.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . Consequently. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. A lack of. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective. or subtle. 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. but not replace.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. easy-to-use systems. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear.

the Captain is the designated “leader”.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. 5. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. Through the use of example and persuasion. Flight Crew Training Centre . We must guard against the threats posed by automation. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. In the flight-deck environment. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. which is acquired. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. which is assigned. Humans are capable of devising strategies. 6.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. and authority. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined. the leader becomes a means of change and influence.

The leader must balance the demands of the task.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. Action. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . from a practical view point the Captain has a right. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. In fact.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. 6.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. will power. Personal qualities required are those of courage. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. In addition. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. initiative and integrity. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. with use of the Assess. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. to decide on a course of action. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. the team and the individual. 6. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. and Manage Decision-Making Model. and a duty. and be able to maintain team morale. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action.

5 Task To achieve the task.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6.8. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. With a wide variety of background. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre .8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6. manage and direct the flow of information.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate. suggestions Giving opinions.

8.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6.8. Flight Crew Training Centre . In between.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.8.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.

while monitoring to assure necessary performance. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. using information available at that time. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . For most effective leadership. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. Together. but not if things are going wrong. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. a different style is adopted according to the situation. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group.

The role is much like that of a chairman. Followers are a vital part of a team. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. which may differ between individuals and national cultures.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. Flight Crew Training Centre . supportive followers are as important as a leader. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. R & Curphy. and followership is a skill in its own right. 1988.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. G2. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. T. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. Hughes. RE. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. 1997. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. passive/critical. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. The optimum gradient. While this might be an individual’s view. R. 6. along with good communication skills. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. cited by Kern. 6. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. G (Eds). For successful team performance. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. Ginnett. since there are a number of nationalities. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. active/uncritical and active/critical.

Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. The only way to ensure this is. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. Sheep are akin to human automatons. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. Survivors are the Company men. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. Flight Crew Training Centre . not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. because they actively support without thinking.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. Making a good first impression is vital. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. 6. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. unless identified and brought “back onside”. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation.

degrading language. However. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. along with methods of eliminating them. as much as 90%. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre . Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication.e. While modern flight decks are well insulated. culture plays a large part. insulting. and very rarely are raised voices heard. The actual words used accounting for about 10%. 7. This chapter describes the principles of communication. 7.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. rank could impinge on communication as well. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. Barriers to communication are also identified. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. in communication within a crew. This can be verbal or non-verbal information. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. the words used tend to be very important. Between a Captain and a First Officer.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck. noise is still a factor. In the case of Jade Cargo International. So. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution.

whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. supportive and submissive. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority. the focus. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter.4. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. aggressive. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). assertive. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down. two aspects of the message content will be considered. 7. and the manner. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. whether on the needs of others or your own. By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced. Flight Crew Training Centre .4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. 7.

A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. Therefore. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such. Flight Crew Training Centre . it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team. 7. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. Referring to the matrix. 7. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. In a non-critical situation. They put themselves down.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. are avoided at all times. It is unlikely to motivate the team.4.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated. not recommended but part of life. and will likely isolate the aggressor. However this may change depending on circumstances.4.downs. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression. such as during training or non-normal situations. However.

The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. their needs will be overlooked. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. will find a style that works well for them. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. it is likely communication that will break down completely. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time. In other words. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. Dealing with aggression is not easy. be supportive. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. Each individual and in fact every team. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. If someone is submissive. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. An assertive response might also be effective. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. If the other person is submissive. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior.

7. Unwillingness to work through issues. productivity will diminish or stop.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. You must give to get. objectives and values. and stretch their imagination. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. communications may breakdown. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. the stage is set for potential conflict. When sides are chosen. There is more than one way to do anything. Flight Crew Training Centre . actions and situations.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. No one person or idea is perfect. collaborate or compromise. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. Assertive and cooperative. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. When conflict is dealt with constructively. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. test their position and beliefs. words. Differences in perceiving motives. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. High respect for mutual support. If conflict does occur.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. No one makes major concessions. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. Differing expectations of outcomes . Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. the results may be positive or negative. Animosities can develop. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7.favorable versus unfavorable. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. which will lead to better results. trust and support will deteriorate.

This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. Flight Crew Training Centre . This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. It is the end result that we are interested in. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. either for routine or novel situations. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. once in a while.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. Advocacy. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. or good or bad outcomes. rather that a model is used. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. It is not which model that is used that is important. Action and Critique. However. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world. Conflict Resolution. 8.

Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. further modification to the RMM was required. 8. 8. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International. as well as the appropriate CRM principals.2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP).2. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following.2.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However.

Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. seeking more information about it. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. Flight Crew Training Centre . a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. its implications and how much time is available. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. By staying below the line as much as possible. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action.Information seeking. there are two typical responses. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. to make sure we fully understand the implications. the problem and the solution. This does not always produce the best solution. Whenever a problem is encountered at work.

Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . Open questions allow more options. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. 8. is a valuable problem. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. Time can be considered as. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. this limits the opportunity for assessment. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. In the latter case. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. others may be less time dependent. using a traffic light system. available and required.solving resource.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. A solution in the form of a question however.  Time Critical situations require immediate action. but will probably be accepted. On the other hand. Once a time frame has been established. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. critical. immediate action is required. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). A fast decision may not always be the correct one. all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. when there is little available. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. may at best get a query in response.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. losing vital feedback. In all cases. EFIS architecture. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM).

Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. test understanding. Flight Crew Training Centre . QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. prioritize. prioritize. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. 8. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. NAVIGATE. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. propose. test understanding propose. the Captain must manage. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. test understanding. seek information. Good teamwork needs good communication.

However. obstacles and weather. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line. It is a circular or iterative process. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. For example in the first stages of a diversion. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. 8. Once this is under control. An important point here is that you do not rush. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions. the team and the individual. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. Once the Group is informed and placated. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. When the process is complete.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. including the navigation away from terrain. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. all the circles are the same size. it is time to manage. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. 8.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. Flight Crew Training Centre . Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. the task need is paramount. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task.

1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. 9. Flight Crew Training Centre . Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. In the same way. these are known as “mental models”. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. individuals create internal representations of how systems work. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. output functions and an internal processing function. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. we receive information. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. but functionally can be quite accurate. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. do something with that information and then act on it.

but it is not being ignored completely. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal.4. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. Perception is incredibly powerful. 9. but only a limited signal can be conveyed. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. touch. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us.4 Input functions 9. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this. sound and touch. if we miss-perceive an event.4. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. sound. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. smell and taste.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. are actually switching from one to the other. During a busy. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously.4. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. 9. 9. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time. even though they do not have the loudest voice. sight. so much that. Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. not all of them get through to the processing stage. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. This is quite normal.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional.

the original message has been replayed by the mind.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. speed 310.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. Another type of memory is sensory memory. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information.6. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears. and retained by conscious attention. Flight Crew Training Centre . expect 150 by xxx.6 Processing Functions 9. and contact 119. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. 9. 9. descend 180.6. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information. Sensory memory data is lost by decay.6. unless it is consciously being dealt with. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory. 9.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain.72”. short-term and long-term. which really belongs with the input functions.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. you have as little as 0.

but becomes irretrievable due to interference. 9.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. 9. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. Trap. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events.6. patterns or mini theories. However the problem is not with forgetting. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. even if the correct data has never been learned. For example. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver …. manageable by most. but with inability to retrieve or access the information.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. such as ATM (Avoid. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines.. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. but it is top secret. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. Flight Crew Training Centre . Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. long after the event.6. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. and Mitigate). whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever.

the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence.6. however it is a single channel device. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. The events of September 11. this is when the action has become a learned routine. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. in particular responses to RTO. as they are referred to by the date itself. 2001 are slightly different in this respect.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. 9. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre . This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks.6. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. It can only deal with one issue at a time. 9. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category.

Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. Our interest is human performance. Performance varies with a number of factors. 9. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. stress and fatigue produce similar results. including workload and circadian rhythms. In this respect. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. This chapter covers the effects of stress. Some of these place physical strains on the body. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. others mental strains. some a combination of both. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre .7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved.

and then falls away. By the same token. but too much is exhausting. 10. Initially. performance improves. and other symptoms. require the crew to be at optimal performance. is exhilarating early in the day. Too little stress causes complacency. tension headaches. As stress increases further. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. In the diagram above. After a certain point. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. Critical phases of flight. as stress increases. for example. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. into the optimum performance range (shaded). largely impossible. performance actually peaks. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. Flight Crew Training Centre .stimulation.3. such as take-off and landing. consider that arousal refers to stress. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. The right side shows over stimulation. 10. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. acute and chronic.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate. upset stomach. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. from being somewhat dormant. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short.

dizziness. and depression. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. migraine headaches.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. Flight Crew Training Centre . gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. and irritable bowel syndrome. they tend to be abrupt. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. The work becomes a very stressful place for them. diarrhea. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. but always late. and tense. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. anxiety. it does. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. heart palpitations. If something can go wrong. and chest pain. flatulence. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. anxious.3. acid stomach. They're always in a rush. shortness of breath. cold hands or feet.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. generally requiring professional help. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. back pain. They take on too much. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. have too many irons in the fire. the three stress emotions. migraines. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. chest pain. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. the loss of an important contract. Because it is short term." Always in a hurry. rapid heartbeat. jaw pain. irritable. their child's occasional problems at school. shorttempered. constipation. who suffer acute stress frequently. and so on. and heart disease. muscular problems including tension headache. Often. stomach. sweaty palms. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. 10. a deadline they're rushing to meet. and it is highly treatable and manageable. hypertension. however.

This could come in many different forms. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. year after year. or a mental response such as irritability. 10. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. violence. almost comfortable. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. promotion to Captain). Flight Crew Training Centre . they see their lifestyle. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition.3. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. change in job or responsibilities (i.3.3. It's the stress of poverty. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. tremors.. They forget it's there. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. of dysfunctional families. perhaps. Chronic stress kills through suicide.e. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. which exhibits as either a physical response e. they ignore chronic stress because it is old.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. their patterns of interacting with others. familiar. More precisely. minds and lives. heart attack. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. 10. heart arrhythmia. sweating. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. and. fatal breakdown.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. the individual gives up searching for solutions. With no hope. Generally.g. 10. and sometimes. environmental and cognitive. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. stroke.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. hyperventilation. Frequently. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. They blame their woes on other people and external events. chronic stress is not. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. Chronic stress destroys bodies. People wear down to a final. even cancer.

3. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. 10. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). this will be covered later in the chapter. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. Two common examples could be heat and noise. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. 10. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. In the long-term. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. or in the flight. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors.3. but with a dissimilar function. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . Noise arouses the individual. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. However. and mismanage priorities. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information.deck. When workload is high. either on the apron.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. especially when it involves an operating pilot.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual.

or state of awake ness. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. 10. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. Depending on the individual. the range of optimal performance is reached. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. they may become bogged down in processing the data. this continues to improve performance until. However. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). humans will trade off speed against accuracy. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. workload (physical exertion). thereby inducing further errors. self. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. 10. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. This might be due to time since awake.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. For example. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. After some time of being awake. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. Typically. Response time. On a night flight.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. when workload is at an absolute minimum. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. As in the case of stress. It cannot be stored. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. with an inability to sleep further. after reaching a peak. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. Although this can be an effective strategy. Immediately after awakening. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness.

which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . rather than eastbound which compresses the day. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. on the wrong time zone. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. which extend the operating day. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. However. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. This is known as jet-lag. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. sleep is deeper rather than longer. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. 10.

It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. is the duty of every crewmember. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. when conducted in a structured fashion.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief. Others prefer mental stimulation. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. In accidents involving human error. In the modern world. the Flight Crew Training Centre . As any medical practitioner will verify.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. Managing stress and sleep effectively. this is a potentially dangerous practice. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role. 11. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. 10. providing awareness and in need of management. 10. with dire consequences in the aviation industry. This chapter will explain what it is. It is another warning flag. 11 Situational Awareness 11. However it is often quoted without really being explained. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia.

there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA). which mitigates part of the problem. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. and Communicate. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. systems. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. fuel and time). those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. In addition to three levels of SA. one must understand and think ahead. crew. automation modes.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. Navigate.” This is quite complex. Flight Crew Training Centre . The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. 11. It is not just enough to notice a situation. In a well-known phrase: Aviate.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. passengers and company).

Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. if potential problems can be identified in time. minimums. A three-stage model “Avoid. fixation and confusion.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation . identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport. Prior to descent. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this.vague or incomplete statements 11. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming. The trapping phase begins at top-of. during the take-off and landing phases. fixation and confusion exist. Flight Crew Training Centre . less time is available for noticing and avoiding.descent and leads up to the approach. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity . so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies . Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. Trap. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”.uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA.focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . Avoiding error is the initial course of action. there is much to be concerned about here. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. Results from observations at several different airlines.4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. fuel burn. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. After descent initiation. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively .Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity.

7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. too fast etc) must be avoided. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. self-monitoring. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA].e.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands.” Flight Crew Training Centre . an undesired aircraft state (i. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. contingency planning. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. task management and prioritization. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. unstabilized approach. Skills relating to spatial ability. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. 11. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. communications. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. and use the speed brake if necessary. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. 11. Should such a state occur. However.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. so that we can take action to improve it. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. scan patterns and checklist use. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). there is very little time left to correct it. Finally. 11. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA].6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. Human error is inevitable. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. attention-sharing. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. too high. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent.

Project ahead and consider contingencies. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead.don't fixate. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. Rotate attention from plane to path to people .8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. etc. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. maintenance. Flight Crew Training Centre . but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. Focus on the details and scan the big picture. dispatch. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. ATC. Speak up when you see SA breaking down.

April-May. A.C. (1996). & Helmreich.C.L. Sydney. Colombus. what is it? (Error. Ooi..C.C. Cultural issues in crew resource management.. April 23-25. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project. Helmreich. 1997. Helmreich. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.. (1995). 8-12.A. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium.C. Flight Crew Training Centre . W.0 (International) & 2.C.C. & Helmreich. November 20-24.. April). 1997. 1.. Merritt. CRM Advocate.. & Helmreich. (1995). R.C. April. Merritt. Jakarta.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. J.L.. Merritt. A. A. April-May. (1996).1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4). November 26-28. Indonesia.. & Merritt. Taggart. A. (1997). (1996. R. New Zealand. Columbus: Ohio State University.. Merritt... CRM: I hate it. 1996.C. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. R.R.R. Auckland. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar.L. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar. A.L. A. Merritt. & Merritt. T. 1995. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference. & Sherman. (1997).. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture. Cultural influences on flight operations. Colombus.. Ohio. Guangzhou. Wilhelm. 1991.J. R. May 1995. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2.L. stress. A.S.L. Ohio. P. (1991). A. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China.. R.. 1996. Merritt. (1996). Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. P. (1995). Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. R.

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