CRM | Situation Awareness | Leadership

Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

Page: TOC-1

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

Page: TOC-3

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

Page: TOC-3

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

Page: 4

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

2.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2. The candidates will conduct their own debrief.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre .2. 2 Modules Content 2. This will be delivered during the ground school phase.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). 1.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes. and team management skills. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools. assisted by the facilitator.2. 1.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1. leadership and team management. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor. and a series of role-plays.

9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.4 Leadership.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.

who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. 3. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. environment. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. Despite improvements in technology. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. and with other humans. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. This is due. design and engine reliability. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. skill and attitude. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. to the brightness required of an electronic display. This includes everything from the design of a tool. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. 3. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. home. knowledge. in part. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. to the design of a checklist. HPL.

with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. 3. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management. 3.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. Not only is this more predictable and measurable.5 Human Error Reason (Reason.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. Most of these errors are small. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. J. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills. 1990. 3. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. Flight Crew Training Centre . especially on a long. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. In particular this means designing for error. encompassing the best of previous generations.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change.

Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. Occasionally. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. If they can break the chain. It was but it is not an isolated case. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. Rather. Flight Crew Training Centre . 3. Others were management failures. of which the operating crew are the last link. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. For example. Without assigning a principle cause. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. the accident does not occur. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. occurring years ago on the drawing board. it snaps. the last line of defense. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. the holes will line up. but placed together they form a robust wall. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. Some were latent failures. In isolation it is insignificant. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. Reason used Swiss cheese.

e. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. performing a checklist from memory. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. Flight Crew Training Centre . wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising. safe operations are the norm.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense.e. at any level. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. (Errors made by other people ATC. Regulators etc are threats to the crew.e.External influences Errors . and it is up to us to break the chain.) Threats . because despite the risks. 3. Engineering.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. the accident chain is broken. Management. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew. but as long as the holes do not line up. the start of an accident chain. Threats and errors are unavoidable. 3. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i.

Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing.12 Avoid. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. 3. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. such as an unstabilized approach. These have been termed warning flags. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist. 3. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. However.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . Trap. nine common factors existed. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. However in all cases. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed.

A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre . He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. often extended families (with uncles. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. versus its opposite.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. (which are predominantly male). On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. 4. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. On the collectivist side. not to the state. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. Again. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. Power Distance. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. regarding all societies in the world. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. professional and safety culture. such as organizational. 4. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. Uncertainty Avoidance. collectivism. 4. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. cohesive in-groups.

it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. but some are more unequal than others. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. but defined from below. This represents inequality (more versus less). The opposite type.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. safety and security measures. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. Power and inequality. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. and motivated by inner nervous energy.   4. It suggests that the followers. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. Unstructured situations are novel. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. unknown. surprising. uncertainty accepting cultures. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. of course. not from above. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . they try to have as few rules as possible.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. and different from usual.

navigators and flight engineers. such as pilots. Furthermore. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. or an organizational culture can prevail. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. either physical or cognitive. there can be anomalies where a professional group. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent. (Norbert Wiener) 5. 5. including radio operators. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. In particular. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. Flight Crew Training Centre . against a conflicting trend. by a machine function. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. not what we thought we told them to do. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style.

” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job. not to mention the human (social) effects. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. The latter will not be discussed here. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. In particular. 5. Flight Crew Training Centre .3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. In practice this does not always happen. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. accuracy and reduced costs. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice.

access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. Spine. Rather. accurate. T. detecting messages in noise. P. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. Whiteside. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. slow. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. narrow range. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. 1986. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. easy to re program.Good inductive. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. M. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. Poor program. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. fast. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. J & George. difficult to re.” (Good. Poor spoken material. Good quantitative assessment.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. inaccurate. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction.

These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . according to any change in tactical goal. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. resulting in further reduced workload. so the overall workload is drastically reduced. Overall result is reduced workload. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. with different cognitive skills required. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. vigilance and complacency may become issues. Although in some systems. There is a reduced cognitive load. In the aviation scenario. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. an area of weakness in interface design. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. – This is a high workload situation. 5. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting.

The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. communications and monitoring.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. Unfortunately. 5. Habsheim etc).6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that. will disengage or will revert to another mode. 5. In particular. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. Cali. Flight Crew Training Centre . The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. For this new knowledge and skills are required.

Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. but not replace. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating. A lack of. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . or subtle. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. 5. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . 5. easy-to-use systems.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. Consequently. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight.

An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. 5. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. Through the use of example and persuasion. which is acquired. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. which is assigned. the Captain is the designated “leader”. 6.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. Flight Crew Training Centre . In the flight-deck environment. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. and authority. We must guard against the threats posed by automation.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. Humans are capable of devising strategies. the leader becomes a means of change and influence.

Action. 6. the team and the individual. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. and be able to maintain team morale. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. and Manage Decision-Making Model. The leader must balance the demands of the task. and a duty. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. In fact.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. with use of the Assess. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. will power. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. 6. from a practical view point the Captain has a right. Personal qualities required are those of courage. In addition. initiative and integrity. to decide on a course of action.

8. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs. manage and direct the flow of information.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions. suggestions Giving opinions. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre .5 Task To achieve the task.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task. With a wide variety of background.

8.8.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6. In between. Flight Crew Training Centre . how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation.

while monitoring to assure necessary performance. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . a different style is adopted according to the situation. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. but not if things are going wrong. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. Together.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. using information available at that time. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. For most effective leadership.

9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. 6. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. R. and followership is a skill in its own right. Followers are a vital part of a team. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. T. The optimum gradient. G (Eds). cited by Kern. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. The role is much like that of a chairman. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. along with good communication skills. Flight Crew Training Centre . A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. RE. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. Ginnett. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. active/uncritical and active/critical. passive/critical. supportive followers are as important as a leader. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. 1988. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. “Kelly’s” (Kelly.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. since there are a number of nationalities. G2. While this might be an individual’s view. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. Hughes. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. R & Curphy. For successful team performance. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. 1997. 6. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. which may differ between individuals and national cultures.

Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. Flight Crew Training Centre . not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. Sheep are akin to human automatons. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. because they actively support without thinking. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. Survivors are the Company men.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. 6. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. Making a good first impression is vital. The only way to ensure this is. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. unless identified and brought “back onside”. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation.

The actual words used accounting for about 10%. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. in communication within a crew.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. 7. the words used tend to be very important. This can be verbal or non-verbal information. So. and very rarely are raised voices heard. In the case of Jade Cargo International. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. rank could impinge on communication as well. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. along with methods of eliminating them. Between a Captain and a First Officer. While modern flight decks are well insulated.e. noise is still a factor. as much as 90%. However. degrading language. insulting. Barriers to communication are also identified. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. This chapter describes the principles of communication. culture plays a large part. 7. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre .

whether on the needs of others or your own. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. supportive and submissive. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. Flight Crew Training Centre . 7.4. 7. aggressive. two aspects of the message content will be considered. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. the focus.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. and the manner. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. assertive.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority.

Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth.4.4. Flight Crew Training Centre . is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. However.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves. Referring to the matrix. They put themselves down. such as during training or non-normal situations.downs. not recommended but part of life. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. It is unlikely to motivate the team. 7. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. 7. Therefore. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression. and will likely isolate the aggressor. In a non-critical situation. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. are avoided at all times. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. However this may change depending on circumstances.

If the other person is submissive. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. In other words.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. be supportive. Flight Crew Training Centre . Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. Dealing with aggression is not easy. will find a style that works well for them. If someone is submissive. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. it is likely communication that will break down completely. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. Each individual and in fact every team. but leads to good understanding when accomplished.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. their needs will be overlooked. An assertive response might also be effective.

Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. communications may breakdown. Animosities can develop. When conflict is dealt with constructively. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. Flight Crew Training Centre . No one person or idea is perfect. Differing expectations of outcomes . the stage is set for potential conflict. collaborate or compromise.favorable versus unfavorable.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. test their position and beliefs. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. Assertive and cooperative. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. trust and support will deteriorate. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. High respect for mutual support. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. Unwillingness to work through issues.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. 7. You must give to get. which will lead to better results. the results may be positive or negative. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. actions and situations. There is more than one way to do anything. Differences in perceiving motives. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. If conflict does occur. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. objectives and values. No one makes major concessions. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. words. productivity will diminish or stop. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. and stretch their imagination. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. When sides are chosen.

It is the end result that we are interested in. It is not which model that is used that is important. Advocacy. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. or good or bad outcomes. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. either for routine or novel situations. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world. 8. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. rather that a model is used. Action and Critique. However. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. once in a while. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. Flight Crew Training Centre . Conflict Resolution.

further modification to the RMM was required. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures.2. Flight Crew Training Centre . it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. 8. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied.2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP). Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following. as well as the appropriate CRM principals.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided.2. 8. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”.

Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. By staying below the line as much as possible. This does not always produce the best solution. the problem and the solution. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation.Information seeking. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. seeking more information about it. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. its implications and how much time is available. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . Whenever a problem is encountered at work.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. to make sure we fully understand the implications. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. there are two typical responses. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. Flight Crew Training Centre .

EFIS architecture. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. losing vital feedback. is a valuable problem. A fast decision may not always be the correct one. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . On the other hand. In the latter case. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. In all cases. may at best get a query in response. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM).  Time Critical situations require immediate action. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. using a traffic light system. 8. Once a time frame has been established. all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. Open questions allow more options. A solution in the form of a question however. Time can be considered as. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. when there is little available.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. but will probably be accepted. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays.solving resource.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. this limits the opportunity for assessment. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. available and required. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. others may be less time dependent. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. immediate action is required. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. critical.

COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. test understanding. Flight Crew Training Centre . seek information. test understanding propose. the Captain must manage. prioritize. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. prioritize. 8. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. propose. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. NAVIGATE. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. Good teamwork needs good communication. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. test understanding.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor.

With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. all the circles are the same size. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. including the navigation away from terrain. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. obstacles and weather. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. it is time to manage. An important point here is that you do not rush. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined.8 Manage Once the action has been completed.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. Once this is under control. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. It is a circular or iterative process. However. the task need is paramount. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. When the process is complete. Flight Crew Training Centre . Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. Once the Group is informed and placated. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. For example in the first stages of a diversion. the team and the individual. 8. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. 8. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions.

they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. 9. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. but functionally can be quite accurate. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. Flight Crew Training Centre . The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. do something with that information and then act on it. we receive information. In the same way. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. individuals create internal representations of how systems work.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. output functions and an internal processing function. these are known as “mental models”.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows.

Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. are actually switching from one to the other. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. smell and taste. but only a limited signal can be conveyed.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. if we miss-perceive an event. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this.4 Input functions 9. sound and touch. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. 9. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise. During a busy. even though they do not have the loudest voice. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. 9.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. not all of them get through to the processing stage. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task.4. so much that. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. Perception is incredibly powerful. 9.4. This is quite normal. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). touch. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. sound. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre .4. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. sight. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. but it is not being ignored completely.

6. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost. descend 180. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. 9. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. Another type of memory is sensory memory. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information.6.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. short-term and long-term.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears.6. 9.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. Flight Crew Training Centre . and retained by conscious attention. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information. 9. unless it is consciously being dealt with. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible. expect 150 by xxx. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds. which really belongs with the input functions.6 Processing Functions 9. speed 310. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. the original message has been replayed by the mind. and contact 119. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. you have as little as 0.72”.

5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. but becomes irretrievable due to interference..6. 9.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. even if the correct data has never been learned. and Mitigate). whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. patterns or mini theories. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. For example. Flight Crew Training Centre . Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. manageable by most. but with inability to retrieve or access the information. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever. However the problem is not with forgetting. such as ATM (Avoid. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver …. but it is top secret.6. 9. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. long after the event. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. Trap.

the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre .7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. 9. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. It can only deal with one issue at a time. however it is a single channel device. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. The events of September 11. as they are referred to by the date itself. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful.6. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. this is when the action has become a learned routine. 9. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach.6. in particular responses to RTO. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance.

In this respect. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. others mental strains. including workload and circadian rhythms. This chapter covers the effects of stress. some a combination of both. Performance varies with a number of factors.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both. stress and fatigue produce similar results. Our interest is human performance. Some of these place physical strains on the body. 9. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre . sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified.

which differs according to individuals and within individuals. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. Critical phases of flight. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. upset stomach. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. The right side shows over stimulation. for example. as stress increases. such as take-off and landing. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. largely impossible. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. By the same token. but too much is exhausting. Initially. 10. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. and then falls away. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. is exhilarating early in the day. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. require the crew to be at optimal performance. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. 10.3. After a certain point. performance improves. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve. In the diagram above. As stress increases further. into the optimum performance range (shaded). These prepare the body to react when presented with danger.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. Too little stress causes complacency.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. consider that arousal refers to stress. performance actually peaks. and other symptoms. from being somewhat dormant. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate.stimulation. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. acute and chronic. Flight Crew Training Centre . tension headaches.

generally requiring professional help. their child's occasional problems at school. anxious. If something can go wrong. Because it is short term. back pain. shortness of breath. jaw pain. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. Flight Crew Training Centre . and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. muscular problems including tension headache. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. and depression. and it is highly treatable and manageable. and heart disease. irritable. 10. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. stomach. migraine headaches.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. constipation. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. They're always in a rush. however. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. They take on too much. flatulence. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. and irritable bowel syndrome. a deadline they're rushing to meet. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. it does.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. they tend to be abrupt. hypertension. have too many irons in the fire. sweaty palms. but always late. dizziness. and tense. acid stomach. The work becomes a very stressful place for them. cold hands or feet. Often.3. and so on. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. the three stress emotions. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. anxiety. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. and chest pain. heart palpitations. rapid heartbeat. the loss of an important contract. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. chest pain. who suffer acute stress frequently.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. diarrhea. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility." Always in a hurry. shorttempered. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. migraines.

3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. stroke. almost comfortable. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. It's the stress of poverty. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. minds and lives. Frequently. familiar. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day.3. of dysfunctional families. change in job or responsibilities (i. Flight Crew Training Centre . Generally. They forget it's there. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. tremors. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management.3. fatal breakdown. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. They blame their woes on other people and external events. 10. More precisely. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. Chronic stress destroys bodies. and sometimes. People wear down to a final. chronic stress is not.e.3..Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. the individual gives up searching for solutions. heart arrhythmia.g. sweating. they see their lifestyle. and. violence. their patterns of interacting with others. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. hyperventilation. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. With no hope. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. 10. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. even cancer. year after year. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. which exhibits as either a physical response e. promotion to Captain). Chronic stress kills through suicide. 10. environmental and cognitive. or a mental response such as irritability. This could come in many different forms. heart attack. perhaps.

Noise arouses the individual. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety.deck. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. or in the flight. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. this will be covered later in the chapter. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. When workload is high. In the long-term.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. 10.3. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind. Two common examples could be heat and noise. However. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). either on the apron. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information. and mismanage priorities. but with a dissimilar function.3. especially when it involves an operating pilot. 10. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since.

inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. This might be due to time since awake. Typically. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). thereby inducing further errors. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. For example. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. As in the case of stress. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. Depending on the individual. when workload is at an absolute minimum. self. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. but conversely a sleep debt can build up.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. or state of awake ness. Although this can be an effective strategy. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. After some time of being awake. It cannot be stored. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. workload (physical exertion). Response time. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. On a night flight. 10. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. they may become bogged down in processing the data. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. 10. Immediately after awakening. However. with an inability to sleep further.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. this continues to improve performance until. after reaching a peak. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. the range of optimal performance is reached. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level.

will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. However. sleep is deeper rather than longer.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. 10. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. This is known as jet-lag. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. which extend the operating day. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. on the wrong time zone. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre .

In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. 11. In accidents involving human error. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. As any medical practitioner will verify. 10. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. with dire consequences in the aviation industry. is the duty of every crewmember. Others prefer mental stimulation. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. However it is often quoted without really being explained. providing awareness and in need of management. Managing stress and sleep effectively. this is a potentially dangerous practice. 11 Situational Awareness 11. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. 10. In the modern world. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role. when conducted in a structured fashion.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. This chapter will explain what it is. It is another warning flag. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. the Flight Crew Training Centre . Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief.

In addition to three levels of SA. which mitigates part of the problem. one must understand and think ahead. passengers and company). the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. automation modes. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. systems. Navigate.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. 11. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA).” This is quite complex. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. and Communicate. In a well-known phrase: Aviate. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. crew. fuel and time). Flight Crew Training Centre . It is not just enough to notice a situation. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness.

A three-stage model “Avoid. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming.focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . fixation and confusion. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. Flight Crew Training Centre .uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. Prior to descent. fuel burn. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this. less time is available for noticing and avoiding. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport. Trap.4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies .Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity. fixation and confusion exist.vague or incomplete statements 11. Avoiding error is the initial course of action. if potential problems can be identified in time. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity. Results from observations at several different airlines. The trapping phase begins at top-of. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. there is much to be concerned about here.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation .contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively .descent and leads up to the approach. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity . identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. minimums. Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. during the take-off and landing phases. After descent initiation.

this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. task management and prioritization. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. an undesired aircraft state (i. attention-sharing. unstabilized approach. 11. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. and use the speed brake if necessary. too fast etc) must be avoided. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA]. scan patterns and checklist use. However. self-monitoring. Skills relating to spatial ability. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. 11. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. communications.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. too high. contingency planning. Human error is inevitable. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA]. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. so that we can take action to improve it. there is very little time left to correct it. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. Should such a state occur. Finally. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid.e.” Flight Crew Training Centre . 11.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA.

Rotate attention from plane to path to people . maintenance.don't fixate. ATC. Speak up when you see SA breaking down. dispatch. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. Flight Crew Training Centre .8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. etc.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. Project ahead and consider contingencies. Focus on the details and scan the big picture. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions.

Helmreich.C. Merritt. (1997). Guangzhou. W. (1995). Merritt.L. Wilhelm. Cultural issues in crew resource management. 1997. R. 8-12. R.C. Helmreich. P.. Taggart. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference.0 (International) & 2.. & Merritt. (1995)... R. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. Ohio. Ooi. T. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Auckland.A..C. A. Sydney. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. 1995. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project. & Helmreich. Colombus. 1.C. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar.. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar. Cultural influences on flight operations. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. November 26-28. (1996. 1996. Merritt.. A.R. November 20-24. A. & Merritt. New Zealand. A.. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries. April-May.R. May 1995. Ohio. Colombus.. (1996). & Sherman. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2. (1996). April). (1991).L.L. Merritt. Jakarta.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4). R.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich.J.L. 1991.. stress.. R. 1997. & Helmreich. 1996. A. R. J. Merritt. P.C. Indonesia. April.C. Columbus: Ohio State University. Merritt. April-May. & Helmreich.S.L. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. CRM: I hate it.. what is it? (Error. Flight Crew Training Centre .. April 23-25. (1995). Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. (1997). Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. A. CRM Advocate. (1996). A..C.C.. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.C.L. A.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful