Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

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CRM Manual

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Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

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5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

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9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

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CRM Manual

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1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC).Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1. leadership and team management. assisted by the facilitator.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. 1. 2 Modules Content 2. 1.2. The candidates will conduct their own debrief. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools. This will be delivered during the ground school phase.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking.2. and a series of role-plays. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type. and team management skills.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2.2. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre . The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process.

5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.4 Leadership.

home. and with other humans. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. Despite improvements in technology. HPL. This includes everything from the design of a tool. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. design and engine reliability. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. Flight Crew Training Centre . Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. 3. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. to the design of a checklist. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. knowledge. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. 3. in part. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. to the brightness required of an electronic display. environment. skill and attitude. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. This is due. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues.

term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. Flight Crew Training Centre . 1990. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. 3.5 Human Error Reason (Reason.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance. In particular this means designing for error. encompassing the best of previous generations. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. especially on a long. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. Most of these errors are small. 3.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback. J. 3.

Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. Without assigning a principle cause.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. In isolation it is insignificant.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. It was but it is not an isolated case. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. Others were management failures. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. Occasionally. Some were latent failures. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. of which the operating crew are the last link. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. Reason used Swiss cheese. the holes will line up. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. occurring years ago on the drawing board. it snaps. Rather. If they can break the chain. 3. the last line of defense. Flight Crew Training Centre . There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. For example. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. but placed together they form a robust wall. the accident does not occur. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense.

) Threats . 3. (Errors made by other people ATC. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. Threats and errors are unavoidable. safe operations are the norm. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising.e. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. Flight Crew Training Centre . Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i. Regulators etc are threats to the crew.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated.e. at any level.External influences Errors . The last layer of defense is the flight-crew. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. 3. performing a checklist from memory. the accident chain is broken. Management. Engineering. the start of an accident chain. but as long as the holes do not line up.e.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. and it is up to us to break the chain. because despite the risks.

the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . However in all cases. Trap. nine common factors existed. 3. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. such as an unstabilized approach. 3.12 Avoid. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. However. These have been termed warning flags. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry.

The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. Power Distance.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. regarding all societies in the world. On the collectivist side. such as organizational. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. often extended families (with uncles. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. professional and safety culture. 4. versus its opposite. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. (which are predominantly male). we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. cohesive in-groups. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. Again. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. 4. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. Uncertainty Avoidance. 4. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre . collectivism. not to the state.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4.

Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. they try to have as few rules as possible. The opposite type. unknown. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck. and motivated by inner nervous energy. This represents inequality (more versus less). safety and security measures. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. but some are more unequal than others.   4. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. but defined from below. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. It suggests that the followers. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. of course. uncertainty accepting cultures. surprising. and different from usual. Power and inequality. Unstructured situations are novel.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. not from above. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures.

navigators and flight engineers. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. such as pilots. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. 5. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent. not what we thought we told them to do.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. or an organizational culture can prevail. including radio operators. against a conflicting trend. Furthermore. In particular.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. Flight Crew Training Centre . by a machine function. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. there can be anomalies where a professional group. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues. either physical or cognitive. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. (Norbert Wiener) 5.

roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. The latter will not be discussed here. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. accuracy and reduced costs. Flight Crew Training Centre . The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. not to mention the human (social) effects. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. 5. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. In particular. In practice this does not always happen.

Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. detecting messages in noise.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. J & George. inaccurate. Good quantitative assessment. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. accurate. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. easy to re program. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. 1986. P. Rather. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. Whiteside.Good inductive. Spine. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. T. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . difficult to re. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. Poor spoken material. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. M.” (Good. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. narrow range. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. slow. Poor program. fast. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel.

including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . an area of weakness in interface design. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. Although in some systems. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. 5. so the overall workload is drastically reduced. Overall result is reduced workload. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. resulting in further reduced workload. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. according to any change in tactical goal.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. vigilance and complacency may become issues. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. There is a reduced cognitive load. – This is a high workload situation. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. In the aviation scenario. with different cognitive skills required. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation.

5.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. communications and monitoring. 5. In particular. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. will disengage or will revert to another mode.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. Flight Crew Training Centre . The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. For this new knowledge and skills are required. Habsheim etc). Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. Cali. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. Unfortunately. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate.

Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive .10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. or subtle. 5. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear. but not replace. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. A lack of. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. easy-to-use systems. Consequently. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. 5.

5.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. Flight Crew Training Centre . and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. and authority.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. We must guard against the threats posed by automation. 6. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. Humans are capable of devising strategies. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. the Captain is the designated “leader”. which is assigned. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. In the flight-deck environment. which is acquired. Through the use of example and persuasion. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. the leader becomes a means of change and influence. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses.

3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. In addition. to decide on a course of action.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. the team and the individual. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. with use of the Assess. initiative and integrity. In fact. and be able to maintain team morale. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. Personal qualities required are those of courage.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. and Manage Decision-Making Model. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. Action. The leader must balance the demands of the task. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. will power. 6. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. from a practical view point the Captain has a right. 6. and a duty.

6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6. suggestions Giving opinions.8. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6.5 Task To achieve the task. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . With a wide variety of background. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions. manage and direct the flow of information.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate.

8. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making. Flight Crew Training Centre .8. In between.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.8.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation.

Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. but not if things are going wrong. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. using information available at that time. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. For most effective leadership.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. Together. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. a different style is adopted according to the situation. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence.

6. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. passive/critical. 1988. T. Hughes. supportive followers are as important as a leader. R. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. cited by Kern. 6. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. The role is much like that of a chairman. Flight Crew Training Centre . Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. which may differ between individuals and national cultures. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. G2. RE. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. and followership is a skill in its own right. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. Ginnett. While this might be an individual’s view. For successful team performance. Followers are a vital part of a team. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. since there are a number of nationalities. along with good communication skills.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. The optimum gradient. R & Curphy. G (Eds). that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. 1997. active/uncritical and active/critical. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate.

Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. The only way to ensure this is. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. Making a good first impression is vital. Flight Crew Training Centre . but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. 6. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. Sheep are akin to human automatons. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. Survivors are the Company men. unless identified and brought “back onside”. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. because they actively support without thinking. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers.

Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. The actual words used accounting for about 10%. as much as 90%. In the case of Jade Cargo International. 7. along with methods of eliminating them. the words used tend to be very important. Between a Captain and a First Officer. degrading language.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. This chapter describes the principles of communication. So. and very rarely are raised voices heard. This can be verbal or non-verbal information. noise is still a factor. While modern flight decks are well insulated. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck.e. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. 7. culture plays a large part. in communication within a crew. insulting. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre . Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. Barriers to communication are also identified.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations. rank could impinge on communication as well. However. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit.

While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority. By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down. the focus. 7.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. two aspects of the message content will be considered.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. 7. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. assertive. and the manner. whether on the needs of others or your own. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. aggressive. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).4. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. supportive and submissive. Flight Crew Training Centre .

Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. However this may change depending on circumstances. It is unlikely to motivate the team. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression. 7.4. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language. Referring to the matrix. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. They put themselves down. 7. However. and will likely isolate the aggressor.4. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated.4. are avoided at all times. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. In a non-critical situation. Flight Crew Training Centre .3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. such as during training or non-normal situations. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team.downs. Therefore. not recommended but part of life.

and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. be supportive. An assertive response might also be effective. will find a style that works well for them. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time. If someone is submissive. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. If the other person is submissive. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. it is likely communication that will break down completely. Each individual and in fact every team. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. In other words. their needs will be overlooked. Dealing with aggression is not easy. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation.

Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. trust and support will deteriorate. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. If conflict does occur. When conflict is dealt with constructively. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. communications may breakdown. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. objectives and values. productivity will diminish or stop. Flight Crew Training Centre . When sides are chosen. the results may be positive or negative. Differences in perceiving motives. and stretch their imagination. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. No one person or idea is perfect. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. High respect for mutual support. Differing expectations of outcomes . Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results.favorable versus unfavorable. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. test their position and beliefs. but unfortunately does occur a great deal.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. No one makes major concessions. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. Unwillingness to work through issues. the stage is set for potential conflict. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. collaborate or compromise.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. Assertive and cooperative.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. There is more than one way to do anything. 7. which will lead to better results. words. Animosities can develop. You must give to get. actions and situations.

Conflict Resolution. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. Flight Crew Training Centre . 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. It is the end result that we are interested in. rather that a model is used. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. It is not which model that is used that is important. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. or good or bad outcomes. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. 8. once in a while. Advocacy. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. Action and Critique. However. either for routine or novel situations.

Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International. Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. further modification to the RMM was required. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own.2. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided. as well as the appropriate CRM principals. 8.2. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP). indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. 8. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM.

to make sure we fully understand the implications. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. This does not always produce the best solution. By staying below the line as much as possible. the problem and the solution. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution.Information seeking. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. Flight Crew Training Centre . there are two typical responses. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action. its implications and how much time is available. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). seeking more information about it. Whenever a problem is encountered at work.

all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . In all cases. EFIS architecture.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). is a valuable problem. A fast decision may not always be the correct one. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. 8.  Time Critical situations require immediate action.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. In the latter case. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. Time can be considered as. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. immediate action is required. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. losing vital feedback. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. but will probably be accepted. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). using a traffic light system. A solution in the form of a question however. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. Open questions allow more options. Once a time frame has been established. when there is little available. others may be less time dependent. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. On the other hand.solving resource. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. critical. available and required. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). may at best get a query in response. this limits the opportunity for assessment.

5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. prioritize. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. test understanding. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. the Captain must manage. prioritize. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. 8. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. test understanding propose. NAVIGATE. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. seek information. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. test understanding. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. propose. Flight Crew Training Centre . Good teamwork needs good communication.

it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. the task need is paramount. all the circles are the same size. 8. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. When the process is complete. Once the Group is informed and placated.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line. Flight Crew Training Centre . Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. including the navigation away from terrain. it is time to manage. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. Once this is under control. obstacles and weather. 8. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. However. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. For example in the first stages of a diversion. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. It is a circular or iterative process.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. the team and the individual. An important point here is that you do not rush.

An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. we receive information. do something with that information and then act on it. In the same way. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. Flight Crew Training Centre .3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. these are known as “mental models”. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. 9. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. but functionally can be quite accurate.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9. output functions and an internal processing function. individuals create internal representations of how systems work. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness.

2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. 9. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation.4.4. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this. sound and touch. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. 9. 9. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. This is quite normal. During a busy. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . but it is not being ignored completely. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. are actually switching from one to the other.4 Input functions 9. sight. Perception is incredibly powerful. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. not all of them get through to the processing stage. touch. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it.4. sound.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. smell and taste. but only a limited signal can be conveyed. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. so much that. if we miss-perceive an event. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. even though they do not have the loudest voice.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time.

typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. the original message has been replayed by the mind. short-term and long-term. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible.6. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash.6. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. speed 310.6 Processing Functions 9. descend 180. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds.6. unless it is consciously being dealt with.72”.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information. 9. Another type of memory is sensory memory. you have as little as 0.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. which really belongs with the input functions. expect 150 by xxx. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory. and retained by conscious attention. 9. and contact 119. Flight Crew Training Centre . 9.

manageable by most. 9. long after the event. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. 9. For example. patterns or mini theories. and Mitigate). Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. such as ATM (Avoid. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. even if the correct data has never been learned. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events.6. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree.6. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. However the problem is not with forgetting.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. Trap. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver …. Flight Crew Training Centre . but with inability to retrieve or access the information. but becomes irretrievable due to interference.. but it is top secret.

the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. It can only deal with one issue at a time.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. in particular responses to RTO. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. The events of September 11. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks.6.6. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. 9. 9. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. this is when the action has become a learned routine. as they are referred to by the date itself. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre .6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. however it is a single channel device.

It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. Some of these place physical strains on the body. Our interest is human performance. Performance varies with a number of factors. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both. some a combination of both.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. In this respect. 9. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. This chapter covers the effects of stress. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body. stress and fatigue produce similar results.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre . sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. others mental strains. including workload and circadian rhythms.

Initially. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. The right side shows over stimulation.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. upset stomach. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. and other symptoms. as stress increases. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. Flight Crew Training Centre . for example. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under.stimulation. and then falls away. performance actually peaks. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve. acute and chronic. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. into the optimum performance range (shaded). require the crew to be at optimal performance. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. In the diagram above. but too much is exhausting. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. Too little stress causes complacency. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise. Critical phases of flight. As stress increases further. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. tension headaches. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. After a certain point. consider that arousal refers to stress.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. from being somewhat dormant. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. largely impossible. 10. performance improves. 10. such as take-off and landing. is exhilarating early in the day. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. By the same token.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below.3.

their child's occasional problems at school. but always late. back pain. stomach. and irritable bowel syndrome. they tend to be abrupt. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. dizziness.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. Flight Crew Training Centre . migraines. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. it does. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. and so on. and tense. heart palpitations. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. If something can go wrong. rapid heartbeat. have too many irons in the fire. and heart disease. Because it is short term. sweaty palms. 10. a deadline they're rushing to meet. chest pain.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. They're always in a rush. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. hypertension. and it is highly treatable and manageable. the loss of an important contract. anxious. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. the three stress emotions. Often.3. jaw pain. and depression. irritable. cold hands or feet. and chest pain. They take on too much. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. acid stomach. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. migraine headaches. shorttempered. constipation. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. however. The work becomes a very stressful place for them. anxiety." Always in a hurry. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. generally requiring professional help. who suffer acute stress frequently. muscular problems including tension headache. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. flatulence. shortness of breath. diarrhea.

their patterns of interacting with others. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. 10. perhaps. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. Frequently. of dysfunctional families. sweating. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress.g. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. violence. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. heart attack. and sometimes. 10. change in job or responsibilities (i.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. People wear down to a final. almost comfortable. which exhibits as either a physical response e. environmental and cognitive. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. hyperventilation.3. Generally. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. they see their lifestyle. familiar. heart arrhythmia. More precisely. promotion to Captain). It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition.. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career.3. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. This could come in many different forms. Chronic stress destroys bodies.3. stroke. or a mental response such as irritability. even cancer. year after year. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. It's the stress of poverty. Flight Crew Training Centre . and.e. 10.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. With no hope. minds and lives. tremors. fatal breakdown. Chronic stress kills through suicide.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. chronic stress is not. They forget it's there. They blame their woes on other people and external events. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. the individual gives up searching for solutions. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation.

Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. In the long-term. and mismanage priorities. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind. Two common examples could be heat and noise. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . When workload is high. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss.3. 10.3. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. this will be covered later in the chapter. either on the apron. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”.deck. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). but with a dissimilar function. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. or in the flight.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. 10. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. However. Noise arouses the individual. especially when it involves an operating pilot. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task.

On a night flight. Typically. This might be due to time since awake. Response time. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. As in the case of stress. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. For example. the range of optimal performance is reached. they may become bogged down in processing the data. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. Immediately after awakening. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). when workload is at an absolute minimum. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. self. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. 10. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre .discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. or state of awake ness. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. After some time of being awake. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. However. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. It cannot be stored. thereby inducing further errors. Although this can be an effective strategy. after reaching a peak. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. Depending on the individual. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. workload (physical exertion). lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. 10. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. with an inability to sleep further. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. this continues to improve performance until.

the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . which extend the operating day. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. However. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. This is known as jet-lag. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. on the wrong time zone. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. 10. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. sleep is deeper rather than longer. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings.

Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. It is another warning flag. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief. In the modern world. 10. the Flight Crew Training Centre . with dire consequences in the aviation industry. In accidents involving human error. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role. However it is often quoted without really being explained. As any medical practitioner will verify. 11. 10. Managing stress and sleep effectively. when conducted in a structured fashion. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. Others prefer mental stimulation. this is a potentially dangerous practice. 11 Situational Awareness 11. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. is the duty of every crewmember. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. This chapter will explain what it is.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. providing awareness and in need of management. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief.

The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. In a well-known phrase: Aviate. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. automation modes. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. 11. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. In addition to three levels of SA.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. one must understand and think ahead. which mitigates part of the problem. systems. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. Navigate. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. passengers and company). why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. crew.” This is quite complex. fuel and time). and Communicate. Flight Crew Training Centre . It is not just enough to notice a situation. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA).

4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. during the take-off and landing phases. there is much to be concerned about here. Prior to descent. After descent initiation. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies .contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively . Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. minimums. if potential problems can be identified in time. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport. Results from observations at several different airlines. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations.Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. fixation and confusion exist.uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA. A three-stage model “Avoid. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity . Avoiding error is the initial course of action. fuel burn.vague or incomplete statements 11. less time is available for noticing and avoiding. fixation and confusion. The trapping phase begins at top-of.descent and leads up to the approach. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. Trap. Flight Crew Training Centre .focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation . identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity.

I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. 11. 11. Skills relating to spatial ability. communications. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA]. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. attention-sharing. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. unstabilized approach. scan patterns and checklist use. and use the speed brake if necessary.” Flight Crew Training Centre . The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach.e. Should such a state occur.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. so that we can take action to improve it. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA]. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent. self-monitoring.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. Finally.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. 11. too fast etc) must be avoided. Human error is inevitable. contingency planning. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. too high. there is very little time left to correct it. task management and prioritization. However. an undesired aircraft state (i. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up.

It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. ATC. Flight Crew Training Centre .8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. maintenance. Rotate attention from plane to path to people . dispatch.don't fixate. Speak up when you see SA breaking down. etc. Focus on the details and scan the big picture. Project ahead and consider contingencies. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11.

Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture.L. R. November 26-28. Jakarta. (1996). A. Helmreich.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. Ooi. (1996). The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. Merritt.. (1995). (1997). Wilhelm.A. Cultural influences on flight operations. A. Merritt. stress. April 23-25. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.C. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. Columbus: Ohio State University. 1991.. Merritt. W.. 1. 8-12. May 1995.C.C. CRM Advocate. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2.. April.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4). & Merritt. Colombus.C. (1996.J.. Merritt.S.L. what is it? (Error.C. CRM: I hate it. P.L. A. Colombus. (1997).. Ohio. Cultural issues in crew resource management.0 (International) & 2. (1991). 1997.. R. A. New Zealand. Flight Crew Training Centre .. Merritt. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference. (1995). A. Taggart. & Helmreich. R. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. (1995). University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project. (1996).C. P. A.R... Helmreich.. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. & Helmreich. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries.. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium.. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar. T. A. Auckland. Indonesia.C. April-May. Sydney.. April-May.C.R. Guangzhou. 1996. April). 1996. Merritt. R. Ohio.L. A.C. 1997.L. R.. November 20-24. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. & Sherman. & Merritt. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.L. J. R. 1995. & Helmreich.

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