Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

Page: TOC-1

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

Page: TOC-3

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

Page: TOC-3

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

Page: 4

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type. and a series of role-plays.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre .6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. The candidates will conduct their own debrief.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). 2 Modules Content 2.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2. 1. 1.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1. leadership and team management.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2.2. and team management skills. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor. assisted by the facilitator. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes.2. This will be delivered during the ground school phase. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools.2.

8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .4 Leadership.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.

Flight Crew Training Centre . home. design and engine reliability. to the brightness required of an electronic display. HPL. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. 3. skill and attitude.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. Despite improvements in technology. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. in part. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. 3. environment.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. to the design of a checklist. This includes everything from the design of a tool. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. This is due. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. knowledge. and with other humans. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain.

6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. 3. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. encompassing the best of previous generations. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management.5 Human Error Reason (Reason. J. In particular this means designing for error. especially on a long. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. 1990. Most of these errors are small. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. 3. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. 3. Flight Crew Training Centre . Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills.

If they can break the chain. For example.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. In isolation it is insignificant. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. Occasionally. it snaps. Some were latent failures. Without assigning a principle cause.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. but placed together they form a robust wall. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. Rather. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. the last line of defense. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. occurring years ago on the drawing board. the accident does not occur. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. It was but it is not an isolated case. of which the operating crew are the last link. Others were management failures. the holes will line up. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. Flight Crew Training Centre . 3. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. Reason used Swiss cheese. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years.

9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one.) Threats . performing a checklist from memory. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i. the start of an accident chain. the accident chain is broken. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. Regulators etc are threats to the crew. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. (Errors made by other people ATC. safe operations are the norm. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard. 3. Management. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures.e. Threats and errors are unavoidable. Flight Crew Training Centre . Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising. and it is up to us to break the chain.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i. 3.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense.External influences Errors . Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. Engineering.e. but as long as the holes do not line up. because despite the risks.e. at any level. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors.

3. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed.12 Avoid. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist. Trap. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. However in all cases. such as an unstabilized approach. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. These have been termed warning flags. However. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. nine common factors existed. 3.

Uncertainty Avoidance. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. professional and safety culture. often extended families (with uncles. 4. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. (which are predominantly male). cohesive in-groups. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. Again. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre . having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. regarding all societies in the world. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. 4. Power Distance. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. such as organizational. On the collectivist side.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. 4. versus its opposite. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. not to the state. collectivism. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group.

“A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. but defined from below. and motivated by inner nervous energy. Power and inequality. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. This represents inequality (more versus less). People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. not from above. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. of course. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck. uncertainty accepting cultures. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. Unstructured situations are novel. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. The opposite type. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. and different from usual.   4.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. but some are more unequal than others. they try to have as few rules as possible. safety and security measures. It suggests that the followers. unknown. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. surprising.

7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. Furthermore. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. not what we thought we told them to do. In particular. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. (Norbert Wiener) 5. Flight Crew Training Centre . It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. such as pilots.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. by a machine function. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. or an organizational culture can prevail. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. either physical or cognitive. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. navigators and flight engineers. including radio operators. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. 5. against a conflicting trend. there can be anomalies where a professional group.

it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines. not to mention the human (social) effects. Flight Crew Training Centre . often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. accuracy and reduced costs. The latter will not be discussed here. In particular.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. 5. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job. In practice this does not always happen.

narrow range. detecting messages in noise. Spine. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. P. Poor program.Good inductive. Good quantitative assessment. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. slow. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. Poor spoken material. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. easy to re program. difficult to re. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. inaccurate. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need.” (Good. T. Whiteside. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. M. 1986. J & George. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . fast. Rather. accurate. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material.

In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. In the aviation scenario. vigilance and complacency may become issues. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. an area of weakness in interface design. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. – This is a high workload situation. Although in some systems. according to any change in tactical goal. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. resulting in further reduced workload. There is a reduced cognitive load. with different cognitive skills required.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. Overall result is reduced workload. so the overall workload is drastically reduced. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. 5. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot.

Cali.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that. Flight Crew Training Centre . the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. Unfortunately. The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. communications and monitoring. will disengage or will revert to another mode. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. 5.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. For this new knowledge and skills are required. In particular. Habsheim etc). The report identified links between automation and situational awareness. 5. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya.

These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. easy-to-use systems.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. A lack of. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive. Consequently.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective. or subtle.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. but not replace. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . 5. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. 5. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating.

An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined. 6.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. which is acquired. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. In the flight-deck environment. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. which is assigned. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. and authority. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. Humans are capable of devising strategies.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. 5. We must guard against the threats posed by automation. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. the leader becomes a means of change and influence. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. the Captain is the designated “leader”. Through the use of example and persuasion. Flight Crew Training Centre .

6. In fact. Action. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. to decide on a course of action. the team and the individual. with use of the Assess. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. Personal qualities required are those of courage. from a practical view point the Captain has a right. will power. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. initiative and integrity. and a duty. and Manage Decision-Making Model. In addition. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre .4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. and be able to maintain team morale. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. The leader must balance the demands of the task. 6. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action.

To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6.5 Task To achieve the task. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6. manage and direct the flow of information.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.8. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck. suggestions Giving opinions. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6. With a wide variety of background.

how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative.8. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. In between.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6.8.8. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation.

Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. For most effective leadership. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. using information available at that time. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. a different style is adopted according to the situation. but not if things are going wrong. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . Together. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information.

1997. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. G (Eds). The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. and followership is a skill in its own right. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. RE. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. Ginnett. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. R. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. cited by Kern. Flight Crew Training Centre . While this might be an individual’s view. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. G2. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. since there are a number of nationalities. Hughes. active/uncritical and active/critical. along with good communication skills.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. Followers are a vital part of a team. passive/critical.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. R & Curphy. For successful team performance. The role is much like that of a chairman. 6. 1988. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. supportive followers are as important as a leader. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. The optimum gradient. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. T. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. 6. which may differ between individuals and national cultures.

Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. Flight Crew Training Centre . Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. Survivors are the Company men. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. unless identified and brought “back onside”. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. Sheep are akin to human automatons. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. Making a good first impression is vital. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. because they actively support without thinking. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. 6. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. The only way to ensure this is.

as much as 90%. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. This can be verbal or non-verbal information.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. In the case of Jade Cargo International. along with methods of eliminating them.e. in communication within a crew. The actual words used accounting for about 10%.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. However. 7. 7. rank could impinge on communication as well. the words used tend to be very important. This chapter describes the principles of communication. degrading language. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck. insulting. culture plays a large part.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. So. Barriers to communication are also identified. While modern flight decks are well insulated. Between a Captain and a First Officer. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre . and very rarely are raised voices heard. noise is still a factor. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication.

1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. two aspects of the message content will be considered. supportive and submissive.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. Flight Crew Training Centre . While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority.4. and the manner. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced. the focus. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. aggressive. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. 7. 7. whether on the needs of others or your own. assertive.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required.

Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. In a non-critical situation. and will likely isolate the aggressor. However.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. such as during training or non-normal situations. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. It is unlikely to motivate the team.4.downs. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. not recommended but part of life.4. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. are avoided at all times. Flight Crew Training Centre . The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. 7. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. 7.4. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves. They put themselves down. Therefore. Referring to the matrix. However this may change depending on circumstances.

The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. Each individual and in fact every team. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. be supportive. Flight Crew Training Centre . This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time. If someone is submissive.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. it is likely communication that will break down completely. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. Dealing with aggression is not easy. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. If the other person is submissive. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. An assertive response might also be effective. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. In other words.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. their needs will be overlooked. will find a style that works well for them. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication.

Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. actions and situations. objectives and values. When conflict is dealt with constructively. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. Unwillingness to work through issues. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. Assertive and cooperative. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. Differences in perceiving motives. 7. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. If conflict does occur. No one person or idea is perfect. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. which will lead to better results. There is more than one way to do anything. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. Animosities can develop. communications may breakdown.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. the stage is set for potential conflict. the results may be positive or negative. Flight Crew Training Centre . It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. High respect for mutual support. Differing expectations of outcomes . Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. When sides are chosen. You must give to get. collaborate or compromise. depending on how those involved choose to approach it.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs.favorable versus unfavorable. words. and stretch their imagination. trust and support will deteriorate. No one makes major concessions.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. productivity will diminish or stop. test their position and beliefs.

rather that a model is used. It is not which model that is used that is important. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. either for routine or novel situations.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. or good or bad outcomes. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. 8. However. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. It is the end result that we are interested in. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. Flight Crew Training Centre . Action and Critique. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making. Advocacy.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world. once in a while. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. Conflict Resolution.

Flight Crew Training Centre . as well as the appropriate CRM principals. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following. 8.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International.2. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA.2. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided. Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. 8. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However. further modification to the RMM was required.2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP).

to make sure we fully understand the implications. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. Flight Crew Training Centre . Whenever a problem is encountered at work.Information seeking. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. seeking more information about it.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. the problem and the solution. there are two typical responses. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. This does not always produce the best solution. By staying below the line as much as possible. its implications and how much time is available. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation.

using a traffic light system. losing vital feedback. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction.solving resource.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. A fast decision may not always be the correct one. critical. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. but will probably be accepted. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. In all cases. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. On the other hand. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. 8. may at best get a query in response. Once a time frame has been established. A solution in the form of a question however. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). available and required. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS.  Time Critical situations require immediate action. is a valuable problem. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. immediate action is required. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). others may be less time dependent. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. Open questions allow more options. Time can be considered as. when there is little available. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. this limits the opportunity for assessment. all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. In the latter case. EFIS architecture.

NAVIGATE. test understanding. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. seek information. prioritize. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. test understanding. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. the Captain must manage. 8. Good teamwork needs good communication.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. test understanding propose. prioritize. Flight Crew Training Centre . An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. propose. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information.

8 Manage Once the action has been completed. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. However. Once the Group is informed and placated. It is a circular or iterative process. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. the team and the individual. Flight Crew Training Centre . obstacles and weather. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions. all the circles are the same size. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. 8. For example in the first stages of a diversion. the task need is paramount. 8. including the navigation away from terrain. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. it is time to manage. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. An important point here is that you do not rush. Once this is under control. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. When the process is complete. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore.

1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. but functionally can be quite accurate. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. we receive information. output functions and an internal processing function.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. In the same way. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. 9. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. individuals create internal representations of how systems work. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. these are known as “mental models”.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. do something with that information and then act on it.

The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal.4. sound and touch.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information.4. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. sound. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. During a busy. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this.4. even though they do not have the loudest voice. Perception is incredibly powerful. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. 9. sight. 9. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. This is quite normal. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. touch. 9. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. are actually switching from one to the other.4 Input functions 9. not all of them get through to the processing stage. if we miss-perceive an event. so much that.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. smell and taste. but it is not being ignored completely. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise. but only a limited signal can be conveyed.

speed 310.6. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits.6 Processing Functions 9. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. descend 180. which really belongs with the input functions. Flight Crew Training Centre . We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information. unless it is consciously being dealt with. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. 9. and contact 119. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible. Another type of memory is sensory memory. short-term and long-term. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. expect 150 by xxx. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain.6. and retained by conscious attention. 9. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost.72”.6. the original message has been replayed by the mind. 9. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. you have as little as 0.

Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. but becomes irretrievable due to interference.. Flight Crew Training Centre . manageable by most. even if the correct data has never been learned. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. 9. However the problem is not with forgetting. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. and Mitigate). Trap. long after the event. For example. but with inability to retrieve or access the information. but it is top secret. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver …. such as ATM (Avoid. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal.6. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. 9. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. patterns or mini theories.6. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines.

Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is.6. 9. this is when the action has become a learned routine. 9. in particular responses to RTO. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. however it is a single channel device. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. as they are referred to by the date itself. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre . the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. It can only deal with one issue at a time.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. The events of September 11.6. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category.

some a combination of both. including workload and circadian rhythms. In this respect.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. Some of these place physical strains on the body. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body. others mental strains. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both. This chapter covers the effects of stress. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. stress and fatigue produce similar results. Our interest is human performance. 9. Performance varies with a number of factors.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre .

These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. 10. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve. require the crew to be at optimal performance. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. performance actually peaks. as stress increases. Flight Crew Training Centre . acute and chronic. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise.stimulation.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. largely impossible. By the same token. is exhilarating early in the day. but too much is exhausting. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. 10. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. for example. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. upset stomach. After a certain point. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. from being somewhat dormant. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human.3. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. tension headaches. As stress increases further.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate. such as take-off and landing. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. Too little stress causes complacency. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. In the diagram above. and other symptoms. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. consider that arousal refers to stress. The right side shows over stimulation. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. and then falls away. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. performance improves. Initially. into the optimum performance range (shaded).2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. Critical phases of flight. A fast run down a challenging ski slope.

a deadline they're rushing to meet. have too many irons in the fire. rapid heartbeat. anxious. they tend to be abrupt.3. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. and it is highly treatable and manageable. who suffer acute stress frequently. and irritable bowel syndrome. and heart disease.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. shortness of breath." Always in a hurry. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. cold hands or feet.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. migraine headaches. back pain. They're always in a rush. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. hypertension. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. diarrhea. and so on. If something can go wrong. sweaty palms. but always late. Because it is short term. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. the loss of an important contract. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. and tense. jaw pain. The work becomes a very stressful place for them. their child's occasional problems at school. muscular problems including tension headache. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. and depression. migraines. flatulence. shorttempered. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. generally requiring professional help. it does. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. irritable. the three stress emotions. Often. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. chest pain. stomach. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. heart palpitations. and chest pain. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. anxiety. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. constipation. acid stomach. however. 10. They take on too much. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. dizziness.

heart attack.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are.3. With no hope. chronic stress is not. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. and. violence. minds and lives. and sometimes.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. of dysfunctional families. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. perhaps. They blame their woes on other people and external events. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. 10.3. stroke.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. promotion to Captain).e. their patterns of interacting with others. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. sweating. the individual gives up searching for solutions. 10. They forget it's there. It's the stress of poverty. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. People wear down to a final.. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. 10. Flight Crew Training Centre . There are three broad sources of stressor: life. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. they see their lifestyle. even cancer. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. hyperventilation. almost comfortable. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. year after year. Frequently. heart arrhythmia. Generally. More precisely. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. fatal breakdown. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. tremors. which exhibits as either a physical response e. This could come in many different forms. or a mental response such as irritability. familiar. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. Chronic stress destroys bodies. environmental and cognitive.g. Chronic stress kills through suicide. change in job or responsibilities (i.3.

Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed.deck. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one.3. Noise arouses the individual. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. but with a dissimilar function. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). or in the flight. In the long-term. especially when it involves an operating pilot. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. However. and mismanage priorities. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident. 10.3. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information. When workload is high. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. Two common examples could be heat and noise. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. either on the apron. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. 10. this will be covered later in the chapter.

Depending on the individual. However. they may become bogged down in processing the data. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. Typically. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. It cannot be stored. the range of optimal performance is reached. humans will trade off speed against accuracy.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. or state of awake ness. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. Immediately after awakening. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. when workload is at an absolute minimum. this continues to improve performance until. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. 10. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. workload (physical exertion). leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. As in the case of stress. Response time. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). Although this can be an effective strategy. On a night flight. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. After some time of being awake. thereby inducing further errors. 10. but conversely a sleep debt can build up.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. For example.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. This might be due to time since awake. with an inability to sleep further. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. after reaching a peak. self.

Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. This is known as jet-lag. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. sleep is deeper rather than longer. which extend the operating day. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. 10. on the wrong time zone. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. However. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction.

In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports. 10. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. It is another warning flag.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. However it is often quoted without really being explained. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. As any medical practitioner will verify. In accidents involving human error. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. 11 Situational Awareness 11. providing awareness and in need of management. This chapter will explain what it is. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. Managing stress and sleep effectively. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. is the duty of every crewmember. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. 11. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. this is a potentially dangerous practice. the Flight Crew Training Centre . 10. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. In the modern world. when conducted in a structured fashion. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief. with dire consequences in the aviation industry.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. Others prefer mental stimulation.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty.

The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next.” This is quite complex. Flight Crew Training Centre . then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. fuel and time). Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. crew. which mitigates part of the problem. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. Navigate. passengers and company). The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. It is not just enough to notice a situation. automation modes. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA). In a well-known phrase: Aviate. and Communicate. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. one must understand and think ahead. 11. systems. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. In addition to three levels of SA.

less time is available for noticing and avoiding.Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. The trapping phase begins at top-of. there is much to be concerned about here. Trap. Results from observations at several different airlines.vague or incomplete statements 11. Prior to descent.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively . After descent initiation. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity.descent and leads up to the approach. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity . regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies . fuel burn.4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. fixation and confusion. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. fixation and confusion exist. if potential problems can be identified in time.uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA.focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation . minimums. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. Flight Crew Training Centre . identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. Avoiding error is the initial course of action. during the take-off and landing phases. A three-stage model “Avoid. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming.

if mitigation seems to be the key factor.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. 11. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. 11.e. Should such a state occur. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. too high. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. scan patterns and checklist use. Skills relating to spatial ability.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. so that we can take action to improve it. there is very little time left to correct it. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. Human error is inevitable. an undesired aircraft state (i. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. contingency planning. self-monitoring. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). communications. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA].7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. too fast etc) must be avoided. and use the speed brake if necessary. unstabilized approach. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. 11. attention-sharing. task management and prioritization. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. Finally. However. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA]. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent.” Flight Crew Training Centre . potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach.

Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. etc. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level.don't fixate. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. Speak up when you see SA breaking down. Focus on the details and scan the big picture. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. ATC. maintenance. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. Project ahead and consider contingencies. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. dispatch. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. Rotate attention from plane to path to people .

C. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.C. (1996). (1995). April. A. & Helmreich. CRM: I hate it. R. & Helmreich. 1997. Merritt.C. stress. A.0 (International) & 2.. Taggart. Jakarta.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4).C. A. Guangzhou. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar. A. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference. New Zealand.C. Merritt.L. CRM Advocate. R. (1996. A. what is it? (Error. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. April-May. May 1995. Indonesia. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture. J. A. W. Helmreich. T. Helmreich. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries. Cultural influences on flight operations.. Ohio. R.A. April-May. Cultural issues in crew resource management... Colombus. Auckland. 1991. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues.. (1995). P. Merritt. R.. & Sherman. (1991). P. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Wilhelm. 1997. A.C. (1997). November 26-28. 1996. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. 1995. R.L. Ooi.. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2. November 20-24.L.. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project.. 1.J. (1995). The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. R.S. (1996).. April 23-25. (1996). April).C.L. Merritt. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar.L..R. & Merritt. (1997).... Merritt. Flight Crew Training Centre . A.C. Merritt. 1996. Sydney.L. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. & Helmreich.R. Colombus. Ohio. Columbus: Ohio State University. 8-12. & Merritt..Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich.C.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful