Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

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CRM Manual

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Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

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5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

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9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

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CRM Manual

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1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

assisted by the facilitator. and a series of role-plays.2.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1. This will be delivered during the ground school phase.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes. 2 Modules Content 2.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools.2. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process. leadership and team management. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). The candidates will conduct their own debrief. 1. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type. and team management skills. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre .2.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course. 1.

9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre . Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.4 Leadership.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.

This includes everything from the design of a tool. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. 3. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace. in part. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. to the brightness required of an electronic display. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. design and engine reliability. HPL. skill and attitude. to the design of a checklist. environment. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. and with other humans. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. home. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. Despite improvements in technology.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. knowledge. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. This is due. 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. Flight Crew Training Centre . Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues.

6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. 3. Most of these errors are small.5 Human Error Reason (Reason. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance. 3. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. Flight Crew Training Centre . encompassing the best of previous generations.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. 1990. J. especially on a long.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. 3. In particular this means designing for error. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback.

It was but it is not an isolated case. Rather. it snaps. Without assigning a principle cause.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. the accident does not occur. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. Reason used Swiss cheese. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. If they can break the chain. Others were management failures. occurring years ago on the drawing board. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. 3. In isolation it is insignificant. but placed together they form a robust wall. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. Some were latent failures. For example. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. Flight Crew Training Centre . This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. Occasionally. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. the last line of defense. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. the holes will line up.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. of which the operating crew are the last link.

but as long as the holes do not line up. Engineering.e. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i.e.External influences Errors . Flight Crew Training Centre . because despite the risks. at any level. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. (Errors made by other people ATC. 3. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one. performing a checklist from memory. Threats and errors are unavoidable. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence. 3.e. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. Management. safe operations are the norm. the accident chain is broken. and it is up to us to break the chain. Regulators etc are threats to the crew. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. the start of an accident chain. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors.) Threats .

The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed. such as an unstabilized approach. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. However.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. nine common factors existed. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. These have been termed warning flags. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist. Trap. 3. However in all cases. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . 3.12 Avoid. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors.

On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. (which are predominantly male). On the collectivist side. often extended families (with uncles. 4. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. professional and safety culture. Uncertainty Avoidance. cohesive in-groups. not to the state. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. Again. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. Power Distance. 4.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre . 4. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. collectivism. such as organizational. versus its opposite. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. regarding all societies in the world. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit.

uncertainty accepting cultures. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. surprising. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. unknown. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. It suggests that the followers. and motivated by inner nervous energy. safety and security measures. The opposite type. Unstructured situations are novel. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal.   4.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. but defined from below. This represents inequality (more versus less).5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. of course. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck. not from above. Power and inequality. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. they try to have as few rules as possible. but some are more unequal than others. and different from usual. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient.

not what we thought we told them to do. there can be anomalies where a professional group. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. or an organizational culture can prevail. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. navigators and flight engineers. (Norbert Wiener) 5. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. such as pilots.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. by a machine function. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. Furthermore. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. In particular. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. Flight Crew Training Centre . 5. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. either physical or cognitive. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. against a conflicting trend. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. including radio operators. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”.

often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. In particular. In practice this does not always happen. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. accuracy and reduced costs. 5. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines. not to mention the human (social) effects.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. The latter will not be discussed here. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface.

User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. Spine. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges.” (Good. narrow range. T. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. M. inaccurate. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. accurate. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. Poor program. Rather.Good inductive. P. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. Good quantitative assessment. fast. J & George. easy to re program. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. difficult to re. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. Poor spoken material. 1986. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. detecting messages in noise. Whiteside. slow.

Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. so the overall workload is drastically reduced. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. – This is a high workload situation. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. according to any change in tactical goal. 5. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. an area of weakness in interface design. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. There is a reduced cognitive load.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. resulting in further reduced workload.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. vigilance and complacency may become issues. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. with different cognitive skills required. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. In the aviation scenario. Although in some systems. Overall result is reduced workload.

Cali. Flight Crew Training Centre . 5. communications and monitoring. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. For this new knowledge and skills are required. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. 5. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. will disengage or will revert to another mode. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. Unfortunately.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. Habsheim etc). The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. In particular. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft.

The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. easy-to-use systems.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. or subtle.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear. Consequently. A lack of. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive .Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated. 5. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. but not replace. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. 5.

6. and authority. In the flight-deck environment. Through the use of example and persuasion.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. the leader becomes a means of change and influence. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader. the Captain is the designated “leader”. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. We must guard against the threats posed by automation. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. Humans are capable of devising strategies. which is assigned. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. 5. which is acquired. Flight Crew Training Centre .

The leader must balance the demands of the task. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. and a duty. to decide on a course of action. will power. and be able to maintain team morale. In fact. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. 6. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. and Manage Decision-Making Model. the team and the individual. from a practical view point the Captain has a right.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. 6. with use of the Assess. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. Action. In addition.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. Personal qualities required are those of courage.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. initiative and integrity. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action.

consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead.5 Task To achieve the task. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs. manage and direct the flow of information. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre .7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6. suggestions Giving opinions. With a wide variety of background.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6.8. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task.

Flight Crew Training Centre .3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6.8.8. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader. In between. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.

Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. For most effective leadership. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. but not if things are going wrong. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. Together. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . a different style is adopted according to the situation. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. using information available at that time. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions.

R. Flight Crew Training Centre . For successful team performance. 6. RE. since there are a number of nationalities. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. 6. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. cited by Kern. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. “Kelly’s” (Kelly.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. The optimum gradient. The role is much like that of a chairman. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. which may differ between individuals and national cultures. Followers are a vital part of a team. T. passive/critical. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. supportive followers are as important as a leader. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. G2. active/uncritical and active/critical. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. along with good communication skills. 1988. While this might be an individual’s view. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. and followership is a skill in its own right. G (Eds). Hughes.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. Ginnett. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. R & Curphy. 1997.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability.

not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. 6. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. Sheep are akin to human automatons. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. Survivors are the Company men. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. unless identified and brought “back onside”. Flight Crew Training Centre . to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. Making a good first impression is vital. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. The only way to ensure this is. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. because they actively support without thinking. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers.

culture plays a large part. However. the words used tend to be very important. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit. So. and very rarely are raised voices heard. noise is still a factor. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck. 7. This chapter describes the principles of communication. In the case of Jade Cargo International. Barriers to communication are also identified. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. While modern flight decks are well insulated. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. insulting. This can be verbal or non-verbal information. 7. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. degrading language. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. Between a Captain and a First Officer. The actual words used accounting for about 10%. rank could impinge on communication as well. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. along with methods of eliminating them. in communication within a crew.e.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. as much as 90%. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution.

While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. supportive and submissive. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. 7.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. and the manner. 7. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. Flight Crew Training Centre . assertive. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. the focus. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced. whether on the needs of others or your own.4. two aspects of the message content will be considered. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down. aggressive. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority.

Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. They put themselves down. It is unlikely to motivate the team. Referring to the matrix.4. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. In a non-critical situation. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. and will likely isolate the aggressor. such as during training or non-normal situations. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves.4. This is a “no-go” area for us at work.4. However this may change depending on circumstances.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. However.downs. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. Flight Crew Training Centre . A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such. Therefore. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team. 7.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. not recommended but part of life. are avoided at all times. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated. 7.

This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. Flight Crew Training Centre . Dealing with aggression is not easy. be supportive. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. If the other person is submissive. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. If someone is submissive. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time. it is likely communication that will break down completely. their needs will be overlooked. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. In other words. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. Each individual and in fact every team. will find a style that works well for them. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. An assertive response might also be effective. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication.

Unwillingness to work through issues. No one makes major concessions.favorable versus unfavorable. productivity will diminish or stop.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. When sides are chosen. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. objectives and values. 7. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. actions and situations. test their position and beliefs. Animosities can develop. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. Differences in perceiving motives. which will lead to better results. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. You must give to get.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. collaborate or compromise. When conflict is dealt with constructively. the stage is set for potential conflict. Flight Crew Training Centre . Differing expectations of outcomes . High respect for mutual support.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. If conflict does occur. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. There is more than one way to do anything. No one person or idea is perfect. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. communications may breakdown. trust and support will deteriorate. words. and stretch their imagination. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. the results may be positive or negative. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. Assertive and cooperative.

8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. However. Action and Critique.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. or good or bad outcomes. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. once in a while. It is the end result that we are interested in. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world. Flight Crew Training Centre . either for routine or novel situations. 8. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. It is not which model that is used that is important. Advocacy. rather that a model is used.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. Conflict Resolution. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions.

Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International. further modification to the RMM was required. Flight Crew Training Centre . During each of the phases specific guidance is provided.2. 8. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However.2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP). The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. as well as the appropriate CRM principals. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. 8.2. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”.

its implications and how much time is available. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. By staying below the line as much as possible. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained. there are two typical responses. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. Flight Crew Training Centre . This does not always produce the best solution. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. the problem and the solution. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line).Information seeking.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. seeking more information about it. Whenever a problem is encountered at work. to make sure we fully understand the implications. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action.

all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. others may be less time dependent. this limits the opportunity for assessment. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. immediate action is required. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE].   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. A solution in the form of a question however. A fast decision may not always be the correct one.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. In all cases. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). On the other hand. losing vital feedback. Once a time frame has been established. but will probably be accepted. Time can be considered as. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. 8. is a valuable problem. when there is little available.solving resource. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. Open questions allow more options. using a traffic light system. In the latter case. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. available and required. may at best get a query in response. critical.  Time Critical situations require immediate action. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . EFIS architecture. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS).

summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. prioritize. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. Flight Crew Training Centre . An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. seek information. prioritize. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. test understanding propose. propose. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. NAVIGATE.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. the Captain must manage. 8. test understanding. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. Good teamwork needs good communication. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. test understanding. delegation] Remember that in complex situations.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE.

all the circles are the same size.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. Once the Group is informed and placated. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. the team and the individual. Once this is under control. For example in the first stages of a diversion. the task need is paramount. 8. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. obstacles and weather. An important point here is that you do not rush. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. Flight Crew Training Centre . including the navigation away from terrain. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. However. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. 8. When the process is complete. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. it is time to manage. It is a circular or iterative process.

Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. these are known as “mental models”.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. Flight Crew Training Centre . Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. output functions and an internal processing function.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. do something with that information and then act on it. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. 9. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. individuals create internal representations of how systems work. but functionally can be quite accurate. In the same way. we receive information. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system.

Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. sound and touch. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. sound. are actually switching from one to the other. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). so much that. This is quite normal. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. not all of them get through to the processing stage. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. Perception is incredibly powerful. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us.4 Input functions 9. 9. but it is not being ignored completely. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal. if we miss-perceive an event. 9. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone. but only a limited signal can be conveyed. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us. During a busy. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function.4.4. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. even though they do not have the loudest voice.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . smell and taste. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9.4. sight.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. touch.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. 9. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task.

6 Processing Functions 9.72”. 9.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. the original message has been replayed by the mind. which really belongs with the input functions. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears. 9.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. speed 310. short-term and long-term. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain. Flight Crew Training Centre .6. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. 9. descend 180.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds. Another type of memory is sensory memory. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. and retained by conscious attention.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory. you have as little as 0. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. expect 150 by xxx.6. unless it is consciously being dealt with. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation.6. and contact 119. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits.

Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever. However the problem is not with forgetting. such as ATM (Avoid. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. but it is top secret. but becomes irretrievable due to interference. 9.. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. and Mitigate).Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. long after the event. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. Flight Crew Training Centre . One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver …. 9. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. even if the correct data has never been learned.6. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. For example. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. Trap. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. manageable by most.6. but with inability to retrieve or access the information. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. patterns or mini theories.

There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. The events of September 11. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre . 9. the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. this is when the action has become a learned routine. in particular responses to RTO. 9. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. however it is a single channel device. It can only deal with one issue at a time. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category. as they are referred to by the date itself.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially.6.

It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. This chapter covers the effects of stress. Some of these place physical strains on the body.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. In this respect. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. 9. including workload and circadian rhythms. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre . stress and fatigue produce similar results. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both. Performance varies with a number of factors. others mental strains.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body. some a combination of both. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. Our interest is human performance.

Flight Crew Training Centre . performance actually peaks. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. such as take-off and landing. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. which differs according to individuals and within individuals.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. Critical phases of flight. and then falls away. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve. 10. performance improves. 10. After a certain point.3. In the diagram above. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. consider that arousal refers to stress. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. require the crew to be at optimal performance. largely impossible. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. acute and chronic. from being somewhat dormant.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. for example. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. as stress increases. Too little stress causes complacency. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. and other symptoms. The right side shows over stimulation. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. By the same token. upset stomach. into the optimum performance range (shaded). within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise. but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. tension headaches. is exhilarating early in the day. but too much is exhausting. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. As stress increases further.stimulation. Initially.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin.

migraine headaches. and it is highly treatable and manageable. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. If something can go wrong. anxious. Flight Crew Training Centre . jaw pain. heart palpitations. who suffer acute stress frequently. and irritable bowel syndrome. the loss of an important contract. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. rapid heartbeat. they tend to be abrupt. anxiety. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. muscular problems including tension headache. dizziness. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress." Always in a hurry. hypertension. diarrhea. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. constipation. back pain. chest pain. 10. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. but always late. migraines. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. and so on. Because it is short term. acid stomach. and heart disease. generally requiring professional help. flatulence. and tense. shorttempered. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. sweaty palms.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. The work becomes a very stressful place for them. the three stress emotions.3. Often. a deadline they're rushing to meet. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. They take on too much. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. have too many irons in the fire. and chest pain. cold hands or feet. however. their child's occasional problems at school. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. stomach.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. They're always in a rush. irritable. shortness of breath. and depression. it does.

heart arrhythmia. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. heart attack. environmental and cognitive. and. More precisely.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. Generally. People wear down to a final. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. Chronic stress destroys bodies. stroke. It's the stress of poverty. the individual gives up searching for solutions. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. of dysfunctional families. minds and lives. change in job or responsibilities (i. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. they ignore chronic stress because it is old.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. familiar. Flight Crew Training Centre .e. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. they see their lifestyle. promotion to Captain). year after year. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. They blame their woes on other people and external events. Frequently. chronic stress is not. almost comfortable.3. They forget it's there. 10. 10. With no hope. perhaps. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. This could come in many different forms. sweating.3. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. which exhibits as either a physical response e. 10. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. Chronic stress kills through suicide. and sometimes. even cancer.. tremors. violence. their patterns of interacting with others.3. or a mental response such as irritability. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. hyperventilation. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. fatal breakdown. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition.g.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress.

and mismanage priorities. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. However. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. but with a dissimilar function. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. Noise arouses the individual. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. 10. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. especially when it involves an operating pilot. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). When workload is high. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG.deck. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident. In the long-term. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. or in the flight.3. either on the apron.3. this will be covered later in the chapter.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. Two common examples could be heat and noise.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. 10.

the range of optimal performance is reached. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. this continues to improve performance until. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. Although this can be an effective strategy. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. As in the case of stress. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. after reaching a peak.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. 10. with an inability to sleep further. when workload is at an absolute minimum. After some time of being awake.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. This might be due to time since awake. For example. workload (physical exertion). Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). Typically. self. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. However. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. On a night flight. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. they may become bogged down in processing the data.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. or state of awake ness. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. Depending on the individual. Response time. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. Immediately after awakening. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. thereby inducing further errors. 10. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. It cannot be stored. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms.

will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. sleep is deeper rather than longer.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. rather than eastbound which compresses the day.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. which extend the operating day. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. However. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. on the wrong time zone. This is known as jet-lag. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. 10.

1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. 10. with dire consequences in the aviation industry.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. It is another warning flag. This chapter will explain what it is. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. As any medical practitioner will verify. this is a potentially dangerous practice. 10.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. However it is often quoted without really being explained. when conducted in a structured fashion. is the duty of every crewmember. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. Managing stress and sleep effectively. 11 Situational Awareness 11. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. the Flight Crew Training Centre . Others prefer mental stimulation. 11. In the modern world. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. In accidents involving human error. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. providing awareness and in need of management. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role.

It is not just enough to notice a situation. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. crew. 11. In addition to three levels of SA.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. Navigate. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. systems. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next.” This is quite complex. automation modes. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. Flight Crew Training Centre . the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. which mitigates part of the problem. In a well-known phrase: Aviate. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA). passengers and company). one must understand and think ahead. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. fuel and time).3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. and Communicate.

Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. fuel burn.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively . Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. fixation and confusion. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming. there is much to be concerned about here. Avoiding error is the initial course of action.vague or incomplete statements 11.Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this. Trap. identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. less time is available for noticing and avoiding. minimums. Flight Crew Training Centre . during the take-off and landing phases. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. fixation and confusion exist. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies .uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA. The trapping phase begins at top-of. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity. Results from observations at several different airlines. A three-stage model “Avoid.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation .descent and leads up to the approach. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. if potential problems can be identified in time. After descent initiation. Prior to descent. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity .focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase.4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground.

self-monitoring. 11. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. However. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. unstabilized approach. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. contingency planning. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA]. Should such a state occur. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands. Skills relating to spatial ability.e. and use the speed brake if necessary. 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. communications. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. Finally. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. scan patterns and checklist use. too fast etc) must be avoided. an undesired aircraft state (i. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. 11. attention-sharing. too high. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA]. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning. Human error is inevitable. so that we can take action to improve it. there is very little time left to correct it. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors.” Flight Crew Training Centre . task management and prioritization.

Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. Flight Crew Training Centre . Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. Rotate attention from plane to path to people . The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. ATC.don't fixate. Speak up when you see SA breaking down. etc. Project ahead and consider contingencies. Focus on the details and scan the big picture. dispatch. maintenance. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan.

CRM Advocate. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.. Merritt. Guangzhou. (1991).C.. (1996).A.R.C. Ohio. Flight Crew Training Centre . & Merritt. R. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries.. A. Cultural influences on flight operations. W. November 26-28. 1997. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. Colombus.. April. P. Merritt. Cultural issues in crew resource management. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project. what is it? (Error. A.C. A. (1997).C. Ohio.S.C. & Sherman.. Helmreich. Colombus. (1996). Merritt. CRM: I hate it.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. Sydney. (1996). and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar.L. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. April).0 (International) & 2. Merritt. 1995. Indonesia.C. 8-12.R. A. 1996. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2.. Ooi. Helmreich. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture. November 20-24. (1995)... stress.J. Merritt. A..L. New Zealand.C.. Taggart..C.L. R. (1995).1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4).C. 1996. 1991. & Merritt. 1997. May 1995. Columbus: Ohio State University.L. A. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. April-May.. April-May. Auckland.. R. Merritt. & Helmreich. Jakarta. & Helmreich. (1996.. A. 1.L. (1997). Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar. R. (1995).. P. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. J. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.L. April 23-25. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. R. T. & Helmreich. A. R. Wilhelm.

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