Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

Page: TOC-1

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

Page: TOC-3

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

Page: TOC-3

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

Page: 4

CRM Manual

Date: January 2008

1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

2. and team management skills. leadership and team management. 2 Modules Content 2.2.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2. This will be delivered during the ground school phase.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre . and a series of role-plays. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor. The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools. 1.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process.2.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1. The candidates will conduct their own debrief. assisted by the facilitator. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking. 1.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type.

Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.4 Leadership.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2.

and with other humans. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. environment. This is due. home. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. Flight Crew Training Centre . Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. to the brightness required of an electronic display. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical. 3. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. in part. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. HPL. knowledge. This includes everything from the design of a tool. skill and attitude. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. to the design of a checklist.Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. design and engine reliability. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. Despite improvements in technology. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. 3. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline.

with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. 1990. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills. 3. J.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. In particular this means designing for error. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. Flight Crew Training Centre . 3.5 Human Error Reason (Reason. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. 3. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance. especially on a long. Most of these errors are small. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. encompassing the best of previous generations.

This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. Some were latent failures. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. the accident does not occur. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. If they can break the chain. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. For example. Rather. occurring years ago on the drawing board. In isolation it is insignificant.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place. but placed together they form a robust wall. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. the last line of defense. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. Occasionally. Without assigning a principle cause. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. Reason used Swiss cheese. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. it snaps. Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. the holes will line up. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. Flight Crew Training Centre . 3. Others were management failures. of which the operating crew are the last link. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain.Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap. It was but it is not an isolated case.

e. the start of an accident chain. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events. 3. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. at any level. 3. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. the accident chain is broken.e.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one.External influences Errors .e. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. safe operations are the norm. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising. Management. Threats and errors are unavoidable. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i.) Threats . performing a checklist from memory. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. but as long as the holes do not line up. Flight Crew Training Centre . (Errors made by other people ATC. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. and it is up to us to break the chain. Regulators etc are threats to the crew. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. because despite the risks.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. Engineering. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard. The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential.

We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed. However. However in all cases. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist. nine common factors existed.12 Avoid. Trap. 3.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. These have been termed warning flags. 3. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre .11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. such as an unstabilized approach. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger.

“Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. cohesive in-groups. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. often extended families (with uncles. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. collectivism. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. regarding all societies in the world. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. On the collectivist side. not to the state. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. versus its opposite. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre . On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. 4. Power Distance. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. Uncertainty Avoidance. professional and safety culture. Again. Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. such as organizational. 4.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. 4. (which are predominantly male).

are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. Unstructured situations are novel. safety and security measures. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. Power and inequality. “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. and not expected by their environment to express emotions. not from above. surprising. unknown. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. and motivated by inner nervous energy. of course. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. but some are more unequal than others. It suggests that the followers. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. This represents inequality (more versus less). Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. uncertainty accepting cultures. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck.   4. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. and different from usual. they try to have as few rules as possible. The opposite type. but defined from below.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs.

against a conflicting trend. there can be anomalies where a professional group. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. Furthermore. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. 5. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. such as pilots. either physical or cognitive.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. by a machine function. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. or an organizational culture can prevail. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. including radio operators.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. (Norbert Wiener) 5. navigators and flight engineers. not what we thought we told them to do. Flight Crew Training Centre . it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. In particular. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do.

” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. Flight Crew Training Centre . it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines. 5. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation. In practice this does not always happen. not to mention the human (social) effects. accuracy and reduced costs. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. In particular.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. The latter will not be discussed here. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern.

Whiteside. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need. Poor spoken material. J & George.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. narrow range. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. fast. P. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. T. accurate. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. detecting messages in noise. M.Good inductive. Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. inaccurate.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. 1986. Spine. Poor program.” (Good. Good quantitative assessment. easy to re program. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre . difficult to re. Rather. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. slow.

Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. resulting in further reduced workload. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course.5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft. In the aviation scenario.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. Overall result is reduced workload. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. There is a reduced cognitive load.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. vigilance and complacency may become issues. with different cognitive skills required. so the overall workload is drastically reduced. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. an area of weakness in interface design. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. according to any change in tactical goal. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. 5. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. Although in some systems. – This is a high workload situation.

In particular. 5. Cali.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. communications and monitoring. For this new knowledge and skills are required. will disengage or will revert to another mode. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. Habsheim etc). Unfortunately. having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot.6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. 5. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance. The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5.

Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective. easy-to-use systems. or subtle. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear. Consequently. 5.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive .9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. but not replace. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated. A lack of. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating.

and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. Through the use of example and persuasion. We must guard against the threats posed by automation. which is assigned. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. the leader becomes a means of change and influence. which is acquired. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. 5. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader. 6.Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. In the flight-deck environment.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. Humans are capable of devising strategies. and authority. Flight Crew Training Centre . Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. the Captain is the designated “leader”. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers.

Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. 6. from a practical view point the Captain has a right. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. The leader must balance the demands of the task. In fact. and be able to maintain team morale. with use of the Assess. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. to decide on a course of action. In addition. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. Personal qualities required are those of courage. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. initiative and integrity.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. will power. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. and a duty. 6. and Manage Decision-Making Model. Action. the team and the individual. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems.

manage and direct the flow of information. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6. suggestions Giving opinions. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . With a wide variety of background.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs.5 Task To achieve the task. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6.8. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck. To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6.

how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation. Flight Crew Training Centre .8. In between.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6.8.

while monitoring to assure necessary performance.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. a different style is adopted according to the situation. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. using information available at that time. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . Together. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. but not if things are going wrong. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. For most effective leadership. Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above.

“Kelly’s” (Kelly. T. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. Followers are a vital part of a team. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. 6. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. cited by Kern. 6. Flight Crew Training Centre . which may differ between individuals and national cultures. For successful team performance. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority. 1997. R. Hughes. active/uncritical and active/critical. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. G2. G (Eds). predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. and followership is a skill in its own right. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. The optimum gradient. While this might be an individual’s view. The role is much like that of a chairman. since there are a number of nationalities. The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. passive/critical. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. supportive followers are as important as a leader. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. 1988. R & Curphy. Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. Ginnett. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. RE. along with good communication skills.

A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo. and actively supportive without being “yes men”. unless identified and brought “back onside”. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. Flight Crew Training Centre . not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. Survivors are the Company men. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. because they actively support without thinking. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. 6. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. Sheep are akin to human automatons. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. Making a good first impression is vital. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. The only way to ensure this is.

So. This can be verbal or non-verbal information. This chapter describes the principles of communication. While modern flight decks are well insulated. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. However. rank could impinge on communication as well.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. along with methods of eliminating them.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. the words used tend to be very important. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. culture plays a large part. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. 7. Between a Captain and a First Officer.e. as much as 90%. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre . In the case of Jade Cargo International. in communication within a crew. insulting. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. The actual words used accounting for about 10%. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations. 7. Barriers to communication are also identified. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck. noise is still a factor. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. and very rarely are raised voices heard. degrading language.

assertive.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. supportive and submissive. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. whether on the needs of others or your own. 7. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. Flight Crew Training Centre . This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority.4. two aspects of the message content will be considered. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down. the focus.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people. aggressive. 7. and the manner. The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced.

It is unlikely to motivate the team.4. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put.downs. Flight Crew Training Centre . Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. However. not recommended but part of life.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. and will likely isolate the aggressor.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. 7. Referring to the matrix. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors. are avoided at all times. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. such as during training or non-normal situations. In a non-critical situation. With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. They put themselves down.4. 7.4. Therefore. Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one. However this may change depending on circumstances.

The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. In other words. their needs will be overlooked. Dealing with aggression is not easy. If the other person is submissive. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. be supportive. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. Flight Crew Training Centre . and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation. If someone is submissive. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict.5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. will find a style that works well for them. Each individual and in fact every team. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. it is likely communication that will break down completely. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. An assertive response might also be effective. but leads to good understanding when accomplished.

When conflict is dealt with constructively. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. Assertive and cooperative. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. the results may be positive or negative.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. communications may breakdown. and stretch their imagination. which will lead to better results. objectives and values. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. productivity will diminish or stop. Unwillingness to work through issues. test their position and beliefs. If conflict does occur. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. collaborate or compromise. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. No one person or idea is perfect. the stage is set for potential conflict.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. and the damage is usually difficult to repair. Flight Crew Training Centre .favorable versus unfavorable. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas. actions and situations. No one makes major concessions. trust and support will deteriorate. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. There is more than one way to do anything. High respect for mutual support. words. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. Animosities can develop. 7. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis. When sides are chosen. Differing expectations of outcomes .7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. Differences in perceiving motives. The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. You must give to get.

however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. 8. either for routine or novel situations. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience. Flight Crew Training Centre . Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. Action and Critique. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. It is not which model that is used that is important.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. once in a while. Conflict Resolution. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. However. rather that a model is used. This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. It is the end result that we are interested in. or good or bad outcomes. Advocacy. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry.

according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures.2. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However. as well as the appropriate CRM principals.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. 8. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”. During each of the phases specific guidance is provided. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following. Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP).1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. 8. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. further modification to the RMM was required.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International.2.

to make sure we fully understand the implications. This does not always produce the best solution. Whenever a problem is encountered at work. there are two typical responses. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). seeking more information about it. A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation. Flight Crew Training Centre . it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. the problem and the solution. By staying below the line as much as possible. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained.Information seeking. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. its implications and how much time is available. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution.

A solution in the form of a question however. it is possible to prioritize accordingly. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action. In the latter case. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. when there is little available. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. using a traffic light system. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. In all cases. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern. taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays.solving resource. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. Time can be considered as.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. others may be less time dependent. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. may at best get a query in response. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. Once a time frame has been established.  Time Critical situations require immediate action. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . On the other hand. critical. Open questions allow more options. this limits the opportunity for assessment. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution. losing vital feedback. available and required. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. 8. is a valuable problem. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. but will probably be accepted. all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. EFIS architecture. immediate action is required. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well).   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. A fast decision may not always be the correct one.

Flight Crew Training Centre . seek information.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information. prioritize. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. propose. test understanding. An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. test understanding. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. test understanding propose. 8. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. NAVIGATE. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. the Captain must manage. prioritize. Good teamwork needs good communication. delegation] Remember that in complex situations.

With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. For example in the first stages of a diversion. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. the team and the individual. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line. Flight Crew Training Centre . 8. all the circles are the same size. It is a circular or iterative process. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. the task need is paramount.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. When the process is complete. An important point here is that you do not rush. However. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task. including the navigation away from terrain. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. 8. obstacles and weather. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions. Once the Group is informed and placated. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. it is time to manage. It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. Once this is under control. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight.

do something with that information and then act on it. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. we receive information. individuals create internal representations of how systems work. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply. 9.2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. but functionally can be quite accurate.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. In the same way. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. output functions and an internal processing function. Flight Crew Training Centre .1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information. these are known as “mental models”.

We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task. touch. so much that. 9. but it is not being ignored completely. 9.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9. Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it. sight. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name). Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. Perception is incredibly powerful. if we miss-perceive an event. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. smell and taste.5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. are actually switching from one to the other. but only a limited signal can be conveyed. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . During a busy. 9. not all of them get through to the processing stage.4. sound. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time.4. This is quite normal. sound and touch. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone.4 Input functions 9. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues.4. even though they do not have the loudest voice. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation.

1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. speed 310. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits.6. 9.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. and retained by conscious attention.6. you have as little as 0. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. Flight Crew Training Centre . We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information. Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information. descend 180. expect 150 by xxx. 9. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. which really belongs with the input functions.72”. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory.6 Processing Functions 9. and contact 119. short-term and long-term. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears.6. 9.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost. Another type of memory is sensory memory. unless it is consciously being dealt with. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions. the original message has been replayed by the mind.

. For example. patterns or mini theories. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. such as ATM (Avoid. but it is top secret. manageable by most. It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. 9. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. but becomes irretrievable due to interference. even if the correct data has never been learned. Flight Crew Training Centre .6. but with inability to retrieve or access the information. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. Trap. 9. and Mitigate). This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. However the problem is not with forgetting. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines.6.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage. long after the event. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver ….

or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre . It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them.7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. 9. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000].6. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. however it is a single channel device. this is when the action has become a learned routine. as they are referred to by the date itself. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are. in particular responses to RTO. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. 9.6. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. It can only deal with one issue at a time.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. The events of September 11.

Performance varies with a number of factors.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. stress and fatigue produce similar results. some a combination of both. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. including workload and circadian rhythms. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. 9. In this respect. others mental strains. This chapter covers the effects of stress. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both.1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. Our interest is human performance. Some of these place physical strains on the body. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre . Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness.

but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. performance improves. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. as stress increases. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. from being somewhat dormant. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. Flight Crew Training Centre . largely impossible. Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. into the optimum performance range (shaded). Critical phases of flight. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. After a certain point. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. Initially. Too little stress causes complacency. 10. such as take-off and landing. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. and other symptoms. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. As stress increases further. By the same token. performance actually peaks. upset stomach. In the diagram above. The right side shows over stimulation. The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. 10. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise. require the crew to be at optimal performance. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance.stimulation. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. for example.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress.3. acute and chronic. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. tension headaches. but too much is exhausting.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. is exhilarating early in the day. and then falls away. consider that arousal refers to stress. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under.

migraine headaches. the three stress emotions. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. 10. Because it is short term. diarrhea. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. hypertension. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. irritable. If something can go wrong. back pain. their child's occasional problems at school. sweaty palms. a deadline they're rushing to meet. It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. and heart disease. chest pain. The work becomes a very stressful place for them. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. They take on too much. anxiety. jaw pain. They're always in a rush. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. Often. dizziness. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. anxious. cold hands or feet. however. and so on. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. and tense.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. shortness of breath. acid stomach. but always late. constipation. and irritable bowel syndrome. and depression. stomach. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. heart palpitations.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life." Always in a hurry. generally requiring professional help.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. muscular problems including tension headache. shorttempered. they tend to be abrupt. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. have too many irons in the fire. and chest pain. migraines. it does.3. who suffer acute stress frequently. and it is highly treatable and manageable. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. flatulence. Flight Crew Training Centre . the loss of an important contract. rapid heartbeat.

stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. Generally. There are three broad sources of stressor: life. violence.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. stroke. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. environmental and cognitive. heart arrhythmia. People wear down to a final. hyperventilation. even cancer. promotion to Captain).3. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. They forget it's there.3. their patterns of interacting with others. they see their lifestyle. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. 10. almost comfortable. or a mental response such as irritability. which exhibits as either a physical response e.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. and sometimes. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. 10. change in job or responsibilities (i. fatal breakdown. year after year. minds and lives. heart attack. 10. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives.3.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. familiar. Chronic stress kills through suicide. perhaps. Some examples are: marriage or divorce.. It's the stress of poverty. Chronic stress destroys bodies. the individual gives up searching for solutions. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. chronic stress is not. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. Frequently. More precisely. tremors. This could come in many different forms. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. and. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career.e. Flight Crew Training Centre . sweating. They blame their woes on other people and external events. With no hope. of dysfunctional families.g.

In the long-term. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information. Two common examples could be heat and noise. but with a dissimilar function. The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations.3. 10.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind. However. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . 10. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine). Noise arouses the individual. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. this will be covered later in the chapter. either on the apron. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident.deck. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. especially when it involves an operating pilot. or in the flight.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. and mismanage priorities. When workload is high.3. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task.

Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre .discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. For example. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. self. Immediately after awakening. It cannot be stored. after reaching a peak. they may become bogged down in processing the data. Depending on the individual. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). but conversely a sleep debt can build up. the range of optimal performance is reached. this continues to improve performance until. with an inability to sleep further. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. This might be due to time since awake. However. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). 10. workload (physical exertion). this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities. Typically. On a night flight. the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. thereby inducing further errors. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. or state of awake ness.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. Response time. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. when workload is at an absolute minimum.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning. After some time of being awake. As in the case of stress. Although this can be an effective strategy. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. 10. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock.

The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. This is known as jet-lag. However. which extend the operating day. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. 10. The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. sleep is deeper rather than longer. on the wrong time zone. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction.

who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. the Flight Crew Training Centre . this is a potentially dangerous practice. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. However it is often quoted without really being explained. This chapter will explain what it is. 10. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. with dire consequences in the aviation industry. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. 11 Situational Awareness 11. is the duty of every crewmember. In accidents involving human error. Managing stress and sleep effectively. It is another warning flag. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. In the modern world.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations. 11. providing awareness and in need of management.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. 10. This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. As any medical practitioner will verify. Others prefer mental stimulation. when conducted in a structured fashion.

but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness. Navigate.” This is quite complex. Flight Crew Training Centre . The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next. crew. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. fuel and time). Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. passengers and company). If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA). which mitigates part of the problem. In addition to three levels of SA. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path. It is not just enough to notice a situation. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. systems.Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. and Communicate. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. 11. automation modes. one must understand and think ahead. In a well-known phrase: Aviate.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness.

uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this. fixation and confusion exist. fixation and confusion. during the take-off and landing phases. there is much to be concerned about here. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity . fuel burn. A three-stage model “Avoid.vague or incomplete statements 11. After descent initiation. Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. Flight Crew Training Centre . Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. Results from observations at several different airlines.4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground.information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation . if potential problems can be identified in time. less time is available for noticing and avoiding. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity. minimums. identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase.descent and leads up to the approach. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. Avoiding error is the initial course of action. Prior to descent. The trapping phase begins at top-of. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies . In fact most are within seven miles of the airport. Trap.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively .focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion .Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity.

11. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. However. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. 11. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach. By analyzing how we deal with the problem.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. too high. unstabilized approach. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK.e. and use the speed brake if necessary. there is very little time left to correct it. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. Should such a state occur. 11. too fast etc) must be avoided. scan patterns and checklist use. an undesired aircraft state (i. communications. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning.” Flight Crew Training Centre . self-monitoring. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. so that we can take action to improve it. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA]. Finally. attention-sharing.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. contingency planning. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. Human error is inevitable. potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. Skills relating to spatial ability. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA]. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. task management and prioritization.

dispatch. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan. Speak up when you see SA breaking down. Flight Crew Training Centre . It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. etc.don't fixate.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. Project ahead and consider contingencies. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. Rotate attention from plane to path to people . but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. maintenance. ATC. Focus on the details and scan the big picture.

Merritt. Sydney.. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. R. 8-12. Auckland. & Merritt. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar.C. R.C. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference. A. Cultural influences on flight operations. (1995).. (1996). Cultural issues in crew resource management. (1996). Columbus: Ohio State University. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. A. R. CRM: I hate it. & Merritt. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar.. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries.. Ohio. A. November 20-24.C..C. 1991. Jakarta. Colombus. A.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4). & Helmreich. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. T. (1997). Ooi.R. (1991). P. Wilhelm.L. April 23-25. & Sherman. 1996. CRM Advocate. (1996).L. R. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project. April-May. Merritt. & Helmreich. May 1995. Ohio.C. (1997). J. A. April).C.. Colombus.. Taggart.L.. A. 1997.J. A.C. & Helmreich. (1995).. 1997.C. Merritt.. what is it? (Error..A.0 (International) & 2. W. R. New Zealand. Helmreich.R. A.S.L. Flight Crew Training Centre . Merritt. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. (1996. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China. April.. R. Merritt. April-May. stress...L.L. Helmreich. 1996. Guangzhou. 1. 1995. November 26-28. Merritt.C. Indonesia. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture.. P. (1995).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful