Manual No.

: JCI-13

Jade Cargo International Co. Ltd. Crew Resource Management MANUAL (January 2008) Revision Status: Original

Approved By Flight Crew Training Section

Acknowledgement and credit for most of the content of this manual is hereby given to Emirates and SAA

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CRM Manual

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Table of Contents 1 CRM Training................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 4 1.2 Courses...................................................................................................4 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course.............................................................. 4 1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course........................................................... 4 1.2.3 CRM Update Course..................................................................... 4 1.2.4 CRM Recurrent Training................................................................5 1.2.5 CRM Upgrade Training..................................................................5 1.2.6 CRM Transition CRM.................................................................... 5 2 Modules Content.............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Threat and Error Management............................................................... 5 2.2 Culture.................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Automation.............................................................................................. 5 2.4 Leadership, Followership & Team Dynamics......................................... 6 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)............. 6 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making.......................................................6 2.7 Cognition................................................................................................. 6 2.8 Stress & Alertness Management............................................................ 6 2.9 Situational Awareness............................................................................ 6 3 Threat and Error Management.........................................................................7 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................. 7 3.2 CRM Training in Aviation........................................................................ 7 3.3 Human Performance...............................................................................7 3.4 Evolution of CRM.................................................................................... 8 3.5 Human Error........................................................................................... 8 3.6 Human Factors In Design....................................................................... 8 3.7 The Error Chain...................................................................................... 9 3.8 Swiss Cheese......................................................................................... 9 3.9 Threat and Error Management............................................................. 10 3.10 Threat and Error..................................................................................10 3.11 Warning Flags.....................................................................................11 3.12 Avoid, Trap, Mitigate........................................................................... 11 4 Culture............................................................................................................12 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 12 4.2 National Culture.................................................................................... 12 4.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV)........................................................... 12 4.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors................................................................... 12 4.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)................................................................. 13 4.6 Power Distance (PDI)........................................................................... 13 4.7 Organizational and Professional Culture.............................................. 14 5 Automation..................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 14 5.2 Flight Deck Automation.........................................................................14 5.3 What to Automate................................................................................. 15 5.4 Fitts’ List................................................................................................ 16 5.5 The Automation Pyramid...................................................................... 17 5.6 The Irony of Automation....................................................................... 18

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5.7 The Automation Issue........................................................................... 18 5.8 Interfaces.............................................................................................. 18 5.9 Feedback.............................................................................................. 19 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer............................................................ 19 5.11 Ergonomic Design Principles.............................................................. 19 5.12 Conclusion.......................................................................................... 20 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics................................................................... 20 6.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 20 6.2 Leadership............................................................................................ 20 6.3 Leadership Theory................................................................................ 21 6.4 Action-Centred Leadership................................................................... 21 6.5 Task...................................................................................................... 22 6.6 Team Building and Maintenance.......................................................... 22 6.7 Individual Development and Satisfaction.............................................. 22 6.8 The Role of Leader............................................................................... 22 6.8.1 Regulating Information Flow........................................................ 22 6.8.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities................................. 23 6.8.3 Motivating Crew Members........................................................... 23 6.8.4 Leadership Styles........................................................................ 23 6.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient.................................................................... 25 6.10 Followership........................................................................................25 6.11 Team Dynamics.................................................................................. 26 7 Communication.............................................................................................. 27 7.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 27 7.2 Principles of Communication................................................................ 27 7.3 Communication Barriers....................................................................... 27 7.4 Communication Styles.......................................................................... 28 7.4.1 Assertive Behavior [a1]................................................................28 7.4.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2].............................................................29 7.4.3 Supportive Behavior [s1]............................................................. 29 7.4.4 Submissive Behavior [s2]............................................................ 29 7.5 Dealing with Aggression....................................................................... 30 7.6 Conflict Resolution................................................................................ 31 7.7 Problem Solving....................................................................................31 7.8 Compromising....................................................................................... 31 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making.......................................................... 32 8.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 32 8.2 Structured Decision Making.................................................................. 32 8.2.1 The Model “Footprint”.................................................................. 33 8.2.2 Providing “Seamless Integration”................................................ 33 8.3 A Problem-Solving Model..................................................................... 34 8.4 Time Management................................................................................ 35 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model.........................36 8.6 Assess.................................................................................................. 37 8.7 Action.................................................................................................... 37 8.8 Manage................................................................................................. 37 9 Cognition........................................................................................................ 38 9.1 Introduction........................................................................................... 38 9.2 Models.................................................................................................. 38
Flight Crew Training Centre

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9.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain............................................................. 38 9.4 Input functions.......................................................................................39 9.4.1 Senses.........................................................................................39 9.4.2 Attention.......................................................................................39 9.4.3 Divided Attention......................................................................... 39 9.5 Perception............................................................................................. 39 9.6 Processing Functions........................................................................... 40 9.6.1 Memory........................................................................................40 9.6.2 Sensory Memory......................................................................... 40 9.6.3 Short-Term Memory.................................................................... 40 9.6.4 Long-Term Memory..................................................................... 41 9.6.5 Flashbulb Memory....................................................................... 41 9.6.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker.............................................. 42 9.6.7 Problems with Decision Making...................................................42 9.7 Conclusion............................................................................................ 43 10 Stress and Alertness.................................................................................... 43 10.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 43 10.2 Stress.................................................................................................. 44 10.3 Types of Stress................................................................................... 44 10.3.1 Acute Stress.............................................................................. 44 10.3.2 Episodic Acute Stress................................................................45 10.3.3 Chronic Stress........................................................................... 46 10.3.4 Sources of Stress...................................................................... 46 10.3.5 Life Stress..................................................................................46 10.3.6 Environmental Stress................................................................ 47 10.3.7 Cognitive Stress........................................................................ 47 10.4 Alertness............................................................................................. 48 10.5 Sleep Management.............................................................................48 10.6 Circadian Rhythms..............................................................................49 10.7 Stress and Alertness Management.....................................................50 10.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck...................................................... 50 11 Situational Awareness..................................................................................50 11.1 Introduction......................................................................................... 50 11.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA)................................................... 50 11.3 Loss of Situational Awareness............................................................51 11.4 The Safety Window.............................................................................52 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management.................................. 53 11.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness............................................ 53 11.7 Communication and Shared Situational Awareness.......................... 53 11.8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management...............54 12 Reference Notes.......................................................................................... 55

Flight Crew Training Centre

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CRM Manual

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1 CRM Training
1.1 Introduction
CRM training will be provided to all Jade Cargo International pilots in accordance with the policy contained within the Flight Operations Manual. CRM training provided to Jade Cargo International pilots is based on the requirements of the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations (CAAC) and also meets the requirements of other regulatory bodies.

1.2 Courses 1.2.1 CRM Introduction Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Introduction Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. The Initial Course will be applied to all new pilots upon entry to Jade Cargo International. It is designed to introduce pilots who have received prior Human Performance training with other airlines to the concepts in use at Jade Cargo International. The required time is prior to transition training. It is designed to be complementary to the Transition Course (see below). The duration of the course is one day.

1.2.2 CRM Indoctrination Course
The Jade Cargo International CRM Indoctrination Course is a “CAAC” approved course conducted by Jade Cargo International staff. The course is not assessable. Most pilots joining Jade Cargo International will have completed Human Performance training as part of their license requirements; however CRM is viewed as specific to the airline. Therefore, the purpose of this course is to deliver Jade Cargo International perspective on CRM, expanding on the introductory course that has already been completed. The duration of the course is two days and is designed to be applied in isolation. The award of a Certificate of Completion and registration with Crew Records signifies successful completion of a course.

1.2.3 CRM Update Course
Jade Cargo International designates a three-year training cycle for CRM. This cycle is deemed to begin when a pilot completes his transition training with Jade Cargo International. To revalidate a pilot’s CRM training at the end of the cycle, a one day update course is conducted.
Flight Crew Training Centre

2. The content of this CRM component is designed by the Head of Training in co-ordination with the CRM Instructor. 2 Modules Content 2.4 CRM Recurrent Training Jade Cargo International pilots receive a recurrent CRM component as part of the recurrent training package approved by the (CAAC). The role-plays are designed to allow upgrade candidates to use the decisionmaking tools. leadership and team management. The candidates will conduct their own debrief. The course consists of a review of decisionmaking.2.Page: 5 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 1.3 Automation   Impact of automation Appropriate use of automation Flight Crew Training Centre . assisted by the facilitator.6 CRM Transition CRM Jade Cargo International includes a CRM component in all type transition courses. This will be delivered during the ground school phase. 1. 1. The course is tailored to suit the specific requirements of each aircraft type.1 Threat and Error Management       Nature of human performance & error A model of human error Threat and error defined Latent threats Defenses Managing error 2. They will be conducted in a cockpit environment and videotaped where appropriate for debriefing purposes.5 CRM Upgrade Training Jade Cargo International requires all candidates for Command training to receive an intensive CRM course.2 Culture     The characteristics of National culture Influence of Professional & Organizational culture Defenses against multi-cultural threats Safety culture within Jade Cargo International 2. and a series of role-plays. and team management skills. This has proven to be a powerful tool to reinforce the learning process.2.

8 Stress & Alertness Management    Types and sources of stress Fatigue & sleep management Jade Cargo International policy and procedures 2.5 Communication (Communication Styles & Conflict Resolution)     Model for effective communication Source of Conflict Communication role-play Reference accidents with communication issues 2.6 Problem-Solving & Decision Making     Problem identification Time management Company decision-making tool Reference accidents with decision-making issues 2.7 Cognition      Overview of cognitive functions Perception Senses Memory Limitations 2. Followership & Team Dynamics     Command authority Leadership styles Team effectiveness Reference accidents with leadership issues 2.Page: 6 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Reference accidents with automation issues 2.4 Leadership.9 Situational Awareness     Types of situational awareness Skills affecting individual situational awareness Loss of situational awareness Reference accidents with situational awareness issues Flight Crew Training Centre .

3. 3. whereas CRM is focused at the level of the individual airline and is normally a customized program. to the brightness required of an electronic display.3 Human Performance Human performance can be considered as falling into three categories. This is due. who complains that it is all a waste of time and does not apply to him. HPL. with an understanding of the limitations of the human operator. to the design of a checklist. This includes everything from the design of a tool. completion of a Multi-Crew Co-ordination (MCC) course prior to airline employment and for an airline to run an approved Crew Resource Management (CRM) program for all phases of training. Human Performance and Limitations refers to those aspects that relate to human involvement in aircraft operations. The safe and efficient management of an aircraft requires a balance of both technical knowledge and skills. which has typically resulted in only temporary changes in behavior and is not universally accepted by the pilot population. Threat and error management is at the core of current CRM practice. skill and attitude. Human Factors still have a critical influence on the accident rate. Human Factors or ergonomics is the broad science that covers human interaction in the workplace.2 CRM Training in Aviation The relationship between Human Factors. design and engine reliability. to the amount of air recirculation that is required in a pressurized aircraft. Traditionally the focus of CRM has been on attitude. home. environment. Regulators and industry have sought to reduce the human effect by the introduction of non-technical training to address the human issues. knowledge.1 Introduction Investigation of commercial airline accidents has identified that a significant proportion of these are due in some way to a human element. and with other humans. Every airline has the anecdotal CRM immune Captain. because it encompasses all other areas of the discipline. MCC and CRM is most easily described as one of specialization. MCC starts to cover the practicalities of multi-crew operations. Flight Crew Training Centre .Page: 7 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3 Threat and Error Management 3. Regulators require knowledge of Human Performance and Limitations (HPL) for license issue. in part. Despite improvements in technology. This is a general overview and broadly theoretical.

J. 3. Reason is the acknowledged expert on human error. but pilots are predisposed to accept knowledge and tools with which to improve performance. 3. with aviation focus (Crew RM) 3rd Generation attempt at integration with technical training. Not only is this more predictable and measurable. 3. In particular this means designing for error.term basis in the presence of contradictory influences. Most of these errors are small.Page: 8 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 It is now recognized that attitudes are difficult to change. Error cannot be avoided so the design must ensure that the most serious mistakes are prevented by trapping mechanisms and clearly forewarned by use of appropriate and timely feedback.4 Evolution of CRM      1st Generation concentrated on attitudes and personal management style (Cockpit RM) 2nd Generation introduction of modular training. 1990. focus on specific skills 4th Fourth Generation developed alongside the introduction of Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and LOFT 5th Fifth Generation introduced the concept of error management This has now evolved into “threat and error” management. which cannot be tolerated in the aviation industry. Flight Crew Training Centre . encompassing the best of previous generations. but avoiding the trap of undue emphasis on attitudes.5 Human Error Reason (Reason.6 Human Factors In Design The principle need for Human Factors in design is to account for individual differences and to produce a system that is better matched to real human performance. Violations refer to intentional noncompliance. Errors are defined as unintentional deviations from required behavior and are to be expected in everyday life with unavoidable regularity. especially on a long. Human Error) has developed a model of human error that classifies these according to the circumstances under which they occur. and humans have good error-correcting mechanisms to mitigate the effects of these errors. Current CRM thinking focuses on training knowledge and skills.

Page: 9 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 3. but when the mouse tries to take the bait. In isolation it is insignificant. Flight Crew Training Centre . Each layer in itself is a rather flimsy defense. In order to illustrate better the concept of latent threats. it snaps. Rather. This does not mean that accidents can no longer occur. Reason used Swiss cheese. existing conditions that might remain dormant for years. the last line of defense. For example. The holes in the cheese are the flaws that exist in each individual layer of defense. There are similar events unfolding all around us in aviation. If they can break the chain. Occasionally. the British Midland 737-400 that crashed in 1989 was a classic example of an error chain.7 The Error Chain The introduction of automated systems has made it virtually impossible for a frontline operator to cause an accident in isolation. the accident does not occur. It was but it is not an isolated case. a combined layer of defenses that can act as an effective shield. Accident investigation has therefore become much more complex with additional factors to consider. but placed together they form a robust wall. Some were latent failures. leaving an opening in the defensive wall and allowing an accident to happen. occurring years ago on the drawing board. possibly as early as the design stage of a product. that the causes of most recent accidents have been found to be omissions or errors that occurred remotely from the operator who suffered the loss. Others were management failures. 3. The accident is caused by the completion of a chain of events – the “error chain”. A simple example of a latent threat is a mousetrap.8 Swiss Cheese In the example above it might appear that this was one very unlucky scenario. of which the operating crew are the last link. the holes will line up. The crew was the last chance of avoiding this accident. Reason has likened the multiple layers of defenses to slices of cheese. Without assigning a principle cause. These are what Reason call “latent threats”. some of the factors were as follows:         Lengthened 737-400 entered service requiring increased thrust Existing engines approved for higher thrust without flight-test Type certification granted Operator differences training approved Fleet operated with mix of different style engine instruments Significance of other operator’s engine defects not identified Engine malfunction during accident flight Incorrect identification of engine malfunction All of these factors were required for the accident to take place.

and it is up to us to break the chain. Regulators etc are threats to the crew.) Threats . The latest statistics indicate that one accident occurs per million aircraft departures. Most errors committed by the flight-crew are inconsequential. flying to close to a thunderstorm Violations – intentional non-compliance – i.9 Threat and Error Management Aviation is a hazardous industry but it is not a dangerous one.e. Line Operational Safety Audits (LOSA) observations have shown that over 70% errors are inconsequential. Some examples of common threats are:      Adverse weather Terrain Airport conditions Aircraft malfunctions Automation events. The safety record in the airline industry is held in high regard.e. 3. performing a checklist from memory. at any level.e. Threats and errors are unavoidable. the accident chain is broken. because despite the risks. but they are well managed within a system that has countless checks and balances. A small percentage (8%) results in additional errors. (Errors made by other people ATC. safe operations are the norm. There are four broad classifications of flight-crew errors:      Procedural – appropriate procedure followed but incorrect execution – i. wrong altitude selection on MCP Communication – missing information or misinterpretation Decision – elective decision by crew that unnecessarily increases risk – i. in fact almost half of all errors go totally undetected by the crew. Engineering.10 Threat and Error Threat is defined as an influence. The last layer of defense is the flight-crew. Errors made by the crew during normal and nonnormal operations may require intervention to prevent an unsafe situation arising.Internal influences Safe operation depends on management of those threats and errors that cannot be completely eliminated. external to the flight-deck that requires action to ensure safe operation. the start of an accident chain. 3.External influences Errors . but as long as the holes do not line up.Page: 10 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 We cannot have a foolproof layer of defense. Flight Crew Training Centre . Management.

presence of several of these warning flags should alert us to the possibility of danger. great care should be taken to avoid compounding the problem by making additional errors. We have already determined that we cannot expect to work in a risk-free industry. These have been termed warning flags. 3. The NTSB identified in 1994 that of 37 commercial aviation accidents reviewed.Page: 11 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Over 20% of the time though. Mitigate How we deal with these threats and errors depends on the phase of flight:    Avoid Identify potential threats/errors in advance and avoid them Trap Identify current threats/errors that are developing. and correct them Mitigate Identify errors that have occurred and limit the damage Flight Crew Training Centre . The purpose of the NTSB review was to enable flight-crews to recognize that when multiple warning flags exist.12 Avoid. the crew failed to see the threats and usually compounded them by making additional errors. However. research has shown that flight-crew error led directly to an undesired aircraft state. such as an unstabilized approach.11 Warning Flags Aircraft accidents tend to have many similarities. The flags can be loosely divided into threats and errors: Threats Captain flying Experience gradient First duty day Time since awake Operational stress Errors Procedural error Poor tactical decision Failure monitor/challenge Improper checklist use Those accidents described below and covered during Jade Cargo International CRM courses have many of these warning flags clearly identifiable. nine common factors existed. 3. However in all cases. Trap.

Power Distance. The word “collectivism” in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. 4. not to the state. Expatriates are typically of a more individualist nature. professional and safety culture. The five dimensions are Individualism/Collectivism. The last two do not typically apply to pilot groups. collectivism. is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one.1 Introduction Due to the diverse nature of the workforce. The remaining three dimensions are discussed below. Uncertainty Avoidance. having left their country of domicile for economic advantage. On the collectivist side. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.Page: 12 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4 Culture 4. 4. This chapter identifies the key concepts that differentiate national cultures and also examines the influence that may occur as a result of particular sub-cultures. “Look after number 1” regardless of the effect on the operation Low IDV – Focus is on the gain for the collectivist whole regardless of personal inconvenience or benefit. 4. He identified five dimensions where cultures differ. Again. regarding all societies in the world.4 Effects on Crew Behaviors     High IDV – Personal gain and protection of oneself are the main priorities. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. often extended families (with uncles.2 National Culture Most discussion about culture tends to centre on the effects of national culture.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) Individualism on the one side. Jade Cargo International has identified that cultural issues represent a significant difference from a typical airline CRM program. such as organizational. cohesive in-groups. Long-term/ Short-term orientation and Masculinity/Femininity. (which are predominantly male). Hofstede carried out the principle research in this area1. versus its opposite. A compromise between the two extremes is what is desired for safe operation Flight Crew Training Centre .

and not expected by their environment to express emotions.5 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. Medium UA is optimum for the flight deck. and different from usual.6 Power Distance (PDI) Power-Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by the uncertain or unknown. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s level of inequality. of course. Low UA Disregard for SOPs and procedures. but some are more unequal than others.Page: 13 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 4. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. and motivated by inner nervous energy.   4. This represents inequality (more versus less). they try to have as few rules as possible. not from above. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that all societies are unequal. It suggests that the followers. The opposite type. “I know better than the people who wrote the books” style of operation. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. Power and inequality. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. safety and security measures. Effects on crew behaviors:   High PDI – can lead to an autocratic leadership style by the Captain – a steep cockpit gradient Medium PDI – a consultative style where input is sought but the final decision is made by the Captain Flight Crew Training Centre . “there can only be one Truth and we have it”. surprising. Power distance can be related to cockpit gradient. but defined from below. Effects on crew behaviors:  High UA Rigid adherence to procedures and SOPs. “A rule for every situation” approach to flying and a marked reluctance to deviate from SOPs even if the situation demands it. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. uncertainty accepting cultures. unknown. Unstructured situations are novel.

by a machine function. either physical or cognitive.Page: 14 CRM Manual Date: January 2008  Low PDI – decisions arrived at by consensus with all crew having equal Input 4. against a conflicting trend. such as pilots. In particular.7 Organizational and Professional Culture Although national culture tends to dominate in most circumstances. This chapter investigates the benefits and the traps associated with automation. (Norbert Wiener) 5. It is not the policies themselves that are a potential problem. An “On time departure” policy or a “Minimum Fuel” policy might lead to unnecessary pressure to compromise. The reason that this has been acceptable is that the residual workload has remained at a manageable level. not what we thought we told them to do. Improvements in technology (automation) have resulted in only the two pilots remaining as required crew. there can be anomalies where a professional group. This is endorsed by an open-reporting policy for safety and human factors issues. this may or may not conflict with a Company’s management style. 5 Automation The problem with computers is that they do what they are actually told to do. promotion of a safety culture might be encouraged for the pilot group to resist a perceived weakness in any national characteristic. though the Air Safety Report and Confidential Human Factors Reporting schemes. Furthermore. In Jade Cargo International we have a structure that emphasizes “Safe and efficient”. The aircraft manages and self-monitors many of the functions that were previously in the domain of the other crewmembers. it is those automatic functions relating to flight path control and navigation with which we are primarily concerned. Flight Crew Training Centre . 5.1 Introduction Automation is defined as the replacement of a human function. or an organizational culture can prevail. Although there are numerous examples of the introduction of automated systems on the flight deck. and also provide some guidance for the management of automation issues.2 Flight Deck Automation Early jet transport aircraft had a crew of five or six on the flight deck. navigators and flight engineers. including radio operators. but the pilots’ perceptions of the Company’s intent.

5. In practice this does not always happen. often at the wrong time Difficulties with Situation Awareness New knowledge and skills required New error associated with communication The table above illustrates how the intended benefits of automation will not be achieved without additional effort. same system (substitution) Reduction in workload Focuses user attention Less knowledge required Reduces error Reality Transforms practice. it would be a good idea to determine the comparative advantages of humans and machines. Flight Crew Training Centre . The latter will not be discussed here. The problem with automation is therefore how man and machine interact – the interface.Page: 15 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Why automate? “Automation brings increased safety. There are (system) performance issues associated with the introduction of automation. The issue of automation is not whether a machine is capable of doing the job. it is that humans are still required for the part of the task that cannot be automated.” This may be the intention but the statement doesn’t provide the whole story. engineers automate what they are able to automate and the rest is left for the human operator to manage. In particular. not to mention the human (social) effects.3 What to Automate Prior to deciding on what to automate. “Dekker and Woods” highlighted the apparent benefits of automation against the real effect: Table 1: Benefit of Automation: Intended Benefit Better Results. roles of humans change Creates more cognitive work. accuracy and reduced costs. it is the understanding of the automation that causes concern.

Most notable of the differences from a flight-deck perspective is that humans are poor monitors and good at accepting revised plans. Rather. The principle task allocated to humans on the flight deck involves monitoring for which we are not ideally Flight Crew Training Centre .Good inductive. J & George. The “Fitts” list’ is still valid today: Table 2: Fitts’ list3 Skill Speed Power Output Consistency Information Capacity Memory Machine Much superior Superior in level and consistency Ideal for repetitive activity Multi-channel. detecting messages in noise. User-derived impact analysis as a tool for usability engineering) 5. easy to re program. subject to learning and fatigue Single-channel. access versatile and innovative Reasoning Good deductive. inaccurate. access restricted and formal Human Comparatively slow Comparatively weak Unreliable. P. 1986. accurate.Page: 16 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 “Engineering is not the process of building a perfect system with infinite resources. slow communication Better for principles and strategies. Poor spoken material. Poor at at detecting messages in noise. error correction Good at error correction Specialized. Poor program. Poor at pattern assessment Wide energy ranges. fast. engineering is the process of economically building a working system that fulfils a need.” (Good. M. narrow range. slow.4 Fitts’ List In the 1950s. Spine. fast communication Ideal for literal reproduction. T. Fitts identified those skills where machines exceeded and those where the human is better. difficult to re. some multi-function Sensing Perceiving Good at coping with Poor at coping with variation in variation in written & written & spoken material. Good quantitative assessment. Whiteside.

5 The Automation Pyramid Research literature on automation talks about levels of “supervisory control”. so the overall workload is drastically reduced. In the aviation scenario. according to any change in tactical goal. but the system must be programmed to give the correct guidance. it is possible to differentiate seven distinct levels. Although in some systems. resulting in further reduced workload. In its current mode the aircraft will intercept the inbound course. Pilots will dynamically move between levels. The automation on the other hand may need to be re-programmed for last minute changes. The principle pilot skill on modern generation automated aircraft knows which mode of automation is most appropriate to the task. Autopilot with basic/selected modes: The cognitive demand is as above. There is a reduced cognitive load. vigilance and complacency may become issues. but the pilot is relieved of the task of manual flight. Manual flight with flight director: the pilot now has a reduced cognitive load as he no longer has to interpret closing information. This refers to the level of monitoring and decision-making required by the operator. – This is a high workload situation. such as nuclear power-plant control rooms. in practical aviation terms we have identified four levels of automation. including when to turn it off! Flight Crew Training Centre . Consider the case where an aircraft is on an intercept heading for an instrument approach:  Manual flight without flight director: requires the pilot to manually fly the aero plane and monitor the closing rate of the inbound track and adjust accordingly. Autopilot with fully managed modes (LNAV/VNAV): The pilot no longer has to calculate closing rate information or fly the aircraft. Note that the pilot is still actively involved in the task and through FCU/MCP manipulation retains situational awareness of the flights progress. It also becomes more difficult to revert to more basic modes with reduced automation.    The potential problem that we face is that if we operate for too long in the fully automated regime. These four levels of automation are available to us to use as appropriate for the situation. although “fly-by-wire” will still be assisting.Page: 17 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 suited. with different cognitive skills required. Monitoring or supervising is the principle role left to the pilot. 5. Overall result is reduced workload. an area of weakness in interface design. this refers to how far removed the pilot is from the actual job of flying the aircraft.

having been unable to completely replace the pilots with automation. Unfortunately. The highest workload situations tend to be left un-automated. Flight Crew Training Centre . Cali. communications and monitoring. The report identified links between automation and situational awareness. Studies have revealed that “mode” errors are among the most common on advanced aircraft. the pilots still have to intervene at critical moments when the automation cannot cope. 5. will disengage or will revert to another mode. it is important to address the issues identified by accident reviews. For this new knowledge and skills are required. Habsheim etc).6 The Irony of Automation The irony of automation is that.8 Interfaces The blame for this lack of understanding is not necessarily with the pilot. In particular. the FAA recommended that operators’ manuals should provide “clear and concise guidance” on conditions when the auto-pilot or auto-throttle will or will not engage. If we do not fully understand the system we are not able to anticipate the system response or evaluate its performance.7 The Automation Issue Now that the benefits and drawbacks of automation have been identified. The major problem that has been identified with automation is due to a lack of understanding. The FAA identified this weakness and commissioned a study that reported in 1996. The key issue is with the design of the interface: how the pilots and the automation communicate. Using automation requires us to:    Understand each mode before selection Anticipate how the aircraft will react to the mode change Evaluate whether the desired effect has been achieved Numerous accidents have resulted as a result of pilot inputs that were not appropriate for the correct completion of the desired task (Nagoya. It has already been noted that the introduction of automated features changes the role of the pilot.Page: 18 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. as routine automation takes away the opportunity to rehearse basic flying skills the skill and practice required by the pilots to manage these events is lacking. 5.

Consequently. Feedback is also required for monitoring normal system status change. Understandable error messages Error prevention These principles apply to computerized systems as much as day-to day items. Appropriate feedback makes the task of monitoring system failures or anomalies more effective. A lack of. Boeing and Airbus flight decks incorporate intuitive. the flight-crew member responsible for safe operation of the airplane. but not replace.Page: 19 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 5. Flight-crew errors typically occur when the crew does not perceive a problem and fails to correct the error in time to prevent the situation from deteriorating.Logical layout of controls and displays Use of natural command language (Windows v Dos) Minimal user memory load (prompt keys) Consistency Feedback Clear. When was the last time you had to refer to a user manual for a chair or a tea-pot? …or a video cassette recorder…? Flight Crew Training Centre . 5. Boeing and Airbus flight decks are designed to provide automation to assist. These cues reinforce situational awareness and help keep the flight crew fully aware of changes occurring to the airplane’s status and flight path during all phases of automated and manual flight. 5.10 From an Aircraft Manufacturer Appropriate degree of automation.9 Feedback “Norman” contests that the real issue with automation is due to poor or inappropriate feedback. feedback results in a reduction of situational awareness. easy-to-use systems. The Jade Cargo International procedure’s of calling FMA changes is designed to counter this threat. The failing of the man-machine system is because the pilot is no longer “in the loop”. These systems support instrument displays with visual and tactile motion cues to minimize potential confusion about what functions are automated.11 Ergonomic Design Principles The following design principles have been identified as necessary for producing a usable interface:        Intuitive . or subtle.

Page: 20 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The advantage of retaining humans in the system is that they are adaptable and flexible. In fact it has generated the potential for a different type of human error. 6. Personality or attitude clashes within a crew complicate the task of a leader and can have an influence on both safety and efficiency. which is assigned.12 Conclusion Automation is seen as the antidote to pilot error. Leadership is needed to effectively understand and cope with a variety of situations. Humans are capable of devising strategies. In the flight-deck environment. which is acquired.2 Leadership A leader is a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behavior of others. and authority. by knowledge of the appropriate levels of automation and understanding of the automated systems. and an understanding of the goals and desires of the group. An individual's position as captain does not automatically assume that he or she is an effective leader. An optimal situation exists when leadership and authority are combined. Aircraft accident and incident investigations have demonstrated that personality differences can influence the behavior and performance of crewmembers. 6 Leadership and Team Dynamics 6. 5. Through the use of example and persuasion. There is a fundamental difference between leadership. yet numerous accident and incident reports identify where the leader has failed in his role and remarkably has not exercised leadership. Appropriate feedback is vital to achieve and sustain the high levels of situational awareness required for safe operations. either as an organization or as individuals to reduce the threat posed by a design that is less than perfect. the Captain is the designated “leader”.1 Introduction There are various competing theories about what makes a leader and the definition of leadership. This chapter will identify some of the attributes necessary for effective leadership and identify how styles of leadership vary. the leader becomes a means of change and influence. Recognition of a poor design is part of the way towards eliminating the threat it poses. Flight Crew Training Centre . We must guard against the threats posed by automation.

will power. In addition.3 Leadership Theory Early research into leadership theory stems from the military. Some of this is relevant in the sphere of commercial aviation. An ability to communicate and self-motivation are also vital. The leader must balance the demands of the task. however the leader also has other areas of responsibility. In fact. Jade Cargo International SOPs and technical training support this function of leadership. and be able to maintain team morale.Page: 21 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Captain’s authority as leader is derived from the China Civil Aviation Regulations. Task Team Individuals Figure 1: Action Centred Leadership Flight Crew Training Centre . 6. and Manage Decision-Making Model. any limitations of this knowledge must be identified. The leader must have a thorough technical knowledge of the aircraft and appropriate supporting systems. the team and the individual. initiative and integrity. Personal qualities required are those of courage. 6. from a practical view point the Captain has a right.4 Action-Centred Leadership Pilots tend to be naturally task-focused individuals. Action. This implies a certain amount of discretion in choice of action. As leader the Captain has both responsibility and accountability. to decide on a course of action. The importance of each sphere of responsibility will change dynamically according to the situation. along with recognition of the appropriate source of assistance and the correct answer when provided. An effective leader must have both technical and personal skills. and a duty. with use of the Assess.

7 Individual Development and Satisfaction In the two-pilot flight deck. manage and direct the flow of information. ideas and suggestions within the crewmembers and outside sources       Communicating flight information Asking for opinions. experience and culture in Jade Cargo International the following techniques may also assist in promoting the individual’s needs:    Sensitivity to cultural needs Maintain an open environment by active listening Admission of errors and encourage Standard calls to identify deviations 6.8 The Role of Leader The CRM Manual produced by Transport Canada identified the following four tasks that encompass the role of the leader: 6. suggestions Clarifying communication Providing feedback Regulating participation Flight Crew Training Centre . To enhance the sense of unity:     Use expertise within the team Briefing Co-ordination of effort Provide feedback 6. consider the following:      Planning Communication of intent Avoid over-involvement as it reduces the capacity to think ahead.6 Team Building and Maintenance Team work is vital for an effective solution to a task. Maintain situation awareness Monitor and evaluate the task’s progress 6. With a wide variety of background. suggestions Giving opinions.Page: 22 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. many of the considerations for the team also apply for managing an individual’s needs.8.1 Regulating Information Flow The leader must regulate.5 Task To achieve the task.

8. coordination and direction for group performance     Directing and coordinating crew activities Monitoring and assessing crew performance Providing planning and orientation Setting priorities 6. In between.Page: 23 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 6. It can range from the extreme of autocratic or dictatorial to “Laissez-faire”.8.3 Motivating Crew Members The leader must maintain a positive climate to encourage good crew member relations and to invite full participation in crew activities      Creating proper climate Maintain an "open" cockpit atmosphere Resolving/preventing angry conflict Maintain positive relations Providing non-punitive critique and feedback The leader is ultimately responsible for decisions      Assuming responsibility for decision making Gathering and evaluating information Formulating decisions Implementing decisions Providing feedback on action 6. how is this delivered in practice? Leadership style refers to the degree of involvement between the leader and the team during decision-making. there are differing degrees of participation such as democratic and participative.4 Leadership Styles Having determined what is required of a leader.2 Directing and Coordinating Crew Activities The leader must function as crew manager to provide orientation. Flight Crew Training Centre .8.

Note that an individual need not always be associated with only one style. rather than generating or evaluating alternative solutions. getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. Consultative Autocrat 2 [C1]: shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually. Consultative Autocrat 3 [C2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. The definition used here is “laissez-faire”. Consensus Seeker [G2]: shares the problem with subordinates as a group. using information available at that time. but not if things are going wrong. Consultative Autocrat 1 [A2]: obtains the necessary information from subordinates. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates' influence. collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions. The role played by subordinates in making the decision is clearly one of providing the necessary information.Page: 24 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Laissez Faire Democratic/Participative Autocratic Figure 2: Authority Dynamic Range While “laissez-faire” (loosely translated as anything goes) might appear to be an appropriate attitude. and then decides on the solution to the problem alone. This differs from a “relaxed” attitude. while monitoring to assure necessary performance. Does not necessarily tell subordinates what the problem is while getting the information from them. Together. These definitions below provide more detail to assist with understanding the concept. “VROOM” has isolated five categories on the scale above. It may be acceptable to be “laissez-faire” when all goes well. regardless of performance – which is unacceptable on the flight deck. Then makes the decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence. For most effective leadership.   Autocrat [A1]: solves the problem or makes the decision alone. generates and evaluates alternatives and attempts to Flight Crew Training Centre    . in this case the leader does not care whether the team performs well or not. a different style is adopted according to the situation.

The four combinations available are therefore passive/uncritical. active/uncritical and active/critical. Hughes. R & Curphy. G2. supportive followers are as important as a leader. which may differ between individuals and national cultures. An effective follower requires qualities of flexibility and adaptability. G (Eds). Followers are a vital part of a team.Page: 25 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. avoids the Captains’ obligation and duty to make a decision and to accept responsibility. while respecting the Captain’s legal authority.9 Cockpit Authority Gradient In addition to the style adopted by the Captain. 1988. cited by Kern. that of dependent/independent uncritical/critical thinking and active/passive involvement in the team’s performance. RE. Nevertheless the duties and responsibilities of the pilot-in-command should in no way be affected by this need. Ginnett. 6. A two-dimensional model of follower behavior in Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience.10 Followership Followership is often perceived as a short-term necessity on the way to a leadership position. since there are a number of nationalities. the interaction between the flightdeck members will define the authority gradient between the two. The role is much like that of a chairman. “Kelly’s” (Kelly. Flight Crew Training Centre . Of these classifications it is worth noting that the last. passive/critical.  Trying not to influence the group to adopt "own" solution and willing to adopt and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. R. A fifth group “Company men” is chameleons adopting any of the four other styles as appropriate. Redefining Airmanship) model of followership examines two dimensions. predictability and an appropriate level of assertiveness. encourages an open atmosphere to monitor and challenge. T. Jade Cargo International encourages a flat cockpit authority gradient. levels of experience and different cultural backgrounds among the workforce in the company. and followership is a skill in its own right. from the team perspective nothing could be further from the truth. A steep gradient results in ineffective monitoring from the co-pilot. While this might be an individual’s view. and a flat one reduces the Captains’ authority by constant (unnecessary) challenge. along with good communication skills. The optimum gradient. 1997. For successful team performance. 6.

Team building is therefore a skill that needs to be emphasized if a “scratch” crew is to perform well. They have the potential to destroy a team’s effectiveness. they are typified by mediocre performance and shift quadrants. Sheep are akin to human automatons. but through disillusionment and disenchantment are not prepared to speak up.Page: 26 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Effective followers are essential to safe flight. The crew briefing is probably the only opportunity to foster a vital link between the flight deck and the cabin. unless identified and brought “back onside”. They are also the foundation for teambuilding. Good communication skills have already been identified as critical for both leaders and followers. Their motivation is political rather than task/team oriented. Yes people can add an element of danger to the operation. and actively supportive without being “yes men”.11 Team Dynamics Unlike military crews. Flight Crew Training Centre . Using the first minutes of meeting effectively is obviously very important. Alienated followers are those that have identified a problem with the operation. to give the best possible impression during the crew brief and ensure that both pilots come across as open to communication from the crew. An airline crew needs to be working together and communicating well from before the take-off roll. not to foster an effective team but to avoid making waves. They inhibit crew decision-making and can encourage a feeling of invincibility to the pilot-in-command. 6. Survivors are the Company men. completing tasks in silence without adding to the team’s performance. airlines form new teams for practically every duty. not afraid to speak up when necessary and challenge a flawed decision. because they actively support without thinking. Making a good first impression is vital. A good first impression is vital for successful team bonding and should be accomplished in the first few minutes of team formation. The only way to ensure this is. A poor first impression could take as long as seven hours of continual contact to undo.

This chapter describes the principles of communication.Page: 27 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7 Communication 7. The actual words used accounting for about 10%.1 Introduction One of the key skills required for operating a multi-crew aircraft is the ability to communicate. noise is still a factor. While modern flight decks are well insulated. So. and very rarely are raised voices heard.3 Communication Barriers The flight deck of an airliner is not an ideal place to have a conversation. Between a Captain and a First Officer. as much as 90%. However. rank could impinge on communication as well. in communication within a crew. 7. along with methods of eliminating them. verbal communication is one of the oldest forms of human interaction. culture plays a large part. Body Language and tone of voice makes up for the majority of human communication. This can be verbal or non-verbal information.e. It serves a complex and vital role in establishing and maintaining relationships Flight Crew Training Centre . Communication on the flight deck can be affected primarily by:    Tone of voice Focusing on own/others’ needs The use of emotional language or “put-downs” i. insulting. the words used tend to be very important. In the case of Jade Cargo International. the advantages of various communication styles and the requirement for conflict resolution. This is the most relevant definition to the task of flying an aircraft. 7. as does the fact that many of our pilots do not use English as their native language. degrading language. Communication breaks down barriers and promotes the exchange of important information. Barriers to communication are also identified.2 Principles of Communication Human communication is the act of sharing information. There are many barriers to communication within a cockpit. This chapter is aimed at producing effective crew communication in the context of multi crew operations. The actual words used accounting for only about 10% The impact of body language is greatly reduced in a flight deck.

The principle means of communication is by the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). 7. a lively discussion in low workload phases usually goes a long way toward “setting the tone”. By adhering to these “standard calls” the danger of miscommunication is greatly reduced.4. This is especially in the flight deck from a person in a position of authority. the focus. supportive and submissive. The SOPs contain standard phrases and occasions when exchanging information or verifying facts is required. aggressive.4 Communication Styles To assist in analyzing effective communications. 7. While a silent flight deck is desirable in some stages of flight. From these two aspects the following model can be constructed: Table 1: Communication Styles “No put-downs” (1) Focus on own needs A Focus on needs of others S Assertive A1 Supportive S1 “Put-downs” (2) Aggressive A2 Submissive S2 Four communication styles can be determined from this model. Establishing a cordial and efficient working relationship can be made easier by the use of some of the techniques covered in this chapter. whether unnecessary emotional language or “put-downs” are used. whether on the needs of others or your own. assertive. Flight Crew Training Centre . two aspects of the message content will be considered.1 Assertive Behavior [a1] An assertive style enables one to speak in such a way that one does not abuse or dominate others. It is stating our own needs and feeling without putting others down. Being Assertive:    Heightens self esteem Makes other people take notice Establishes authority Assertive behavior is a desirable form of communication. and the manner.Page: 28 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 between people.

With a submissive style the individual focuses on others’ needs in a way that diminishes their own worth. Referring to the matrix. In a non-critical situation. It is important that “put downs” or words or tone of voice that may be interpreted as such.4 Submissive Behavior [s2] The simplest definition of submissive behavior is the acceptance of “put downs”.4. The key to identifying aggression is the use of “put downs”. They put themselves down. the key here is the use of “put downs” or abusive language. Flight Crew Training Centre . Defining a “put down” is not easy and it is incumbent on all parties (particularly in a multi-cultural environment such as Jade Cargo International) that great care is taken to avoid anything that can be construed to be one.downs.2 Aggressive Behavior [a2] This is when someone is being aggressive. When aggressive feelings burst forth we tend to regret it afterwards because serious negative consequences usually occur as a result of aggression. However. This is a “no-go” area for us at work. and will likely isolate the aggressor.4. are avoided at all times.4. it is clear that aggression comes about when an individual is focused on his own needs and uses put. A2 behavior rarely occurs without precursors.3 Supportive Behavior [s1] A supportive style focuses on others needs in a way that does not downgrade themselves.Page: 29 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. 7. such as during training or non-normal situations. However this may change depending on circumstances. A person using a submissive style of communication allows himself to be dominated. not recommended but part of life. 7. Therefore. Being focused on one’s own needs is very human. Aggressive behavior will have a negative impact on a team. A person being supportive will:    Show concern Not diminish their own or others’ worth Be willing to help and listen In a typical crew the PNF should adopt a supportive role. It is unlikely to motivate the team. is it better to be submissive in order to defuse a situation? Sometimes it may be preferable to “let it go” in order to preserve harmony.

5 Dealing with Aggression If aggression is met with aggressive behavior. Being aware of this and expecting it from yourself and others goes a long way toward fostering good communication. In fact submissive behavior often comes about as a result of aggressive behavior on the part of another person. If someone is submissive. The use of the communication styles model identifies boundaries between own/others needs and the use of “put-downs”. their needs will be overlooked. it is likely communication that will break down completely. Establishing the position of the lines can be difficult. In other words. Each individual and in fact every team. provided that the intent is to stop the use of put-downs. The best response is to focus on the other person’s needs (where this does not compromise safety) and ignore the perceived put-downs. These boundaries are not necessarily static or evenly divided. focusing on this usually helps in restoring harmony. This brings the focus back to the task at hand and reduces conflict. the assumption might be that they have nothing to contribute. will find a style that works well for them. Assertive and supportive behavior styles are those that promote the most efficient communication. and perhaps discount their views even in a crisis 7. but leads to good understanding when accomplished. Flight Crew Training Centre . be supportive. Dealing with aggression is not easy. Since the safety of the flight is of paramount importance and is a common need between all parties. If the other person is submissive. Some of the factors that affect the position of these lines are:      Race Culture Nationality Age Seniority / Rank It must be emphasized that the lines move all the time.Page: 30 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Sometimes a person will prefer not to say anything for fear of being laughed or shouted at. An assertive response might also be effective. It may be necessary to vary the style of communication according to the situation.

Differences in perceiving motives. people can be stimulated to greater creativity. words. Flight Crew Training Centre . The two key learning points in resolving a conflict are: 7. and the damage is usually difficult to repair.favorable versus unfavorable. Conflict should not be taken as another word for not working together. No one makes major concessions. If conflict does occur. No one person or idea is perfect.Page: 31 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 7. the stage is set for potential conflict. When conflict is dealt with constructively. Conflict becomes unhealthy when it is avoided or approached on a win/ lose basis.6 Conflict Resolution Any time two or more people are brought to work together. actions and situations.7 Problem Solving     Needs of both parties are legitimate and important. trust and support will deteriorate. and stretch their imagination. You must give to get. depending on how those involved choose to approach it. which will lead to better results. Resolving conflict requires an analysis of the root cause of the conflict. objectives and values. Reference to the Action-Centred Leadership model1 can assist in probing sources of differences. When sides are chosen. Conflict is healthy when it causes the parties to explore new ideas.8 Compromising     Important all parties achieve basic goals and maintain good relationship. It is possible to cooperate with conflict arising. High respect for mutual support. but unfortunately does occur a great deal. communications may breakdown. Conflict resolution can be achieved on a win/win basis and this produces the best results. test their position and beliefs. Animosities can develop. Differing expectations of outcomes . 7. Unwillingness to work through issues. Conflict is not a necessary component of human behavior. collaborate or compromise. the results may be positive or negative. Conflict is usually present because of:     Differences in needs. What is important when conflict does occur is that the issue is resolved and that safety is not compromised. productivity will diminish or stop. There is more than one way to do anything. Assertive and cooperative.

This raises the question as to whether we should consider good or bad decisions. a situation arises that is beyond our scope or experience.1 Introduction Problem-solving and decision-making are activities we conduct instinctively every day. However. Using a structured approach is a form of SOP for decision making. or good or bad outcomes. Conflict Resolution.Page: 32 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Provided these concepts are borne in mind. Most of them are based on the original CRM loop of Inquiry. It is not which model that is used that is important. This chapter introduces the Company decision-making model. 8. which provides a structured approach to problem solving and decision-making. Action and Critique. Flight Crew Training Centre . Using a structured approach for problem solving and decision making leads to a better outcome. GOOD OUTCOMES ARE GENERALLY ENSURED BY THE USE OF     Briefings Sharing the workload Planning for change Using aircraft equipment to your best advantage POOR OUTCOMES ARE CAUSED IN PART BY:      Attitudes Failures of judgment Deviation from SOPs Lack of briefings leading to misunderstandings and omissions Emotions overcoming good judgment Various structured models are in use in airlines around the world.2 Structured Decision Making Research has identified numerous occasions where similar accidents nearly occurred. rather that a model is used. either for routine or novel situations. The importance of time management is also covered in this chapter. and reduces the risk of omissions and errors in the assessment phase of the problem. It is the end result that we are interested in. however it is the industry’s belief that a structured decision making process will reduce the risk of a poor outcome. once in a while. it is possible for diverse personality types from widely disparate cultures to work together harmoniously and ensure safe flight. 8 Problem Solving and Decision Making 8. Advocacy.

During each of the phases specific guidance is provided. The RMM is based on the assumption that the crew is fully proficient with the following. as well as the appropriate CRM principals. it is felt that the process to “Rectify / contain the problem” had very specific needs that could only be accommodated by allocating it to a phase of its own. 8. 8. Risk Management Model (RMM) is for the two man crew cockpit. it was decided to call this the “Action Phase”.1 The Model “Footprint” The model is based on the “Battelle” “Situational Assessment Model” that had been developed for the FAA. indicating when manufacturer’s company procedures should be applied.2. further modification to the RMM was required.Page: 33 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The Jade Cargo International. Flying skills and good management of the auto-flight systems is also applicable throughout the application of the RMM. This model was expanded to accommodate the following: Procedures to rectify / contain the problem Making a decision Implementing the decision However.2. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Providing “Seamless Integration” To provide the required “seamless integration” as required by Advanced Qualification Program (AQP). “The Situational Assessment Model focuses on factors that influence a flight crew’s assessment of a situation and the subsequent management of available resources”.     Handling skills (manual and auto-flight) Technical knowledge (Type specific) Procedures (Manufacturer and Company) Basic Knowledge in Human Factors Principles It must be emphasized at the outset that the RMM and CRM is intended to provide an extra dimension to the Pilot’s management skills and not to make up for a lack of knowledge or skills in any of the above mentioned documents. Because this additional phase consists mainly of corrective actions. according to the manufacturers non-normal checklist and or company procedures.

its implications and how much time is available. By staying below the line as much as possible. Enquiry Solution Problem Examples of each category are:     Solution Enquiry [SE] – Suggestion Solution Information [SI] – Instruction Problem Enquiry [PE] . Flight Crew Training Centre . seeking more information about it. Any communication relating to this issue can also be considered as either information about the problem/solution or an enquiry. Jade Cargo International uses a problem-solving model to focus on the problem until these questions are answered. The line in question determines whether the discussion is centred on the problem (below the line) or on solutions to the problem (above the line). A key factor in making this decision depends on how much time is available. questions Problem Information [PI] – Analysis Information SI PI SE PE Sometimes it is more appropriate to spend time in gathering information before developing a solution.3 A Problem-Solving Model Prior to deciding on a course of action. the problem and the solution. Jade Cargo International uses the catch phrase “stay below the line” to help crews focus on the issues related to the problem before taking action. to make sure we fully understand the implications. The situation can be considered in two separate domains. immediately come up with a solution or stay with the problem by further defining it. Men in general and particularly pilots tend to go straight to a solution. it is essential to accurately determine what the exact nature of the problem is. Using these classifications we can use a model to identify the appropriate type of communication to best assist with resolving the situation. This does not always produce the best solution. Whenever a problem is encountered at work.Page: 34 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. there are two typical responses.Information seeking. a better understanding of the problem itself can be gained.

Open questions allow more options. Time can be considered as. but will probably be accepted. It is for this very reason that moving above the line should be done with caution.   The key to these different types of time is that EICAS/ECAM will assist with our assessment of time. available and required. both in Boeing (EICAS) or Airbus (ECAM). 8. critical. Time spent “below the line” is kept to a minimum. whereas the second is almost a suggestion [SE]. In the latter case. using a traffic light system. In many cases it assists with our assessment of time. this limits the opportunity for assessment. Time Available: Cautions require a timely response. losing vital feedback. Assessment of how much time we have is essential in problemsolving. Moving above the line is significant because it involves a suggestion or an instruction. On the other hand. Consider the likely responses to these two questions:   Where do you think we should divert to? Or Do you think we should divert to Munich? The first question is an open question [PE?]. might compound Flight Crew Training Centre . They may be associated with immediate action drills (such as GPWS). taking too much time to collect information and make a decision. Caution level alerts are amber on EFIS. Warnings and Time-Critical Warnings are coded red on EFIS displays. Time Required: Other levels of alert may or may not necessarily be identified with color coding on EFIS. may at best get a query in response. In all cases. all conversation tends to stop and the decision is implemented. The use of open questions can assist in staying below the line. EFIS architecture. when there is little available. A solution in the form of a question however. is a valuable problem. recall actions (Engine Fire) or a checklist (Fire Wheel Well). it is possible to prioritize accordingly. immediate action is required. A fast decision may not always be the correct one. However there will be some occasions where it may be necessary to slow down or enter into a holding pattern.Page: 35 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The key of “staying below the line” allows us to fully assess the problem within the available time. The effective use of time is very important in problem solving. Once a time frame has been established. time is available to consider the problem and when is appropriate to take action.solving resource.  Time Critical situations require immediate action.4 Time Management Some situations require an immediate response. others may be less time dependent.

prioritize. the Captain must manage. propose. test understanding propose. Flight Crew Training Centre . An early calculation of the time situation will assist with decisionmaking. Open Participation)  Brainstorm options and check for poor judgment  Summaries  DECIDE[selling if required IMPLEMENTING THE DECISION  Satisfy TASK. delegation] Remember that in complex situations. prioritize. Good teamwork needs good communication. Achieving the best solution demands good teamwork. keep partner in the loop] PROCEDURE TO RECTIFY / RECALL ITEMS / USE EICAS. GROUP AND INDIVUDUAL needs  MONITOR PROGRESS – continually check for poor judgment (PJ) [Participation. test understanding. This means that the F/O is best assigned the task of flying. 8.5 The Jade Cargo International Decision-Making Model RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL AVIATE. QRH If needed: “stop the checklist” MANAGEMENT PHASE [summarize. summarize] CHECK CB’s AND SWITCHES ● IDENTIFY DIAGNOSE: What is wrong? • VERIFY How to RECTIFY • Identify procedure ACTION PHASE [Monitor. seek information. COMMUNICATE CONTINUOUSLY [Use Autopilot if available] ASSESSMENT PHASE [Seek information.Page: 36 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 difficulties. build] EVENT STATUS Making the Decision Consider: TASK NEEDS Aircraft performance EROPS AWOPS ATC DDM/MEL GROUP NEEDS crew company passengers INDIVIDUAL NEEDS control stress individual crew members passenger  Options(Itemize best option. test understanding. NAVIGATE.

It is only when you have to make decisions in somewhat abnormal situations that the weighting of the circles change. With the aircraft descending and flying in the desired direction. 8. An important point here is that you do not rush. the task need is paramount. “Did the action solve the problem?” “Are you sure?” These are good questions to ask of oneself. a good commander will then address the passengers and crew and explain to them the steps taken. Once the Group is informed and placated. Flight Crew Training Centre . obstacles and weather. However. 8.7 Action During this phase the emphasis is placed on procedural/technical knowledge combined with good communication and monitoring techniques. Action centered leadership is based on the principle that during a normal flight. the first priority is to maintain control of the aircraft. Individual type procedures will determine what other action may be required. For example in the first stages of a diversion. individual needs (a cup of coffee or a visit to the restroom perhaps) can be attended to. Both the assessment and time factor may be provided by EICAS/ ECAM indications. The specific action and or checklist required may be dictated by the type of situation. including the navigation away from terrain. all the circles are the same size.Page: 37 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 8. Undue haste has led to more accidents than most people realize. we must come back to summarizing our actions and again reflect and analyze our actions. Once the problem is clearly defined and summarized should we then move above the line.6 Assess The assessment phase is characterized by problem-solving and time assessment. it diminishes in importance and the group need comes to the fore. if there were any elements of confusion during the initial assess phase. Use Action-Centered leadership to meet the needs of the task.8 Manage Once the action has been completed. Information may come from SOPs or other sources such as QRH or other manuals and will need to be clearly defined. it is time to manage. When the process is complete. Once this is under control. the team and the individual. It is a circular or iterative process.

but functionally can be quite accurate. In the same way. we will consider the brain in terms of input functions. do something with that information and then act on it. 9. individuals create internal representations of how systems work. we receive information. output functions and an internal processing function. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT Figure 1: Basic Cognition Flow Very simply.Page: 38 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9 Cognition 9. Mental models are vital to users for controlling systems and problem-solving. This chapter looks in particular at some of the limitations of the human brain and the typical errors that can occur as a result. A model may not be a very good literal representation of a system. Flight Crew Training Centre .2 Models Psychologists use models to produce a simple explanation of how something complex works.1 Introduction Cognition is all about how humans process information.3 A Model of the Cognitive Brain As in most processing flows. Mental models are also a key component of situation awareness. The importance of the model is that it is effective in assisting understanding. these are known as “mental models”. Some characteristics of mental models are:     They are incomplete and constantly evolving They are usually not completely accurate. they typically contain errors and contradictions They provide simplified explanations of complex phenomena They can be represented by sets of condition-action rules (If… then…) 9. An awareness of these limitations and errors can reduce their impact on flight operations.

9. Sound on the other hand is omnidirectional. touch. Routine (status) information is therefore conveyed by visual cues. at some point they will lose part of one or other signal.1 Senses We have five senses through which we receive information. This refers to a “pre-processing” stage where the brain interprets what it thinks it has seen before dealing with it.2 Attention Our senses are constantly receiving and discarding signals. sight. Flight-deck design typically makes use only of the first three of these – sight. are actually switching from one to the other. Attention is believed to be a single-channel function. not all of them get through to the processing stage. but it is not being ignored completely. During a busy. The brain will filter the unwanted background noise. It is only possible to concentrate on one signal at a time. 9. sound and touch.4. as many of the signals are neither intended for us nor relevant to us. noisy social function it is quite possible to sustain a conversation with someone.4 Input functions 9. warnings or “attention-getters” use audible alarms. but only a limited signal can be conveyed. The “cocktail party” syndrome provides a useful example of this. smell and taste. We are unable to effectively monitor our principle task.4. This is quite normal. Perception is incredibly powerful. Those who believe that they can monitor two channels simultaneously. as firstly you would detect this new signal and secondly try to monitor it as well as the initial conversation.4. If someone nearby were to mention a key topic of interest to you (such as your name).5 Perception Perception can also be thought of as another filter by the processing function.Page: 39 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 9.3 Divided Attention Problems occur when we need to attend to more than one matter at a time. if we miss-perceive an event. sound. even though they do not have the loudest voice. However the brain does have a mechanism for making sure that we do attend to matters that affect us. The advantage of sight is that quite complex information can be transferred to the user as long as they are looking at the signal. it is very difficult to subsequently identify it correctly and take the correct action to Flight Crew Training Centre . Attention is directed by the processing function and can be thought of as a filter to the overload of sensations all around us. so much that. it would become increasingly difficult to maintain the original conversation. 9.

Iconic memory (for visual stimuli) is almost literally gone in a flash. speed 310.6. Perception is considered to be the first stage of Situational Awareness. and contact 119.3 Short-Term Memory Short-term or “Working” memory is extremely limited and slow in operation. typically with the response “…was that for us?” but by the time the question is asked. descend 180. New information received on top of this will replace the current contents of working memory. The processing function is considered to have two types of memory. Another type of memory is sensory memory. Sensory memory data is lost by decay. the original message has been replayed by the mind. and retained by conscious attention.72”. 9.6 Processing Functions 9.5 second to replay the stimulus before it is lost. unless it is consciously being dealt with. Flight Crew Training Centre . The mind can have difficulty perceiving something it has never seen before or that appears to be impossible. It has a capacity of approximately seven bits of information. However it becomes more manageable even with additional information in the form – “Heading 285. you have as little as 0. which really belongs with the input functions. The string “28531018015011972” is clearly longer than seven digits. expect 150 by xxx. An example might be an R/T call that interrupts a conversation. 9. We can increase the effectiveness of our short-term memory by “chunking” information.1 Memory Memory is the storage area of the brain.6. Psychology text-books (and the internet) have numerous examples of such illusions.6. In this case the “echoic” memory (of the auditory system) can retain the data for as long as 10 seconds. for instance if you are looking in the general direction of the EICAS/ECAM and a message pops up and disappears.Page: 40 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 deal with the problem. short-term and long-term.2 Sensory Memory Sensory memory refers to how long the senses maintain received data before it is consciously dealt with or lost. 9.

This enables this “knowledgebase” to handle recurrent routines. and Mitigate). It is believed to be unlimited in capacity and lasts forever. Data in the long-term memory can be in the form of single bits of data or in the form of learned routines.Page: 41 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Chunking has reduced this sequence to just five bits of information.5 Flashbulb Memory This is a phenomenon which describes what happens when an event so incredible occurs that the information is immediately placed in long-term storage.. However the problem is not with forgetting. Short-term memory data is lost by displacement and retained by rehearsal. patterns or mini theories. manageable by most.6. One technique to assist with retrieval is the use of mnemonics. Usually the event and what you were doing at the time are inextricably linked as one memory. but becomes irretrievable due to interference. such as ATM (Avoid. Trap. whereas semantic memory stores similar data in a form of hierarchical tree. long after the event.4 Long-Term Memory Information transfers to the long-term or permanent memory by rehearsal and repetition. This enables the brain to come up with a “sensible wrong answer”. 9. using “motor actions” without recourse to the conscious workspace. but it is top secret. For this reason it is normally possible to date these events quite accurately. if you were told that Lexus have developed a new luxury car. Flight Crew Training Centre . episodic memory gives an autobiographical view of events. Retrieval of information is fast and effortless and parallel processing is available. but with inability to retrieve or access the information. Data is stored in one of two methods by the long-term memory. For example. even if the correct data has never been learned. you would be able to state with a fair degree of confidence that:     It has four wheels It has leather seats It has an amazing stereo It will be available in black and silver ….6. some secret? Long-term memory data is not lost. 9.

7 Problems with Decision Making As powerful as it is. 9.6. There are other occasions where humans can do more than one thing at a time. the assassination of JFK [November 1963]. or we press on Flight Crew Training Centre . It is the intention in pilot training to transfer emergency drills into over-learned routines. a response and is handled by the knowledge-base in the form of “motor-actions”.6. This prevents the cognitive functions from reaching overload and resulting inaction. this is when the action has become a learned routine. The process tends to be dominated by vision and can only work sequentially. It can only deal with one issue at a time.6 Central Processor/Decision-Maker The processor in the brain is exceptionally powerful. however it is a single channel device. the death of Princess Diana [August 1997] and the crash of Concorde [July 2000]. the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger [January 1986]. but in fact it is just switching quickly between them. in particular responses to RTO. 9. 2001 are slightly different in this respect. Common psychological traps that humans may encounter include:        Confirmation bias – only accepting evidence that confirms our position and rejecting contradictory evidence. Availability – Solutions selected because they are available and simple to execute regardless of effectiveness. There may be occasions where it appears to be doing several tasks. human decisions have numerous sources of bias that may hinder optimal performance. as they are referred to by the date itself. The events of September 11. Overconfidence Sunk Cost – “throwing good money after bad” Wishful thinking Outguessing Randomness Plan Continuation Error – The most significant trap that we fall into as pilots is that we find it hard to discontinue a bad approach. GPWS and Wind-shear warnings fall into this category.Page: 42 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Examples of events producing a “flash-bulb” effect are.

This chapter covers the effects of stress. 9.7 Conclusion The brain is exceptionally powerful but typically limited to dealing consciously with one issue at a time. This chapter highlights some of the issues now that they have been identified. your brain knows how to deal with them… 10 Stress and Alertness 10. some a combination of both. including workload and circadian rhythms. Optimum Stimulation Creativity Rationality Problem Solving Progress Under Stimulation Boredom Frustration Dissatisfaction Over Stimulation Overload Confusion Distress Flight Crew Training Centre .1 Introduction Stress may be defined as the demands that act on the human body. stress and fatigue produce similar results. The term arousal will be used as the generic term for both. Some of these place physical strains on the body. Alertness is a term used to describe the state of the body as it reacts to stress and also to describe a state of awareness. It is easily overloaded and can also produce biased results. others mental strains. Our interest is human performance. In this respect.Page: 43 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 towards a landing with significant issues not resolved. sleeps loss and disruption on the body and discusses techniques to manage stress and alertness. Performance varies with a number of factors.

The wellknown “fight or flight” or “adrenalin rush” syndromes are as a result of stress. Flight Crew Training Centre . but the time spent in these phases is relatively short. The left side of the curve shows a person in a state of under. and then falls away. consider that arousal refers to stress. largely impossible. A fast run down a challenging ski slope. 10.stimulation. but too much is exhausting.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. Stress has been necessary for the evolutionary survival of the human. The body needs an optimum level of stress to operate.Page: 44 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 The diagram above can be used to explain the effects of both stress and fatigue and these are covered below. In the diagram above. into the optimum performance range (shaded). Too much stress decreases a person’s ability to function. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. Critical phases of flight. tension headaches. Performance tends to degrade very rapidly if an attempt is made to remain at optimum for a long period. Initially. performance declines below optimum or satisfactory performance and enters a rapid decline thereafter. Sustained operation in the shaded area is however. The right side shows over stimulation. Stress is also a factor in achieving peak performance due to the release of adrenalin. overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress. from being somewhat dormant. such as take-off and landing. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and broken bones. performance actually peaks. 10. as stress increases. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses. Too little stress causes complacency.3 Types of Stress Stress can be divided into two types. A small amount of stress acts as a stimulus and results in improved performance.2 Stress Stress is not necessarily a bad thing. After a certain point. These prepare the body to react when presented with danger. for example. Optimum human performance takes place in the shaded area at the top of the curve. As stress increases further. upset stomach. which differs according to individuals and within individuals. performance improves. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future.3. and other symptoms. By the same token. require the crew to be at optimal performance. acute and chronic. within easy reach of peak performance if new demands arise. The American Psychological Association explains these as follows: 10. It is preferable to remain on the left hand side of the curve. is exhilarating early in the day.

and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamoring for their attention.    Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life. shortness of breath. and it is highly treatable and manageable. they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy. transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure. acid stomach.3. shorttempered. The most common symptoms are:    emotional distress--some combination of anger or irritability. diarrhea.Page: 45 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Fortunately. but always late. Because it is short term. it does. gut and bowel problems such as heartburn. chest pain. anxious. muscular problems including tension headache. have too many irons in the fire. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a number of levels. heart palpitations. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches. the three stress emotions. most people recognize acute stress symptoms themselves. the loss of an important contract. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender. and irritable bowel syndrome.2 Episodic Acute Stress There are those. and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. cold hands or feet. Flight Crew Training Centre . It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused. their child's occasional problems at school. migraine headaches. They're always in a rush. and depression. and so on. jaw pain. generally requiring professional help. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. irritable. sweaty palms. constipation. anxiety. a deadline they're rushing to meet. however. whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. and heart disease. hypertension. Often." Always in a hurry. flatulence. If something can go wrong. They take on too much. and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. rapid heartbeat. 10. and chest pain. dizziness. they tend to be abrupt. back pain. The work becomes a very stressful place for them. migraines. and tense. acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. who suffer acute stress frequently. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. stomach.

and. There are three broad sources of stressor: life.3. tremors. change in job or responsibilities (i. environmental and cognitive. a change in lifestyle is a source for this type of stress. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. Frequently. and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are. It's the stress of poverty. heart arrhythmia. 10. violence. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new. or a mental response such as irritability.4 Sources of Stress A stressor is the term used to define the cause of stress. almost comfortable.3 Chronic Stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day. of dysfunctional families.g. the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress management. even cancer. lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. 10. Flight Crew Training Centre . which exhibits as either a physical response e. they ignore chronic stress because it is old. their patterns of interacting with others. Some examples are: marriage or divorce. With no hope. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term attrition. promotion to Captain). they see their lifestyle. stroke. stress is accepted as the human response to these stressors. They blame their woes on other people and external events. The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. heart attack.5 Life Stress Life stress typically results from a person’s particular lifestyle. Generally. fatal breakdown. and sometimes. This could come in many different forms.Page: 46 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Often. 10. familiar. People wear down to a final. They forget it's there.3. minds and lives.3. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. the illness or death of a close relative or friend. perhaps.e.. year after year. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. hyperventilation. of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. the individual gives up searching for solutions. More precisely. chronic stress is not. Chronic stress kills through suicide. Chronic stress destroys bodies. sweating.

The effects of cognitive stress overload are most often experienced in high workload situations. or in the flight.6 Environmental Stress Environmental stress results from the physical environment surrounding an individual.3. Noise is generated internally (radios) and externally (airflow and engine).deck. and mismanage priorities.Page: 47 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Research carried out by various organizations suggests a strong link between life stress events and aircraft accidents. Two common examples could be heat and noise. or the selecting SPD instead of HDG. this will be covered later in the chapter. In trying to complete a task and move to Flight Crew Training Centre . High workload causes a skilled pilot to commit what are termed “action slips”. Examples are the auto-brake selector instead of brake fans. as it is a mental “picture” it is extremely difficult to establish any direct causal link between life stress and an aircraft accident. This is referred to as “tunnel vision”. humans tend to become victims of “intentional selectivity”. especially when it involves an operating pilot. This is again caused by the brain trying to manage large chunks of information in short periods. However. The effect is that pilots will become focused on a task.7 Cognitive Stress Cognitive stress refers to the mental workload imposed on a person. This is caused by the limited ability of humans to process information. The most quoted example is that of a pilot experiencing marital difficulties. Suffice to say that life stress is almost definitely a threat to aircraft safety. Noise arouses the individual. who collided with a ground vehicle whilst landing. Another not uncommon consequence of high workload is the tendency to trade accuracy for speed. Heat causes a subtle and unseen form of incapacitation. In the long-term. The original research was carried out by US Navy psychologists during the Vietnam era and has been expanded since. but with a dissimilar function. These occur when a pilot follows a “motor-action” response and selects a control very similar to the desired one. When workload is high. most pilots will experience some degree of hearing loss. Temperatures in the cockpits rise rapidly on the ground during summer. but exposure for extended periods also causes a drop in performance. Sleep disturbance is also a source of environmental stress. Pilots using noise attenuating headsets report less fatigue over long sectors. Noise is an unavoidable factor with aircraft operation. His accident statement directly attributed the incident to his state of mind. either on the apron. 10. as their brains try to accept large and unmanageable chunks of information.3. 10.

The consequences of sleepiness are:  Decreased physical and mental performance Flight Crew Training Centre . if we do not achieve enough sleep at the right time. self. After some time of being awake. Response time. or experiencing difficulty in responding to another task is another possible symptom. workload (physical exertion). a F/O may experience difficulty in calculating the take-off speeds because he feels the need to check the ATIS for the latest temperature. the range of optimal performance is reached. this continues to improve performance until. 10. after reaching a peak. this can have a negative effect during the cruise. As in the case of stress. Typically. Immediately after awakening. On a night flight. The inevitable result is a slowdown in completing the task. humans will trade off speed against accuracy. leading to withdrawal effects and further disrupted sleep. they may become bogged down in processing the data. Managing alertness is an essential skill for long-haul flying. Techniques for maintaining vigilance in such a situation are similar to those for combating fatigue. Better quality sleep is achieved during our natural night. Getting eight hours of disrupted sleep can have effects similar to too little sleep. inactivity and a lack of interaction in a low-light environment can result in insufficient stimulation and loss of vigilance. Other factors affecting alertness might be the quality and/or quantity of the previous sleep (sleep debt). Where pilots have actually assigned priorities to other tasks. For example. Sleep quality is also affected by our body clock. thereby inducing further errors. Jade Cargo International aircraft have advanced automation features that manage most routine tasks. this occurs during pre-flight where the workload is high with pre-assigned priorities.5 Sleep Management Sleep is a vital physiological function. with an inability to sleep further. but conversely a sleep debt can build up. when workload is at an absolute minimum. Again this is caused by the inability to manage large amounts of information. A loss of sleep leads to suppressed Rapid Eye Movement (REM). the mind and body are still in a state of drowsiness.4 Alertness Consider that arousal now refers to alertness. it may take some time before performance reaches an acceptable level. Depending on the individual. This might be due to time since awake. It cannot be stored. or state of awake ness. Although this can be an effective strategy. The tendency is to accept a less than optimum solution to a problem. lack of stimulus (stress) or circadian rhythms. it starts to decline as fatigue or weariness sets in.Page: 48 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 the next. However.discipline must be exercised to ensure a review is completed checking the suitability of actions performed. 10. Sleep achieved as the body temperature starts to rise can be disrupted by mid-morning.

The longer body-day also makes it easier to adjust to time zone changes on westbound routings. Following the disturbance of a time-zone change. not all body functions resynchronize at the same rate. which extend the operating day.Page: 49 CRM Manual Date: January 2008    Decreased positive and increased negative mood Increased vulnerability to performance decrements Following sleep loss.6 Circadian Rhythms A well-rested individual operating within their normal circadian rhythms. on the wrong time zone. Longer term effects include depression and chronic fatigue. Internal refers to the different body functions being “out of sync” with each other. which include:       Disturbed sleep (inability to fall asleep or stay asleep) Increased waking (work-time) sleepiness Decreased physical or mental performance Increased reports of fatigue More negative mood Gastrointestinal problems Flight Crew Training Centre . the nature of long-haul operations means that pilots are more often than not. Shift-work has similar effects to jet-lag. However. rather than eastbound which compresses the day. neither well rested nor within their circadian rhythms. 10. will have little problem achieving optimal performance at short notice should it become necessary. Stress and fatigue combine to pose a significant challenge to airline operations. It is kept synchronized on a daily basis by exposure to bright light and regular social interaction. An individual with a significant “sleep-debt” (accumulated sleep disruption) is often irritable. sleep is deeper rather than longer. Jet-lag can be described as external or internal. External refers to the body being “out of sync” with the environment. this can leave the pilot somewhat disoriented for several days after a trip involving several time-zone changes. The typical biological clock works on a 25-hour cycle. inattentive and has an increased reaction time. Knowing how to combat the ill-effects caused by these factors is an acquired skill that needs to be practiced actively by the modern airline crewmember. This is known as jet-lag.

This acts as an effective fatigue prevention tool and allows a satisfactory level of alertness to be maintained. In extreme cases this can take the form of dangerous sports.Page: 50 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Circadian Rhythms As with the other threats that we face. Exercise is often used as a form of stress relief. this is a potentially dangerous practice. circadian disrhythmia is not sufficient cause to cease operations.7 Stress and Alertness Management The FOM requires pilots to be in good physical and mental health – fit for duty. This chapter will explain what it is. Others prefer mental stimulation. However it is often quoted without really being explained.1 Introduction Situational awareness is frequently stated as a factor in accidents and incidents. a staggering 88% have been identified as involving a loss of situational awareness. The use of card and board games has historically been a popular form of stress relief. the Flight Crew Training Centre . when conducted in a structured fashion.8 Controlled Rest in the Flight Deck The FOM also provides for controlled sleep during low workload situations.2 Levels of Situation Awareness (SA) “Endsley” has produced the commonly accepted definition of situation awareness as: “The perception of the elements within a volume of time and space. It is another warning flag. 11 Situational Awareness 11. computer games appear to be increasingly filling this role. The use of alcohol is not recommended as a form of stress relief. Managing stress and sleep effectively. It has proven that controlled rest is a very effective tool for combating fatigue and maintaining alertness. who has it and the skills necessary for maintaining and sharing situational awareness. 10. 11. with dire consequences in the aviation industry. In accidents involving human error. As any medical practitioner will verify. 10. The duration of rest is limited to prevent sleep inertia. In the modern world. providing awareness and in need of management. This practice is based on extensive research done by NASA among others. is the duty of every crewmember.

which mitigates part of the problem. the environment (terrain and weather) and the people (ATC. The Importance of Situational Awareness Now that we know what SA is. passengers and company). crew. automation modes. The pilot must monitor the aircraft (flight-path.3 Loss of Situational Awareness Individuals have differing levels of situational awareness. those with normally high SA tend to recognize when they are losing SA. It is not just enough to notice a situation. one must understand and think ahead.” This is quite complex. Situational Awareness + Decision-Making = Performance SA is our current “mental mode” and not only directs attention where required. but it guides our selection of goals by providing understanding and projection. there are different domains that must be monitored by the pilot. fuel and time).Page: 51 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future. Navigate. In a well-known phrase: Aviate. Flight Crew Training Centre . 11. then our decisions will be well founded and good performance will follow. systems. The problems with SA in accident cases have mostly revolved around pilots failing to notice! Figure 1: Levels of Situational Awareness The key to situational awareness knows what comes next. why is it so important? Situational awareness is considered to be the driving force behind good decisions. and Communicate. In addition to three levels of SA. If we are aware of all the relevant factors (good SA). but what it means is that there are three levels of situational awareness.

information from two or more sources that doesn't agree Fixation .4 The Safety Window Reviews of accident trend data continue to indicate that most accidents occur close to the ground. Most accidents involving human error include at least four of the following:           Ambiguity .uncertainty about a situation (often accompanied by anxiety or uneasiness) Failure to fly the plane: everyone is focused on non-flying activities Failure to look outside: everyone heads down Failure to meet expected checkpoint on flight plan or profile-ETA. Results from observations at several different airlines. so the emphasis should switch to trapping any errors that do occur. After descent initiation.Page: 52 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 Clues that indicate a possible loss of SA are ambiguity. identified that most of the consequential and additional errors occurred during the descent and landing phase. Avoiding error is the initial course of action. etc Failure to adhere to standard operating procedures Failure to comply with limitations. When below 2000’ AGL (approximately 7nm from the airport) there is limited time to troubleshoot an unresolved problem. These may indicate that an error chain is in progress. clear briefings and good communication should take place to achieve this.contradictory data or personal conflicts Failure to communicate fully and effectively . fixation and confusion. there is much to be concerned about here. fuel burn.vague or incomplete statements 11. Flight Crew Training Centre . Mitigate” is one solution to the problem. In fact most are within seven miles of the airport. fixation and confusion exist. minimums. The philosophy is to stay out or get out of the safety window where ambiguity. A three-stage model “Avoid.focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything else Confusion . Jade Cargo International uses the concept of the “Safety Window”. Since historically over 70% of accidents have occurred in this phase. if potential problems can be identified in time. Trap. less time is available for noticing and avoiding. The trapping phase begins at top-of. Prior to descent.descent and leads up to the approach. regulations etc Failure to resolve discrepancies . during the take-off and landing phases. Additional errors should be guarded against as these could lead to an error-chain forming.

potential problems that are identified early allow the opportunity to avoid. perceptual speed and working memory capacity are inborn. The best strategy is to “Mitigate” the problem by going-around. 11. Advanced skills include pre-flight planning.6 Factors Affecting Situational Awareness Studies have revealed a ten-fold difference in SA between pilots within the same airline. there is very little time left to correct it. Finally. Basic skills that high SA crews exhibit are. 11. If the crew is trapping a lot of errors. psychomotor skills and pattern matching are trainable. The Mitigate phase commences at the start of the Safety Window (2000’ AGL). Should such a state occur. identified by the PM: PM: “Looks like a 15 knot tailwind on approach” This is shared perception – they have noticed the problem PF: “OK. self-monitoring. contingency planning. then the crew is only noticing problems [Level 1 SA].” Flight Crew Training Centre . 11.5 Situational Awareness and Error Management Using “Threat and Error” management principles. Information can be shared at all three levels of SA. this may indicate they are operating at understanding [Level 2 SA]. communications.Page: 53 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 In the final stages of the approach.7 Communication Awareness and Shared Situational For a crew to be most effective they must share the same high SA. an undesired aircraft state (i. attention-sharing. task management and prioritization. indicating that the crew is thinking ahead [Level 3 SA]. unstabilized approach. scan patterns and checklist use. Consider the case of an unexpected tailwind on approach. otherwise crew SA tends to fall to that of the weaker crewmember. Skills relating to spatial ability. PM: “They might change runways if the surface wind picks up. I’ll reduce speed xx miles earlier than briefed. By analyzing how we deal with the problem. However. if mitigation seems to be the key factor. too high. It has also been observed that crews flying non-glass aircraft have better SA than those with the latest technology. Human error is inevitable.” This identifies shared comprehension – the PF understands. we can make the link to identify at which level of SA we are operating at. too fast etc) must be avoided.e. and use the speed brake if necessary. Situational awareness can be trained to a certain extent. so that we can take action to improve it.

8 Techniques for Better Situational Awareness Management           Predetermine crew roles for high-workload phases of flight. Rotate attention from plane to path to people . It is essential to confirm a level of understanding when communicating at the perception level. Solicit input from all crew-members including cabin. Typically crews are comfortable with “perception” level communication. dispatch. The response “Ok” is no guarantee that the other pilot has even noticed – he may just be acknowledging that you have stopped speaking! 11. but for various reasons feel inhibited in offering more processed information for fear of offending the other pilot. Develop a plan and assign responsibilities for handling problems and distractions. maintenance. Flight Crew Training Centre . Focus on the details and scan the big picture. ATC.don't fixate. Create visual and/or aural reminders of interrupted tasks Watch for clues of degraded SA. Speak up when you see SA breaking down.Page: 54 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 This is shared projection – they are thinking ahead. etc. Project ahead and consider contingencies. Monitor and evaluate current status relative to your plan.

. Flight management attitudes questionnaire 2.L. Colombus. Helmreich..S. CRM Advocate. Merritt. R. Indonesia. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.0 (International) & 2. Jakarta... & Helmreich..C.J.C.. 1996.C. A. A. R. CRM: I hate it. (1997).L. November 26-28. 1997.L. R. (1996). April-May. P. A. 1995. Merritt.. stress. Paper presented at the IXth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Flight Crew Training Centre . Ooi. Replicating Hofstede: a study of pilots in eighteen countries. (1996). W. April. A.. Merritt. Colombus. A. J. Columbus: Ohio State University. 1. 1991. Paper presented at the Training and Safety Symposium. and culture) Paper presented at the Orient Airlines Association Air Safety Seminar. 1997. CRM in 1995: Where to from here? In Proceedings of the Third Australian Aviation Psychology Symposium. Creating and sustaining a Safety Culture.R. Helmreich.1 (USA/Anglo) (Technical Report 96-4). Ohio.C. Auckland. Designing culturally sensitive CRM training: CRM in China.C.C. (1996). (1997). April-May.R. & Helmreich.L. Local solutions for global problems: The need for specificity in addressing human factors issues. (1995). R. (1996. (1995).L. April). P. Merritt. November 20-24. A. A.. May 1995..C. R. Merritt. (1991). & Merritt. Ohio. Cultural issues in crew resource management.. Wilhelm.C.. Guangzhou. April 23-25. what is it? (Error. Cultural influences on flight operations. & Helmreich. Merritt.L. A. Paper presented at the SAS Flight Academy Training Conference. T. & Sherman. (1995). & Merritt. 1996.Page: 55 CRM Manual Date: January 2008 12 Reference Notes Helmreich. New Zealand. In proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. 8-12. Taggart. University of Texas: Aerospace Crew Research Project.A. Paper presented at the ICAO Global Human Factors Seminar. Sydney...C.. The Aerospace Crew Research Project Line-LOSChecklist: Assessing system safety and crew performance. R.

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