The circulation of oxygenated blood is essential for the survival of fish. Blood carries oxygen, nutrients, and waste. To provide the entire fish's body with blood, the heart pumps the blood throughout the body. The fish's heart has two chambers, the atrium and ventricle. The blood pumped from the ventricle first goes to the gills where it picks up oxygen and disposed of carbon dioxide through the thin capillary walls. The oxygenated blood gathers in one central artery and then goes to the rest of the body and eventually goes back to the atrium. From the atrium, it goes to the ventricle and the cycle continues. With this system, blood flows relatively slowly. The muscle contractions of the fish's swimming aids in the movement of blood throughout the body.

that is. . it is called a single closed circulatory system .The circulatory system of fish differ from those of other chordates in that the heart has only one atrium and one ventricle. Oxygenated blood from the respiratory (gill) capillaries flows directly into the systemic capillaries without moving through the heart first . the blood goes to the gill capillaries and then the systematic capillaries. Since the circulatory system of fish has only one circuit.

. The haemocoel contains the soft internal organs and is filled with haemolymph . Since the haemolymph plays no part in gaseous exchange.INSECTS The insects has an open circulatory system because the insect’s blood. The haemolymph flows from the hearts into the haemococoel when the hearts contract . is confined to vessels during only a portion of its circuit. a chemical exchange between the haemolymph and the body cells takes place . The remainder of its journey takes place within the body cavity. One or more hearts pump the haemolymph through the vessels and into the haemocoel. The ostia are equipped with valves that close when the hearts contract. called haemolymph. Here. the haemolymph is drawn through pores called ostia back into the hearts. When the hearts relax. called haemocoel. In insects. it is colourless and lacks respiratory pigments. exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in the tracheal system.

37 percent and a pulse rate of 615. In the Ruby-throated Hummingbird these figures rise to 2.BIRDS Bird Circulatory System The avian heart has evolved into a large and powerful organ with rapid muscular contractions. Generally birds have hearts larger and ones that beat faster than mammals.68 percent of the body weight and the pulse rate at rest averages 460 beats per minute. The House Sparrow's heart constitutes 1. .42 percent of body weight and the pulse rate at rest averages 72 beats per minute. Generally the smaller the species the larger the relative heart size. The human heart weight amounts to .

frogs are on the land. However. they use the lungs for gaseous exchange. Amphibians have a threechambered heart with two atria and one ventricle which are not separated by a septum. They have a double closed circulatory system consisting of a pulmonary and a systematic circulatory system. the blood flows from the heart to other parts of the body and back to the heart. the blood flows from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart. In the pulmonary system. This results in the mixing of oxygenated with deoxygenated blood in the single ventricle. The ventricle diverts the blood from the lungs to other body tissues. when the frogs dive under water. they do not use the lungs for respiration. .AMPHIBIANS Amphibians use the buccal cavity. The blood contains lower levels of oxygen but is sufficient to meet the cellular requirements of amphibians. In the systematic circulatory system. When amphibians for example. moist skin and lungs to carry out gaseous exchange.

. The four-chambered heart prevents the mixing of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. have a high metabolic rate. the right ventricle is smaller and its wall is less muscular as it only has to generate a lower pressure to pump blood a short distance to the lungs.MAMMALS Mammals. The heart acts as two separate pumps. They need a rich supply of nutrients and oxygen to the tissues. Compared to the left ventricle. Mammals have a double closed circulatory system consisting of the pulmonary and systematic circulations. Blood can be maintained at a relatively higher pressure by the contraction of the thick muscular left ventricle. They have a four-chambered heart separated by a septum. It allows animals with a fourchambered heart to attain larger sizes. The separation of the right and left chambers of the heart also prevents the high blood pressure from damaging the fine blood capillaries of the lungs. It supplies adequate oxygen and nutrient rich blood rapidly to the body tissues. including human. The blood enters the heart twice during one complete cycle.

but has not been shown to be a fitness advantage. This variation in blood flow has been hypothesized to allow more effective thermoregulation and longer diving times for aquatic species.g. but also have two systemic aortas and are therefore capable of bypassing only their pulmonary circulation. The degree of mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the three-chambered heart varies depending on the species and physiological state. Because of this ridge. deoxygenated blood can be shunted back to the body or oxygenated blood can be shunted back to the lungs. Under different conditions. crocodilians have an anatomically four-chambered heart. . This is made possible by a muscular ridge that subdivides the ventricle during ventricular diastole and completely divides it during ventricular systole. pythons and monitor lizards) have three-chambered hearts that become functionally four-chambered hearts during contraction.. and two aortas that lead to the systemic circulation. some snake and lizard species (e. Also. one variably partitioned ventricle. some of these squamates are capable of producing ventricular pressure differentials that are equivalent to those seen in mammalian and avian hearts.REPTILE Most reptiles have closed circulation via a three-chambered heart consisting of two atria. There are some exceptions to the general physiology. For instance.

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