Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual

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SIBMITTED BY: Jenina L. Buhia BBTE 4-1

SIBMITTED TO: PROF: Sheryl Morales

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Table of contents: Dedication Acknowledgement Prayer for teachers Introduction Pup Vision Mission Justice Cecilia Munoz Palma High School Vision Mission History Map Context Organizational Structure Final Demonstration Plan Research Articles Synopsis of Reading and References Narrative Report Current Issues about Education Curriculum Vitae Attachment A – Photographs B – Lesson Plan C – Daily Time Record Evidence of Outreach Program

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Dedication
dedicated This manual is dedicated to my father, who taught me that the best kind of knowledge to have is that which is learned for its own sake. It is also dedicated to my mother, who taught me that even the largest task can be accomplished dearest if it is done one step at a time. To my dearest school PUPQC This manual would be incomplete without a mention of the support given me by my cherished friend, Erna and Margie to whom this manual is also dedicated.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Acknowledgement
I am heartily thankful to my critic teacher Mr. Sayon, T.L.E head Mrs. Victoriano, to al my students from JCMPHS whose encouragement, guidance and support from the initial to the final level enabled me to develop an understanding of the subject and practicum. Lastly, I offer my regards and blessings to all of those who those supported me in any respect during the completion of my ojt My Family, my friends and most especially Dearest loving God.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

PRAYER
O, God, Grant us in all our duties your help; in all our perplexities, your guidance; in all our dangers, your protection; and in all our sorrows, your peace. Through Jesus Christ our Lord, our body, and our blood, our life and our nourishment. Amen.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

INTRODUCTION

Experiences:
Student teaching was the most essential part of PUP. I feel that I have learned more in almost 4 months than I did when I was taking classes. I have unquestionably benefited from this experience and would not trade it for the world. I just hope that when I am in the profession, I can give a student teacher the same advantages that I experienced from this program and my practicum. Before I began student teaching, I spoke to a few people who have been through it before, and I asked them for some advice. They told me that in order to succeed, you have to be totally committed to what you are doing, and you have to make changes in the way you live your life because student teaching would take up a lot of time and energy. This worried me, at first, because my life was busy enough at the time, and I was concerned that I would not be able to give student teaching my 100%. However, I made the necessary changes to ensure that I would at least give myself a fair chance to succeed and make it to the finish line. The lessons that I have learned about teaching, learning, and life that I brought home from practicum could fill an entire book. I learned something about people in every interaction whether it was in the classroom,. I hope someday that I will be able to return to my gratitude to JCMCPHS and take people with me, so that they may experience the compassion of my students. I feel that I experienced this trip to the fullest potential from sharing my knowledge to my students. It was without question a mind-opening experience…and worth every baht.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Vision
Towards a Total University

Mission
The mission of PUP in the 21st Century is to provide the highest quality of comprehensive and global education and community services accessible to all students, Filipinos and foreigners alike. It shall offer high quality undergraduate and graduate programs that are responsive to the changing needs of the students to enable them to lead productive and meaningful lives. PUP commits itself to: 1. Democratize access to educational opportunities; 2. Promote science and technology consciousness and develop relevant expertise and competence among all members of the academe, stressing their importance in building a truly independent and sovereign Philippines; 3. Emphasize the unrestrained and unremitting search for truth and its defense, as well as the advancement of moral and spiritual values; 4. Promote awareness of our beneficial and relevant cultural heritage; 5. Develop in the students and faculty the values of self-discipline, love of country and social consciousness and the need to defend human rights; 6. Provide its students and faculty with a liberal arts-based education essential to a broader understanding and appreciation of life and to the total development of the individual; 7. Make the students and faculty aware of technological, social as well as political and economic problems and encourage them to contribute to the realization of nationalist industrialization and economic development of the country; 8. Use and propagate the national language and other Philippine languages and develop proficiency in English and other foreign languages required by the students’ fields of

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

specialization; 9. Promote intellectual leadership and sustain a humane and technologically advanced academic community where people of diverse ideologies work and learn together to attain academic, research and service excellence in a continually changing world; and 10. Build a learning community in touch with the main currents of political, economic and cultural life throughout the world; a community enriched by the presence of a significant number of international students; and a community supported by new technologies that facilitate active participation in the creation and use of information and knowledge on a global scale.

Goals
Reflective of the great emphasis being given by the country's leadership aimed at providing appropriate attention to the alleviation of the plight of the poor, the development of the citizens, and of the national economy to become globally competitive, the University shall commit its academic resources and manpower to achieve its goals through: 1. Provision of undergraduate and graduate education which meet international standards of quality and excellence; 2. Generation and transmission of knowledge in the broad range of disciplines relevant and responsive to the dynamically changing domestic and international environment; 3. Provision of more equitable access to higher education opportunities to deserving and qualified Filipinos; and 4. Optimization, through efficiency and effectiveness, of social, institutional, and individual returns and benefits derived from the utilization of higher education resources.

Philosophy
As a state university, the Polytechnic University of the Philippines believes that: Education is an instrument for the development of the citizenry and for the enhancement of nation building; Meaningful growth and transformation of the country are best achieved in an atmosphere of brotherhood, peace, freedom, justice and a nationalist-oriented education imbued with the spirit of humanist internationalism.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School

VISION To provide relevant education for youth’s intellectual¸ physiological, spiritual and environmental awareness through responsive approaches.

MISSION
Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School is an educational institution developing well-rounded individual for the establishment of a self-reliant and responsible community.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

HISTORY
Cecilia Muñoz-Palma
Cecilia Muñoz-Palma (November 22, 1913 — January 2, 2006) was a Filipino jurist and the first woman appointed to the Supreme Court of the Philippines. She was appointed to the Supreme Court by President Ferdinand Marcos on October 29, 1973, and served until she reached the then-mandatory retirement age of 65. While on the Court, Muñoz-Palma penned several opinions adverse to the martial law government of her appointer, President Marcos. After retiring from the Court, she became a leading figure in the political opposition against Marcos, and was elected to the Batasang Pambansa as an Assemblywoman from Quezon City. When Corazon Aquino was installed as President following the 1986 People Power Revolution, Muñoz-Palma was appointed president of the 1986 Constitutional Commission that drafted the 1987 Constitution.

Background
The daughter of a congressman from Batangas, Muñoz-Palma earned her law degree from the University of the Philippines College of Law, and a Master of Laws degree from Yale University. She became the first woman prosecutor of Quezon City in 1947. Seven years later, she became the first female district judge when she was named a trial court judge for Negros Oriental. In the next few years, she was assigned as a judge to Laguna and Rizal until her appointment to the Court of Appeals in 1968, the second woman ever to be appointed to the appellate court. In 1973, she again made history, this time as the first female Supreme Court Associate Justice, preceding by eight years Sandra Day O'Connor, the first female justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Dissenter from martial rule
By the time she retired from the Court in 1978, Muñoz-Palma had become identified, along with Claudio Teehankee, as a dissenter from rulings that affirmed the decrees and actions enforced by her appointer, President Marcos, during his martial law rule. As early as 1975, she had expressed skepticism that "a referendum under martial rule can be of no far-reaching significance as it is accomplished under an atmosphere or climate of fear." (Aquino v. COMELEC, G.R. No. L40004, January 31, 1975, J. Muñoz-Palma, Separate Opinion ) The following year, she voted against allowing Marcos the right to propose amendments to the Constitution by himself, and in doing so, ventured to call for the lifting of martial law itself. In a later dissent, she added that "under a martial law regime there is, undeniably, repression of certain rights and freedoms, and any opinion expressed would not pass the test of a free and untrammeled expression of the will of the people. That "(M)artial law connotes power of the gun, meant coercion by the military, and compulsion and intimidation" was so stated by President Ferdinand E. Marcos upon proclamation of martial law in the country."

Opposition figure
After her retirement from the Court, Muñoz-Palma emerged as a prominent figure in the antiMarcos political opposition. In 1984, she was elected under the UNIDO banner to the Batasang Pambansa as an Assemblywoman, representing Quezon City. She headed for a time a National Unification Council that sought to unify all anti-Marcos opposition groups. She also became an early supporter of the attempt to draft the then-reluctant Corazon Aquino to run for the presidency against Marcos.

1986 Constitutional Commission and later life
After Aquino assumed the presidency in 1986, Muñoz-Palma called in vain for the retention of the Batasang Pambansa. When Aquino created the 1986 Constitutional Commission to draft the new Constitution, she appointed Muñoz-Palma as one of its members. The Commission would later elect her as its President. Following the ratification of the 1987 Constitution, Muñoz-Palma faded from the public eye. However, in 1998, she supported Joseph Estrada for the presidency. After his election, President Estrada appointed the 85-year old Muñoz-Palma as Chairperson of the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office. She served in this capacity until 2000. Muñoz-Palma strongly denounced the circumstances that led to Estrada's vacation of the presidency and the assumption into office of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.
Muñoz-Palma died on January 2, 2006, at the age of 92.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

MAP

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

FINAL DEMONTRATION PLAN
Teaching Guide

Housekeeping management I

RECYCLING Stage 1: Result/Outcome
Content Standard The learner demonstrates understanding with the basic concepts underlying with the basic concepts theories and principles in recycling. Knowledge The learner will be able to know the following: 1. Define recycling. 2. Categories of recycling • Glass recycling • Paper recycling • Plastic recycling 3. Advantages of recycling. 4. Public participation of recycling programs. Essential Understanding 1. Recycling conserves our natural resources because it reduces the need for the raw materials. 2. Applying the basic principles in waste segregation, the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Apply the principles and procedures in recycling. Adapt the different techniques in selecting recyclable materials. Convert recycled materials into finished recycled products. Develop an eco-friendly and greener environment. Involve themselves in different recycling programs. Essential Question 1. Why do we need to practice recycling? 2. How can you determine if the waste is a recyclable material? Performance Standard The learner provides quality and marketable recycles products. Skills

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Stage 2: Product/ Performance
The learner produces marketable and useful recycled products following the basic concepts and principles underlying recycling. Facets of Learning 1. Explanation Level of Understanding Discuss the basic principles and steps in recycling. Criteria: a. Clear content b. Comprehensive c. Scientific basis Illustrate the proper ways of choosing/ selecting items that can be recycled. Criteria: a. Strategy b. Creativity c. Speed Perform the basic procedure in recycling. Criteria: a. Durability b. Creativity c. Originality Compare and contrast the various methods in making recycled products. Criteria: a. Clarity b. Concise c. Appropriateness As an entrepreneur, how can I compete to the market in terms of selling my recycled products? Criteria: a. Strategies b. Profitability c. Persuasiveness Realize the importance of recycling. Criteria: a. Self-confidence b. Self-sufficiency Level of Performance Assessment in presentation based of recycling. Criteria: a. Clarity of voice b. Performance c. Appearance Assess performance based on the following: - Application of the steps. - Identifying the items - Completeness Assess performance based on the following criteria. - Application of steps - Work behavior - Speed Assess the performance based on various techniques in making products

2. Interpretation

3. Application

4. Perspective

5. Empathy

Assess performance based on the following criteria. - Advertising the products - Product value - Product price

6. Self-knowledge

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Rubrics for Evaluation of Products

Criteria 1. Design 2. Materials 3. Product

Very Satisfactory Original design All material are Recyclable Durability

(VS) Satisfactory (S) Common in the market some materials new easy to ruin

Unsatisfactory (US) Product copied All materials are new useless

Guide
Explore

Stage 3: Learning/Instructional Plan Suggested Activities Orient the students on the following:
Definition of recycling Advantages of recycling Programs involve in recycling Picture parade of different raw materials that can be use to make new products. Story telling of successful entrepreneurs who engaged in business selling. Discussion of recycling Make an individual project with the concept of wall design, in the process of recovering waste paper or plastic and remarking it into new products. Interview an entrepreneur on the process of making a Recycled products. how the students performance with quality, efficiency and marketability

FIRM-UP -

DEEPEN Transfer

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PREPARED BY: JENINA L. BUHIA

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

RESEARCH ARTICLES
Education Improvement Campaign Comes To Denver It's something everyone wants for their children -- a better education and a way to maximize their chances of success in schools. That's also the idea behind the documentary "Waiting for Superman" and a campaign in Denver on Wednesday. The creator of the movie, Davis Guggenheim, talked with educators and businessmen from the metro area. He highlights the very tough challenges very young students face in our current education system. Guggenheim says the problem is so big that those who have children -- and also those who don't -have to be involved. "We have more than 1,200,000 kids that are dropping out from school every year," Guggenheim said. That's the message he wants to get across in his movie. "Waiting for Superman" is told through his eyes and the eyes of several families desperate for a good education. Five families are showcased living the problems associated with this country's education system. Not all of the families showcased in the movie are poor, but all of them are starved for a good education. The movie also shows the problems educators and reformers face trying to find real and lasting solutions within a dysfunctional system. The latest victim was Michelle Rhee, the chancellor for Washington, D.C. public schools. She resigned Wednesday after 3 years. If there was ever a movie that is sure to cause people to get up and take action, it's this movie. Not because it points fingers at one person or group, but because it points fingers at everyone. Whether someone has children in public school or not, Guggenheim says it's their problem as well. "If the quality of education we're giving every kid affects the price of your home, how safe your neighborhood is, how competitive our economy is -- everything is failing with our failing schools," Guggenheim said. Colorado's Senate is trying to improve schools with a bill that tackles tenure and ineffective teachers. "The single most exciting thing that I've heard about is this bill and Colorado," Guggenheim said. "And I'm not exaggerating, because issues that it deals with, like tenure, were off the table. You couldn't even talk about tenure … you could not talk about merit pay, you could not talk about evaluating teachers through testing.The bill, which is still being negotiated, says that tenure is a privilege and not a right. Just as one is given tenure, it can be taken away.

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NEW STANDARDS ALONE WON'T IMPROVE EDUCATION Education Commissioner Terry Holliday and Council on Postsecondary Education President Bob King in their op-ed focus on national education standards and related issues. Their aim is to inform the public of new directions for education in Kentucky. They make a number of assertions that call for more information or discussion, or both. They say, "It has been common that students who have been earning A's and B's in high school have been placed in remedial courses in college." They say students have not been learning the right stuff in high school and that national standards will solve the problem. Yet decades of research has shown the single best predictor of success in college is a student's high school record. Doing well in a rigorous college preparatory curriculum is the key to doing well in higher education. How have or will national standards change that? Perhaps these hypothetical students were not in college preparatory classes. In that case, one would not expect them to be related to success in college. But just for the sake of it, let's suppose the grades were from such courses. What evidence is there that universities are making good placement decisions? Students would be mistakenly placed in remedial courses, for example, if not enough or the wrong evidence were used for the decision or if the procedures were flawed. Holliday and King say, "Among the 40 most industrialized nations, American students perform in the bottom quartile on international math and science examinations." In the latest 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), U.S. fourth graders were ranked 11th of 36 in mathematics. Their eighth grade counterparts were ranked ninth of 48. Two states, Massachusetts and Minnesota, participated in the study, which ranked them fourth and sixth respectively for fourth graders, and sixth among the eighth graders. Kentucky did not participate as a state in TIMSS. However, the commonwealth's fourth and eighth graders participate in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessments. Their scores are at about the national average. It is likely then that Kentucky performance on TIMSS would be similar to the U.S. as a whole; they would be in the top one-third in 4th grade and the top 20 percent in 8th grade. In science, the U.S. ranked eighth of 36 for fourth graders and 11th of 48 for eighth graders. Massachusetts is number two in fourth grade and number three in eighth grade.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Kentucky's scores in science are substantially higher than the national mean in the 4th grade and higher than average but less so in the 8th grade. It is likely, therefore, Kentucky's performance would be higher than the U.S. performance. They could be in the top 20 percentage in both surveys: sixth or seventh at fourth grade and ninth or 10th in eighth grade. Holliday and King say, "Since early this summer, teams of teachers and college faculty have been translating sophisticated technical language (of the national standards) into objectives students and their parents can understand." Suppose another state were doing the same thing. Is there any reason to believe the two groups would come up with the same statements? It would appear the process is a way to turn national standards into state curricula, a problem national standards were meant to solve. Recent federal Race to the Top awards to two state consortia to build new assessments further cloud this issue. Kentucky is a member of both consortia. The choice of which to continue with, however, means a choice between two different approaches to building an assessment. It is unclear that either approach would produce an assessment related to Kentucky's newly defined objectives. What is clear, and Kentucky has 20 years of experience that shows it, is that for any test that is adopted teachers will be coerced into teaching to it. Despite all the work with national standards, students may emerge from schools expected to know only what is on tests.

FEMALES ARE EQUAL TO MALES IN MATH SKILLS ACCORDING TO LARGE EQUAL STUDY

The mathematical skills of boys and girls, as well as men and women, are substantially equal, according to a new examination of existing studies in the current online edition of journal Psychological Bulletin. One portion of the new study looked systematically at 242 articles that assessed the math skills of 1,286,350 people, says chief author Janet Hyde, a professor of psychology and women's studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. These studies, all published in English between 1990 and 2007, looked at people from grade school to college and beyond. A second portion of the new study examined the results of several large, long-term scientific studies, including the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

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In both cases, Hyde says, the difference between the two sexes was so close as to be meaningless. Sara Lindberg, now a postdoctoral fellow in women's health at the UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, was the primary author of the meta-analysis in Psychological Bulletin. The idea that both genders have equal math abilities is widely accepted among social scientists, Hyde adds, but word has been slow to reach teachers and parents, who can play a negative role by guiding girls away from math-heavy sciences and engineering. "One reason I am still spending time on this is because parents and teachers continue to hold stereotypes that boys are better in math, and that can have a tremendous impact on individual girls who are told to stay away from engineering or the physical sciences because 'Girls can't do the math.'" Scientists now know that stereotypes affect performance, Hyde adds. "There is lots of evidence that what we call 'stereotype threat' can hold women back in math. If, before a test, you imply that the women should expect to do a little worse than the men, that hurts performance. It's a self-fulfilling prophecy. "Parents and teachers give little implicit messages about how good they expect kids to be at different subjects," Hyde adds, "and that powerfully affects their self-concept of their ability. When you are deciding about a major in physics, this can become a huge factor." Hyde hopes the new results will slow the trend toward single-sex schools, which are sometimes justified on the basis of differential math skills. It may also affect standardized tests, which gained clout with the passage of No Child Left Behind, and tend to emphasize lower-level math skills such as multiplication, Hyde says. "High-stakes testing really needs to include higher-level problem-solving, which tends to be more important in jobs that require math skills. But because many teachers teach to the test, they will not teach higher reasoning unless the tests start to include it." The new findings reinforce a recent study that ranked gender dead last among nine factors, including parental education, family income, and school effectiveness, in influencing the math performance of 10-year-olds. Hyde acknowledges that women have made significant advances in technical fields. Half of medical school students are female, as are 48 percent of undergraduate math majors. "If women can't do math, how are they getting these majors?" she asks. Because progress in physics and engineering is much slower, "we have lots of work to do," Hyde says. "This persistent stereotyping disadvantages girls. My message to parents is that they should have confidence in their daughter's math performance. They need to realize that women can do math just as well as men. These changes will encourage women to pursue occupations that require lots of math."

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THE SINGAPORE DECLARATION (WORLD ENGINEERING EDUCATION FORUM (WEEF))

WASHINGTON, Oct. 13 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Solutions to engineering grand challenges, such as renewable energy and clean water will need to be global in scope. The solutions will require participation from all facets of the engineering community and pipeline working together with policy makers. An effective, action-oriented dialogue on the major engineering and engineering education challenges impacting citizens of the world will require increasing the effectiveness of global partnerships, harnessing the expertise and commitment of the international community and of the local and regional players.

The World Engineering Education Forum (WEEF) activities held in Singapore during Oct 16-21, 2010 have set in motion plans for participation and action. Five leading engineering education organizations — the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), the Global Engineering Deans Council (GEDC), the International Association for Continuing Engineering Education (IACEE), the International Federation of Engineering Education Societies (IFEES), and the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development (SPEED) — as well as other WEEF leaders and attendees, have agreed to sign a formal declaration outlining milestones that will be taken to improve engineering education and research, enabling solutions to the engineering grand challenges of today, with especial focus on energy and water sustainability. This declaration calls for action on engineering activities, multi-disciplinary, multi-stockholder, multinational research collaborations, cradle-to-grave engineering education, and public outreach, among other action items. Artistic Research, Theory and Innovation

The research group Artistic Research, Theory and Innovation (ARTI) was jointly created in 2006 by the researchers in the Art Theory and Research department and the Art Practice and Development department. Teacher-researchers, third-cycle students and research fellows work together in ARTI. Their research projects involve concrete artistic practices; they seek theoretical depth and promote educational innovation.

The ARTI group meets regularly to discuss ongoing research projects, to develop a common vocabulary and conceptual framework, and to foster and support intellectual and artistic creativity. Research themes, questions and methods in the individual projects are chosen in close conjunction with artistic and educational practice in the Amsterdam School of the Arts, with particular emphasis on

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

subjects

that

are

translatable

into

artistic

and

educational

practice.

ARTI irregularly publishes the journal RTRSRCH. The journal aims to provide a complementary/parasitic dissemination forum for themes linked to international external event structures (festivals, conferences, exhibitions, projects, etc.), contributing alternative, interdisciplinary perspectives.

RTRSRCH reflects the interests and problematising strategies of the ARTI research group concerning current discourse in practice-based research in the arts, exploring and facilitating processes for creating, sharing and distributing emerging knowledge(s). The presentation of content will vary from issue to issue, dependent on the topic and stylistic concerns of the guest editor. Northern Ireland Assembly Employment and Learning minister Sir Reg Empey made a statement on higher education funding in the light of Lord Browne's newly-published report, on 12 October 2012. Sir Reg described the report as "big stuff" and potentially the most significant reform in higher education since the 19th Century. He said that Northern Ireland had achieved its target of 50% participation in higher education by 18 to 25-year-olds and had the highest participation rate of students from a socially disadvantaged background in the UK. The minister said there should not be a rush to respond to Lord Browne's report and he had commissioned Joanne Stuart to update her report into higher education funding in Northern Ireland. "I intend to consider Lord Browne's report, in conjunction with Joanne Stuart's report, before bringing forward a public consultation on these very important issues," he commented. A number of MLAs raised concerns that lifting the cap on fees would deter some people from applying to university. Creating child-friendly schools: part one As mentioned previously, a new initiative is spreading worldwide that has come from Unicef and the Commonwealth of Learning. It is called "Child-Friendly Schools" (CFS). Recently Teacher Training and Development in the Ministry of Education and Skills Development produced a project document "Child-Friendly Schools: Standards and Indicators for Teacher Education in Botswana".

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

It was prepared by staff at the Ministry and consultants Mmamiki Kamanakao and Dr Jim Irvine. The key objective of this document is to set standards for teacher education that can be used to help create child-friendly schools. It is stated that one of the Children's Rights is "access to Quality Education". In Botswana the key challenges are to ensure inclusiveness and develop quality of basic education. Inclusiveness means that all children at the age of six have the right to be in school and to be educated, to attend regularly, and to achieve continuity in their schooling during the basic education cycles. Families and communities have a significant place in this process. Botswana has already achieved an impressive net primary enrolment rate, with the overwhelming majority of children having an opportunity to enter Standard One. An increasing proportion of children have had some form of preschool or early childhood care and education (ECCE) experience. In some less disadvantaged areas, the proportion of children entering school who are over age has been declining and wastage or dropping out rates has been reduced. The national average teacher to pupil ratio (TPR) is one to 25, but this does not reflect variability, with the TPR being higher in the western and northern parts of the country. Transition rates between primary and junior secondary school are high, but again there are district level disparities. Between junior and senior schools the transition rate is improving. There is also additional access to DVET programmes that have been expanded. The proportion of untrained teachers in the schools has been reduced over the years while that of teachers with degrees and qualifications has been growing. In spite of all these accomplishments, the report says that, "the right to basic education of good quality has yet to be realized [MSOffice1]". This is because Inclusiveness [MSOffice2] means to find ways to include out-of-school children and youth. Can they be encouraged to start Standard One at six? Or if they start and drop out can they be re-enrolled? The classic study by Ulla Kann, D. Mapolelo and Paul Nleya titled "The Missing Children. Achieving Universal Basic Education in Botswana: The Barriers, and some Suggestions for overcoming them" of 21 years ago is still relevant today. The proportion of children that are missing from the education system may be down, but a significant proportion is still not included. Even if it is less than 10 percent nationally, the proportion is skewed regionally, with Kweneng, Kgalagadi and Ngamiland still having higher proportions not starting and out of school. Who are these children and where do they live? What socio-economic, cultural and other factors may help to account for their status? AAP UPDATES GUIDANCE TO HELP FAMILIES MAKE POSITIVE MEDIA CHOICES An updated policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), “Media Education,” published in the November print issue of Pediatrics, reflects the dramatic changes in the media landscape over the past decade. When the statement was last issued in 1999, statistics showed children and adolescents spent more than 3 hours per day on average viewing television. Today, with the ubiquitous nature of media in multiple formats, the definition of media use has been expanded, and kids are now spending more than 7 hours per day on average using televisions, computers, phones and

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other electronic devices for entertainment. The increasing availability of media, including access to inappropriate content that is not easily supervised, creates an urgent need for parents, pediatricians and educators to understand the various ways that media use affects children and teens. First, excessive media time takes away from other creative, active or social activities. In addition, the content of media must be considered, including entertainment, news and advertising. Particularly important are the effects of violent or sexual content, and movies or shows that glamorize alcohol and tobacco use. Studies have associated high levels of media use with school problems, attention difficulties, sleep and eating disorders, and obesity. And the Internet and cell phones have become important new sources and platforms for illicit and risky behaviors. But media education has the potential to reduce harmful media effects, and careful selection of media can help children to learn. In addition to longstanding AAP advice about limiting, planning and supervising media use, new recommendations include:

• • •

Pediatricians should ask at least two media-related questions at each visit: How much entertainment media per day is the child or adolescent watching? (The AAP recommends that children have less than two hours of screen time per day, and viewing should be avoided for children under 2.) Is there a TV set or Internet access in the child or teen’s bedroom? Parents should be good media role models; emphasize alternate activities; and create an “electronic media-free” environment in children’s bedrooms. Schools should begin to implement media education in their curricula, and Congress should consider funding universal media education in schools. The federal government and private foundations should dramatically increase their funding for media research.

The authors conclude that a media-educated person will be able to limit his or her media use, make positive media choices, develop critical thinking and viewing skills, and be less vulnerable to negative effects of media content and advertising. In addition, simply reducing children’s and adolescents’ screen media use has been shown conclusively to have beneficial health effects.

New Consumer Education Website Helps Simplify Health Benefits Decisions in Era of Health Care Reform HARTFORD, Conn.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- While Americans are hearing more than ever about health care reform, this fall’s Open Enrollment season marks the first time that millions of people may need to make the connection between health reform and their own health benefits. According to a national survey released today by Be Smart About Your Health (www.BeSmartAboutYourHealth.com), an online consumer education portal developed by Aetna (NYSE:AET - News), almost 70 percent of Americans say they’re paying more attention to what health benefits options are available because of the new health reform law.

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But, unlike other consumer purchases, many find the process can be challenging. In fact, 40 percent of Americans admit that when it comes to health care, they don’t know what they should be looking for (20 percent) or they don’t know what questions to ask (20 percent). Be Smart About Your Health gives people the tools and “know-how” to save time and money while making the best health decisions during Open Enrollment and throughout the year. “If there were ever a year for consumers to get smart on their Open Enrollment information, this is the year. Consumers told us that they’re concerned about health care costs increasing, and that hard facts on health reform can be elusive. That’s why we’ve created a real-time resource that can help people choose, use and get the most value from their benefits,” said Susan Kosman, RN, BSN, MS, chief nursing officer for Aetna. “A lack of understanding can be a barrier to better health. This new online portal can help simplify all aspects of managing your health from maximizing your benefits to treating a chronic health condition.” Be Smart About Your Health is an easy-to-understand resource that gives consumers a full view of health care in a user-friendly format. The site does away with the common medical and insurancespeak, and instead uses plain, everyday language. The website also pulls respected and credible information from other sites that Aetna has built. The website:
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Allows people to “discover their health” with Harvard Medical School content from Aetna InteliHealth® Offers important tips and tools from Aetna’s popular Plan for Your Health campaign Presents expert advice from the Financial Planning Association® (FPA®) on how to best manage health care spending Supplies key facts to help people stay up-to-speed on health care reform

According to the recent survey of 1,015 insured adults, health benefits choices can be difficult to understand. In fact, more than half of survey participants said reading Shakespeare (52 percent) is easier than reading their health insurance policy (29 percent). Additionally, the new health care reform law leaves people even more bewildered. Almost 40 percent of respondents said they don't know how the new health care reform law will affect their plan, and 25 percent noted that choosing a health plan this year will be harder than last year due to this new law. The survey also identifies a major disconnect when it comes to understanding the financial impact of health benefits choices. Only 23 percent of people consider health care coverage as part of their financial plan, yet 24 percent of Americans say that comparing costs is what’s most important when evaluating health benefits during Open Enrollment. Selecting health benefits still falls at the bottom of the “to-do” list; survey respondents admitted they dread selecting their health benefits more than doing their taxes or cleaning. While Americans spend time clipping coupons and comparison shopping, they do not track health care spending. “Given today’s economy, people go to great lengths to save money,” said Tracey Baker, co-author of Navigating Your Health Benefits For Dummies® and CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® (CFP®) professional. “Yet, a surprising 44 percent of people surveyed said they would give up $400 before

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they would spend time reviewing their health plan. Consumers need to understand that when it comes to health benefits, not taking the time to get smart on your options is like leaving money on the table.” Be Smart About Your Health promotes greater understanding and better decision making about health benefits and financial planning. Launched today, Be Smart About Your Health encourages visitors to act like true consumers when it comes to their benefits. Specifically, this means: think like smart health care consumers; choose the right benefits; track spending; plan health. Here are my Big Eight education proposals (from a just-published article): 1) Encourage and strengthen charter schools, vouchers, homeschooling, and all types of private schools, because diversity and competition is a sure way to have improvement.

2) All teachers must major in the subjects they teach. Just as nurses have degrees in Nursing, biology teachers must have degrees in Biology. (At present many unprepared teachers are told to teach subjects they know little about. Ridiculous.)

3) Support fast-track alternative credentialing. If smart, educated people want to leave other fields to be teachers, all they really need is several months of classroom training. Grab these people and put them to work as soon as possible.

4) Make schools safe and secure. School boards and principals must be held responsible for eliminating violence from schools. (There is far more violence in public schools than most people realize; and it seems to be tacitly accepted. Zero-tolerance seems to be a cynical ploy to distract people from the real problem, which is children committing acts that adults would be jailed for. A pill in a purse is not the problem. Assault and battery is the problem. INTENTIONAL physical injury is the problem.)

5) Teachers must not be required to join a union. The power of the NEA is a major problem for reform. This union uses enforced dues to elect political allies, almost always Democrats. (The NEA’s incessant political activity should be reined in, especially if dues are enforced, as many teachers are paying for politics they oppose. How can that be legal?)

6) Repeal, rescind, or scale back Race to the Top. This was always a stunt by the federal government to impose its will on local education. We want to go in exactly the opposite direction. There’s no mention

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in the Constitution of a federal role in education. The states should be encouraged to innovate and compete with each other, not submit to the absurd pretenders who have done all the damage so far.

7) Cut the Department of Education by half. And then do it again. This thing should never been created (it was a pay-back gift from the Democrats to the NEA). Similarly, cut in half the role of schools of education. These places take two years to impart two months worth of information.

8) Try to dismantle all the sophistries and gimmicks introduced by progressive educators in the last 100 years, for example, Sight-Words, New Math/Reform Math, Constructivism, Self-Esteem, Multiculturalism, Fuzziness of any kind, Group Learning, etc. Instead, there must be a renewed emphasis on foundational knowledge and basic skills, with mastery of both.

Florida Education: Community Involvement This is a lot easier said than done. One of the most difficult and dangerous afflictions to our society is apathy. Apathy in politics has polarized us to the point of moving backwards. Apathy in our communities prevents us from enjoying the inherent resources of our surroundings. I have long said when we solve the problem of apathy the wrinkles of politics will go away. Education policy is politics in its most contemporary understanding. It is filled with special interests and bureaucratic strangle holds on power. One of the biggest deterrents to businesses getting involved with local educational efforts is the old adage that "No good deed goes unpunished." Stepping up to help out can open up unexpected consequences and liabilities. The other major obstacle to individuals getting involved is the lack of communication and reception of public input and ideas. Perhaps the most divisive and offputting practice is our conditioning that public education is the only game in town. The natural occurrence is to split the people that are pre-disposed to being active and involved into several small competing, not cooperating groups. In a wholly market scenario this would preferable, but involving public education into the mix prohibits a market approach. Government is not a business and does not always have to subscribe to the same habits or practice. For compulsory public education we need to be thinking more utilitarian and strive to achieve the greatest amount of good for the greatest amount of people. This means we need to make allies not enemies of the public and private schooling opportunities. Assuming we solve some of the communication problems pointed out in Part II, informing the community should be a matter of process and PR. The real work is providing the open collaboration to actually accomplish the goals of providing higher quality learning to our students.

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One area that I have grown to realize that I was relatively unaware or uninformed in is home schooling. This pseudo public/private education arena is one that has received lots of criticism and little accolades for the activity and programs it entails. Home schooling is fast becoming the economic preference to the perceived lack of quality in public schools. One of the myths that I clung to concerned quality and standards or accountability. Then I saw Orange county comparisons and realized that people are doing this out of fear for their children's futures. They (the parents) have already started to think cooperatively instead of individually. Find a teacher that is out of work in a bad economy, get a small group together and all of sudden you have a win/win. A teacher is making money and small groups of kids are getting focused attention. Private schools and home schooling siphons off a great deal of responsibility from the public education system. Why has such an animosity between the three groups grown to a point that reminds me of partisan politics? The answer of course is not new. It reoccurs with almost every policy arena - money. Realizing that we are never going to remove money as the universal answer to all problems and solutions to politics, we must utilize it as the constant and make it a tool instead of an obstacle. Money, just as it currently is our burden can be leveraged as the saving tool. It can be the constant that brings the community back together with a common focus on providing meaningful education for our future. Utilize money from the private business community through incentives to help equalize the perceived differences between public, private, and home school and the competition can be shifted from finding money to finding academic achievement. Creative interaction/competition between the different educational entities can create community events that produce advertising possibilities that drive businesses to want/need to be involved. Community debates, brain bowls, spelling bees, etc. sponsored by local business and participated in by private vs. home school vs. public kids could really help with political apathy and create economic incentives for involvement. Vouchers or similar systems must be maintained to allow for reasonable choice not based on economic availability. Individuals that choose to spend the cost of private institutions should receive some reasonable break on property taxes that fund schools. The lottery should be used for what it was originally sold to the public as - a never ending funding source for education. Businesses should be further allowed and encouraged to be involved with sponsorship of educational needs for all types of students. Coexisting with alternative sources of education to relieve the burden on public schools is a natural common sense approach and it creates more opportunity or paths for community involvement in the overall education of our public.

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Technology in the Classroom The ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT) is an observation tool developed by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). The ISTE is a membership association for educators and education leaders. The association’s purpose is to engage in advancing excellence in learning and teaching through technology. The association is also responsible for developing the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) for students, teachers, and administrators. The classroom observation tool was designed to evaluate the amount of technology being used in the classroom as well as its effective use based on the NETS. Educators can download the ICOT application by registering free online. Once the educator is has registered and downloaded the application, classroom observations of both teachers and students can be conducted using a lap top computer off line, upload the data to a secure online account, where the data can be aggregated to generate reports. Why use ICOT as an Observation Tool? There are several good reasons for using an observation tool such as ICOT to evaluate the effective use of technology in the classroom. For one, Moskowitz & Martabano (2009) argue that today’s district and building level administrators are busier than ever. In addition, administrators are being asked about the use of technology or evaluated themselves based on the amount of time and quality of technology being used in their classrooms. In fact, one of the NETS for administrators, according to the ISTE website is to create, promote, and sustain a dynamic, digital-age learning culture at their school or district. Another reason to use an observation tool such as ICOT, according to the authors, is because larger amounts of school and district budgets are being earmarked for technology in the classrooms. The authors report that technology spending in education will reach $56 billion by 2012. Being able to document and retain the effective use of technology in the classroom using observation tools such as ICOT will give administrators much more confidence in requesting funds from the district or grants. A final reason for using such technology to evaluate the use of technology in the classroom is for administrators to better prepare and plan professional development for teachers in the use of technology. Collier, Weinburgh, & Rivera (2004) imply that the majority of teachers do not feel comfortable using computers in the classroom for instruction. The authors go on to say that educators must focus more attention on how to effectively use technology in the classroom.

About the Instrument The components of the ICOT instrument consist of setting, groups, activities, technology, NETS, and charts. There are a series of questions, calendars, timelines, or charts for each of the components. For example, the setting consists of a series of questions about the subject, grade, time of day, and number of students. The group component asks questions concerning what type of grouping (i.e. individual, pairs, small groups, whole class) as well as engagement in the activity. The activity component touches on what the students and teacher are doing during the lesson (i.e. researching, writing, test taking, simulations, etc…). The technology component is the meat of the observation tool.

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In this section, the observer reports on what type of technology is being used, who is using it and how they are using the technology. The NETS component reports on what teacher or student standards are being taught or used during the lesson. Finally, the chart section reports on how long technology was being used, who was using it, and for what purpose (i.e. used for learning or used for something else). The charts are arranged for the observer to report who is using the technology and for what purpose in increments of 3 minutes for the duration of the lesson.

Observation For the practical purposes of this article the writer used the ICOT instrument to observer a fifth grade teacher at the writer’s school. The teacher is a fifth year teacher who has taught traditional classes as well as boys’ single gender classes. The school is located in central South Carolina and has approximately 640 students. There are five fifth grade classes containing approximately 23 students per class. All of the fifth grade classes have one to one computing using wireless lap tops provided by the school. Each class also has a mounted interactive board as well as a mounted projector. Teachers are encouraged to engage students in the use of technology at least on a daily basis. The writer observed the teacher teaching a single gender boys’ class during a social studies lesson for 30 minutes. The teacher was having the students research and report on the Reconstruction period of United States history. There were 23 students in the classroom at the time. The environment was uncluttered and purposefully organized for movement and collaborative work. Each student had their own lap top computer provided by the school. This was the teacher’s first year having one to one computing in his classroom. Each pair of students was working on a Power Point presentation. One hundred percent of the students were focused and actively engaged in the activity. The teacher’s role was to facilitate and coach the boys as they researched and created a presentation. Students were creating, researching, collaborating during the lesson. The teacher also used an interactive board to model what he expected from the boys. There were a number of NET standards for teachers that the writer observed. One was the fact that the teacher was using curriculum-based presentations to engage the students. Second, the teacher created a developmentally appropriate learning activity for fifth grade boys. Third, the technology used during the lesson enhanced instruction. Fourth, the technology supported learner-centered strategies. Fifth, the teacher applied technology to develop students’ creativity. Finally, the teacher modeled legal and ethical technology practices by using the interactive board to show examples. After conducting the observation, the observer and the teacher were able to sit down and discuss the lesson. The observer was able to walk through the observation question by question and praise the teacher as well as offer constructive suggestions. For example, the observer suggested that since the boys were using wireless lap tops to let them sit on the floor, at their desk, or stand at the bookcase to work on their project. The observer felt that this is one of the benefits of using a wireless lap top to complete a task. Conclusion ICOT is a useful tool for administrators to safely document the effective use of technology in the classroom. The tool allows educators to observe technology being used by both students and teachers based on the NETS. The data gathered is aggregated and stored for future reference. This data can be used to track effective practice, track the amount of technology use, and compare the use of technology to national standards. This information can be useful as administrators are competing for grants and

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other district funding for additional technology. The observation tool itself is user-friendly and is easily accessible by anyone. It is important for educators to be able to observe a classroom for the purpose of evaluating the use of technology in the classroom specifically. Many general classroom observation tools touch on technology in the classroom, but very few if any go in to as much detail as the ICOT does. The writer suggests that the ICOT instrument be used in isolation to evaluate the effective use of technology in addition to the more general observation tools. In addition, district office administrators and directors of IT departments could definitely use the ICOT to evaluate instructional technology district wide. As administrators observe in classrooms and upload data to the website, district administrators can generate and view reports that can guide professional development and future purchases. Interactive Reading Activity for ESL Classroom In your ESL class you will most likely have students reading out loud when you are covering a reading passage. One way to do this is to have students take turns reading one sentence or paragraph at a time. The activity presented here lets you involve the whole class while completing this task to keep everyone actively engaged. To start off, select a reading passage that uses the target vocabulary from the unit you are covering this week. These can be found in the text book you use. One could even write out his own short passage that contains these words. Of course, this option takes more time and effort, but it gives you more control over what is being read and the level of difficulty. Now that you have the reading, go through the document and white out about twenty words. Ideally you’ll want as many deleted words as you have students in your class. The trick is to decide which words can be omitted without making the entire meaning of the passage too difficult to understand. Put these deleted words on an index card. Every word will have its own index card. Make copies of the passage to hand out to the students. Be sure to save a copy of the original text, with no words deleted, to use as a reference. To start the ESL activity, pass out the reading and one index card to each student. Inform the class that the passage will be read out loud as a class. Students will take turns reading one sentence each. If a reader is faced with a sentence that contains a word whited out he is to stop. Everyone must look at their index card and determine if their word is the appropriate one to fill in the blank. After letting the class discuss the correct word and its meaning, you can let everyone know what the word was supposed to be. There will be times when several students feel like their word is the one that correctly fills in the blank. This is an opportunity for the ESL students to actively learn as a group. As a class you can figure out why one word makes sense and another one does not. Go through the entire passage and tell students to write in the correct words on their paper as you go. Students will be actively engaged, even when they are not reading, since they are expected to possibly offer their word to the reader. This exercise will work for little kids all the way up to adult learners.

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A Clinical/Educational Approach to Remediation with Learning Disabled Students All special and regular classroom educators are faced with a conundrum when it comes to working with learning disabled students. Unlike developmental disorders, attention deficit, severe cognitive impairments, and speech and language impairments, the term learning disability lacks a clear clinical definition. For example research evidence is rapidly beginning to show that children with ADHD appear to have an under-aroused brain, typified by nor-epinephrine depletion which precludes summoning the energy to focus on tasks. (Hunt 2006). Autism is beginning to look more and more like a multi-faceted neuro-developmental disorder originating in the cerebellum (a part of the hindbrain responsible for automaticity, and other cognitive and motor/map regulatory functions (Courchesne, Courchesne et al 1988). On the other hand the diagnostic criterion for a learning disability is mostly statistical (and hypothetical). As per the discrepancy model, a comparison is typically made between and among academic test scores, classroom performance and intellectual test scores to determine whether the differences are significant, thus warranting identification of the student as having a learning disability. While some research on the neurology of learning disabilities suggests they have larger brains requiring a broader, more cumbersome search for information in the brain (Russell 2008), (Shaywitz, Shaywitz et al (2008) (ironically a negative factor in child development because the brain actually performs better as neural tissue is shed in child development) it is spotty. Other research on neurotransmitter functions has yielded inconsistent results. Therefore at present, no one knows what a learning disability really is. For that reason, the move toward Response to Intervention Methods, while perhaps overly ambitious, is perfectly understandable. On the other hand, sidestepping the question of what an “LD” actually is, does little to resolve it. That has implications for educational practices and efficacious outcomes down the road. A Generic (Clinical) Hypothesis One way to describe a learning disability in a clinical context might involve combining elements of neurology and Information Theory – the brain being ultimately an information processing instrument. In any given classroom, irrespective of student teacher ratios, funding issues or whether or not staff are “highly qualified” there are really only three variables at work. In terms of information theory they are as follows. 1. The intended message (lesson) conveyed by the teacher 2. The presence of noise, in the form of interfering thoughts, daydreaming, physiological-based distractibility and/or competing thoughts…for example… “ I hate school“…“Why do I need to learn this stuff…” “Oh, God, I hate math.” 3. The message received by the student Here it is argued that, whether arising from an overly large brain (which exacerbates noise interference), a negative disposition, anxiety/shyness, or self consciousness the core causative factor in a learning disability is “noise” which in various forms precludes a close correlation between the teacher’s message and the learner’s comprehension of that message. Noise equates with interference in any information system and so a learning disability can be defined clinically as one or more ongoing interference patterns arising within the brain from several possible sources that interrupt the message and compromise receipt of that message. The interference can be temporary, situation-specific (“I don’t like that teacher, he’s too intimidating”) or chronic (in the form of anxiety, self consciousness and other arousal mechanisms).

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The fact that interference can have varying origins might explain why classroom performance, test scores, independent work capacities and comprehension of subject matter are variable for learning disabled students. There is another potential factor, which is a Piagetian staple. In order for the message to be received requires prior schemes (cognitive templates) that make the teacher’s message at least partially recognizable to the student (Satterly 1987). In that context, it serves the instructor well to invoke a variation on that old saw…there is nothing new under the sun. In educational terms it would be stated slightly differently, to wit: The presentation of new information absent a frame of reference precludes effective teaching. However since most good teachers use simile, frame their lessons in terms of personal experience and use concrete examples to “break in” new topics that factor is left for another time and perhaps another article. For purposes of this article the true and most essential remedial strategy for the learning disabled student is considered to be noise reduction. An Unorthodox, Yet Simple Solution There is little research in the field of education regarding methods for reducing “noise.” One recent innovation was the portfolio approach which was an attempt to personalize the subject matter in such a way as to maximize student investment. One of its prime tenets was that if academics could somehow be incorporated into the self image, student motivation (a precious, yet ever-waning factor among today’s students) could be enhanced. The problem with that approach is that it assumes the student is interested in the activities that comprise the portfolio in the first place. Thus is a particularly rugged male student might view drawing pictures with a personal theme as either too “goofy,” threatening or expository. Consequently he might not warm to the task, in which his case his motivation would be dampened rather than enhanced. Yet there is ample research within the domain of clinical psychology that does address the issue of noise, which is often equated with anxiety. The research indicates that people, including children, can overcome inhibition, self consciousness, fear and anxiety through assertive training, or assertive therapy. (Bornstein, Bellack et al 1977) (Colter & Guerra (1976). Nuts and Bolts of Assertive Methods The fundamental premise of assertive training is that anxiety and noise interference cannot be simultaneously activated alongside anger/arousal. (Cansier 2010) (Bower, Bower 1991). The reason is found in a process called reciprocal inhibition, which mandates that the neural circuits for aggression inhibit those for anxiety and inhibition and vice versa (Wolpe, 1958). In the clinical field this is most often applied to individuals with social phobias and anxiety disorders (Sue, D Sue, DM et al 1990), Cooley, E & Nowicki, JR (1984), Schlenker & Leary 1982). The therapist, or trainer typically begins with role playing to get the client used to expressing anger, contrariness and oppositional language in the controlled setting of the therapist’s office. Then those behaviors are whittled down, from verbal aggressive (which does not work socially and could create more problems than it solves for the client) to verbal assertiveness (which is defined as a heartfelt, high-focus set of behaviors - usually languagerelated - that are socially effective, yet at the same time serve to inhibit the anxiety and noise that otherwise hamstring the client in social settings. In simple, neuro-functional terms, one cannot be in both flight and fight mode simultaneously. Flight mode is conducive to noise interference. Fight mode provides a uni-focus and blocks peripheral distractions (which is why athletes try to psych themselves up to perform better in big games). In that context one could surmise that teaching students to be assertive learners would result in noise reduction, as well as galvanize their focus, ameliorate self-consciousness and other distractions in favor of an intense focus on the lesson at hand.

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The key element, as with clinical methods, would be to find an acceptable format and style of assertive expression for students in the classroom. While each teacher and student might approach this in a unique way, there are some general guidelines that might provide grist for the mill. First, a caveat. Not all personality types necessarily benefit from assertive training. Some required aggressive statements and posturing can, even in rehearsal, be ego-dystonic for some clients and result in heightened anxiety and possible disruption of the self image. There are ways around this, one being the use of positive assertions (which amount to the use of positive language with “brio” – eg “I really enjoy this class and I find history unimaginably appealing due to its revelations about the present.” In addition, unlike the Response to Intervention Method, this approach would not disregard formal testing, for the following reasons: Students with low averageborderline cognitive abilities and/or significant language retrieval difficulties might become quite alienated by such a teaching method. That does not mean they can’t participate, but perhaps concrete training formats adapted to their comprehension levels could be employed to create some degree of enhanced proficiency as well. In effect it is strongly emphatic tone rather than the specific language or the student’s disposition that elicits the assertive posture. It is powerful expression that due to the concomitant release of supportive neurotransmitters creates a constructive, quasi-fight rather than flight reaction, thus converting passive, distractible., avoidant learners into aggressive learners. In that context the question is whether assertive/academic training implemented on a grand scale might improve academic performance and/or reduce the number of students identified with learning disabilities. Logic and prior research suggests it would, but when it comes to education the proof is always in the pudding. Application The next issue and the hardest to address is the “how” of this proposed methodology. What should a teacher do to create the focus/brio inherent in this personality/achievement transition? In a counseling format it is easy to implement. It could begin with disinhibiting exercises such as 1. The client present opposing viewpoints in contrast to the counselor’s in role playing sessions. 2. The client using emphatic expression to compliment the counselor, once again in role playing, as well as practicing tonality and use of the pronoun “I.” 3. The client complaining about his lot in life fervently, then resolving to take action to work things out. 4. The client asking questions whenever there is the slightest level of ambiguity. 5. The counselor tabulating the number of questions, challenges etc to gauge self-advocative growth during the process. Then comes the in vivo or real life application. Assignments are given to the client to behave in acceptable but self-advocative and if necessary, contrary ways in his natural environment. These are monitored by the counselor to make sure the client is not going overboard. (While assertive counselors consider themselves behaviorists, fact is they often resort to ego therapy as a means of determining whether the client has a firm enough grasp of self in society to make the right decisions and in the correct proportion vis a vis their assertive actions. Creating child-friendly schools: part one As mentioned previously, a new initiative is spreading worldwide that has come from Unicef and the Commonwealth of Learning. It is called "Child-Friendly Schools" (CFS). Recently Teacher Training

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and Development in the Ministry of Education and Skills Development produced a project document "Child-Friendly Schools: Standards and Indicators for Teacher Education in Botswana". It was prepared by staff at the Ministry and consultants Mmamiki Kamanakao and Dr Jim Irvine. The key objective of this document is to set standards for teacher education that can be used to help create child-friendly schools. It is stated that one of the Children's Rights is "access to Quality Education". In Botswana the key challenges are to ensure inclusiveness and develop quality of basic education. Inclusiveness means that all children at the age of six have the right to be in school and to be educated, to attend regularly, and to achieve continuity in their schooling during the basic education cycles. Families and communities have a significant place in this process. Botswana has already achieved an impressive net primary enrolment rate, with the overwhelming majority of children having an opportunity to enter Standard One. An increasing proportion of children have had some form of preschool or early childhood care and education (ECCE) experience. In some less disadvantaged areas, the proportion of children entering school who are over age has been declining and wastage or dropping out rates has been reduced. The national average teacher to pupil ratio (TPR) is one to 25, but this does not reflect variability, with the TPR being higher in the western and northern parts of the country. Transition rates between primary and junior secondary school are high, but again there are district level disparities. Between junior and senior schools the transition rate is improving. There is also additional access to DVET programmes that have been expanded. The proportion of untrained teachers in the schools has been reduced over the years while that of teachers with degrees and qualifications has been growing. In spite of all these accomplishments, the report says that, "the right to basic education of good quality has yet to be realized [MSOffice1]". This is because Inclusiveness [MSOffice2] means to find ways to include out-of-school children and youth. Can they be encouraged to start Standard One at six? Or if they start and drop out can they be re-enrolled? The classic study by Ulla Kann, D. Mapolelo and Paul Nleya titled "The Missing Children. Achieving Universal Basic Education in Botswana: The Barriers, and some Suggestions for overcoming them" of 21 years ago is still relevant today. The proportion of children that are missing from the education system may be down, but a significant proportion is still not included. Even if it is less than 10 percent nationally, the proportion is skewed regionally, with Kweneng, Kgalagadi and Ngamiland still having higher proportions not starting and out of school. Who are these children and where do they live? What socio-economic, cultural and other factors may help to account for their status? Why do current facilities, curricula and strategies not attract and retain all children? How relevant is formal schooling to local life and livelihood skills? Each question raises further Children's Rights' challenges related to protection, health, nutrition and care, as well as possible enabling and impeding factors in curricula; teaching-learning strategies; and classroom, school and community environments. Impediments to inclusive education that were noted include [MSOffice3] "aggressive teacher behaviours, poor teaching, irrelevant curricula, assessment practices, language barriers, special needs, and lack of functional school facilities".

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The study notes that it can be more expensive to deal with these problems, to attract to school, achieve enrolment, and then retain in schools the 'hardest-to-reach' children. They present challenges that must be confronted including how to develop different incentives, how to create relevant reward systems, how to establish attractive learning environments, including materials, support service and teaching styles and strategies that reach out and include these children. In Botswana those children that have had the benefit of various ECCE programmes have a "head start" over those children who have missed out. They also are more familiar with Setswana and English and the whole process of schooling. Without the advantages imparted by ECCE some children may go through schooling without acquiring "functional literacy, literacy, numeracy and life- and livelihood-related competences" to enter the labour market. In such cases "parents cannot see the value of further schooling". Next week issue will look more at the quality side of inclusiveness and basic education.

KEY ISSUES IN PHILIPPINE EDUCATION

Literacy rate in the Philippines has improved a lot over the last few years- from 72 percent in 1960 to 94 percent in 1990. This is attributed to the increase in both the number of schools built and the level of enrollment in these schools. The number of schools grew rapidly in all three levels - elementary, secondary, and tertiary. From the mid-1960s up to the early 1990, there was an increase of 58 percent in the elementary schools and 362 percent in the tertiary schools. For the same period, enrollment in all three levels also rose by 120 percent. More than 90 percent of the elementary schools and 60 percent of the secondary schools are publicly owned. However, only 28 percent of the tertiary schools are publicly owned. A big percentage of tertiary-level students enroll in and finish commerce and business management courses. Table 1 shows the distribution of courses taken, based on School Year 1990-1991. Note that the difference between the number of enrollees in the commerce and business courses and in the engineering and technology courses may be small - 29.2 percent for commerce and business and 20.3 percent for engineering and technology. However, the gap widens in terms of the number of graduates for the said courses On gender distribution, female students have very high representation in all three levels. At the elementary level, male and female students are almost equally represented. But female enrollment exceeds that of the male at the secondary and tertiary levels . Also, boys have higher rates of failures, dropouts, and repetition in both elementary and secondary levels. Aside from the numbers presented above, which are impressive, there is also a need to look closely and

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resolve the following important issues: 1) quality of education 2) affordability of

1. Quality - There was a decline in the quality of the Philippine education, especially at the elementary and secondary levels. For example, the results of standard tests conducted among elementary and high school students, as well as in the National College of Entrance Examination for college students, were way below the target mean score. 2. Affordability - There is also a big disparity in educational achievements across social groups. For example, the socioeconomically disadvantaged students have higher dropout rates, especially in the elementary level. And most of the freshmen students at the tertiary level come from relatively well-off families. 3. Budget - The Philippine Constitution has mandated the goverment to allocate the highest proportion of its budget to education. However, the Philippines still has one of the lowest budget allocations to education among the ASEAN countries. 4. Mismatch - There is a large proportion of "mismatch" between training and actual jobs. This is the major problem at the tertiary level and it is also the cause of the existence of a large group of educated unemployed or underemployed. The following are some of the reforms proposed: 1. Upgrade the teachers' salary scale. Teachers have been underpaid; thus there is very little incentive for most of them to take up advanced trainings. 2. Amend the current system of budgeting for education across regions, which is based on participation rates and units costs. This clearly favors the more developed regions. There is a need to provide more allocation to lagging regions to narrow the disparity across regions. 3. Stop the current practice of subsidizing state universities and colleges to enhance access. This may not be the best way to promote equity. An expanded scholarship program, giving more focus and priority to the poor, maybe more equitable. 4. Get all the leaders in business and industry to become actively involved in higher education; this is aimed at addressing the mismatch problem. In addition, carry out a selective admission policy, i.e., installing mechanisms to reduce enrollment in oversubscribed courses and promoting enrollment in undersubscribed ones.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

ESL Grammar Activity for the Classroom Learning English grammar can be a dry boring experience for ESL learners. Getting students to work together in interactive groups with a common goal will wake the class up on grammar teaching days. This next ESL classroom activity involves students working in groups to detect grammar errors in the English passages that you provide. Come up with a short story or paragraph that includes the vocabulary and grammar you are working on in class. You will probably have to write it yourself, but it doesn’t have to be long. As you are writing this story, make intentional grammar errors that have to do with what you are teaching that week. You don’t need to indicate where they are. Simply tell your class that there are several errors in the reading. Split the students into groups of fours and explain that they are to locate and correct the errors. Before this activity, it is probably smart to review the grammatical concept on the board for the entire class to refresh everyone’s memory. Every student will receive a copy of the reading passage, even though they are working in groups. Have them jot down any corrections above the errors that are detected. Once it is apparent that most groups have finished, get everyone’s attention and start correcting these sentences as a class. Using the overhead projector present the passage as you originally wrote it, but leave blank spaces for the mistakes you purposely made. Select individual ESL students to come to the projector to write in the corrections their group agreed upon. After having discussed each mistake, and what the correction should be, inform the groups that they are to now write their own paragraphs or short stories. These will then be presented to other student groups in the class. As with the sentences that you the teacher originally made, there are to be intentional errors spread out throughout the passage. In all each group will write one passage out (with errors) and will correct one passage from a different group of classmates. This activity can be used with any grammatical concept that is being taught in the ESL class. As the teacher, you can decide if you want to collect the student created passages for a grade or not. This will sometimes provide added motivation. Make sure to have more advanced ESL students working in the same groups as your lower level students. Let the students have fun with this activity and they may even end up not dreading ESL grammar lessons so much! A Teacher's Changing Role Today, instruction is more active with increased focus on problem solving and teamwork. The teacher's role has transformed into one of facilitating learning as opposed to presenting knowledge. Further, teachers are no longer able to grade papers while students read textbooks. In some school districts, teachers can no longer allow students to check each others' papers due to parents' complaints. In addition, because so many of today's students are unwilling to work without getting credit, the number of papers per student has increased dramatically. Thus, papers that were once graded during class now proliferate into rapidly growing piles which must be dealt with after class.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

The amount of work to be graded is also impacted by class size. Given a teaching load of five classes of 35 students, a one-hour writing assignment requires almost nine hours of grading if the teacher averages three minutes each. Even grading assignments that take only one minute may be difficult to manage since just under 3 hours would be needed to grade one per student, and other tasks must also be accomplished during the planning period. Another likely cause of widespread disregard for planning time is that the teacher's planning activities vary from day to day making it difficult to explain what they do, and why the time is insufficient. To clarify this point, I have provided five unremarkable planning period examples. Negative Effects of Reducing Planning Time By scheduling too little planning time, policy makers cause students to receive fewer writing assignments and more machine graded tests. Although several effective teaching strategies have evolved that decrease the paper load, such as peer evaluation with rubrics and cooperative learning, students must eventually get teachers' feedback. Of necessity, many teachers' lesson plans are made with primary consideration given to how much grading the assignment will require. For this reason, insufficient planning time makes attaining higher standards less likely and deprives students of a quality education. PCCI Opens Policy Discourse on K-12 Education System Manila Bulletin - Tuesday, October 12 MANILA, Philippines - The Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PCCI), the largest business group in the country, expressed support on government's move to rally the business community in crafting the mandate for the K-12 Program of the Aquino administration. K-12, which means 12 years of basic education from preschool to elementary from the current 10 years, is part of President Benigno S. Aquino III's proposed educational reforms to produce better quality graduates. PCCI President Dr. Francis Chua said that for the Philippines to compete globally, 12 years of basic education is an absolute necessity. According to Chua, PCCI's policy discourse on the K-12 program forms part of the broader set of Resolutions that will be presented during the 36th Philippine Business Conference and Expo (PBC&E) where the President is expected to receive and give his reaction to these Resolutions. The PBC&E is the biggest annual gathering of businessmen in the Philippines to dialogue with government and other stakeholders on key policy issues that affect the country's state of business and economy. This year's PBC&E would be held on October 13 to 15 at the historic landmark Manila Hotel and is expected to draw around 2,000 participants from PCCI's network of local chambers, industry associations and foreign business councils. Chua noted that the Philippines together with Myanmar are the only two remaining countries with a basic education system of less than 11 years. PCCI Honorary Chairman and current president Edgardo G. Lacson also cited the importance of a strategy-oriented and competency-based basic education curriculum as a key to making the country's graduates globally acceptable and competitive. "The Department of Education's proposed K-6-4-2

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

model is a positive step to uplifting the standard of education. I believe that the "specialization" training that would be incorporated in the last two years of high school would greatly increase the competencies and skills of the students thus making them more employable after graduation," Lacson said. Donald Dee, Vice Chairman of PCCI and former member of the Presidential Task Force for Education, noted the need to support the K-12 program with adequate educational infrastructure which include more classrooms, reading materials and improved quality of teaching personnel to develop the technical skills of the students that will enable them land in jobs that match their technical and educational background. Bridging the gap between academe and industry to reduce unemployment has been one of the major advocacies of PCCI. PCCI's think-tank, the Universal Access to Competitiveness and Trade or U-ACT in partnership with the International Labor Organization released a study on employment mismatch which underscored the need to develop competency-based curriculum programs that will match the technical skills of graduates with the requirements of the industry. The same study noted the need to conduct a cost-benefit analysis on the proposed 12-year basic education track.

MINDANAO EDUCATORS PUSH FOR MINDANAO CONTEXT OF PHIL. TEXTBOOKS COTABATO CITY, Sept. 27 (PNA) - Convinced education is an important tool for development in southern Philippines, Mindanao educators are pushing for major revisions in the Philippine educational textbooks focusing on more context on Mindanao's cultural diversity and history. "There's a need to review existing textbooks to find out how much of Mindanao materials and history are there," Catholic priest Albert Alejo SJ, lead project director of Konsult Mindanaw and the Mindanawon Initiatives for Cultural Dialogue. During his presentation on the Comprehensive Mindanao Education Program (CMEP) at the Mindanao educators' consultation on Mindanao 2020 Peace and Development Framework Plan (Mindanao 2020) in Davao City Thursday, Alejo saideducation plays a major role in uplifting the socio-economic condition of Mindanao. If continues to be taken for granted by the country's policy makers, it will also continue to give injustice and divisions among Mindanaons. "If education neglects its cultural sensitivity it will only propagate injustice and divisiveness among the people," he said. "The people in Mindanao must learn to embrace its diverse religion, culture and tradition by way of education," he added. Alejo noted that there is not much Mindanao substance in the existing textbooks being distributed to public schools- even Mindanao history. Carmencita Aquino, technical services chief of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, said many of the teachers in ARMM are wary of the lack and erroneous accounts of the Muslim history in educational textbooks. She said many of the teachers are worried of the implications of textbooks about Muslim history but were written by non-Muslims.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

She said the CHED-ARMM has underscored the need to integrate culturally-based education and sees to it that all colleges in the region offer Islamic education to cater to Muslim students. The Philippine Statistical Yearbook in 2008 revealed that Mindanao fared way below the national figures on simple literacy at only 86.77 percent against the national average of 93.4 percent. ARMM, composed of the provinces of Maguindanao, Lanao del Sur, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and Basilan, has the lowest simple literacy rate where only 70 out of every 100 persons are able to read and write. Simple literacy is referred to as the ability to read and write with understanding simple messages in any language or dialect. A graduating student of a state university in Gen. Santos City told the 1st Mindanao-wide youth consultations of Mindanao 2020 that she is to finished college yet she has little knowledge about Muslim history and Mindanao. "Aaminin ko na kahit nasa college na ako wala akong masayadong alam sa kultura at kasaysayan ng Mindanao [I admit that I don't know much about Mindanao culture and history even if I am already a college student]", Joanamae Gamueta, a graduating student of Mindanao State University in General Santos City, was quoted by Mindanao Development Authority in a statement. Gamueta suggested that college students in Mindanao should be educated on the Mindanao issues, particularly the comprehensive peace process as well as other development initiatives in Mindanao. "How can we participate to the solutions to this problem when we don't even know the roots of the conflict," MinDA quoted Gamueta. At the recently-concluded regional media summits organized by the Mindanao Media Forum across Mindanao, the Mindanao media sector also recognized the need to promote media literacy on the complexities of Mindanao history, culture and policies. Carolyn Arguillas, convenor of Mindanao Media Forum, noted that that even among the journalists, there is a little understanding on Mindanao history and the causes of various forms of conflicts in Mindanao. "Many journalists in Mindanao have no sense of history of the Mindanao conflict," Arguillas, a veteran journalist working for Mindanao peace and development, said. She explained these realities in relation to how the media, especially the Manila-based outlets, have treated Mindanao in their reports in such a way that has made it a grossly misunderstood region. She said in most cases, the reports about Mindanao lack context and historical background. Arguillas said the biggest challenge for journalists now is to present a balanced image of Mindanao by understanding the nuances of its history, cultural diversity and other factors that influenced its current situation. MinDA said in a statement that amidst all these pressing concerns, the Mindanao 2020 is looking at pushing for a total revision of the country's curriculum including the effort to put more Mindanao substance in the basic and higher educational textbooks. The plan would also rally behind the call to increase the Mindanao budget to construct more classrooms and school facilities, to hire more teachers and to continuously upgrade the skills of the teachers.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

SYNOPSIS OF READING AND REFERENCES
Beginning teacher and mentor relationships
by Amy Gratch

Many education scholars agree that the first year of teaching is exceptionally challenging (HulingAustin, Odell, Ishler, Kay, & Edelfelt, 1989; Veenman, 1984). First-year teaching experiences are powerful influences on teachers' practice and attitude throughout the remainder of their careers (Kuzmic, 1994). Because of the importance and complexity of beginning teachers' experiences, their socialization has received increasing attention in educational research and reform during the past two decades (Huling-Austin, 1990; Kuzmic, 1994).

Beginning Teacher Induction

For over a decade, reformers have called for induction programs with mentors to ease the transition of beginning teachers into full,time teaching (Huling-Austin, 1990). Many (Cochran-Smith, 1991; Feiman-Nemser, 1983; Koerner, 1992; Staton & Hunt, 1992) believe that working with an experienced teacher will help shape a beginning teacher's beliefs and practices. Most induction programs attempt to increase teacher retention and improve the instruction of new teachers (Odell, 1986). Little (1990), reviewing the mentor phenomenon, notes that rhetoric and action (regarding the development and implementation of mentor programs) have nonetheless outpaced both conceptual development and empirical warrant (p. 297). Little believes that despite the lack of empirical inquiry prior to 1990, policy interest and reform efforts related to mentoring have grown consistently during the period between 1983 and 1990.

Social Norms for Teachers

In Schoolteacher: A Sociological Study, his classic work on teacher socialization, Lortie (1975) identified several social norms for teachers. Lortie and others (Little, 1990; McPherson, 1972; Sarason, 1982) have described the norm of teachers working in isolation and the struggles of first-year teachers. When teachers

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

do interact, they rarely discuss or request assistance with significant problems in their classrooms (FeimanNemser & Floden, 1986). Socialization literature has also identified a norm discouraging teachers from telling a peer to do something different in the classroom (Newberry, 1977). Schools exist in which teachers support one another and may socialize out of school, but even in these cases, teachers avoid talking about instructional practices (Biklen, 1983; Feiman-Nemser & Floden, 1986; McPherson, 1972; Silver, 1973). Hart (1989) describes how schools' conservative traditions of individualistic and egalitarian social organization shape the mentor role. The norm of isolation means that many skilled veteran teachers have had little experience communicating with other teachers about their practice. The conservative norms for teacher interaction make it difficult for mentors to critique the work of beginning teachers and beginning teachers to request help with problems in their classrooms (Little, 1990). The assignment of mentor-protege relationships is a primary component of many teacher induction programs (Odell, 1990) intended to influence novice teachers' beliefs and practices. In reality, the conservative social organization in schools and the norms tied to this organization (Little, 1990) limit the role of mentors. Official records indicate that the early stages of mentoring emphasize providing information about the system rather than consultation on curriculum and instruction (Odell, 1986). Although activities aimed at emotional support are not widely found in official records, they are extremely important to beginning teachers (HulingAustin, 1990) who value interactions with mentors that foster these feelings. The emphasis on comfort and harmonious relations along with the norms of noninterference found in schools combine to constrain mentors from posing tough questions about practice (Little, 1990).

Responses to Constraints on Mentor Effectiveness

Research revealing factors restricting the success of mentor-protege relationships has led to improvements in some induction programs. According to the National Center for Research on Teaching and Learning (NCRTL) at Michigan State University (1992), the notion that mentors improve novice teachers' classroom performance (p. 4) is a myth. This research suggests that although mentors may help novice teachers make situational adjustments to teaching and may reduce the drop-out rate among first-year teachers, the presence of mentors does not in and of itself guarantee that teachers will become more skilled at teaching or more thoughtful about their work than they would be without the mentors. Guiding teachers to be more skilled at teaching and more thoughtful about their work has been the primary emphasis of many induction programs (Andrews, 1987; Johnson, Ratsoy, Holdaway, & Friesen, 1993; North Carolina Professional Practices Commission, 1991; Schaffer, Stringfield, & Wolfe, 1992). NCRTL data suggest that for mentoring to be a beneficial component of an induction program, program developers must recognize that teachers who are good at teaching children may not be qualified to teach teachers. Findings such as these have resulted in increased training for mentor teachers (Little, 1990). Little (1990) suggested that the global assessments Of a mentor's usefulness or official record Of mentors' activities would .

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

How to Survive - and Thrive as a Student Teacher
By Beth Lewis, About.com Guide

Your time working as a student teacher is a priceless opportunity to practice the pedagogical skills you learned in your teacher training program. At the same time, you can make invaluable professional connections. In fact, if you play your cards right, these student teaching success strategies could help you land your dream job. Difficulty: Average Time Required: 1-4 months

1.

Thoroughly read all of the preparatory materials you are given. Devour the student teaching handbook with an attention for detail and an eye for places where you can excel. Know what's expected of you and look for opportunities where you can not just meet the basic requirements, but soar above and beyond the essentials. Each school has its own set of policies and your best bet for fitting in and succeeding is to know how the school works and how best you can contribute. Also make sure to stay on top of all requirements from your teacher training institution. Approach student teaching as a 4-month long job interview. Dress professionally, show up on time, be courteous, and showcase your best qualities. Watch the staff, especially your master teacher, and do what they do. Basically, go the extra mile and put your best foot forward. That's the surest way to maximize the positive career potential of your time as a student teacher. Know when to talk and when to listen. In other words, don't be afraid to offer your opinion; but steer clear of campus politics, sensitive issues, and teachers' lounge gossip. Listen to advice from your master teacher and follow it to the letter. And no matter how comfortable you feel on campus, always remember that you're a temporary guest on site and your top priority is to learn valuable teaching skills while serving the students and enhancing your resume. Attitude is everything. Be a good sport. That means being flexible, upbeat, cooperative, thorough, and hard-working. Expect to arrive early and stay late. Always say "yes" when asked to help out. Seek out ways to add value to the organization and differentiate yourself from the other student teachers out there in a positive way. Your efforts will pay dividends when the principal is looking for names to interview for upcoming job openings. Invite the school's administrator to come see you teach in the classroom. When you know you have prepared a high-quality lesson to present, make sure important people are there to observe it! This is a key strategy to employ because it's the only way you will secure a letter of recommendation from the principal. Letters from power-players look fantastic in your portfolio.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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6.

Participate in all school activities during your time as a student teacher. Attend all staff meetings, grade level planning sessions, and after-school functions - even if it's not explicitly expected of you. The more familiar your face around campus, the more of an impact you make as a team player willing to work hard and sacrifice for the benefit of students. Be very well prepared. Know the master teacher's expectations and exceed them. Anticipate his or her needs and try to meet them. Maintain a detailed To Do List and check things off as they are accomplished. There are many things to remember when you're student teaching; it will take extra organization and foresight to keep track of everything you need to do. Make copies ahead of time, invest time (or money) in a robust organizational system, and triple check your work before showing it to anyone. If there are any problems, follow the appropriate chain of command. Don't go over your master teacher's head and talk to his or her boss first. Start by talking to the master teacher directly, and if the problem still isn't resolved, talk to your supervisor at the teacher training program. Don't be petty and don't look for problems. But if something doesn't feel right to you, just make sure to communicate your concerns in a sensitive and appropriate manner.

7.

8.

What You Need:
Calendar System To Do List Briefcase or Bookbag Professional Attire Student Teaching Handbook A Positive "Can-Do" Attitude

• • • • • •

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Starting KNEA Future Teacher Chapters
If your local is interested in starting a future teacher chapter, email futureteachers@knea.org. The KNEA plans to set up pilot programs in selected school districts. The characteristics of the school districts the work team intends to target will include those with a high minority population, interest at both the middle and high school levels, access to a KNEA student chapter, and a supplemental contract in place for the chapter sponsor. KNEA plans to sponsor a round table to share the best practices of successful chapters with pilot district personnel. Invitees will include sponsors from current programs, higher education student chapter sponsors, administrators and local leaders from districts interested in starting future teacher chapter. KNEA grants will help initiate a program and fund attendance to upcoming conferences. The KNEA Future Teacher Chapters program is targeting high minority districts because teachers are role models. Children should at least see a teacher that looks like them in the first 13 years they attend school. Ethnic minorities actually make up the majority of students in many of our districts. These districts are the logical place to recruit the ethnic minority teachers of the future, Blaufuss added. Background Kansas public schools have traditionally possessed a key element of great schools for every child: a caring, competent, and qualified teacher in every classroom. A growing teacher shortage has put at risk the right of every Kansas student to attend a great public school. Part of KNEA's answer is to recruit the best and brightest to the profession. KNEA is creating Future Teacher Chapters and is collaborating with other organizations, especially the Kansas State Department of Education (KSDE). A work team of KNEA staff have worked on this issue for over two years. In addition to reviewing the latest research and strategies, they surveyed members in the KNEA Student Program and the Higher Education Task Force, among others, and met or worked with career counselors at the high school and college levels. Three conclusions have emerged as a result of KNEA's work:

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

• • •

The reasons mentioned most frequently by student members for going into education are altruistic, i.e., to make a difference, to change the world. Just because someone has been in a classroom as a student, does not mean they know how to teach or what teaching really entails. To attract young men and women to the profession, future teacher chapters are needed as early as middle schools - high school can be too late. KNEA's research shows a growing number of middle-high school students are not choosing teaching as a profession.

"If we are to attract the brightest to the profession, regardless of age, we must start early," said Marjie Blaufuss, who chairs the KNEA work team coordinating the future teacher project. "We have the advantage of having the next generation of teachers in our midst every day," she said. "Middle school is not too early to create opportunities for young people to experience the joy of helping someone grasp a new concept or learn new material." Middle schools are the perfect places for future teacher clubs that show students what it's like to positively affect someone's life (even if it is just helping a first grader learn to read or assisting with a field day) and to show what resources are available from Kansas colleges and universities (dorms, classrooms, scholarships, etc.). Preparation is necessary to give future teachers early and many opportunities to experience what is needed to be successful. That includes classroom management skills, the emotional roller coaster teaching can take you on, the investment of time, the need for high expectations for all students, cultural do's & don'ts, etc. "We want them to know it can be fun, too," she added. There are programs for high school students, such as the State Department of Education's Teaching/Training Pathway curriculum. The students who finish the program in high school have a much more realistic attitude about teaching as a profession and strongly support education. The National Education Association (NEA) started Future Teachers of America (FTA) and/or Future Educators of America (FEA) programs in the early 1900s. Other organizations have taken over sponsorship in some states. FTA/FEA clubs assist middle and high school students in exploring teaching as a career choice, provide a realistic understanding of teaching and encourage students from diverse backgrounds to think seriously about the teaching profession.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

NARATIVE REPORT
1st week

In my first week of my practicum, it was not just much pressured. Because I just observed my critic teacher how he handle the class. However, I felt uncomforted because of the new environment. This week was just an adjusting period.

2nd week

I was able to discuss the topic with regards to the “Removing Spots on Carpets” for the whole week. It involves activities and long quizzes. The topic was all about the solution on how the source of spots/stains removed. Unlike the previews week it was not that stressful. My critic teacher Mr. Sayon was there observing me while I’m teaching. After the class, Mr. Sayon informed me what topic should be discuss nest week.

3rd week

Aside from being late last Thursday and being late for how many days, this week is quite stressful. Mr. Sayon announced the third grading project on all the sections we handled. And it should be submitted next week. I did listen to him and try to observe the class. On that particular time, I notice the different facial expression. Most of them are not interested with the project. Some have their own businesses, Mr. Sayon informed me that he will check my UBD lesson plan. Thank God o always prepared my lesson plan.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

4th week

This week I notices the big difference compared last week. My students become more participative because of the activity I saw on their faces the interest of my topic and they are willing to listen to me. I explained one by one each category of the activity I’ve made. And the next day after the discussion I gave them a quiz.

5th week

We had a new topic, the Carpet Shampooing and spot removal. This week many of my students are absent, maybe because of the Christmas is coming. After the lesson I supposed to give them their last quiz fir the year 2010, but unfortunately half of my students were presents. So I decided to just give them a game called Word Hunt that is related to our topic.

6thweek

Like what I’m expecting, the number of absentees becomes doubled! Rather to discuss I prefer to give a game again. The game is called shareid. It was fun. I know also my students enjoyed it.

7th week

I was able to discuss my first lesson for the year 2011. I just gave them an orientation about their new topic which was the “Guestroom Management”. I also informed them with their requirements and asked them about their ides\as when they heard the word Guestroom. I think it is better to start a lesson if e new their own opinion and knowledge about the new topic.

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

JENINA L. BUHIA 01-H Sitio Ruby East Fairview Quezon City 09102493395 Innocent_lady0818@yahoo.com

SKILLS SUMMARY • A future leader pursuing Bachelor in Business Teacher in Education (BBTE) major in Technology and Livelihood Education (T.L.E) • Good communication skills • Proficient in MS Office application • Machine Shorthand WORK EXPERIENCES Department of Environment and Natural Resources Receiving Division • • • • • • Data Encoder Answering incoming calls Recording documents Filing and Sorting records Assisted the cooperating teachers in teaching, recording and computing grades. Handle and take the responsibilities of the cooperating teacher if necessary.

Observation, Participation and Community Immersion (OB) San Mateo National High School Guitnang Bayan, San Mateo Rizal EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Tertiary: Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City Don Fabian St., Brgy. Commonwealth, Quezon City Bachelor in Business Teacher Education 2007-present Commonwealth High School Ecol St. Brgy. Commonwealth Quezon city 2001-2005 Commonwealth Elem. School Commonwealth Quezon city 1995-2001

Secondary:

Elementary:

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

PERSONAL DATA 22 years old Female 85 lbs 5’2 Born Again Christian March 8, 1988 Quezon City OTHER SKILLS Keyboarding Skills Basic HTML Computer Hardware Leadership Skills ACHIEVEMENTS • • Research Capability of PUPQC Students 2008-2009 (University Study) Webpage Tutorial (joechezhel.zymichost.com)

SEMINARS ATTENDED “Enhancing Teaching Skills toward Professionalism” October 20, 2010 “Building Leaders: Developing Future Leaders in the Workplace” September 03, 2010 “Empowering the Youth towards a Sustainable Environment” February 26, 2006 “Functional Literacy: To Live and Love Well in a Healthy Philippines” December 11, 2007

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Month of November Date 8 9 10 11 12 15 17 18 22 23 24 25 26 30 In 12:00 11:50 11:51 11:26 11:31 11:47 11:59 11:58 11:17 11:41 11:33 11:58 11:05 11:38 Out 6:52 6:37 6;20 6:58 7:07 3;48 6:58 6:58 6:25 6:59 6:51 6:51 6:55 6:54 Total 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 Date 3 6 7 8 9 13 14 15 16 17 Month of December In 11:29 11:28 11:15 11:26 11:26 11:45 11:50 11:59 10:38 11:06 Out 6:35 6:59 6:57 6:51 6:54 6:56 6:48 6:20 2:07 2:48 Total 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 4:30 3:30 56

Total Hours:

Total Hours:

84

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Month of January Date 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 14 17 18 19 24 25 27 28 In 11:43 11:30 11:39 11:54 11;52 11:19 11:31 11:33 11:55 11:33 11:49 11:31 11:24 9:40 11:46 11:35 Out 6:33 6:44 6;42 6:26 6:26 6:54 6:54 6:54 6:40 6:47 6:42 6:43 6:53 4:30 6:48 6;55 Total 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 Date 1 2 3 4 7 8 10 11 14 16 18 21 22 Month of February In 11:42 11;36 11;34 12:26 12:08 11;48 12:01 11:58 11:37 11:50 12:00 11:51 12:21 Out 6:50 6:53 6;50 6;43 6;53 6:46 6:40 6:57 6:17 6;33 6:30 6:9 7:09 Total 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 78

Total Hours:

Total Hours:

96

TOTAL HOURS= 314hours

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma High School (Manual)

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