INTRODUCTION TO ATTITUDE AND MOTIVATION Attitude reflects the general attitude toward school and general motivation for

succeeding in school. The clearer the connection between school and future career, the easier it is to maintain a positive attitude for performing the tasks related to success in college. • Write out specific and global goals and make sure they meet the criteria of good goals: (specific, measurable, challenging, realistic, and with a completion date). • Reassess how school fits into your future. Reflect on why you are in college. • Work with the Academic Planning & Support Services Office in Moody Hall 155 Motivation to perform SPECIFIC tasks is related to academic achievement. It measures the degree to which the student accepts responsibility for studying, reading assignments, and completing homework and papers, etc. • Practice attributing what happens to you to your own efforts instead of to luck or poor teachers or lack of ability. • Reflect on your past successes and the strategies you used. • Set motivational goals (rewards for timelines and goals accomplished). • Stay up to date on class assignments; (go to class prepared). 2 GET MOTIVATED! So, getting out of bed in the morning has become a serious challenge. Faced with a blank page that is supposed to become your research paper your mind numbs and you get about as far as the title page before you give up. You’ve lost all enthusiasm for school work. Pure, divine motivation is rare. Most of the time it requires constant reinforcement. • Take a moment to remind yourself why you’re doing what you’re doing. What are you going to get out of it? • Reward your accomplishments--no matter how small. • Get your best friends to give you pep talks when they see you’re down. You might keep a handy list of your best qualities, talents, and abilities. • A healthy diet and regular exercise go a long way towards maintaining energy levels and feeling good in general. • Be willing to risk failure--remember that you risk success too. Feel overwhelmed by a difficult task? • Start early, and have a plan. Break up your task into small parts; allow time for mistakes and wrong directions. Completing a small part each day helps maintain interest and forestalls discouragement. • Working in a comfortable setting helps (comfortable clothes, a few friends around, familiar surroundings.) Take a break when you get tired. Easily discouraged? • Don’t be a perfectionist. Make approaching your goals the source of your satisfaction, rather than reaching them.

• Don’t worry about or dwell on things that go wrong. Concentrate on your successes. Remember that little successes build up just as quickly as little failures. Are you too hard on yourself? • Who you are is more valuable than what you do. Your worth as a person is not based on your intelligence, your grades, or how hard you work. It is enough to be you. • Realize and value the opinions of others--but realize that ultimately you must respect and satisfy yourself. SETTING GOALS: GOOD EXAMPLES/POOR EXAMPLES Adapted from Claire E. Weinstein. Executive Control Process in Learning: Why Knowing About How to Learn Is Not Enough. NADE Newsletter. Volume 12 No. 2, Fall 1988. A useful goal contains five key elements. A useful goal is: d 1) Specific – It describes what you want to accomplish with as much detail as possible. Poor example – “I want to read better.” Better example -“I want to increase my reading comprehension score 10% by the end of this semester.” 3 2) Measurable – A useful goal is described in terms that can be clearly evaluated. Poor example – “I want to lose weight this year.” Better example – “I want to lose 10 pounds by my cousin’s wedding two moths from now.” 3) Challenging – It takes energy, effort, and discipline to accomplish. Poor example – “I want to get to all of my classes on Thursday.” Better example – “I want to complete the assignment and be prepared for my classes on Thursday.” 4) Realistic – A realistic goal is one you are capable of attaining. Poor example – “I want to become the editor of the student newspaper in my first semester.” Better example – “I want to become the editor of the student paper by my last year in school.” 5) Timely one with a completion date – For long term goals, it may be important to identify shorter-term goals that lead to the desired endpoint. Poor example – “I want to do a lot of professional writing in my lifetime.” Better example – “I want to complete a short story by the end of the semester.” 4 GOAL SETTING AND DECISION MAKING THE CASE OF SAM Sam, a sophomore from Houston, is a pre-med major. He plans to specialize in neurosurgery. This semester, Sam was placed on academic probation because he made a D in biology, an F in zoology, and a D in calculus. When Sam went to talk to his friendly academic counselor,

he said, “I know exactly why I’m on probation. I just don’t like those science classes. They’re so technical and narrow that they don’t seem relevant to anything. I usually make C’s in my science classes, but last semester I just didn’t feel motivated.” Sam really respects his father, who is a corporate attorney. His dad expects a lot from Sam and is disappointed in his probationary status. Ever since Sam was in junior high, his dad has told him how important it is to “make something of yourself and to be successful.” Sam knows that being a surgeon would bring him respect, status, and a high salary. Sam wants to be a success but he sometimes worries that he will not like the stress and long hours involved in the medical profession. Sam volunteered at Brackenridge Hospital last summer in the emergency room and really enjoyed it. He like talking to the patients and asking them questions, and he liked the fast-paced atmosphere. Sam’s favorite class at SEU so far has been English (expository writing). He has always been a good writer and in high school he was editor of the yearbook, an activity that he really misses now that he’s in college. Sam also enjoyed a history class he took on current affairs. He reads Time magazine every week and watches as many new programs and specials as he can. This semester, Sam is really feeling burned out. He looks forward to the day when he can be through with school and be out in the work world. He just doesn’t know what to do… 1) What decision does Sam need to make? 2) What are the possible consequences of his decision? 3) What goals should he set for himself? 5 REACHING OUR GOALS Theme: The ability to live our lives in such a way that we reach our goals. Quotes are from The Road Less Traveled by M. Scott Peck, M.D., New York, Simon and Schuster, 1978. 1. Realize the opportunity “The more clearly we see the reality of the world, the better equipped we are to deal with the world. The less clearly we see the reality of the world—the more our minds are befuddled by falsehood, misperceptions and illusions—the less able we will be to determine correct courses of action and make wise decisions. Our view of reality is like a map with which to negotiate the

terrain of life. If the map is true and accurate, we will generally know where we are, and if we have decided where we want to go, we will generally know how to get there. If the map is false and inaccurate, we generally will be lost.”(p. 44) “…if our maps are to be accurate we have to continually revise them.”(p.45) “What does a life of total dedication to the truth mean? It means, first of all, a life of continuous and never ending stringent self examination.”(p. 51) “Problems do not go away. They must be worked through or else they remain, forever a barrier to the growth and development of the spirit.”(p. 30) 2. Accept responsibility for the opportunity “…we must accept responsibility for a problem before we can solve it.”(p. 32) “To willingly confront a problem early, before we are forced to confront it by circumstances, means to put aside something pleasant or less painful for something more painful.”(p. 31) “Sooner or later,…they must learn that the entirety of one’s adult life is a series of personal choices, decisions. If they can accept this totally, then they become free people. To the extent that they do not accept this they will forever feel themselves victims.”(p. 44) 3. Change the behavior “Delaying gratification is a process of scheduling the pain and pleasure of life in such a way as to enhance the pleasure by meeting and experiencing the pain first and getting it over with. It is the only decent way to live.”(p. 19) “This feeling of being valuable is a cornerstone of self-discipline because when one considers oneself valuable one will take care of oneself in all ways that are necessary. Selfdiscipline is self-caring…If we feel ourselves valuable, then we will feel our time to be valuable, and if we feel our time to be valuable, then we will want to use it well.”(p. 24) Shift from external controls over behaviors to internal controls. There are some easy gratifications to delay; some difficult. 6 About Yourself Who you are is more valuable than what you do. Your worth as a person is not based on your intelligence, your grades, or how hard you work. It is enough to be you. Respect and value the opinions of others—but realize that ultimately you must respect and satisfy yourself.

Practice impulse control by imagining the consequences of your actions. How will you feel afterwards? Then, act so that you will be satisfied with yourself. Write out a plan for yourself. Jot down personal and academic goals and priorities, and reread them when you’re in a slump. Don’t worry about or dwell on things that go wrong. Concentrate on your successes. Remember that little successes build up just as quickly as little failures. Give yourself time to change. Forgive yourself for backsliding and making mistakes. Don’t be a perfectionist Make approaching your goals the basis of your self-respect rather than reaching your goals. Don’t allow feelings of inadequacy get you down. Think about all the things you do have going for you. If you’re feeling down or hopeless, imagine the worst that could happen—exaggerate your fantasies—and then laugh at them. Do this to put yourself and your current situation in perspective. When you’re down, go to someone whom you know cares for you and ask him or her to give you a “pep talk,” reminding you of your good qualities, talents and abilities and/or make a list of your good qualities and read them when you need to. Be willing to risk failure for something you really care about. Be willing to risk success too! If you’re irrationally afraid of something, do it a lot; the fear will wear off. Learn to recognize, sooner, events which are not turning out as they should—and act to redirect them to your satisfaction. About Your Work: No one else is forcing you to do your work. You’ve decided to take it on. Don’t waste your energy in hostility toward others. Accept and live with your own decisions. Start early. The sooner you start, the sooner you’ll be free to do other activities, the less worry you’ll experience, the more time you’ll have to recover from mistakes and wrong decisions. Expect a certain amount of tension. Use that tension as energy to get yourself moving. 7 Different people have different styles of working. For example, some people need competition to do their best, while others work better at their own pace. Respect your work style and arrange conditions you need to do well.

If you have a long, hard task, make it as comfortable for yourself as possible. Do it in short bits (but stay with it), do it wearing comfortable clothes, among friends, in familiar surroundings, with whatever you need to keep your spirits up while you work at it. Pure, unadulterated motivation is rare (most of the time); you just have to keep plugging away. If necessary, pause every now and then to remind yourself of why you have chosen to take on certain work, and what you expect to get out of it. Give yourself a pep talk. When you’ve done something you feel good about, reward yourself with a treat: You deserve it! Completed tasks keep interest and motivation at a higher level. Try to complete a task, or accomplish a sub-goal before you quit for the day. 8

PERSONAL GOAL SHEET
Instructions: Help motivate yourself to study by setting goals that can be measured: these goals should be realistic, measurable, of value to your plans, and have built-in rewards for attainment. GOAL MOTIVATION ACHIEVABLE MEASUREABLE REWARD AFFIRMATION Yes No Yes No

9 OVERCOMING PROCRASTINATION Overcoming procrastination is the procrastinator’s greatest challenge because the behavior you are trying to change is the very thing that can get in the way of changing your behavior. Sounds like a no win situation, but take heart. Summon all your determination and will-power and follow these guidelines to a procrastination-free life. CLARIFY YOUR PERSONAL GOALS • Make a list of your personal goals and post it where you’ll see it frequently—your mirror, notebook, door, etc. • Outline (on paper) the tasks that will lead to your goal, and be sure a task you think you “should” do is one that is really important to meeting your goal. If you aren’t sure what tasks will lead to your goal, talk with your parents, professors, or an APSS counselor. • Prioritize! Put the most unpleasant tasks at the top of your list, and work your way down to the easier ones. MANAGE YOUR TIME EFFECTIVELY

• Time management is a learned skill, and it takes practice to master. If your idea of time management is remembering to flip the calendar at the end of each month, it’s a good idea to consult an APSS counselor for help or attend a time management workshop. • Plan out a schedule for working on the tasks that will lead to your goal. Set deadlines for completing each step. Blank calendars and weekly schedules are available at Academic Planning & Support Services in Moody Hall 155. • Start early. Allow for “blow off” time, and give yourself time to clarify assignments or get help if necessary. • Get into a routine. Set aside a particular block of time each day to work on your tasks; if possible, work during the same time each day. CHANGE YOUR ATTITUDE • Do you think you’re unable to meet life’s challenges? • Do you expect perfection from yourself and others? • Are you convinced that disaster hinges on your actions? Lighten up! These are the kinds of irrational, self defeating attitudes and beliefs that hold you back. Replace these ideas with more rational, self-enhancing attitudes and beliefs. (Your APSS counselor can help with this, too.) • Whenever you feel the whispering temptation to procrastinate, remember the emotional and physical consequences it will have. Also remember the rewards of not procrastinating. • Don’t approach projects with an “all or nothing” attitude. Concentrate on little bits and pieces at a time. 10 • Visualize yourself as a well-organized non-procrastinator. Imagine how you might think and behave. Then behave and think that way, even if only for a few minutes at a time. • Value your mistakes; don’t judge them. Find something funny, curious, or interesting about them. Learn from them. • Be aware of those tricks you use to avoid or escape tasks—socializing, day-dreaming, running away, television—Catch yourself indulging in those tactics and get back on track. CHANGE YOUR BEHAVIOR • Use your friends. Make appointments to study with a friend, to get help with a task, or just to talk. “Let’s do lunch sometime,” is not an appointment. Set specific times and dates, such as “Lunch, Tuesday at noon.”

• Reward yourself for accomplishing something, and/or penalize yourself for not accomplishing something. • Make something you normally do and enjoy contingent upon doing the avoided task: “I’ll work on my library research half an hour before going to play racquetball.” • Use impulsiveness to your advantage. Do something (productive) when you think of it, instead of putting it off. Do instant, tiny things. • Make your working environment conducive to working. Eliminate distractions (TV, phone, radio, other people) and have at hand all the tools you’ll need. ACCEPT YOURSELF • Give yourself time to change. • Expect and forgive backsliding. • Give yourself credit for the things you do. • Forgive yourself a lot. 11 CAUSES OF PROCRASTINATION Self Deception—“I can always do it later.” “I work best under pressure anyway.” “Getting started early doesn’t help me.” Some folks tend to rationalize their unwillingness to start unpleasant tasks. Perfectionism—It may seem strange at first that a procrastinator is a perfectionist, but this is often the case. Procrastinators often put unrealistic demands on themselves to be perfect—an all or nothing attitude. Another perfectionist expectation is that excellence should come with little or no effort. For example, when it becomes obvious that not every class in college is fun and interesting, some get discouraged and just quit attending class or completing assignments. Perfectionists are frequently competitive, although it may seem strange that a student who hands in late papers would be competitive. In a sense, these folk “choose to lose” so that they never have to truly test themselves and/or risk failure. Inappropriate Commitments—This is the person who is active in all parts of campus and community life and stretches him/herself too thin. When all the energy goes into Greek life or athletics, academics can sometimes slide. This is a failure to establish priorities. Tasks That Seem Too Big—Rather than take a major research paper step by step, the procrastinator “awfulizes” about how terrible it is that students are required to do so much work. Instead of using little bits of time to get

started the procrastinator becomes paralyzed by the thought of how much effort/time the paper will take. Non-Productive Behaviors—Some students spend too much time “getting ready” to study. They sharpen pencils, put on background music, feed the cats, clean off the bed (so they will not be distracted)—then notice that an hour has passed and it “must be about time to take a break from studying.” Lack of organization contributes to wasting time. Procrastinators often have no idea how to get started, or what procedures to follow. Not knowing how to prioritize is another example. Some people spend 3 hours on a project that is fun, but may be an elective course. Then, they may spend almost no time studying for a comprehensive final—in a course they do not like—which is worth 1/3 of the course grade. Finally, an unwillingness to say “NO” to friends contributes to procrastination. If you just can’t turn down some invitations to socialize, you will be at the mercy to anyone/everyone who interrupts your studying 12 Procrastination Quotient Directions: Mark an “X” in the column for your response to each of the twelve items. Total the “X”’s in each column, multiply by the weight at the bottom of the column, and add you products. Almost Almost Always Frequently Occasionally Never 1. I find reasons for not acting immediately on a difficult assignment. _________ _________ _________ _________ 2. I know what I have to do but find that I have done something else. _________ _________ _________ _________ 3.I carry my books/work assignments with me to various places but do not open them. _________ _________ _________ _________ 4. I work best at the “last minute” when the pressure is really on. _________ _________ _________ _________ 5. There are too many interruptions that interfere with my most important study goals. _________ _________ _________ _________ 6. I avoid setting priorities for the day and doing the most important tasks first. _________ _________ _________ _________ 7. I avoid or delay unpleasant decisions. _________ _________ _________ _________ 8. I have been too tired, nervous, or upset to get started on my assignment _________ _________ _________ _________ 9. I like to get my room in excellent

order before starting a difficult study task. _________ _________ _________ _________ 10. I wait for inspirations before becoming involved in important study/ work tasks. _________ _________ _________ _________ 11. I fear failing at my most important study tasks. _________ _________ _________ _________ 12. I demand perfection in my work/ study performance. _________ _________ _________ _________ Total Responses in each column _________ _________ _________ _________
x4 x3 x2 x1

Procrastination is _________ + ________ + _________ + ________
P.Q. below 22 - minor concern P.Q. 23 to 32 - moderate concern P.

What is Attitude?
“Attitude” is another word used commonly but loosely. Dictionaries offer two differing definitions. The first relates to the inner working of the human mind, where attitude is “state of mind, mental view or disposition with regard to a fact or state”. A second equally valid definition describes the positioning of an object in space, such as an aircraft, spaceship, or missile, where attitude is said to mean “orientation of axes in relation to some reference plane, usually the horizontal”. It is interesting to note that both definitions insist that attitude can only exist in relation to a datum point – either a fact towards which one holds a mental disposition, or a reference plane such as the horizon against which orientation is measured. In this respect “attitude” is similar to “risk”, which is defined in terms of objectives. Although at first sight mental views and aircraft positioning do not seem to have much in common, in fact the two definitions of attitude are not incompatible or unrelated (Hillson & Murray-Webster, 2005): Just as the pilot makes a decision on what attitude to adopt for the aircraft in three-dimensional space in order to position it to execute the desired manoeuvre, so an individual or group can make an attitudinal choice to lean towards a particular desired response, behaviour or outcome. The attitude of an aircraft does not in itself result in motion, although it is a direct influence on the direction taken. In addition to attitude some force must act on the aircraft to generate motion – analogous to motivation. Aircraft attitude needs to be followed by movement if it is to result in execution of a manoeuvre, and similarly individual or group attitudes must be translated into action if the desired outcome is to be achieved. Attitude in space can be described using a number of elements, usually termed “pitch”, “roll” and “yaw”. It is also possible to subdivide human attitudes into their component dimensions to enable them to be better understood and managed. As the number of degrees of freedom for aircraft movement is almost unlimited within the three dimensions of space, so there is a bewildering array of potential attitudes that can be chosen in any given situation. While there may be a preferred response (initial default positioning), the final outcome remains a matter of choice. As a result of this comparison, the term “attitude” as applied to internal human mental processes and positioning is used here to refer to chosen responses to situations. Some attitudes may be deeply rooted, representing core values for the individual or group, but they nevertheless represent a choice. Other attitudes may be more malleable. Attitudes differ from personal characteristics in that they are situational responses rather than natural preferences or traits, and chosen attitudes may therefore differ depending on a range of different influences. Clearly if these influences can be identified and understood, the possibility of changing them is introduced,

allowing individuals and groups to manage their attitudes proactively. Emotional intelligence and emotional literacy provide the basis for achieving such attitudinal management and this concept is explored belowQ. above 32 - major concern Total

Score ____________ = P.Q

General goals of teaching to the affective domain
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Book II Affective Domain citation and bibliographic information (out of print, but available from used booksellers) This landmark book outlines the need for and basis of the affective domain in education, presents a detailed classification scheme for the affective domain, describes each level in the taxonomy, and offers methods for assessment. A Structure for the Affective Domain in Relation to Science Education citation and bibliographic information This paper establishes a system for considering the affective domain while teaching science. The author presents a detailed matrix that integrates affective behaviors with scientific activities, events and inquiry. Learning and Teaching in the Affective Domain (more info) This article addresses attitudes and attitude change in students, with a discussion of several theories of attitude change. The article also features sections on instructional design for attitude change, with examples and links to lesson plans. The Art of Possibility citation and bibliographic information This is the book chosen at 'Boot camp for Profs' to help faculty become aware of the effects of the imagination and affective domain on their own choices in career and practice. Many situations in the book are case studies that concern teaching and learning. All offer rich insights into the awareness of how our affective domain determines actions, outcomes, and satisfaction that emerge from challenges to achieve.

Methods for teaching in ways that address the affective domain
A Checklist for Designing Instruction in the Affective Domain

citation and bibliographic information This paper presents a simple model for accomplishing the often complex and nebulous task of developing instruction for the affective domain. Increasing Enrollment in Higher-Level Mathematics Classes through the Affective Domain citation and bibliographic information The author presents 10 teaching strategies that give attention to affective variables to increase the likelihood that high school students will continue to enroll in higher level mathematics courses. Strategies focus on frustration, vocabulary use, anxiety, confidence, cooperative learning, creativity, remediation, and promoting mathematics courses. The Relationship between Teacher Management Communication Style and Affective Learning citation and bibliographic information This statistical study measured students' responses to a survey to determine the amount of affective learning that took place in their class. The factors that had the most influence on affective learning were nonverbal immediacy, a studentcentered classroom management style, and regular class attendance by the students themselves. De Bono's Red Hat on Krathwohl's Head: Irrational Means to Rational Ends (Microsoft Word 71kB Feb7 07) by Edward B. Nuhfer, Center for Teaching and Learning, Idaho State University This article provides useful background on the relationship between the cognitive and affective domains and encourages faculty to recognize that the affective domain is "legitimate, powerful, and even useful." The paper describes several examples of how one's affective teaching can be improved, which may result in increased self-awareness, a more positive classroom environment and a better connection with students. This article is from The National Teaching & Learning Forum, Volume 14, Number 5, September 2005. Students' View of Intelligence Can Help Grades This news feature from National Public Radio discusses a new study in the scientific journal Child Development. The study shows that if you teach students that their intelligence can grow and increase, they do better in school. The study was carried out by research psychologist Carol Dweck from Stanford University. This website contains an interview with Dweck and an audio file of the news feature that aired on NPR.

Evaluation of affective outcomes

Also see Assessment tools for the affective domain Techniques for Evaluating Affective Objectives citation and bibliographic information The paper presents three tools for evaluating the affective domain and gives some brief examples of how to use each type of evaluation. The assessment tools are the attitude checklist, the attitude questionnaire, and the projective indicator. The Affective Domain Related to Science Education and its Evaluation citation and bibliographic information This review paper discusses several approaches to measuring student outcomes in the affective domain. Several different authors' representations of attitudes in science are discussed, and the paper addresses methods to evaluate affective outcomes and attitudes, pitfalls and recommendations. Science Motivation Questionnaire The 30-item questionnaire by Shawn M. Glynn and Thomas R. Koballa, Jr. assesses six components of students' motivation to learn science in college or high school courses. The questions assess students' motivation, confidence, and anxiety along with the relevance of science and the responsibility for learning. This website includes the questionnaire, scoring keys, and links to references. Development of an Assessment of Student Conception of the Nature of Science By Julie Libarkin, Arizona State University This JGE paper describes a method to determine the effectiveness of science courses for non-majors using a Likert-scale instrument. Results from 991 students permitted a statistical analysis of this instrument's validity and reliability. This evaluation prompted the removal of a number of non-correlated items and indicated that the test consists of three scales: Attitude towards Learning Science, Attitude towards Science, and Conception of Science. Examples from two courses, one laboratory-based and the other grounded in collaborative learning, are provided to demonstrate the utility of these types of scales in assessing both prior knowledge and course outcomes.

Science and the Affective Domain
Research on the affective dimensions of science learning Simpson, R. D., Koballa, T. R., Oliver, J. S., & Crawley, F. E. (1994) This paper is one chapter in the Handbook of Research on Science Teaching and Learning citation and bibliographic information . This volume contains a comprehensive survey of the research in science

education. The content of this volume provides an assessment of the significance of research, evaluates new developments, and examines current conflicts, controversies and issues in science pedagogy. Attitudinal and motivational constructs in science learning Koballa, T. R., & Glynn, S. M. (in press). Chapter 5 in S. K. Abell & N. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook for research in science education. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Americans fear decline in US performance in math and science This press release discusses a February 2007 poll about how science and scientists are perceived by the American public. Selected results show that more than half of Americans (52%) don't believe the U.S. is performing well in science and math education compared to other nations, but they know science is very important (85%). Most (87%) rate being a scientist as one of the most prestigious careers, yet 75% can't name a living scientist. Sixty-four percent don't think average Americans are knowledgeable about science, and 76% think it is very important that young people are encouraged to pursue scientific careers, and that more opportunities for these careers are created. The poll was conducted by Research! America.

Some Geoscience Examples

Journal of Geoscience Education special issue on Student Thinking about the Earth citation and bibliographic information A wide range of methodologies that can be used to study learning are represented here, from case studies to interviews to quantitative approaches. These papers provide a basis for continued communication between workers in different disciplines striving to answer the question: "What works in the geoscience classroom?" Qualitative Analysis of College Students' Ideas about the Earth: Interviews and Open-Ended Questionnaires citation and bibliographic information This study addresses student conceptual understanding and conceptual changes in college science courses. Analysis of students' interview responses indicates that students hold a number of non-scientific ideas about the Earth. Additionally, students apply a range of ontological categories to geologic phenomena, with significant implications for teaching geosciences. How Students Think: Implications for Learning in Introductory Geoscience Courses citation and bibliographic information This paper discusses the way that students in introductory geology courses think

and how this can influence what they learn. Approximately half the students in an introductory course do not have the skills to understand the abstract scientific concepts that are traditionally discussed. Many geological concepts will remain unlearned without appropriate activities that build on a foundation of concrete examples. Developing Geoscience Student-Learning Centered Courses citation and bibliographic information This article discusses the development of courses that were designed with a focus on how students learn new content. Specific strategies include establishing clear objectives for the course, using questionnaires, surveys and discussions throughout the course, and assigning a variety of different assignments, such as writing papers, group posters and data analysis projects. Fieldwork is Good? The Student Experience of Field Courses (more info) This site describes the results of a research project that was conducted across geography, earth science and environmental science disciplines to examine the effect of fieldwork on students' affective domain. The project aimed to monitor changes in student's attitudes to learning that occurred as a result of attending residential field courses. In addition, the changes in how students value the fieldwork experience were examined and differences in attitudes and values between different groups of students (for example age and gender) were explored. Sense of Place and Place-Based Introductory Geoscience Teaching for American Indian and Alaska Native Undergraduates (by Steve Semken) citation and bibliographic information A student's "sense of place" incorporates their affective as well as cognitive responses to physical places. Students with strong cultural bonds to homelands, many of whom are underrepresented minorities (such as American Indian students) may be dissuaded by geoscience teaching that affronts their senses of place. Place-based geoscience teaching could potentially enhance science literacy among American Indian, Alaska Native, and other underrepresented minority students, and bring more of them into the geoscience profession. Five characteristics of place-based geoscience teaching are identified here and illustrated with suggestions for implementation in diverse educational settings.

1. THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT 1.1 Consumer Behavior See also 42, 62, 63, 81, 100, 107, 108, 109, 113, 114, 123, 136, 137, 139, 150, 155, 160, 181, 182, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 207, 209, 211, 229 Food for Thought. Roberta Bernstein, American Demographics, 22 (May 2000), pp. 39–40, 42. [Hispanic and Asian consumers, Market potentials, Disposable income, Expenditures, Cultural and language issues, Consumer panels, Shopping behavior, Packagedgoods industry.] 1 Congestion Ahead. John Fetto, American Demographics, 22 (June 2000), pp. 49–50. [Extreme commuting, Regions, Time spent in traffic, In-auto activities, Billboards, Radio promotions, Creative, Examples.] 2 Make Room for Daddy. Rebecca Gardyn, American Demographics, 22 (June 2000), pp. 34–36. [Trends, Fathers, Market potentials, Magazine readership, Household spending decisions, Time spent with children, E-marketing, Statistical data.] 3

The Joy of Empty Nesting. Joan Raymond, American Demographics, 22 (May 2000), pp. 48–52, 54. [Trends, Baby boomers, Discretionary income, Lifestyles, Affluence, Market strategy, Quality of life, Techno-savvy, Health concerns, Examples.] 4 Life’s a Beach 101. Nancy Shepherdson, American Demographics, 22 (May 2000), pp. 56–58, 60, 62, 64. [Echo boomers, Ecommerce, Customization, Market strategy, Web sites, Surveys, Recent college grads, Brand loyalty, Jobs, Starting salaries, Investing, Examples.] 5 The Facilitating Influence of Consumer Knowledge on the Effectiveness of Daily Value Reference Information. Fuan Li, Paul W. Miniard, and Michael J. Barone, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 425–36. [Literature review, Hypothesis, Experiment, Measures, Trial intention, Attitude, Healthiness (overall, fat, fiber, sodium), Statistical analysis.] 6 Effects of Absurdity in Advertising: The Moderating Role of Product Category Attitude and the Mediating Role of Cognitive Responses. Leopoldo Arias-Bolzmann, Goutam Chakraborty, and John C. Mowen, Journal of Advertising, 29 (Spring 2000), pp. 35–49. [Literature review; Hypotheses; Experiment; Measures; Ad, brand, and product attitudes; Comparisons; Nonabsurd ads; Recall; Statistical analysis; Implications.] 7 An Empirical Test of an Updated Relevance–Accessibility Model of Advertising Effectiveness. William E. Baker and Richard J. Lutz, Journal of Advertising, 29 (Spring 2000), pp. 1–14. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Experiment, Brand names,

MYRON LEONARD, Editor Western Carolina University
This section is based on a selection of article abstracts from a comprehensive business literature database. Marketing-related abstracts from more than 125 journals (both academic and trade) are reviewed by JM staff. Descriptors for each entry are assigned by JM staff. Each issue of this section represents three months of entries into the database. Each entry has an identifying number. Cross-references appear immediately under each subject heading. The following article abstracts are available online from the ABI/INFORM database, which is published and copyrighted by Bell & Howell Information and Learning. For additional information about access to the database or about obtaining photocopies of the articles abstracted here, please call (800) 521-0600 or write to B&H, 300 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106. SUBJECT HEADINGS 1. THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT 1.1 Consumer Behavior 1.2 Legal, Political, and Economic Issues 1.3 Ethics and Social Responsibility 2. MARKETING FUNCTIONS 2.1 Management, Planning, and Strategy 2.2 Retailing 2.3 Channels of Distribution 2.4 Electronic Marketing 2.5 Physical Distribution 2.6 Pricing 2.7 Product 2.8 Sales Promotion 2.9 Advertising 2.10 Personal Selling 2.11 Sales Management 3. SPECIAL MARKETING APPLICATIONS

3.1 Industrial 3.2 Nonprofit, Political, and Social Causes 3.3 International and Comparative 3.4 Services 4. MARKETING RESEARCH 4.1 Theory and Philosophy of Science 4.2 Research Methodology 4.3 Information Technology 5. OTHER TOPICS 5.1 Educational and Professional Issues 5.2 General Marketing

Marketing Literature Review
Choice processes (optimizing, satisficing, indifference), Types of information (evidence of performance superiority, credibility, and liking), Statistical analysis, Implications.] 8 Customer Satisfaction Cues to Support Market Segmentation and Explain Switching Behavior. Antreas D. Athanassopoulos, Journal of Business Research, 47 (March 2000), pp. 191–207. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Survey of banks’ business and individual customers, Measures, Corporate, Innovativeness, Physical and staff service, Pricing, Convenience, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 9 Representation of Numerical and Verbal Product Information in Consumer Memory. Terry L. Childers and Madhubalan Viswanathan, Journal of Business Research, 47 (February 2000), pp. 109–20. [Literature review, Conceptual framework based on surface versus meaning level processing of information, Hypotheses, Two experiments, Recognition paradigm, Assessment.] 10 Consumers’ Use of Persuasion Knowledge: The Effects of Accessibility and Cognitive Capacity on Perceptions of an Influence Agent. Margaret C. Campbell and Amna Kirmani, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 69–83. [Literature review; Model presentation; Four experiments; When an ulterior persuasion motive is highly accessible, both cognitively busy targets and unbusy observers use persuasion knowledge to evaluate a salesperson; Statistical analysis.] 11 Indexicality and the Verification Function of Irreplaceable Possessions: A Semiotic Analysis. Kent Grayson and David Shulman, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 17–30. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Two studies, Late-adolescent and latemiddleage consumers view irreplaceable possessions as being distinct because of indexicality, Link between verification and irreplaceable possessions, Statistical analysis.] 12 Determinants of Country-of-Origin Evaluations. Zeynep Gurhan-Canli and Durairaj Maheswaran, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 96–108. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Two experiments, Variables, Evaluations, Beliefs, Information relevance, Total thoughts, Country-of-origin and attribute-related thoughts, Statistical analysis.] 13 Standing on the Shoulders of Ancients: Consumer Research, Persuasion, and Figurative Language. William J. McGuire, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 109–14. [Literature review, Early communication (tropes, rhetorical figures), Impacts, Creative hypothesis-generating phase of research, Assessment.]

14 Children, Advertising, and Product Experiences: A Multimethod Inquiry. Elizabeth S. Moore and Richard J. Lutz, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 31–48. [Literature review; Model presentation; Hypotheses; Experiment and depth interviews; Both product trial and advertising have influences, but interplay of these influences differs between older and younger children; Statistical analysis.] 15 Consumer Learning and Brand Equity. Stijn M.J. van Osselaer and Joseph W. Alba, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 1–16. [Literature review, Series of experiments, Strong blocking effects were found despite a limited number of brand preexposures and extensive exposure to predictive attribute information.] 16 The Role of Explanations and Need for Uniqueness in Consumer Decision Making: Unconventional Choices Based on Reasons. Itamar Simonson and Stephen M. Nowlis, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 49–68. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Series of studies, Explaining decisions shifts the focus from the choice of options to the choice of reasons. Buyers who explain their decisions and have high need for uniqueness tend to

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select unconventional reasons and are more likely to make unconventional choices.] 17 Qualitative Steps Toward an Expanded Model of Anxiety in Gift-Giving. David B. Wooten, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 84–95. [Literature review, Model development, Survey of students and nonstudent adults, Givers become anxious when they are highly motivated to elicit desired reactions from their recipients but are pessimistic about their prospects of success.] 18 Understanding the Customer Base of Service Providers: An Examination of the Differences Between Switchers and Stayers. Jaishankar Ganesh, Mark J. Arnold, and Kristy E. Reynolds, Journal of Marketing, 64 (July 2000), pp. 65–87. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Two studies, Consumers’ use of banking services, Impacts, Overall satisfaction, Satisfaction with service dimensions, Involvement, Customer loyalty, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 19 Self-Service Technologies: Understanding Customer Satisfaction with Technology-Based Service Encounters. Matthew L. Meuter, Amy L. Ostrom, Robert I. Roundtree, and Mary Jo Bitner, Journal of Marketing, 64 (July 2000), pp. 50–64. [Literature review, Critical incident study (satisfying and dissatisfying), Sources, Consumer reactions, Comparisons, Interpersonal encounter satisfaction, Assessment, Managerial implications.] 20 Consumer Response to Negative Publicity: The Moderating Role of Commitment. Rohini Ahluwalia, Robert E. Burnkrant, and H. Rao Unnava, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 203–14. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Three experiments, Consumers who are committed to a brand counterargue negative information and can resist information that is likely to induce switching behavior.] 21 A Hierarchical Bayes Model for Assortment Choice. Eric T. Bradlow and Vithala R. Rao, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 259–68. [Literature review, Experiment, Set of eight popular magazines, Effects, Price, Attributes, Features, Selection, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 22 Impact of Product-Harm Crises on Brand Equity: The Moderating Role of Consumer Expectations. Niraj Dawar and Madan M. Pillutla, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp.

215–26. [Literature review, Expectations–evidence framework, Hypotheses, Field survey and two laboratory experiments, Impacts, Consumers’ interpretation of the evidence from firm response, Managerial implications.] 23 The Evolution of Brand Preferences and Choice Behaviors of Consumers to a Market. Carrie M. Heilman, Douglas Bowman, and Gordon P. Wright, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 139–55. [Literature review, Logit-mixture model with time-varying parameters, Consumer panel data, Stages (information collection, extended to lesser-known brands, information consolidation), Impacts, Product experience and learning, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 24 Choosing What I Want Versus Rejecting What I Do Not Want: An Application of Decision Framing to Product Option Choice Decisions. C. Whan Park, Sung Youl Jun, and Deborah J. MacInnis, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 187–202. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Three studies, Option framing, Psychological reactions, Moderators (option prices, product category prices, regret anticipation, product category commitment), Managerial effects.] 25 Assessing a Place to Live: A Quality of Life Perspective. Glen Riecken, Don Shemwell, and Ugur Yavas, Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 7 (No. 2, 1999), pp. 17–29. [Survey of community leaders, Factors, Weather, Crime, Economy, Education, Health, Housing, Leisure, Transportation, Arts, Importance/performance analysis, Policy implications.] 26 Assessing the Effects of Quality, Value, and Customer Satisfaction on Consumer Behavioral Intentions in Service Environments. J. Joseph Cronin Jr., Michael K. Brady, and G. Tomas M. Hult, Journal of Retailing, 76 (Summer 2000), pp. 193–218. [Literature review, Model testing, Hypotheses, Two studies, Multiple service providers, Direct and indirect effects, Relationships, Statistical analysis.] 27 1.2 Legal, Political and Economic Issues See also 51, 102, 151, 176, 188, 198, 199, 203, 227 Ethical and Online Privacy Issues in Electronic Commerce. Eileen P. Kelly and Hugh C. Rowland, Business Horizons, 43 (May/June 2000), pp. 3–12. [Discussion, Information gathering, Legal aspects, Freedom of choice, Voluntary and informed consent, Proposed legislation, Industry reaction, Managerial recommendations.] 28 The Measurement of Intellectual Property Rights Protection. Robert L. Ostergard Jr., Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Second Quarter 2000), pp. 349–60. [Discussion, Empirical research, Comparisons, Countries, Law and enforcement measures, Protection score analysis (copyright, patent, trademark), Assessment.] 29 Covenants Not to Compete. Erica B. Garay, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 61–63. [Acquisitions and mergers, Legislation, Court decisions, Enforcing covenants arising in connection with the sale of a business, Limits to enforcement, Assessment.] 30 U.S. Trust Busters Eye Net Markets. Dan Gottlieb, Purchasing, 128 (June 15, 2000), pp. S67, S69, S72. [Discussion, Net trade exchanges, Legal aspects, Market power, Major industry players, Acquisitions and mergers, Anticompetitive effects, Assessment.] 31 1.3 Ethics and Social Responsibility See also 28, 151, 210, 228 Representing the Perceived Ethical Work Climate Among Marketing Employees. Barry J. Babin, James S. Boles, and Donald

P. Robin, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 345–58. [Literature review, Survey of employees, Models, Responsibility/trust, Peer behavior, Ethical norms, Selling practices, Role ambiguity, Role conflict, Job satisfaction, Organizational commitment, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 32 Crime and Small Business: An Exploratory Study of Cost and Prevention Issues in U.S. Firms. Donald F. Kuratko, Jeffrey S. Hornsby, Douglas W. Naffziger, and Richard M. Hodgetts, Journal of Small Business Management, 38 (July 2000), pp. 1–13. [Literature review, Survey, Level of concern, Crime prevention actions, Training provided, Perceptions of crime against business, Annual cost of crime, Impact of industry type, Statistical anlaysis.] 33 Making Business Sense of Environmental Compliance. Jasbinder Singh, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Spring 2000), pp. 91–100. [Discussion, Partnerships, Environmental and plant managers, Savings, Strategies, Review plant operations, Find best times to install pollution-control equipment and upgrade production technology, Allocate environmental costs, Integrate business and environmental decisions, Examples.] 34 Corporate Responsibility Audits: Doing Well by Doing Good. Sandra Waddock and Neil Smith, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Winter 2000), pp. 75–83. [Vision versus practice, CEO commitment, Teams, Corporate culture, Mission statement, Stakeholder elements, Existing policies and practices, Functional areas (human resources, environmental practices, quality systems, community relations), Examples.] 35

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2. MARKETING FUNCTIONS 2.1 Management, Planning, and Strategy See also 9, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 64, 67, 68, 69, 71, 73, 74, 77, 82, 83, 85, 86, 90, 96, 97, 98, 106, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 126, 127, 134, 135, 145, 146, 148, 149, 153, 154, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 179, 183, 184, 186, 193, 202, 207, 210, 212, 214, 219, 221, 228 Avoiding the Complexity Trap. Alan Brache and Peter M. Tobia, Across the Board, 37 (June 2000), pp. 42–46. [Sustainable niches, Problems, Availability of outsourcing, Broadening capability and plunging price of technology, Workforce mobility, E-commerce, Impacts, Focus, Critical resources, Information on costs, Examples.] 36 Laying Off Risk. Stan Davis and Christopher Meyer. Across the Board, 37 (April 2000), pp. 33–37. [Insuring against risk, Riskrelated rewards, Organizing around risk, Hedging, Core competencies, Value creation, Examples.] 37 The Negotiation Industry. Lee Edson, Across the Board, 37 (April 2000), pp. 14–20. [Discussion, Use in hiring process, International, Special training, Educational initiatives, Win–win model, Examples.] 38 The Secrets of Performance Appraisal. Dick Grote, Across the Board, 37 (May 2000), pp. 14–20. [Corporate culture, Organizational expectations, Identification of specific core competencies, Evaluation, Mastery descriptions, Role of objectivity, Examples.] 39 Condition Critical. Phillip L. Polakoff and David G. Anderson, Across the Board, 37 (May 2000), pp. 42–47. [Health and safety programs, Control, Lost time costs, Risk shifting strategies, Helping employees manage their own care, Assessment, Guidelines.] 40 The Effects of Formal Strategic Marketing Planning on the Industrial Firm’s Configuration, Structure, Exchange Patterns,

and Performance. Andy Claycomb, Richard Germain, and Cornelia Droge, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 219–34. [Literature review; Survey (Council of Logistics Managment); Impacts; Use of integrative committees and mechanisms, specialization, decentralized decision making, and formal performance measurement (both internal and benchmarking).] 41 Implementing a Customer Relationship Strategy: The Asymmetric Impact of Poor Versus Excellent Execution. Mark R. Colgate and Peter J. Danaher, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 375–87. [Literature review; Survey of bank customers; Satisfaction, performance, usage of bank; Personal banker; Good and bad strategies; Switching activity; Behavioral intentions; Statistical analysis; New Zealand.] 42 Superordinate Identity in Cross-Functional Product Development Teams: Its Antecedents and Effect on New Product Performance. Rajesh Sethi, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 330–44. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Survey of key informants in cross-functional teams, Impacts, Special team structure, Traditional team factor, Interaction effects, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 43 Business Planning Practices in Small Size Companies: Survey Results. Surendra S. Singhvi, Journal of Business Forecasting, 19 (Summer 2000), pp. 3–4, 6, 8. [Primary objectives for preparing a plan, Responsibility, Planning horizon, Plan update, Achievement, Annual budget, Board approval, Financial success, Recommendations.] 44 Journal of Business Research, 47 (January 2000), pp. 3–89. [Eight articles on dynamics of strategy, Executive pay and UK privatization, Nonprofit organization responses to anticipated changes in government support for HIV/AIDS services, Evolving complex organizational structures in new and unpredictable environments, Innovation teams, Institutional foundations of success and failure, Impact of technology policy integration on strategy, Business transformation, Impact of environmentally linked strategies on competitive advantage, Many countries.] 45 Relationship of Firm Size, Initial Diversification, and Internationalization with Strategic Change. Parshotam Dass, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 135–46. [Theoretical discussion, Hypotheses, Data collection (COMPUSTAT II database), Variables, Initial and changes in product diversity, Industry performance, Risk, Slack, Firm size, International diversification, Interactions, Statistical analysis.] 46 Organizational Values: The Inside View of Service Productivity. Dawn Dobni, J.R. Brent Ritchie, and Wilf Zerbe, Journal of Business Research, 47 (February 2000), pp. 91–107. [Literature review, Survey of service firms, Impacts, Employee mutualism, Market leadership, Customer intimacy, Operational efficiency, Organizational preservation, Change aversion, Social responsibility, Value systems (entrepreneurial, performance-pressured, integrated, temperate), Statistical analysis, Canada.] 47 Firm Characteristics Influencing Export Propensity: An Empirical Investigation by Industry Type. Rajshekhar G. Javalgi, D. Steven White, and Oscar Lee, Journal of Business Research, 47 (March 2000), pp. 217–28. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Survey, Comparisons, Export versus nonexport firms, Variables, Number of employees, Total sales, Years in business, International trade activity, Primary industrial classification, Firm ownership, Statistical analysis.] 48 Benchmarking Cultural Transition. Roger Connors and Tom Smith, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp.

10–12. [Corporate culture, The best benchmarks are keyed to important before-and-after results the organization must achieve and to the beliefs and actions that produce those results, Assessment.] 49 Investigation of Factors Contributing to the Success of CrossFunctional Teams. Edward F. McDonough III, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (May 2000), pp. 221–35. [Literature review, Model presentation, Survey of new product development professionals, Outcome and process reasons for adopting crossfunctional teams, Interactions, Stage setters, Enablers, Team behaviors, Performance, Assessment.] 50 Environmental and Ownership Characteristics of Small Businesses and Their Impact on Development. William B. Gartner and Subodh Bhat, Journal of Small Business Management, 38 (July 2000), pp. 14–26. [Literature review, Survey, Growth expectations, Effects, Crime, Neighborhood appearance, Ethnicity of owner, Legal structure of firm, Firm type and size, Statistical analysis, Recommendations.] 51 Strategic Planning in the Military: The U.S. Naval Security Group Changes Its Strategy, 1992–1998. William Y. Frentzell II, John M. Bryson, and Barbara C. Crosby, Long Range Planning (UK), 33 (June 2000), pp. 402–29. [Discussion, Creating vision, Middle and top-level management involvement, Stakeholder and SWOT analyses, Scenario planning, Cognitive and oval mapping, Assessment.] 52 The Future.org. Raymond E. Miles, Charles C. Snow, and Grant Miles, Long Range Planning (UK), 33 (June 2000), pp. 300–21. [Collaboration-based organizational model for innovation, Essential conditions (time, trust, territory), Design principles (selfmanagement, behavioral protocols, shared strategic intent, equitable sharing of returns), Barriers (institutional, philosophical, organizational), Examples.] 53

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Business Domain Definition Practice: Does It Affect Organisational Performance? Jatinder S. Sidhu, Edwin J. Nijssen, and Harry R. Commandeur, Long Range Planning (UK), 33 (June 2000), pp. 376–401. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Survey of managers, Focus, Stable versus turbulent environments, Impacts, Customer need, Technological competence, Assessment, Implications, The Netherlands.] 54 Marketing Decision Support Systems for Strategy Building. Sanjay K. Rao, Marketing Health Services, 20 (Summer 2000), pp. 15–18. [Pharmaceutical products, Customer and market environments, System outputs (interaction between pricing and other marketing mix strategies), Cash flows, Outcomes, Assessment.] 55 What’s in a Name? New CPO Title Reflects Buying’s Strategic Role. William Atkinson, Purchasing, 128 (June 1, 2000), pp. 45, 49–51. [Chief procurement officer, Organizational structure, Functions, Responsibilities, Top management support, Implications for suppliers, Examples.] 56 Supporting a For-Profit Cause. Guy Kawasaki, Sales and Marketing Management, (May 2000), pp. S16–S19. [Corporate culture, Customer focused, Morale, Impacts, Creating a good product and service, Sense of ownership, Training, Empowerment, Support, Examples.] 57 A Position of Power. Chad Kaydo, Sales and Marketing Management, (June 2000), pp. 104–106, 108, 110, 112, 114. [Corporate image, Product positioning, Product differentiation, Factors, Identify the difference, Make it relevant, Keep it simple, Watch the competition, Examples.] 58 Technology Is Not Enough: Improving Performance by Building

Organizational Memory. Rob Cross and Lloyd Baird, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Spring 2000), pp. 69–78. [Organizational learning, Explicit and tacit knowledge, Databases, Social bonding, Work processes and support systems, Targeting, Structuring, Embedding, Examples.] 59 Outsourcing Innovation: The New Engine of Growth. James Brian Quinn, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Summer 2000), pp. 13–28. [Discussion, Basic and early-stage research, Business processes, New-product introductions, Impacts, Resource limits, Specialist talents, Multiple risks, Attracting talent, Speed, Examples.] 60 Leading Laterally in Company Outsourcing. Michael Useem and Joseph Harder, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Winter 2000), pp. 25–38. [Personal interviews, Senior managers, Leadership capabilities (strategic thinking, deal making, partnership governing, managing change), Assessment.] 61 2.2 Retailing See also 73, 87, 96, 99, 100, 105, 109, 110, 132, 133, 215, 224 A Longitudinal Analysis of Satisfaction and Profitability. Kenneth L. Bernhardt, Naveen Donthu, and Pamela A. Kennett, Journal of Business Research, 47 (February 2000), pp. 161–71. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Consumer survey, Impacts, Customer and employee satisfaction, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications, Fast-food restaurant industry.] 62 Towards Understanding Consumer Response to Stock-Outs. Katia Campo, Els Gijsbrechts, and Patricia Nisol, Journal of Retailing, 76 (Summer 2000), pp. 219–42. [Literature review; Model estimation; Store intercept; Characteristics (product, consumer, situation); Costs; Impacts; Item, package size, and store switching; Purchase deferment and cancellation; Statistical analysis; Belgium.] 63 Attention, Retailers! How Convenient Is Your Convenience Strategy? Kathleen Seiders, Leonard L. Berry, and Larry G. Gresham, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Spring 2000), pp. 79–89. [Trends; Access, possession, and transaction convenience; Locating the right product; Integrated approach; Examples.] 64 Customer Relationship Management. Susan Reda, Stores, 82 (April 2000), pp. 33–36. [Target markets, Databases, Software packages, Consultants, Role of marketing department, Examples.] 65 Real Estate, Customer Research Become Key Tools in Service Merchandise Revival. Susan Reda, Stores, 82 (June 2000), pp. 118, 120, 122. [Discussion, Consultants, Customer profiles, Product categories, Point-of-sale information, Software packages, Web site, Internet alliances, Trade area analysis, Case study.] 66 Rethinking the Rules. Susan Reda, Stores, 82 (June 2000), pp. 34–35, 38. [Retailing industry, Impacts, Online revolution, Confronting new realities, More fluid environment, Logistics expertise, Acquisition strategy, Bricks-and-mortar advantages, Examples.] 67 2.3 Channels of Distribution See also 56, 84, 91, 92, 94, 95, 104, 147, 163, 165, 185, 190 Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (July 2000), pp. 285–386. [Nine articles on business marketing networks, Implementing programmatic initiatives in manufacturer–retailer networks, Supplier relations, Interconnectedness, Strategic alliances, Partner as customer, Relationship strategy, Quality, Customer retention, Purchasing behavior, Satisfaction in industrial markets.] 68 On Interfirm Power, Channel Climate, and Solidarity in Industrial Distributor–Supplier Dyads. Keysuk Kim, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 388–405.

[Literature review, Model estimation, Hypotheses, Survey, Measures, Supplier and distributor power, Coercive and noncoercive influence strategy, Trust, Relationship continuity, Solidarity, Statistical analysis.] 69 A Brand’s Advertising and Promotion Allocation Strategy: The Role of the Manufacturer’s Relationship with Distributors as Moderated by Relative Market Share. Kenneth Anselmi, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 113–22. [Literature review; Hypotheses; Survey of manufacturers; As exchange relationships become more relational, manufacturers increase advertising allocations; More discrete relationships, increase allocation to promotion; Market share moderates the influence of exchange relationship type.] 70 Relationship Marketing Activities, Commitment, and Membership Behaviors in Professional Associations. Thomas W. Gruen, John O. Summers, and Frank Acito, Journal of Marketing, 64 (July 2000), pp. 34–49. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Survey of life insurance agents, Measures, Commitment (affective, continuance, normative), Impacts, Membership retention, Exchange-based participation, Cooperatively based coproduction, Statistical analysis.] 71 Sales Through Sequential Distribution Channels: An Application to Movies and Videos. Donald R. Lehmann and Charles B. Weinberg, Journal of Marketing, 64 (July 2000), pp. 18–33. [Literature review, Model structure and analysis, Data from 35 movies, Exponential sales curves, Optimal release times, Assessment.] 72 Control Mechanisms and the Relationship Life Cycle: Implications for Safeguarding Specific Investments and Developing Commitment. Sandy D. Jap and Shankar Ganesan, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 227–45. [Literature review, Conceptual framework, Hypotheses, Survey of retailers, Measures, Transaction-specific investments, Relational norms, Explicit contracts, Supplier’s commitment, Performance, Conflict level, Relationship satisfaction and phase, Interdependence magnitude and asymmetry, Statistical analysis.] 73

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Organizing Distribution Channels for Information Goods on the Internet. Rajiv Dewan, Marshall Freimer, and Abraham Seidmann, Management Science, 46 (April 2000), pp. 483–95. [Electronic commerce, Electronic publishing, Digital and pricing content, Internet service providers, Industrial organization, Spatial competition, Industry structure, Assessment, Managerial implications.] 74 Price Protection in the Personal Computer Industry. Hau L. Lee, V. Padmanabhan, Terry A. Taylor, and Seungjin Whang, Management Science, 46 (April 2000), pp. 467–82. [Literature review, Obsolescence-prone market, Single- and two-buying-opportunity models, Channel coordination, Supply chain management, Incentives, Numerical example.] 75 Pursuing Risk-Sharing, Gain-Sharing Arrangements. James B.L. Thomson and James C. Anderson, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 40–47. [Customer–supplier relations, Market strategy, Implementation (assess customer measurement systems, determine products and services, build historical database, measurement responsibility, sharing risks and gains, outline specific actions and initiate the agreement), Case study, Hospital supply industry.] 76 Distributors: How Good Are They? James P. Morgan, Purchasing, 128 (May 4, 2000), pp. 50–52, 54, 58. [Survey of purchasing professionals, Percentage of companies’ purchases, Product categories, Needs priorities, Performance ratings, Use of e-business

tools, Problems (prices, delivery, damage, cost control, e-business, inventory, personnel, information), Slow implementation, Examples.] 77 2.4 Electronic Marketing See also 3, 5, 28, 31, 67, 74, 77, 128, 132, 133, 151, 179, 184, 213 Beating the Banner Ad. Christine Blank, American Demographics, 22 (June 2000), pp. 42–44. [E-mail campaigns, Target markets, Entertainment, Multisensory, Interactive, Click-and-play video messages, Rich media, Costs, Examples.] 78 Mouse-Trapping the Student Market. Rebecca Gardyn, American Demographics, 22 (May 2000), pp. 30, 32–34. [In-school marketing, Ad-supported mousepads, Effectiveness, Comparisons, Internet banner ads, Online sweepstakes, Newspaper ads, Case study.] 79 Cracking the Niche. Christina Le Beau, American Demographics, 22 (June 2000), pp. 38–40. [Online marketing, Market segments, Web-based groups with focused interests, Becoming part of a community, Examples.] 80 Internet: A Vehicle for On-line Shopping.Venkatakrishna V. Bellur, Finnish Journal of Business and Economics, 49 (No. 2, 2000), pp. 191–207. [Literature review, Survey of households, Demographic and socioeconomic profile, Internet access and usage rates, Impacts, Occupation, Income, Discriminant analysis.] 81 Harvard Business Review, 78 (May/June 2000), pp. 84–114. [Three articles on e-business, Syndication, Roles, Structure, Businessto-business marketplaces, E-hubs, Integrating virtual and physical operations, Examples.] 82 How to Acquire Customers on the Web. Donna L. Hoffman and Thomas P. Novak, Harvard Business Review, 78 (May/June 2000), pp. 179–80, 183–86, 188. [Discussion, Banner ads, Affiliate marketing, Integrated strategy (mass media, online advertising, strategic partnerships, word of mouth, free links, PR), Examples.] 83 The All-in-One Market. Paul Nunes, Diane Wilson, and Ajit Kambil, Harvard Business Review, 78 (May/June 2000), pp. 19–20. [Trends, Evolution, Online transactions, Mechanisms, Price competition, Examples.] 84 Going Up! Vertical Marketing on the Web. Sunny Baker and Kim Baker, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 30–33. [Discussion, Mission, Customer needs, Market segments, Building awareness, E-commerce strategy, Assessment.] 85 The Eight Deadly Assumptions of E-Business. Alan Brache and Jim Webb, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 13–17. [Discussion, Technology is the answer, Get on the e-business bandwagon, Expand the customer base, Enables global expansion, Reengineering will help to better serve e-business needs, Web sites will ensure more e-business, Delegate development and implementation to the IT department or to a consultant, Going digital quickly, Assessment.] 86 Frictionless Commerce? A Comparison of Internet and Conventional Retailers. Erik Brynjolfsson and Michael D. Smith, Management Science, 46 (April 2000), pp. 563–85. [Literature review, Data collection, Competition, Price changes, Menu costs, Price dispersion, Asymmetrically informed consumers and search costs, Product and retailer heterogeneity, Assessment.] 87 Debunking the Myths of Web Site Promotion. Joyce Flory, Marketing Health Services, 20 (Summer 2000), pp. 31–35. [Discussion, Site registration, Registration services, Search engines, Specific types of information, Impacts, Promotion efforts, Awards, Press releases, Contests and giveaways, Success, Guidelines.] 88 Branding on the Internet. Larry Chiagouris and Brant Wansley, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 34–38. [Discussion,

Relationship-building continuum, Impacts, E-branding tactics, Measurement issues, Examples.] 89 Ride or Drive? Ralph A. Oliva, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 58–60. [Web-based hubs, Driving (starting your own digital marketplace for multiple buyers and sellers), Riding (signing on to a hub run by another firm), Managing cognitive spaces, Spin ups, Hub wars, Ride versus drive, Assessment.] 90 Buyers Are Hot on Internet, Wary About E-Procurement. Purchasing, 128 (June 15, 2000), pp. S6–S7, S10, S13. [Survey, Attitudes, Communications (requests for information and quotes from suppliers, shipments tracking and expediting, ordering), Costs, Ease of use, Security, Reliability, Current or projected use, Examples.] 91 E-Auction Model Morphs to Meet Buyers’ Needs. Anne Millen Porter, Purchasing, 128 (June 15, 2000), pp. S31–S32, S34, S36, S39, S40, S44, S46. [Discussion, Reverse e-auctions, Bidding involving many suppliers, Impacts, Profit margins, Consultants, Software packages, Requirements, Transactions, Markets, Outsourcing, Examples.] 92 Cashing In. Ginger Conlon, Sales and Marketing Management, (June 2000), pp. 94–96, 102. [Business growth, Dot-com businesses, Market potentials, Factors, Understand the audience, Act quickly, Risk, Stability, Examples.] 93 Why Dealers Must Buy In to the Web. Brent Keltner, Sales and Marketing Management, (April 2000), pp. 29–30. [Discussion, Benefits, Strategies, Focus on underperforming products, Integrate sales and marketing, Offer incentives, Provide technical support, Examples.] 94 Clicks and Misses. Melinda Ligos, Sales and Marketing Management, (June 2000), pp. 68–70, 72, 74, 76. [E-business, Problems, Alienating channel partners, Not focusing on core competencies, Not integrating customer service systems, Trying to serve mass market instead of existing customers, Not involving salespeople, Not knowing when to outsource, Examples.] 95 Finding Sustainable Profitability in Electronic Commerce. John M. de Figueiredo, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Summer 2000), pp. 41–52. [E-commerce product continuum, Market strategy (commodity products, quasi commodity, look and feel goods, look and feel with variable quality), Incumbents versus new entrants, Sustaining competitive advantage, Examples.] 96

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Fast Venturing: The Quick Way to Start Web Businesses. Ajit Kambil, Erik D. Eselius, and Karen A. Monteiro, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Summer 2000), pp. 55–67. [Model presentation; Roles (innovators, equity and operational partners); Stages (illumination, investigation, implementation); Why, when, and how companies should fast venture; Venture networks; Examples.] 97 Building Stronger Brands Through Online Communities. Gil McWilliam, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Spring 2000), pp. 43–54. [Discussion, Traditional user groups, Forum for exchange of common interests, Attracting new members, Links to other sites, Brand owner’s control over content, Skills needed to manage online communities, Examples.] 98 Domain Names Emerge as Key Tools for On-line Retail Marketing. Jennifer Karas, Stores, 82 (May 2000), pp. 94, 96, 98. [Discussion, Name by which a company is known on the Internet, Advantages, Professional and credible Web presence, Name competition, Examples.] 99 In-Store Interactive Systems Take on Major Role in Drawing Technology-Savvy Customers. Susan Reda, Stores, 82 (May 2000), pp. 44, 46, 48. [Study, Integration of online and in-store

activities (digital signage, electronic messaging, kiosks), Consumer expectations, Shopping behavior, Examples.] 100 2.5 Physical Distribution See also 67, 111, 147, 194, 195 Early Supplier Involvement in Customer New Product Development: A Contingency Model of Component Supplier Intentions. Douglas W. LaBahn and Robert Krapfel, Journal of Business Research, 47 (March 2000), pp. 173–90. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Survey, Customer power advantage, Adherence to agreements, Customer promise, Supplier intentions, Interdependence, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 101 An Industry Still in Need of Integration. Brian Milligan, Purchasing, 128 (May 18, 2000), pp. 147, 149–50. [Business growth, Intermodal transport, Acquisitions and mergers, Government regulation, Examples.] 102 Service Providers Under Pressure to Control Rates. Brian Milligan, Purchasing, 128 (April 20, 2000), pp. 113, 116–17, 119, 121. [Transportation, Third-party logistics, Industry growth, Purchasing managers, Time constraints, Bundled services, Costs, Internet investments, Software packages, Examples.] 103 Supply Chain Software Moves to the Web. Brian Milligan, Purchasing, 128 (April 6, 2000), pp. 67–68. [Transportation, Impacts, Business processes, Forecasting shipments, Demand forecasts, Meeting anticipated transportation requirements, Needed improvements, Examples.] 104 E-Replenishment System Counters Continuing Problem of Supermarket Out-of-Stocks. Susan Reda, Stores, 82 (April 2000), pp. 70, 72. [Supply chain initiatives, POS system investments, Scanning data, Software packages, Collaborative planning, Initialization, Execution, Monitoring, Examples.] 105 2.6 Pricing See also 55, 75, 84, 87, 103, 113 Industrial Export Pricing Practices in the United Kingdom. Nikolaos Tzokas, Susan Hart, Paraskevas Argouslidis, and Michael Saren, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 191–204. [Literature review, Survey of export marketing directors from three industrial sectors, High and low competence firms, Pricing orientations, Objectives, Policies, Methods used, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications, UK.] 106 Advertised Reference Price Effects on Consumer Price Estimates, Value Perception, and Search Intention. Bruce L. Alford and Brian T. Engelland, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 93–100. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Experiment, Plausible and implausible price exposure conditions, Statistical analysis, Practical implications.] 107 An Investigation of Reference Price Segments. Tridib Mazumdar and Purushottam Papatla, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 246–58. [Literature review, Model development, Data collection (ERIM scanner panel of ACNielsen), Use of internal and external reference prices, Brand preferences and responses to marketing-mix variables, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 108 Insights into Cross- and Within-Store Price Search: Retailer Estimates vs. Consumer Self-Reports. Joel E. Urbany, Peter R. Dickson, and Alan G. Sawyer, Journal of Retailing, 76 (Summer 2000), pp. 243–58. [Literature review, Surveys, Attitudes, Consumer patronage behavior, Price comparison frequency, Search for and responsiveness to price specials, Belief discrepancies, Assessment, Theoretical and managerial implications.] 109 Burden of Frequent Price Changes Spurs Development of Automated Pricing Systems. Michael Hartnett, Stores, 82 (May

2000), pp. 56, 58. [Retail chains; Software packages; Category management; Pricing rules can be applied to maintain family group and parity pricing by item, flavor, size, brand, competitor’s pricing, margins, and the retailer’s value image.] 110 2.7 Product See also 1, 6, 7, 8, 10, 15, 16, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 43, 50, 55, 58, 60, 63, 70, 89, 98, 101, 108, 135, 145, 147, 148, 154, 155, 167, 170, 173, 206 Product Development Partnerships: Balancing the Needs of OEMs and Suppliers. Morgan L. Swink and Vincent A. Mabert, Business Horizons, 43 (May/June 2000), pp. 59–68. [Discussion, OEM needs (providers of scarce resources and capabilities, support of global product strategies, minimized risks), Supplier needs (rewards for up-front involvement, protected business interests, shared wealth), Success, Guidelines.] 111 Building an Innovation Factory. Andrew Hargadon and Robert I. Sutton, Harvard Business Review, 78 (May/June 2000), pp. 157–66. [Knowledge-brokering cycle, Factors, Capturing new ideas, Keeping ideas alive, Imagining new uses for old ideas, Putting promising concepts to the test, Examples.] 112 Price and Brand Name as Indicators of Quality Dimensions for Consumer Durables. Merrie Brucks, Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Gillian Naylor, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 359–74. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Laboratory experiment, Ease of use, Versatility, Durability, Service ability, Performance, Prestige, Consumers’ judgment processes and inferences, Statistical analysis.] 113 Introducing Short-Term Brands: A New Branding Tool for a New Consumer Reality. Dan Herman, Journal of Brand Management (UK), 7 (May 2000), pp. 330–40. [Changes in consumer preferences and behavior, Market strategy, Evolving and variety brands, Planned limited life expectancies, Value added, Examples.] 114 A Survey of Brand Risk Management. Rory F. Knight and Deborah J. Pretty, Journal of Brand Management (UK), 7 (May 2000), pp. 353–65. [Discussion; Brand significance and perception; Core qualities of brands across regions, industry sectors, and organizational position; Threats; Protection mechanisms; Brand insurance; Brand valuation; Assessment; Many countries.] 115 Call Branding: Identifying, Leveraging, and Managing New Branding Opportunities. Kevin M. Waters, Journal of Brand Management (UK), 7 (May 2000), pp. 321–29. [Modifying a brand to correspond with its verbal identity (Kraft Mayo, FedEx), Partial declaration and use, Acronyms, Success, Guidelines.] 116

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The Incumbent’s Curse? Incumbency, Size, and Radical Product Innovation. Rajesh K. Chandy and Gerard J. Tellis, Journal of Marketing, 64 (July 2000), pp. 1–17. [Literature review; Data collection (more than 250 books and 500 articles); Recently, large firms and incumbents are significantly more likely to introduce radical innovations than small firms and nonincumbents; Nationality; Implications.] 117 Impact of a Late Entrant on the Diffusion of a New Product/Service. Trichy V. Krishnan, Frank M. Bass, and V. Kumar, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 269–78. [Model testing, Mathematical equations, Brand-level sales data in multiple markets, Effects, Market potentials, Diffusion speed of the category and of incumbent brands, Statistical analysis.] 118 Customization of Product Technology and International New Product Success: Mediating Effects of New Product Development

and Rollout Timeliness. George M. Chryssochoidis and Veronica Wong, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (July 2000), pp. 268–85. [Literature review, Model proposal, Hypotheses, Interviews with managers in multinational companies, Impacts, Scheduling, Individual country requirements, Statistical analysis.] 119 Company Competencies as a Network: The Role of Product Development. Hanne Harmsen, Klaus G. Grunert, and Karsten Bove, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (May 2000), pp. 194–207. [Literature review, Survey of managers, Rankings, Perceived success factors and problems, Assessment, Implications.] 120 Harnessing Tacit Knowledge to Achieve Breakthrough Innovation. Ronald Mascitelli, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (May 2000), pp. 179–93. [Discussion, Model presentation, Methods, Achieve emotional commitment and personal involvement from design team members, Use of early and frequent prototyping, Face-to-face interaction during product development, Examples, Managerial implications.] 121 Technological Innovativeness as a Moderator of New Product Design Integration and Top Management Support. Morgan Swink, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (May 2000), pp. 208–20. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Study of new product development projects, Effects, Financial performance, Design quality, Time-based performance, Interactions, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 122 Consumer-Level Factors Moderating the Success of Private Label Brands. Rajeev Batra and Indrajit Sinha, Journal of Retailing, 76 (Summer 2000), pp. 175–91. [Literature review, Model estimation, Mall-intercept study, Measures (consequences of purchase mistake, degree of quality variation in category, search versus experience nature of category, price consciousness), Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 123 Choosing the Right Branding Expert.Victoria Barkan and Debra Semans, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 29–31. [Discussion, Understanding your needs, Approach/methodology, Objectivity and bias, Experience, Future perspective, Leadingedge thinking, Benchmark results, Client satisfaction, Stay involved and visible, Assessment.] 124 Market-Driven Product Development. Stephan A. Butscher and Michael Laker, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 48–53. [Target-costing pricing approach, Definition of target segments, Competitive advantages and disadvantages, Product positioning, Fine-tuning product design and pricing, Market simulations, Target costs, Examples.] 125 Brand Waves: Building Momentum Throughout the Ownership Cycle. Peter H. Farquhar, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 14–21. [Discussion, Ownership cycle, Trigger, Consideration, Drivers (awareness, relevance, differentiation, quality, affordability, availability), Conversion, Purchase and confirmation, Taking credit, Value, Examples.] 126 How to Build a Billion Dollar Business-to-Business Brand. Don E. Schultz and Heidi F. Schultz, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 22–28. [Discussion; Evolution of b-to-b companies; Product-, distribution-, and customer-driven; Brand structures and policies; Building and development; Communication; Measuring results; Example.] 127 2.8 Sales Promotion See also 70, 75, 88 Redeeming Qualities. Jennifer Lach, American Demographics, 22 (May 2000), pp. 36–38. [Study, Incentives, S&H greenpoints.com,

Online participation, Customer retention, Age groups, Incomes, Effectiveness, Examples.] 128 An Evaluation of State Sponsored Promotion Programs. Timothy J. Wilkinson and Lance Eliot Brouthers, Journal of Business Research, 47 (March 2000), pp. 229–36. [Data collection (relationships between program offerings and state exports), Variables (direct exports, trade shows, trade missions, foreign offices, market information activities, population), Statistical analysis, Implications.] 129 Money Isn’t Everything. Vincent Alonzo, Sales and Marketing Management, (April 2000), pp. 47–48. [Sweepstakes, Appeals, Effectiveness, Impacts, Long-term sales, Offering prizes appropriate for clients, Examples.] 130 The Shows Will Go On. Danielle Harris, Sales and Marketing Management, (May 2000), pp. 85–88. [Discussion, Trade shows, Factors, Increasing booth traffic and generating quality leads, Motivating salespeople, Budgets, Examples.] 131 Internet Retailers Shift Focus from Attracting to Retaining On-line Customers. Maureen Licata, Stores, 82 (June 2000), pp. 66, 68, 70, 72. [Value-focused customers, Loyalty incentives, Discounts, Giveaways, Contests, Sweepstakes, Free shipping, Customer databases, Impacts, Content, Community, Communication, Examples.] 132 Electronic Coupons Find Growing Uses for Both Stores and ECommerce Sites. Tony Seideman, Stores, 82 (April 2000), pp. 104, 106. [Target markets, Flexibility, Costs, Customer databases, Profiles, Effectiveness, Examples.] 133 2.9 Advertising See also 2, 3, 7, 8, 15, 70, 78, 79, 80, 83, 152, 159, 177, 197, 224 Who’s Next? Richard Linnett, Advertising Age, 71 (May 29, 2000), pp. 12, 15. [Strategic planning, Advertising agencies, Competitive advantage, Acquisitions and mergers, Impacts, Clients, Business growth, Examples.] 134 Linking Advertising and Brand Value. Irene M. Herremans, John K. Ryans Jr., and Raj Aggarwal, Business Horizons, 43 (May/June 2000), pp. 19–26. [Literature review, Model presentation, Advertising turnover, Marketing investment, Product quality, Market share, Study of firms, High- and low-efficiency brand enhancers, Brand deterioration, Future unknown, Neglect, Examples.] 135 Narrative Music in Congruent and Incongruent TV Advertising. Kineta Hung, Journal of Advertising, 29 (Spring 2000), pp. 25–34. [Literature review, Content analysis, Experiment, Meanings associated with ad components and commercials, Textual elaboration, Assessment.] 136 The Impact of Verbal Anchoring on Consumer Response to Image Ads. Barbara J. Phillips, Journal of Advertising, 29 (Spring 2000), pp. 15–24. [Literature review, Experiment, Attitude toward

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the ad, Presence and level of verbal anchoring, Comprehension, Statistical analysis.] 137 Journal of Advertising Research, 40 (May/June 2000), pp. 7–52. [Four articles on creativity; Recall, liking, and creativity in TV commercials; Creative differences between copywriters and art directors; Correlates of integrated marketing communications; Customer/brand loyalty in the interactive marketplace.] 138 Advertising Attitudes and Advertising Effectiveness. Abhilasha Mehta, Journal of Advertising Research, 40 (May/June 2000), pp. 67–72. [Literature review, Data collection (Magazine Impact Research Systems), Measures, Attitudinal statements, Intrusiveness/ recall, Persuasion/buying interest, Statistical analysis, Implications.]

139 2.10 Personal Selling See also 11, 142, 217, 218 Sales Call Anxiety: Exploring What It Means When Fear Rules a Sales Encounter.Willem Verbeke and Richard P. Bagozzi, Journal of Marketing, 64 (July 2000), pp. 88–101. [Literature review, Model testing, Hypotheses, Survey of salespeople, Factors, Negative self-evaluations, Negative evaluations from customers, Physiological symptoms, Protective actions, Statistical analysis, The Netherlands.] 140 Independents Day. Dan Hanover, Sales and Marketing Management, (April 2000), pp. 64–66, 68. [Independent sales reps, Motivation, Communication, Support, Rewards, Short-term bonus and incentives programs, Examples.] 141 2.11 Sales Management See also 57, 93, 95, 130, 131, 140, 141, 147, 213 Comparisons of Alternative Perceptions of Sales Performance. Paul A. Dion and Peter M. Banting, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 263–70. [Study of industrial market triads (salesperson, sales manager, buyer), There were assessment discrepancies in addition to what constituted good performance, Gender evaluation, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 142 Driving Down Costs. Christine Galea, Sales and Marketing Management, (May 2000), pp. 102–104, 106, 108, 110. [Corporate cars, Strategy, Industry, Lease or own, Depreciation, Fuel concerns, Vehicle duration, Reselling, Buy from one manufacturer, Managing risk, Examples.] 143 Masterful Meetings. Erin Strout, Sales and Marketing Management, (May 2000), pp. 68–72, 74, 76. [Discussion, Planning, Choose destination carefully to set the right tone, Set straightforward agenda, Stick to budget, Develop postmeeting action plans.] 144 3. SPECIAL MARKETING APPLICATIONS 3.1 Industrial See also 41, 46, 50, 56, 68, 69, 77, 101, 106, 111, 119, 121, 122, 142, 163, 164, 166, 173, 193, 194, 195, 212, 217 Marketing High Technology: Preparation, Targeting, Positioning, Execution. Chris Easingwood and Anthony Koustelos, Business Horizons, 43 (May/June 2000), pp. 27–34. [Discussion; Market strategy; Supply to OEMs; Market education; Distribution; Target innovative adopters, pragmatists, conservatives, current customers, competitors’ customers; Emphasize exclusivity, low price, technological superiority; Execution; Examples.] 145 Do Trade-Offs Exist in Operations Strategy? Insights from the Stamping Die Industry. Mark Pagell, Steve Melnyk, and Robert Handfield, Business Horizons, 43 (May/June 2000), pp. 69–77. [Study of firms, Performance, Comparisons, Strategic advantages and disadvantages, Relative fixed costs and lead time, Employee commitment, Assessment.] 146 Strategic Selling in the Age of Modules and Systems. John W. Henke, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 271–84. [Discussion, OEM impediments to module and system acquisition, Developing a sales strategy, Capabilities and resources, Cooperation among participating suppliers, Design considerations, Markup practices, Supply chain management experience, Case study, Automotive industry.] 147 Differential Effects of the Primary Forms of Cross Functional Integration on Product Development Cycle Time. J. Daniel Sherman, William E. Souder, and Svenn A. Jenssen, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (July 2000), pp. 257–67. [Literature

review; Survey of high-technology firms; Variables; Integration of knowledge from past projects; R&D/customer, marketing, manufacturing, supplier integration; Strategic partnership integration; Statistical analysis; US and Scandinavian firms.] 148 Prepping the Supply Base for Leaner Supply Systems. Tom Stundza, Purchasing, 128 (June 1, 2000), pp. 62–64, 66, 68. [Supplier development programs, Quality control processes, Material resource planning, Just-in-time delivery, Make or buy studies, Component kitting, Best supplier evaluations, Outsourcing, Improving performance, Implementation, Case study, Aerospace industry.] 149 3.2 Nonprofit, Political, and Social Causes See also 26, 52, 129, 158, 180, 208 Demographics, Personality Traits, Roles, Motivations, and Attrition Rates of Hospice Volunteers. Becky J. Starnes and Walter W. Wymer Jr., Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 7 (No. 2, 1999), pp. 61–76. [Literature review, Volunteer profile, Services to patients and families, Religious beliefs, Personal experiences, Training and expectations, Assessment.] 150 3.3 International and Comparative See also 13, 29, 38, 42, 45, 46, 48, 54, 63, 106, 115, 117, 119, 129, 140, 148, 177, 188, 189, 191, 200, 201, 211, 216, 223 Privacy on the Net: Europe Changes the Rules. William J. Scheibal and Julia Alpert Gladstone, Business Horizons, 43 (May/June 2000), pp. 13–18. [Discussion, Legal aspects, Business impact, EU privacy directive, Impacts, US, Assessment.] 151 Color Usage in International Business-to-Business Print Advertising. Irvine Clarke III and Earl D. Honeycutt Jr., Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 255–61. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Content analysis, Comparisons, Black/white ads, Color distribution by magazine, Cultural meanings, Managerial implications, France, US, Venezuela.] 152 Managing International Joint Venture Relationships: A Longitudinal Perspective. Akmal S. Hyder and Pervez N. Ghauri, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 205–18. [Literature review, Model presentation, In-depth interviews, Motives, Resources, Learning, Network, Performance, Case studies, Telecommunications industry, Sweden, India.] 153 Positioned for Success: Branding in the Czech Brewing Industry. Chris Lewis and Angela Vickerstaff, Journal of Brand Management (UK), 7 (May 2000), pp. 341–52. [Literature review, Brand appeals (function, image and personality), Market strategy, Price, Quality, Traditional, Modern, Effects, Foreign ownership and expertise, Case studies.] 154 Country of Branding: A Review and Research Propositions. Ian Phau and Gerard Prendergast, Journal of Brand Management (UK), 7 (May 2000), pp. 366–75. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Quality perceptions, Brand image, Country of branding versus country of manufacturing, Luxury brands, Development of country, High versus low involvement, Assessment, Asia.] 155

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Forecasting Practices in the Pharmaceutical Industry in Singapore. Louis Choo, Journal of Business Forecasting, 19 (Summer 2000), pp. 18–20. [Survey, Extent of involvement, Purpose of forecasts, Techniques used, Sources of information, Forecast drivers, Assessment.] 156 A Systematic Approach to Tourism Policy. Jafar Alavi and Mahmoud M. Yasin, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 147–56. [Discussion, Revenues, Model presentation, Mathematical equations, Effects (areawide, region-mix, competitive, allocation), Statistical data, Shift-share analysis, Policy implications, Many

countries.] 157 Marketing of a Financial Innovation: Commercial Use of the Euro by European Companies Prior to Mandatory Adoption. Yvonne M. van Everdingen and Gary J. Bamossy, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 123–33. [Theoretical discussion, Model presentation, Survey of firms, Measures, Perceived innovation characteristics, Perceptions of political and business environment, Organizational characteristics, Internal communication behavior, Adoption behavior, Statistical analysis, Recommendations.] 158 Effect of a Buy-National Campaign on Member Firm Performance. Graham D. Fenwick and Cameron I. Wright, Journal of Business Research, 47 (February 2000), pp. 135–45. [Literature review, Survey, Comparisons, Nonparticipating firms, Staff member and domestic sales changes, Statistical analysis, New Zealand.] 159 Global Sourcing, Multiple Country-of-Origin Facets, and Consumer Reactions. Zhan G. Li, L. William Murray, and Don Scott, Journal of Business Research, 47 (February 2000), pp. 121–33. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Experiment, Comparisons, Countryof-design, Assembly, Corporation, Dimensions (functional, symbolic, overall quality), Statistical analysis, Implications.] 160 New Rules for Global Markets. Richard W. Oliver, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 7–9. [Discussion; Competitive strategies; Think and act globally; Focus on ethnic group, not country; Focus on neighbors first; Focus on the cities; Culture is an important barrier; Use global market muscle; Focus south, not east–west; Develop new mind-set.] 161 Mode of International Entry: An Isomorphism Perspective. Peter S. Davis, Ashay B. Desai, and John D. Francis, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Second Quarter 2000), pp. 239–58. [Literature review, Model development, Hypotheses, Survey of firms, Pressures to conform to behavioral norms within environments, Comparisons, Wholly owned, Exporting, Joint ventures, Licensing agreements, Statistical analysis.] 162 The Determinants of Trust in Supplier–Automaker Relationships in the U.S., Japan, and Korea. Jeffrey H. Dyer and Wujin Chu, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Second Quarter 2000), pp. 259–85. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Personal interviews, Measures, Length of relationship, Face-to-face communication, Relationship continuity, Assistance to supplier, Stock ownership, Statistical analysis.] 163 Social Ties and Foreign Market Entry. Paul Ellis, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Third Quarter 2000), pp. 443–69. [Literature review, Propositions, Interviews with experienced members of manufacturing firms, Knowledge of foreign market opportunities is commonly acquired through existing interpersonal links rather than through market research, Hong Kong.] 164 Process Standardization Across Intra- and Inter-cultural Relationships. David A. Griffith, Michael Y. Hu, and John K. Ryans Jr., Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Second Quarter 2000), pp. 303–24. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Survey of distributors, Measures, Trust, Commitment, Conflict, Satisfaction, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications, Canada, Chile, Mexico, US.] 165 Productivity Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from UK Industry Level Panel Data. Xia ming Liu, Pamela Siler, Chengqi Wang, and Yingqi Wei, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Third Quarter 2000), pp. 407–25. [Literature review, Model presentation, Impacts, Situations in which

host country is developed, Introduction of advanced technology, Statistical analysis.] 166 The International Biotechnology Industry: A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective. Anoop Madhok and Thomas Osegowitsch, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Second Quarter 2000), pp. 325–35. [International diffusion of technology, Propositions, Organizational form and geographic flows, Transactions, Licensing and marketing agreements, Research agreements, Joint ventures, Acquisition, New subsidiaries, Composite groupings, Assessment, Implications.] 167 National Culture and Strategic Change in Belief Formation. Livia Markoczy, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Third Quarter 2000), pp. 427–42. [Literature review, Study of Hungarian organizations recently acquired by Anglo-Saxon partners, Individual beliefs, Causal relationships, Impacts, Being a member of the functional area favored by the strategic change, Statistical analysis.] 168 Synergy, Managerialism or Hubris? An Empirical Examination of Motives for Foreign Acquisitions of U.S. Firms. Anju Seth, Kean P. Song, and Richardson Pettit, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Third Quarter 2000), pp. 387–405. [Theoretical discussion, Testable hypotheses and empirical predictions, Data collection, Relationship between target gains and acquirer gains, Total gains, Statistical analysis.] 169 Knowledge Flows in the Global Innovation System: Do U.S. Firms Share More Scientific Knowledge Than Their Japanese Rivals? Jennifer W. Spencer, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Third Quarter 2000), pp. 521–530. [Discussion, Hypotheses, Data collection (firms’ publication and citation patterns), Japanese firms appropriated no more knowledge from the global community than their US counterparts, Statistical analysis.] 170 The Management Implications of Ethnicity in South Africa. Adele Thomas and Mike Bendixen, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Third Quarter 2000), pp. 507–19. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Interviews with middle managers, Both management culture and perceived management effectiveness were found to be independent of both race and the dimensions of culture, Implications.] 171 A Case for Comparative Entrepreneurship: Assessing the Relevance of Culture. Anisya S. Thomas and Stephen L. Mueller, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Second Quarter 2000), pp. 287–301. [Literature review, Survey of students, Measures, Innovativeness, Locus of control, Risk-taking, Energy level, Impacts, Cultural distance, Many countries.] 172 Customer-Driven Product Development Through Quality Function Deployment in the U.S. and Japan. John J. Cristiano, Jeffrey K. Liker, and Chelsea C. White III, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (July 2000), pp. 286–308. [Literature review; Survey of companies; US companies reported a higher degree of quality function deployment usage, management support, cross-functional support, data sources, benefits; Assessment.] 173 Venture Capitalist Involvement in Portfolio Companies: Insights from South Africa. Michael H. Morris, John W. Watling, and Minet Schindehutte, Journal of Small Business Management, 38 (July 2000), pp. 68–77. [Literature review, Survey, Types of

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companies in which venture capitalists prefer to invest, Factors influencing involvement, Areas of involvement, Interactions, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 174

International Competition in Mixed Industries. Roland Calori, Tugrul Atamer, and Pancho Nunes, Long Range Planning (UK), 33 (June 2000), pp. 349–75. [Discussion, Formation of regional competitive territories, Dual effect of marketing intensity, Influence of demand factors, Role of strategic innovators across borders, Examples.] 175 Information Technology and Productivity: Evidence from Country-Level Data. Sanjeev Dewan and Kenneth L. Kraemer, Management Science, 46 (April 2000), pp. 548–62. [Discussion, Production function, Hypotheses, Data collection, Capital investment, GDP per worker, Asset categories, Developed and developing countries, Statistical analysis, Policy implications.] 176 3.4 Services See also 9, 19, 20, 27, 37, 40, 42, 47, 55, 60, 71, 72, 76, 78, 102, 103, 150, 157, 192, 214, 230, 231 Putting the “World” in the World Series. Rebecca Gardyn, American Demographics, 22 (April 2000), pp. 28–30. [Trends, Multicultural players and fans, International, TV viewers, Radio, Impacts, Marketers, Prestige, Brand acceptance, Localism, Examples.] 177 Journal of Business Research, 48 (June 2000), pp. 165–283. [Eleven articles on health care research, Quality-of-life/needs assessment model, Internal marketing, Financial management, Measurement error, Role of nurse practitioners, Market orientation and organizational performance, Antitrust concerns about evolving vertical relationships, Measuring service quality, Modeling health plan choice behavior, Roles of primary and secondary control in older adulthood, Service quality for inpatient nursing services.] 178 One-to-One Marketing Doesn’t Have to Be Web-Based. Joel R. Lapointe, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 34–37. [Discussion, Customer relations, Scenarios (hospitality, professional services, customer service/sales), Impacts, Key role identification, High performer profiling, Key information accessibility, Assessment.] 179 Current Resource Constraints and the Role of Marketing in Health Research Organizations. Dennis R. McDermott, Howard P. Tuckman, and David J. Urban, Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 7 (No. 2, 1999), pp. 3–16. [Survey of CEOs representing national sample of HROs, Attitudes, Fundraising, Revenue sources, Budget allocations, Strategic, Assessment, Recommendations.] 180 A Comprehensive Framework for Service Quality: An Investigation of Critical Conceptual and Measurement Issues Through a Longitudinal Study. Pratibha A. Dabholkar, C. David Shepherd, and Dayle I. Thorpe, Journal of Retailing, 76 (Summer 2000), pp. 139–73. [Literature review, Propositions, Consumer survey, Components and antecedents (reliability, personal attention, comfort, features), Impacts, Behavioral intentions, Measured disconfirmation versus perceptions, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 181 Switching Barriers and Repurchase Intentions in Services. Michael A. Jones, David L. Mothersbaugh, and Sharon E. Beatty, Journal of Retailing, 76 (Summer 2000), pp. 259–74. [Literature review, Model testing, Hypotheses, Consumer survey, Effects, Core-service satisfaction, Interpersonal relationships, Switching costs, Attractiveness of alternatives, Interactions, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 182 Access to Capital and Terms of Credit: A Comparison of Menand Women-Owned Small Businesses. Susan Coleman, Journal of Small Business Management, 38 (July 2000), pp. 37–52. [Literature

review, Model presentation, Data collection (Federal Reserve Board and Small Business Administration), Firm characteristics, Most recent loan, Usage of bank credit products, Interest rates, Collateral, Statistical analysis.] 183 Customer Service: An Essential Component for a Successful Web Site. Cherryl Carlson, Marketing Health Services, 20 (Summer 2000), pp. 28–30. [Discussion, E-mail management, Response (automatic, intelligent agent–aided, intelligent automated), Self help, Live text chat, Outsourcing, Assessment.] 184 Dissecting the HMO–Benefits Managers Relationship: What to Measure and Why. James W. Peltier and John Westfall, Marketing Health Services, 20 (Summer 2000), pp. 5–13. [Discussion, Survey of employee benefits managers, Attitudes, Dimensions (financial/ economic, social/responsiveness, structural/partnership), Overall satisfaction and quality, Relationship commitment/loyalty, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 185 Practicing Best-in-Class Service Recovery. Stephen W. Brown, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 8–9. [Best practices; Hiring, training, and empowerment; Service recovery guidelines and standards; Easy access and effective response; Customer and product databases; Failure; Companywide recovery; Profits; Technology; Examples.] 186 4. MARKETING RESEARCH 4.1 Theory and Philosophy of Science See also 74, 75, 87, 118, 169 Bayesian Dynamic Factor Models and Portfolio Allocation. Omar Aguilar and Mike West, Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 18 (July 2000), pp. 338–57. [Dynamic linear models, Exchange rates forecasting, Markov chain Monte Carlo, Multivariate stochastic volatility, Portfolio selection, Sequential forecasting, Variance matrix discounting, Assessment.] 187 Modeling the Sources of Output Growth in a Panel of Countries. Gary Koop, Jacek Osiewalski, and Mark F.J. Steel, Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 18 (July 2000), pp. 284–99. [Stochastic production-frontier model, Efficiency levels, Bayesian inference, Growth decompositions, Technical change, Numerical implementation.] 188 The Theoretical Foundation for Intercultural Business Communication: A Conceptual Model. Iris I. Varner, Journal of Business Communication, 37 (January 2000), pp. 39–57. [Literature review, Research questions, Impacts, Intercultural communication strategy, Country-specific and comparative studies, Assessment.] 189 Information, Contracting, and Quality Costs. Stanley Baiman, Paul E. Fischer, and Madhav V. Rajan, Management Science, 46 (June 2000), pp. 776–89. [Literature review, Model presentation, Propositions, Internal and external failure, First- and second-best settings, Contractible decisions, Impacts, Information systems, Assessment.] 190 Modeling Intercategory and Generational Dynamics for a Growing Information Technology Industry. Namwoon Kim, Dae Ryun Chang, and Allan D. Shocker, Management Science, 46 (April 2000), pp. 496–512. [Wireless telecommunications service, Market potentials, Asymmetry of effect, Bidirectional interrelationship, Implications, Hong Kong, Korea.] 191 Measuring the Robustness of Empirical Efficiency Valuations. Ludwig Kuntz and Stefan Scholtes, Management Science, 46 (June 2000), pp. 807–23. [Model extension, Propositions, Data envelopment analysis, Hospital capacity planning, Monotone oneparameter perturbations, Assessment.] 192 Behind the Learning Curve: Linking Learning Activities to

Waste Reduction. Michael A. Lapre, Amit Shankar Mukherjee,

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and Luk N. Van Wassenhove, Management Science, 46 (May 2000), pp. 597–611. [Literature review, Organizational learning, Quality, Technological knowledge, Experimentation, Knowledge transfer, Implications.] 193 The Value of Information Sharing in a Two-Level Supply Chain. Hau L. Lee, Kut C. So, and Christopher S. Tang, Management Science, 46 (May 2000), pp. 626–43. [Supply chain management, Mathematical models, Production planning and inventory control, Electronic data interchange, Quick response, Analytical and numerical analyses.] 194 Scheduling Resource-Constrained Projects Competitively at Modest Memory Requirements. Arno Sprecher, Management Science, 46 (May 2000), pp. 710–23. [Model presentation, Branchandbound algorithm, Rules, Extended and simplified single enumeration, Local left-shift, Extended global left-shift, Contraction, Set-based dominance, Nonoptimality, Heuristic, Computational results.] 195 4.2 Research Methodology See also 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 42, 62, 63, 66, 72, 73, 80, 81, 107, 108, 109, 113, 118, 123, 136, 137, 139, 156, 159, 160, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 200, 209, 217, 229, 230 American Demographics, 22 (June 2000), pp. 54–56, 58, 60–62, 64–65. [Three articles on our sense of place, Work-at-home labor force, Desire for complex appliances with simple and easy-to-use designs, Networking, Shortening the distance between places and people, Impacts, Neighborhoods, Cities, Emerging markets, Consumer expenditures, Cities, Statistical data.] 196 What’s on Your Mind? Rebecca Gardyn, American Demographics, 22 (April 2000), pp. 31–33. [Electroencephalogram technology, Reading consumers’ brain-wave activity, System testing, Problems, Data translation, Acceptance, TV content research applicability, Could be useful in conjunction with focus groups.] 197 Riding High on the Market. Cheryl Russell and Marcia Mogelonsky, American Demographics, 22 (April 2000), pp. 44–46, 48, 50, 52, 54. [Economic expansion, Household incomes, Age groups, Financial assets, Risks, Stock holdings, Home values, Debt, Net worth, Saving for retirement, Statistical data.] 198 The Money in the Middle. Alison Stein Wellner, American Demographics, 22 (April 2000), pp. 56–58, 60, 62, 64. [Economic expansion, Impacts, Middle class, Definition problems, Role of immigration, Age groups, Education, Household income, Internet usage, Statistical data.] 199 The Measurement of Intergenerational Communication and Influence on Consumption: Development, Validation, and Cross-Cultural Comparison of the IGEN Scale. Madhubalan Viswanathan, Terry L. Childers, and Elizabeth S. Moore, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 406–24. [Literature review, Consumer socialization, Three studies, Components relevant to marketplace transactions (consumer skills, preferences, attitudes toward marketer supplied information), Comparisons, Parents, Children, US, Thailand.] 200 Innovation and International Business Communication: Can European Research Help to Increase the Validity and Reliability for Our Business and Teaching Practice? Jan Ulijn, Journal of Business Communication, 37 (April 2000), pp. 173–87. [Literature review, Quantitative/qualitative, Real life/simulation, Studying language, Culture (national, corporate, professional), Communication

medium, Assessment.] 201 Debunking Executive Conventional Wisdom. Larry Lapide, Journal of Business Forecasting, 19 (Summer 2000), pp. 16–17. [Myths about forecasting; Forecasts are always wrong, so why put any focus on demand planning; All we need is a quantitative expert; Forecasting software will take care of all forecasting needs; Process is too expensive; Assessment.] 202 State Demographic Forecasting for Business and Policy Applications. Jon David Vasche, Journal of Business Forecasting, 19 (Summer 2000), pp. 23, 28–30. [Reliance on a large, multidimensional matrix modeling system with extensive input vectors aids in projection of aggregate population and its characteristics.] 203 Journal of Business Research, 48 (April 2000), pp. 5–92. [Ten articles on replication research, Brand awareness effects on consumer decision making, Credit card effect, Business turnarounds following acquisitions, Organizational growth determinants, Impact of internalization on the diversification–performance relationship, Advertising complex products, Religious symbols as peripheral cues in advertising, Market orientation and business profitability, How salespeople build quality relationships, Conducting marketing science.] 204 Riding the Wave: Response Rates and the Effects of Time Intervals Between Successive Mail Survey Follow-Up Efforts. Cindy Claycomb, Stephen S. Porter, and Charles L. Martin, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 157–62. [Literature review; Experiment; Follow-up mailings sent to each of 20 different treatment groups, testing follow-up intervals ranging from 3 to 60 days; Assessment; Implications.] 205 Historical Method in Marketing Research with New Evidence on Long-Term Market Share Stability. Peter N. Golder, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 156–72. [Literature review, Stages, Select topic and collect evidence, Critically evaluate sources along with evidence, Analyze and interpret, Present conclusions, Application.] 206 Cast Demographics, Unobserved Segments, and Heterogeneous Switching Costs in a Television Viewing Choice Model. Ron Shachar and John W. Emerson, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 173–86. [Model comparisons, Data collection (ACNielsen), Examination of strategic programming and scheduling decisions, Optimal programming decisions, Goodnessof-fit and ratings predictions, Applications.] 207 The Effectiveness of Survey Response Rate Incentives in a Public Non-profit Environment. Frank H. Wadsworth and Eldon Little, Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 7 (No. 2, 1999), pp. 53–60. [Literature review, Convenience sample, Treatment groups, Deadlines, Prepaid and promised monetary and nonmonetary rewards, Statistical analysis, Recommendations.] 208 4.3 Information Technology See also 53, 59, 78, 82, 85, 86, 91, 92, 94, 97, 98, 104, 105, 110, 176, 184, 190, 191, 195, 225 Teens’ Use of Traditional Media and the Internet. Carrie La Ferle, Steven M. Edwards, and Wei-na Lee, Journal of Advertising Research, 40 (May/June 2000), pp. 55–65. [Literature review, Survey, Time spent with media, Media used by activity, Frequency of Internet use by gender, Location of Internet connection, Source of information about Web sites, Internet and interpersonal sources of communication, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 209 Riding Shotgun on the Information Superhighway. Chris Wood, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 38–42. [Internet security, Strategy, Problems, Vulnerability, Costs, Documentation process, Policies, Adding hardware and software, Success,

Guidelines.] 210 Understanding the Trade Winds: The Global Evolution of Production, Consumption, and the Internet. Peter R. Dickson, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 115–22. [Literature review, Economic history, Diffusion technologies, Systemsdynamic perspective, Example.] 211

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What Buyers Want in Technology Tools.William Atkinson, Purchasing, 128 (April 20, 2000), pp. 57–58, 61. [Survey, Attitudes, Software packages, Web-based e-procurement systems, Electronic data interchange, Benefits, Satisfaction, Company’s internal performance, Supplier selection, After-sales support from suppliers, Management support, Examples.] 212 Web Wise. Patricia B. Seybold, Sales and Marketing Management, (May 2000), pp. S4–S6, 58. [E-business, Customer orientation, Factors, Streamline customer scenarios, Touchpoints and crosschannel solutions, Warehousing and logistics, Staffing and training call/contact center personnel, Managing customer-affecting applications, Examples.] 213 Information Orientation: People, Technology and the Bottom Line. Donald A. Marchand, William J. Kettinger, and John D. Rollins, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Summer 2000), pp. 69–80. [Study of senior managers, Measures of effective information use (information technology and information management practices, information behaviors and values), Achieving high information orientation, Guidelines, Banking industry.] 214 Sophisticated Systems Help Retailers Develop Complete Picture of Each Customer. Susan Reda, Stores, 82 (June 2000), pp. 42, 44. [Customer relationship management, Data strategy, Software packages, Customer analysis, Data warehousing, E-mail response management, Modeling and file integration, Examples.] 215 5. OTHER TOPICS 5.1 Educational and Professional Issues See also 29, 38, 79, 189, 201 The Ivory Chateau. Stuart Crainer and Des Dearlove, Across the Board, 37 (June 2000), pp. 35–40. [Discussion, INSEAD, Global classroom, Students, Competitive advantage, MBA program, Jobs, Web-based businesses, Assessment.] 216 Cross-National Industrial Mail Surveys: Why Do Response Rates Differ Between Countries? Anne-Wil Harzing, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 243–54. [Literature review, Survey, Attitudes, Undergraduate courses, Professional and social activities, Work experience, International exposure, Statistical analysis.] 217 Preparing the Next Generation of Industrial Sales Representatives: Advice from Senior Sales Executives. Michael R. Luthy, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 235–42. [Literature review, Survey, Attitudes, Undergraduate courses, Professional and social activities, Work experience, International exposure, Statistical analysis.] 218 Corporate Universities Crack Open Their Doors. Meryl Davids Landau, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 18–23. [Discussion, Opening training centers to outsiders, Receiving a bigger return on investment, Impacts, Traditional universities, Technology, Assessment.] 219 Publications in Major Marketing Journals: An Analysis of Scholars and Marketing Departments. Aysen Bakir, Scott J. Vitell, and Gregory M. Rose, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 99–107. [Total number of published articles and a fractional score based on the number of authors of an article,

Faculty size, Comparisons, Previous studies.] 220 Using the Theory of Constraints’ Thinking Processes to Improve Problem-Solving Skills in Marketing. Marjorie J. Cooper and Terry W. Loe, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 137–46. [Identify a list of undesirable effects, Generate conflict clouds from the list, Construct a generic conflict cloud, Build a current reality tree that shows the core conflict and how it leads to the undesirable effects, Classroom implementation.] 221 Relating Pedagogical Preference of Marketing Seniors and Alumni to Attitude Toward the Major. Richard Davis, Shekhar Misra, and Stuart Van Auken, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 147–54. [Literature review, Learning styles, Motivation, Attitudinal enhancement, Survey, Variables, In-class exercises, Lectures, Cases, Association between in-class activities and overall attitude toward the marketing major.] 222 Study Abroad Learning Activities: A Synthesis and Comparison. Charles R. Duke, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 155–65. [Discussion, Effectiveness, Criteria (location, tour integration with academic credit, time spent on tour), Activities (lecture and test, company visits, journals, treasure hunt, projects, simulation), Assessment.] 223 Improving Students’ Understanding of the Retail Advertising Budgeting Process. Myron Gable, Ann Fairhurst, Roger Dickinson, and Lynn Harris, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 120–28. [Survey of retailing educators; Favorite technique is objective and task; Requires the use of methods of both prioritizing alternative expenditures and setting a cutoff point; These points are often neglected by academics, including textbook writers; Recommendations.] 224 Development of a Web-Based Internet Marketing Course. Shohreh A. Kaynama and Garland Keesling, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 84–89. [Seven-step systems model; Define purpose of course; Analyze appropriate knowledge, skills, and abilities; Determine what the students should learn and ensure that the learning takes place; Development; Implementation; Assessment; Evaluation.] 225 Determinants of Student Evaluations of Global Measures of Instructor and Course Value. Ronald B. Marks, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 108–19. [Literature review; Model development; Structural paths; Student evaluations may lack discriminant validity, the extent to which a measure does not correlate with other constructs it is not supposed to measure

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(e.g., expected/fairness of grading does have a large impact on ratings of teaching ability).] 226 Teaching Marketing Law: A Business Law Perspective on Integrating Marketing and Law. Ross D. Petty, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 129–36. [Literature review, Marketing law organized by 4 Ps and defined by protected interests, Topics distributed by course, Teaching methods, Assessment.] 227 Introducing Marketing Students to Business Intelligence Using Project-Based Learning on the World Wide Web. Carolyn F. Siegel, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 90–98. [Discussion, Intelligence process, Business espionage, Overview, Projects, Advantages, Disadvantages, Assessment.] 228 Consumer Primacy on Campus: A Look at the Perceptions of Navajo and Anglo Consumers. Dennis N. Bristow and Douglas Amyx, Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 7 (No. 2, 1999), pp. 31–51. [Literature review, Marketing lens model, Hypotheses, Survey, Importance ratings among educational attributes,

Anticipated preparation after graduation, Satisfaction with educational product, Statistical analysis, Managerial recommendations.] 229 5.2 General Marketing See also 220 An Exploration of the Meaning and Outcomes of a CustomerDefined Market Orientation. Dave Webb, Cynthia Webster, and Areti Krepapa, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 101–12. [Literature review, Models, Hypotheses, Survey of bank clients, Relationships, Service quality, Satisfaction, Statistical analysis.] 230 The Four “P”s of Marketing Are Dead. Joel English, Marketing Health Services, 20 (Summer 2000), pp. 21–23. [Discussion, Shifts in channel dynamics within health care, New model (relevance,

• •

response, relationships, results), Assessment.] 231

1. THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT 1.1 Consumer Behavior See also 42, 62, 63, 81, 100, 107, 108, 109, 113, 114, 123, 136, 137, 139, 150, 155, 160, 181, 182, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 207, 209, 211, 229 Food for Thought. Roberta Bernstein, American Demographics, 22 (May 2000), pp. 39–40, 42. [Hispanic and Asian consumers, Market potentials, Disposable income, Expenditures, Cultural and language issues, Consumer panels, Shopping behavior, Packagedgoods industry.] 1 Congestion Ahead. John Fetto, American Demographics, 22 (June 2000), pp. 49–50. [Extreme commuting, Regions, Time spent in traffic, In-auto activities, Billboards, Radio promotions, Creative, Examples.] 2 Make Room for Daddy. Rebecca Gardyn, American Demographics, 22 (June 2000), pp. 34–36. [Trends, Fathers, Market potentials, Magazine readership, Household spending decisions, Time spent with children, E-marketing, Statistical data.] 3 The Joy of Empty Nesting. Joan Raymond, American Demographics, 22 (May 2000), pp. 48–52, 54. [Trends, Baby boomers, Discretionary income, Lifestyles, Affluence, Market strategy, Quality of life, Techno-savvy, Health concerns, Examples.] 4 Life’s a Beach 101. Nancy Shepherdson, American Demographics, 22 (May 2000), pp. 56–58, 60, 62, 64. [Echo boomers, Ecommerce, Customization, Market strategy, Web sites, Surveys, Recent college grads, Brand loyalty, Jobs, Starting salaries, Investing, Examples.] 5 The Facilitating Influence of Consumer Knowledge on the Effectiveness of Daily Value Reference Information. Fuan Li, Paul W. Miniard, and Michael J. Barone, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 425–36. [Literature review, Hypothesis, Experiment, Measures, Trial intention, Attitude, Healthiness (overall, fat, fiber, sodium), Statistical analysis.] 6 Effects of Absurdity in Advertising: The Moderating Role of Product Category Attitude and the Mediating Role of Cognitive Responses. Leopoldo Arias-Bolzmann, Goutam Chakraborty, and John C. Mowen, Journal of Advertising, 29 (Spring 2000), pp. 35–49. [Literature review; Hypotheses; Experiment; Measures; Ad, brand, and product attitudes; Comparisons; Nonabsurd ads; Recall; Statistical analysis; Implications.] 7 An Empirical Test of an Updated Relevance–Accessibility

Model of Advertising Effectiveness. William E. Baker and Richard J. Lutz, Journal of Advertising, 29 (Spring 2000), pp. 1–14. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Experiment, Brand names,

MYRON LEONARD, Editor Western Carolina University
This section is based on a selection of article abstracts from a comprehensive business literature database. Marketing-related abstracts from more than 125 journals (both academic and trade) are reviewed by JM staff. Descriptors for each entry are assigned by JM staff. Each issue of this section represents three months of entries into the database. Each entry has an identifying number. Cross-references appear immediately under each subject heading. The following article abstracts are available online from the ABI/INFORM database, which is published and copyrighted by Bell & Howell Information and Learning. For additional information about access to the database or about obtaining photocopies of the articles abstracted here, please call (800) 521-0600 or write to B&H, 300 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106. SUBJECT HEADINGS 1. THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT 1.1 Consumer Behavior 1.2 Legal, Political, and Economic Issues 1.3 Ethics and Social Responsibility 2. MARKETING FUNCTIONS 2.1 Management, Planning, and Strategy 2.2 Retailing 2.3 Channels of Distribution 2.4 Electronic Marketing 2.5 Physical Distribution 2.6 Pricing 2.7 Product 2.8 Sales Promotion 2.9 Advertising 2.10 Personal Selling 2.11 Sales Management 3. SPECIAL MARKETING APPLICATIONS 3.1 Industrial 3.2 Nonprofit, Political, and Social Causes 3.3 International and Comparative 3.4 Services 4. MARKETING RESEARCH 4.1 Theory and Philosophy of Science 4.2 Research Methodology 4.3 Information Technology 5. OTHER TOPICS 5.1 Educational and Professional Issues 5.2 General Marketing

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Journal of Marketing Vol. 65 (April 2001), 94–106

Marketing Literature Review
Choice processes (optimizing, satisficing, indifference), Types of information (evidence of performance superiority, credibility, and

liking), Statistical analysis, Implications.] 8 Customer Satisfaction Cues to Support Market Segmentation and Explain Switching Behavior. Antreas D. Athanassopoulos, Journal of Business Research, 47 (March 2000), pp. 191–207. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Survey of banks’ business and individual customers, Measures, Corporate, Innovativeness, Physical and staff service, Pricing, Convenience, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 9 Representation of Numerical and Verbal Product Information in Consumer Memory. Terry L. Childers and Madhubalan Viswanathan, Journal of Business Research, 47 (February 2000), pp. 109–20. [Literature review, Conceptual framework based on surface versus meaning level processing of information, Hypotheses, Two experiments, Recognition paradigm, Assessment.] 10 Consumers’ Use of Persuasion Knowledge: The Effects of Accessibility and Cognitive Capacity on Perceptions of an Influence Agent. Margaret C. Campbell and Amna Kirmani, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 69–83. [Literature review; Model presentation; Four experiments; When an ulterior persuasion motive is highly accessible, both cognitively busy targets and unbusy observers use persuasion knowledge to evaluate a salesperson; Statistical analysis.] 11 Indexicality and the Verification Function of Irreplaceable Possessions: A Semiotic Analysis. Kent Grayson and David Shulman, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 17–30. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Two studies, Late-adolescent and latemiddleage consumers view irreplaceable possessions as being distinct because of indexicality, Link between verification and irreplaceable possessions, Statistical analysis.] 12 Determinants of Country-of-Origin Evaluations. Zeynep Gurhan-Canli and Durairaj Maheswaran, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 96–108. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Two experiments, Variables, Evaluations, Beliefs, Information relevance, Total thoughts, Country-of-origin and attribute-related thoughts, Statistical analysis.] 13 Standing on the Shoulders of Ancients: Consumer Research, Persuasion, and Figurative Language. William J. McGuire, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 109–14. [Literature review, Early communication (tropes, rhetorical figures), Impacts, Creative hypothesis-generating phase of research, Assessment.] 14 Children, Advertising, and Product Experiences: A Multimethod Inquiry. Elizabeth S. Moore and Richard J. Lutz, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 31–48. [Literature review; Model presentation; Hypotheses; Experiment and depth interviews; Both product trial and advertising have influences, but interplay of these influences differs between older and younger children; Statistical analysis.] 15 Consumer Learning and Brand Equity. Stijn M.J. van Osselaer and Joseph W. Alba, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 1–16. [Literature review, Series of experiments, Strong blocking effects were found despite a limited number of brand preexposures and extensive exposure to predictive attribute information.] 16 The Role of Explanations and Need for Uniqueness in Consumer Decision Making: Unconventional Choices Based on Reasons. Itamar Simonson and Stephen M. Nowlis, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 49–68. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Series of studies, Explaining decisions shifts the focus from the choice of options to the choice of reasons. Buyers who explain their decisions and have high need for uniqueness tend to

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select unconventional reasons and are more likely to make unconventional choices.] 17 Qualitative Steps Toward an Expanded Model of Anxiety in Gift-Giving. David B. Wooten, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 84–95. [Literature review, Model development, Survey of students and nonstudent adults, Givers become anxious when they are highly motivated to elicit desired reactions from their recipients but are pessimistic about their prospects of success.] 18 Understanding the Customer Base of Service Providers: An Examination of the Differences Between Switchers and Stayers. Jaishankar Ganesh, Mark J. Arnold, and Kristy E. Reynolds, Journal of Marketing, 64 (July 2000), pp. 65–87. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Two studies, Consumers’ use of banking services, Impacts, Overall satisfaction, Satisfaction with service dimensions, Involvement, Customer loyalty, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 19 Self-Service Technologies: Understanding Customer Satisfaction with Technology-Based Service Encounters. Matthew L. Meuter, Amy L. Ostrom, Robert I. Roundtree, and Mary Jo Bitner, Journal of Marketing, 64 (July 2000), pp. 50–64. [Literature review, Critical incident study (satisfying and dissatisfying), Sources, Consumer reactions, Comparisons, Interpersonal encounter satisfaction, Assessment, Managerial implications.] 20 Consumer Response to Negative Publicity: The Moderating Role of Commitment. Rohini Ahluwalia, Robert E. Burnkrant, and H. Rao Unnava, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 203–14. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Three experiments, Consumers who are committed to a brand counterargue negative information and can resist information that is likely to induce switching behavior.] 21 A Hierarchical Bayes Model for Assortment Choice. Eric T. Bradlow and Vithala R. Rao, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 259–68. [Literature review, Experiment, Set of eight popular magazines, Effects, Price, Attributes, Features, Selection, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 22 Impact of Product-Harm Crises on Brand Equity: The Moderating Role of Consumer Expectations. Niraj Dawar and Madan M. Pillutla, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 215–26. [Literature review, Expectations–evidence framework, Hypotheses, Field survey and two laboratory experiments, Impacts, Consumers’ interpretation of the evidence from firm response, Managerial implications.] 23 The Evolution of Brand Preferences and Choice Behaviors of Consumers to a Market. Carrie M. Heilman, Douglas Bowman, and Gordon P. Wright, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 139–55. [Literature review, Logit-mixture model with time-varying parameters, Consumer panel data, Stages (information collection, extended to lesser-known brands, information consolidation), Impacts, Product experience and learning, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 24 Choosing What I Want Versus Rejecting What I Do Not Want: An Application of Decision Framing to Product Option Choice Decisions. C. Whan Park, Sung Youl Jun, and Deborah J. MacInnis, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 187–202. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Three studies, Option framing, Psychological reactions, Moderators (option prices, product category prices, regret anticipation, product category commitment), Managerial effects.] 25 Assessing a Place to Live: A Quality of Life Perspective. Glen

Riecken, Don Shemwell, and Ugur Yavas, Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 7 (No. 2, 1999), pp. 17–29. [Survey of community leaders, Factors, Weather, Crime, Economy, Education, Health, Housing, Leisure, Transportation, Arts, Importance/performance analysis, Policy implications.] 26 Assessing the Effects of Quality, Value, and Customer Satisfaction on Consumer Behavioral Intentions in Service Environments. J. Joseph Cronin Jr., Michael K. Brady, and G. Tomas M. Hult, Journal of Retailing, 76 (Summer 2000), pp. 193–218. [Literature review, Model testing, Hypotheses, Two studies, Multiple service providers, Direct and indirect effects, Relationships, Statistical analysis.] 27 1.2 Legal, Political and Economic Issues See also 51, 102, 151, 176, 188, 198, 199, 203, 227 Ethical and Online Privacy Issues in Electronic Commerce. Eileen P. Kelly and Hugh C. Rowland, Business Horizons, 43 (May/June 2000), pp. 3–12. [Discussion, Information gathering, Legal aspects, Freedom of choice, Voluntary and informed consent, Proposed legislation, Industry reaction, Managerial recommendations.] 28 The Measurement of Intellectual Property Rights Protection. Robert L. Ostergard Jr., Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Second Quarter 2000), pp. 349–60. [Discussion, Empirical research, Comparisons, Countries, Law and enforcement measures, Protection score analysis (copyright, patent, trademark), Assessment.] 29 Covenants Not to Compete. Erica B. Garay, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 61–63. [Acquisitions and mergers, Legislation, Court decisions, Enforcing covenants arising in connection with the sale of a business, Limits to enforcement, Assessment.] 30 U.S. Trust Busters Eye Net Markets. Dan Gottlieb, Purchasing, 128 (June 15, 2000), pp. S67, S69, S72. [Discussion, Net trade exchanges, Legal aspects, Market power, Major industry players, Acquisitions and mergers, Anticompetitive effects, Assessment.] 31 1.3 Ethics and Social Responsibility See also 28, 151, 210, 228 Representing the Perceived Ethical Work Climate Among Marketing Employees. Barry J. Babin, James S. Boles, and Donald P. Robin, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 345–58. [Literature review, Survey of employees, Models, Responsibility/trust, Peer behavior, Ethical norms, Selling practices, Role ambiguity, Role conflict, Job satisfaction, Organizational commitment, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 32 Crime and Small Business: An Exploratory Study of Cost and Prevention Issues in U.S. Firms. Donald F. Kuratko, Jeffrey S. Hornsby, Douglas W. Naffziger, and Richard M. Hodgetts, Journal of Small Business Management, 38 (July 2000), pp. 1–13. [Literature review, Survey, Level of concern, Crime prevention actions, Training provided, Perceptions of crime against business, Annual cost of crime, Impact of industry type, Statistical anlaysis.] 33 Making Business Sense of Environmental Compliance. Jasbinder Singh, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Spring 2000), pp. 91–100. [Discussion, Partnerships, Environmental and plant managers, Savings, Strategies, Review plant operations, Find best times to install pollution-control equipment and upgrade production technology, Allocate environmental costs, Integrate business and environmental decisions, Examples.] 34 Corporate Responsibility Audits: Doing Well by Doing Good. Sandra Waddock and Neil Smith, Sloan Management Review, 41

(Winter 2000), pp. 75–83. [Vision versus practice, CEO commitment, Teams, Corporate culture, Mission statement, Stakeholder elements, Existing policies and practices, Functional areas (human resources, environmental practices, quality systems, community relations), Examples.] 35

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2. MARKETING FUNCTIONS 2.1 Management, Planning, and Strategy See also 9, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 64, 67, 68, 69, 71, 73, 74, 77, 82, 83, 85, 86, 90, 96, 97, 98, 106, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 126, 127, 134, 135, 145, 146, 148, 149, 153, 154, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 179, 183, 184, 186, 193, 202, 207, 210, 212, 214, 219, 221, 228 Avoiding the Complexity Trap. Alan Brache and Peter M. Tobia, Across the Board, 37 (June 2000), pp. 42–46. [Sustainable niches, Problems, Availability of outsourcing, Broadening capability and plunging price of technology, Workforce mobility, E-commerce, Impacts, Focus, Critical resources, Information on costs, Examples.] 36 Laying Off Risk. Stan Davis and Christopher Meyer. Across the Board, 37 (April 2000), pp. 33–37. [Insuring against risk, Riskrelated rewards, Organizing around risk, Hedging, Core competencies, Value creation, Examples.] 37 The Negotiation Industry. Lee Edson, Across the Board, 37 (April 2000), pp. 14–20. [Discussion, Use in hiring process, International, Special training, Educational initiatives, Win–win model, Examples.] 38 The Secrets of Performance Appraisal. Dick Grote, Across the Board, 37 (May 2000), pp. 14–20. [Corporate culture, Organizational expectations, Identification of specific core competencies, Evaluation, Mastery descriptions, Role of objectivity, Examples.] 39 Condition Critical. Phillip L. Polakoff and David G. Anderson, Across the Board, 37 (May 2000), pp. 42–47. [Health and safety programs, Control, Lost time costs, Risk shifting strategies, Helping employees manage their own care, Assessment, Guidelines.] 40 The Effects of Formal Strategic Marketing Planning on the Industrial Firm’s Configuration, Structure, Exchange Patterns, and Performance. Andy Claycomb, Richard Germain, and Cornelia Droge, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 219–34. [Literature review; Survey (Council of Logistics Managment); Impacts; Use of integrative committees and mechanisms, specialization, decentralized decision making, and formal performance measurement (both internal and benchmarking).] 41 Implementing a Customer Relationship Strategy: The Asymmetric Impact of Poor Versus Excellent Execution. Mark R. Colgate and Peter J. Danaher, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 375–87. [Literature review; Survey of bank customers; Satisfaction, performance, usage of bank; Personal banker; Good and bad strategies; Switching activity; Behavioral intentions; Statistical analysis; New Zealand.] 42 Superordinate Identity in Cross-Functional Product Development Teams: Its Antecedents and Effect on New Product Performance. Rajesh Sethi, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 330–44. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Survey of key informants in cross-functional teams, Impacts, Special team structure, Traditional team factor, Interaction effects, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 43

Business Planning Practices in Small Size Companies: Survey Results. Surendra S. Singhvi, Journal of Business Forecasting, 19 (Summer 2000), pp. 3–4, 6, 8. [Primary objectives for preparing a plan, Responsibility, Planning horizon, Plan update, Achievement, Annual budget, Board approval, Financial success, Recommendations.] 44 Journal of Business Research, 47 (January 2000), pp. 3–89. [Eight articles on dynamics of strategy, Executive pay and UK privatization, Nonprofit organization responses to anticipated changes in government support for HIV/AIDS services, Evolving complex organizational structures in new and unpredictable environments, Innovation teams, Institutional foundations of success and failure, Impact of technology policy integration on strategy, Business transformation, Impact of environmentally linked strategies on competitive advantage, Many countries.] 45 Relationship of Firm Size, Initial Diversification, and Internationalization with Strategic Change. Parshotam Dass, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 135–46. [Theoretical discussion, Hypotheses, Data collection (COMPUSTAT II database), Variables, Initial and changes in product diversity, Industry performance, Risk, Slack, Firm size, International diversification, Interactions, Statistical analysis.] 46 Organizational Values: The Inside View of Service Productivity. Dawn Dobni, J.R. Brent Ritchie, and Wilf Zerbe, Journal of Business Research, 47 (February 2000), pp. 91–107. [Literature review, Survey of service firms, Impacts, Employee mutualism, Market leadership, Customer intimacy, Operational efficiency, Organizational preservation, Change aversion, Social responsibility, Value systems (entrepreneurial, performance-pressured, integrated, temperate), Statistical analysis, Canada.] 47 Firm Characteristics Influencing Export Propensity: An Empirical Investigation by Industry Type. Rajshekhar G. Javalgi, D. Steven White, and Oscar Lee, Journal of Business Research, 47 (March 2000), pp. 217–28. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Survey, Comparisons, Export versus nonexport firms, Variables, Number of employees, Total sales, Years in business, International trade activity, Primary industrial classification, Firm ownership, Statistical analysis.] 48 Benchmarking Cultural Transition. Roger Connors and Tom Smith, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 10–12. [Corporate culture, The best benchmarks are keyed to important before-and-after results the organization must achieve and to the beliefs and actions that produce those results, Assessment.] 49 Investigation of Factors Contributing to the Success of CrossFunctional Teams. Edward F. McDonough III, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (May 2000), pp. 221–35. [Literature review, Model presentation, Survey of new product development professionals, Outcome and process reasons for adopting crossfunctional teams, Interactions, Stage setters, Enablers, Team behaviors, Performance, Assessment.] 50 Environmental and Ownership Characteristics of Small Businesses and Their Impact on Development. William B. Gartner and Subodh Bhat, Journal of Small Business Management, 38 (July 2000), pp. 14–26. [Literature review, Survey, Growth expectations, Effects, Crime, Neighborhood appearance, Ethnicity of owner, Legal structure of firm, Firm type and size, Statistical analysis, Recommendations.] 51 Strategic Planning in the Military: The U.S. Naval Security Group Changes Its Strategy, 1992–1998. William Y. Frentzell II, John M. Bryson, and Barbara C. Crosby, Long Range Planning

(UK), 33 (June 2000), pp. 402–29. [Discussion, Creating vision, Middle and top-level management involvement, Stakeholder and SWOT analyses, Scenario planning, Cognitive and oval mapping, Assessment.] 52 The Future.org. Raymond E. Miles, Charles C. Snow, and Grant Miles, Long Range Planning (UK), 33 (June 2000), pp. 300–21. [Collaboration-based organizational model for innovation, Essential conditions (time, trust, territory), Design principles (selfmanagement, behavioral protocols, shared strategic intent, equitable sharing of returns), Barriers (institutional, philosophical, organizational), Examples.] 53

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Business Domain Definition Practice: Does It Affect Organisational Performance? Jatinder S. Sidhu, Edwin J. Nijssen, and Harry R. Commandeur, Long Range Planning (UK), 33 (June 2000), pp. 376–401. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Survey of managers, Focus, Stable versus turbulent environments, Impacts, Customer need, Technological competence, Assessment, Implications, The Netherlands.] 54 Marketing Decision Support Systems for Strategy Building. Sanjay K. Rao, Marketing Health Services, 20 (Summer 2000), pp. 15–18. [Pharmaceutical products, Customer and market environments, System outputs (interaction between pricing and other marketing mix strategies), Cash flows, Outcomes, Assessment.] 55 What’s in a Name? New CPO Title Reflects Buying’s Strategic Role. William Atkinson, Purchasing, 128 (June 1, 2000), pp. 45, 49–51. [Chief procurement officer, Organizational structure, Functions, Responsibilities, Top management support, Implications for suppliers, Examples.] 56 Supporting a For-Profit Cause. Guy Kawasaki, Sales and Marketing Management, (May 2000), pp. S16–S19. [Corporate culture, Customer focused, Morale, Impacts, Creating a good product and service, Sense of ownership, Training, Empowerment, Support, Examples.] 57 A Position of Power. Chad Kaydo, Sales and Marketing Management, (June 2000), pp. 104–106, 108, 110, 112, 114. [Corporate image, Product positioning, Product differentiation, Factors, Identify the difference, Make it relevant, Keep it simple, Watch the competition, Examples.] 58 Technology Is Not Enough: Improving Performance by Building Organizational Memory. Rob Cross and Lloyd Baird, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Spring 2000), pp. 69–78. [Organizational learning, Explicit and tacit knowledge, Databases, Social bonding, Work processes and support systems, Targeting, Structuring, Embedding, Examples.] 59 Outsourcing Innovation: The New Engine of Growth. James Brian Quinn, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Summer 2000), pp. 13–28. [Discussion, Basic and early-stage research, Business processes, New-product introductions, Impacts, Resource limits, Specialist talents, Multiple risks, Attracting talent, Speed, Examples.] 60 Leading Laterally in Company Outsourcing. Michael Useem and Joseph Harder, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Winter 2000), pp. 25–38. [Personal interviews, Senior managers, Leadership capabilities (strategic thinking, deal making, partnership governing, managing change), Assessment.] 61 2.2 Retailing See also 73, 87, 96, 99, 100, 105, 109, 110, 132, 133, 215, 224 A Longitudinal Analysis of Satisfaction and Profitability. Kenneth L. Bernhardt, Naveen Donthu, and Pamela A. Kennett, Journal of Business Research, 47 (February 2000), pp. 161–71. [Literature

review, Hypotheses, Consumer survey, Impacts, Customer and employee satisfaction, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications, Fast-food restaurant industry.] 62 Towards Understanding Consumer Response to Stock-Outs. Katia Campo, Els Gijsbrechts, and Patricia Nisol, Journal of Retailing, 76 (Summer 2000), pp. 219–42. [Literature review; Model estimation; Store intercept; Characteristics (product, consumer, situation); Costs; Impacts; Item, package size, and store switching; Purchase deferment and cancellation; Statistical analysis; Belgium.] 63 Attention, Retailers! How Convenient Is Your Convenience Strategy? Kathleen Seiders, Leonard L. Berry, and Larry G. Gresham, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Spring 2000), pp. 79–89. [Trends; Access, possession, and transaction convenience; Locating the right product; Integrated approach; Examples.] 64 Customer Relationship Management. Susan Reda, Stores, 82 (April 2000), pp. 33–36. [Target markets, Databases, Software packages, Consultants, Role of marketing department, Examples.] 65 Real Estate, Customer Research Become Key Tools in Service Merchandise Revival. Susan Reda, Stores, 82 (June 2000), pp. 118, 120, 122. [Discussion, Consultants, Customer profiles, Product categories, Point-of-sale information, Software packages, Web site, Internet alliances, Trade area analysis, Case study.] 66 Rethinking the Rules. Susan Reda, Stores, 82 (June 2000), pp. 34–35, 38. [Retailing industry, Impacts, Online revolution, Confronting new realities, More fluid environment, Logistics expertise, Acquisition strategy, Bricks-and-mortar advantages, Examples.] 67 2.3 Channels of Distribution See also 56, 84, 91, 92, 94, 95, 104, 147, 163, 165, 185, 190 Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (July 2000), pp. 285–386. [Nine articles on business marketing networks, Implementing programmatic initiatives in manufacturer–retailer networks, Supplier relations, Interconnectedness, Strategic alliances, Partner as customer, Relationship strategy, Quality, Customer retention, Purchasing behavior, Satisfaction in industrial markets.] 68 On Interfirm Power, Channel Climate, and Solidarity in Industrial Distributor–Supplier Dyads. Keysuk Kim, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 388–405. [Literature review, Model estimation, Hypotheses, Survey, Measures, Supplier and distributor power, Coercive and noncoercive influence strategy, Trust, Relationship continuity, Solidarity, Statistical analysis.] 69 A Brand’s Advertising and Promotion Allocation Strategy: The Role of the Manufacturer’s Relationship with Distributors as Moderated by Relative Market Share. Kenneth Anselmi, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 113–22. [Literature review; Hypotheses; Survey of manufacturers; As exchange relationships become more relational, manufacturers increase advertising allocations; More discrete relationships, increase allocation to promotion; Market share moderates the influence of exchange relationship type.] 70 Relationship Marketing Activities, Commitment, and Membership Behaviors in Professional Associations. Thomas W. Gruen, John O. Summers, and Frank Acito, Journal of Marketing, 64 (July 2000), pp. 34–49. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Survey of life insurance agents, Measures, Commitment (affective, continuance, normative), Impacts, Membership retention, Exchange-based participation, Cooperatively based coproduction, Statistical analysis.] 71

Sales Through Sequential Distribution Channels: An Application to Movies and Videos. Donald R. Lehmann and Charles B. Weinberg, Journal of Marketing, 64 (July 2000), pp. 18–33. [Literature review, Model structure and analysis, Data from 35 movies, Exponential sales curves, Optimal release times, Assessment.] 72 Control Mechanisms and the Relationship Life Cycle: Implications for Safeguarding Specific Investments and Developing Commitment. Sandy D. Jap and Shankar Ganesan, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 227–45. [Literature review, Conceptual framework, Hypotheses, Survey of retailers, Measures, Transaction-specific investments, Relational norms, Explicit contracts, Supplier’s commitment, Performance, Conflict level, Relationship satisfaction and phase, Interdependence magnitude and asymmetry, Statistical analysis.] 73

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Organizing Distribution Channels for Information Goods on the Internet. Rajiv Dewan, Marshall Freimer, and Abraham Seidmann, Management Science, 46 (April 2000), pp. 483–95. [Electronic commerce, Electronic publishing, Digital and pricing content, Internet service providers, Industrial organization, Spatial competition, Industry structure, Assessment, Managerial implications.] 74 Price Protection in the Personal Computer Industry. Hau L. Lee, V. Padmanabhan, Terry A. Taylor, and Seungjin Whang, Management Science, 46 (April 2000), pp. 467–82. [Literature review, Obsolescence-prone market, Single- and two-buying-opportunity models, Channel coordination, Supply chain management, Incentives, Numerical example.] 75 Pursuing Risk-Sharing, Gain-Sharing Arrangements. James B.L. Thomson and James C. Anderson, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 40–47. [Customer–supplier relations, Market strategy, Implementation (assess customer measurement systems, determine products and services, build historical database, measurement responsibility, sharing risks and gains, outline specific actions and initiate the agreement), Case study, Hospital supply industry.] 76 Distributors: How Good Are They? James P. Morgan, Purchasing, 128 (May 4, 2000), pp. 50–52, 54, 58. [Survey of purchasing professionals, Percentage of companies’ purchases, Product categories, Needs priorities, Performance ratings, Use of e-business tools, Problems (prices, delivery, damage, cost control, e-business, inventory, personnel, information), Slow implementation, Examples.] 77 2.4 Electronic Marketing See also 3, 5, 28, 31, 67, 74, 77, 128, 132, 133, 151, 179, 184, 213 Beating the Banner Ad. Christine Blank, American Demographics, 22 (June 2000), pp. 42–44. [E-mail campaigns, Target markets, Entertainment, Multisensory, Interactive, Click-and-play video messages, Rich media, Costs, Examples.] 78 Mouse-Trapping the Student Market. Rebecca Gardyn, American Demographics, 22 (May 2000), pp. 30, 32–34. [In-school marketing, Ad-supported mousepads, Effectiveness, Comparisons, Internet banner ads, Online sweepstakes, Newspaper ads, Case study.] 79 Cracking the Niche. Christina Le Beau, American Demographics, 22 (June 2000), pp. 38–40. [Online marketing, Market segments, Web-based groups with focused interests, Becoming part of a community, Examples.] 80 Internet: A Vehicle for On-line Shopping.Venkatakrishna V. Bellur, Finnish Journal of Business and Economics, 49 (No. 2, 2000), pp. 191–207. [Literature review, Survey of households, Demographic

and socioeconomic profile, Internet access and usage rates, Impacts, Occupation, Income, Discriminant analysis.] 81 Harvard Business Review, 78 (May/June 2000), pp. 84–114. [Three articles on e-business, Syndication, Roles, Structure, Businessto-business marketplaces, E-hubs, Integrating virtual and physical operations, Examples.] 82 How to Acquire Customers on the Web. Donna L. Hoffman and Thomas P. Novak, Harvard Business Review, 78 (May/June 2000), pp. 179–80, 183–86, 188. [Discussion, Banner ads, Affiliate marketing, Integrated strategy (mass media, online advertising, strategic partnerships, word of mouth, free links, PR), Examples.] 83 The All-in-One Market. Paul Nunes, Diane Wilson, and Ajit Kambil, Harvard Business Review, 78 (May/June 2000), pp. 19–20. [Trends, Evolution, Online transactions, Mechanisms, Price competition, Examples.] 84 Going Up! Vertical Marketing on the Web. Sunny Baker and Kim Baker, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 30–33. [Discussion, Mission, Customer needs, Market segments, Building awareness, E-commerce strategy, Assessment.] 85 The Eight Deadly Assumptions of E-Business. Alan Brache and Jim Webb, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 13–17. [Discussion, Technology is the answer, Get on the e-business bandwagon, Expand the customer base, Enables global expansion, Reengineering will help to better serve e-business needs, Web sites will ensure more e-business, Delegate development and implementation to the IT department or to a consultant, Going digital quickly, Assessment.] 86 Frictionless Commerce? A Comparison of Internet and Conventional Retailers. Erik Brynjolfsson and Michael D. Smith, Management Science, 46 (April 2000), pp. 563–85. [Literature review, Data collection, Competition, Price changes, Menu costs, Price dispersion, Asymmetrically informed consumers and search costs, Product and retailer heterogeneity, Assessment.] 87 Debunking the Myths of Web Site Promotion. Joyce Flory, Marketing Health Services, 20 (Summer 2000), pp. 31–35. [Discussion, Site registration, Registration services, Search engines, Specific types of information, Impacts, Promotion efforts, Awards, Press releases, Contests and giveaways, Success, Guidelines.] 88 Branding on the Internet. Larry Chiagouris and Brant Wansley, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 34–38. [Discussion, Relationship-building continuum, Impacts, E-branding tactics, Measurement issues, Examples.] 89 Ride or Drive? Ralph A. Oliva, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 58–60. [Web-based hubs, Driving (starting your own digital marketplace for multiple buyers and sellers), Riding (signing on to a hub run by another firm), Managing cognitive spaces, Spin ups, Hub wars, Ride versus drive, Assessment.] 90 Buyers Are Hot on Internet, Wary About E-Procurement. Purchasing, 128 (June 15, 2000), pp. S6–S7, S10, S13. [Survey, Attitudes, Communications (requests for information and quotes from suppliers, shipments tracking and expediting, ordering), Costs, Ease of use, Security, Reliability, Current or projected use, Examples.] 91 E-Auction Model Morphs to Meet Buyers’ Needs. Anne Millen Porter, Purchasing, 128 (June 15, 2000), pp. S31–S32, S34, S36, S39, S40, S44, S46. [Discussion, Reverse e-auctions, Bidding involving many suppliers, Impacts, Profit margins, Consultants, Software packages, Requirements, Transactions, Markets, Outsourcing, Examples.] 92 Cashing In. Ginger Conlon, Sales and Marketing Management, (June 2000), pp. 94–96, 102. [Business growth, Dot-com businesses,

Market potentials, Factors, Understand the audience, Act quickly, Risk, Stability, Examples.] 93 Why Dealers Must Buy In to the Web. Brent Keltner, Sales and Marketing Management, (April 2000), pp. 29–30. [Discussion, Benefits, Strategies, Focus on underperforming products, Integrate sales and marketing, Offer incentives, Provide technical support, Examples.] 94 Clicks and Misses. Melinda Ligos, Sales and Marketing Management, (June 2000), pp. 68–70, 72, 74, 76. [E-business, Problems, Alienating channel partners, Not focusing on core competencies, Not integrating customer service systems, Trying to serve mass market instead of existing customers, Not involving salespeople, Not knowing when to outsource, Examples.] 95 Finding Sustainable Profitability in Electronic Commerce. John M. de Figueiredo, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Summer 2000), pp. 41–52. [E-commerce product continuum, Market strategy (commodity products, quasi commodity, look and feel goods, look and feel with variable quality), Incumbents versus new entrants, Sustaining competitive advantage, Examples.] 96

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Fast Venturing: The Quick Way to Start Web Businesses. Ajit Kambil, Erik D. Eselius, and Karen A. Monteiro, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Summer 2000), pp. 55–67. [Model presentation; Roles (innovators, equity and operational partners); Stages (illumination, investigation, implementation); Why, when, and how companies should fast venture; Venture networks; Examples.] 97 Building Stronger Brands Through Online Communities. Gil McWilliam, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Spring 2000), pp. 43–54. [Discussion, Traditional user groups, Forum for exchange of common interests, Attracting new members, Links to other sites, Brand owner’s control over content, Skills needed to manage online communities, Examples.] 98 Domain Names Emerge as Key Tools for On-line Retail Marketing. Jennifer Karas, Stores, 82 (May 2000), pp. 94, 96, 98. [Discussion, Name by which a company is known on the Internet, Advantages, Professional and credible Web presence, Name competition, Examples.] 99 In-Store Interactive Systems Take on Major Role in Drawing Technology-Savvy Customers. Susan Reda, Stores, 82 (May 2000), pp. 44, 46, 48. [Study, Integration of online and in-store activities (digital signage, electronic messaging, kiosks), Consumer expectations, Shopping behavior, Examples.] 100 2.5 Physical Distribution See also 67, 111, 147, 194, 195 Early Supplier Involvement in Customer New Product Development: A Contingency Model of Component Supplier Intentions. Douglas W. LaBahn and Robert Krapfel, Journal of Business Research, 47 (March 2000), pp. 173–90. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Survey, Customer power advantage, Adherence to agreements, Customer promise, Supplier intentions, Interdependence, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 101 An Industry Still in Need of Integration. Brian Milligan, Purchasing, 128 (May 18, 2000), pp. 147, 149–50. [Business growth, Intermodal transport, Acquisitions and mergers, Government regulation, Examples.] 102 Service Providers Under Pressure to Control Rates. Brian Milligan, Purchasing, 128 (April 20, 2000), pp. 113, 116–17, 119, 121. [Transportation, Third-party logistics, Industry growth, Purchasing managers, Time constraints, Bundled services, Costs, Internet investments, Software packages, Examples.] 103 Supply Chain Software Moves to the Web. Brian Milligan, Purchasing,

128 (April 6, 2000), pp. 67–68. [Transportation, Impacts, Business processes, Forecasting shipments, Demand forecasts, Meeting anticipated transportation requirements, Needed improvements, Examples.] 104 E-Replenishment System Counters Continuing Problem of Supermarket Out-of-Stocks. Susan Reda, Stores, 82 (April 2000), pp. 70, 72. [Supply chain initiatives, POS system investments, Scanning data, Software packages, Collaborative planning, Initialization, Execution, Monitoring, Examples.] 105 2.6 Pricing See also 55, 75, 84, 87, 103, 113 Industrial Export Pricing Practices in the United Kingdom. Nikolaos Tzokas, Susan Hart, Paraskevas Argouslidis, and Michael Saren, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 191–204. [Literature review, Survey of export marketing directors from three industrial sectors, High and low competence firms, Pricing orientations, Objectives, Policies, Methods used, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications, UK.] 106 Advertised Reference Price Effects on Consumer Price Estimates, Value Perception, and Search Intention. Bruce L. Alford and Brian T. Engelland, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 93–100. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Experiment, Plausible and implausible price exposure conditions, Statistical analysis, Practical implications.] 107 An Investigation of Reference Price Segments. Tridib Mazumdar and Purushottam Papatla, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 246–58. [Literature review, Model development, Data collection (ERIM scanner panel of ACNielsen), Use of internal and external reference prices, Brand preferences and responses to marketing-mix variables, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 108 Insights into Cross- and Within-Store Price Search: Retailer Estimates vs. Consumer Self-Reports. Joel E. Urbany, Peter R. Dickson, and Alan G. Sawyer, Journal of Retailing, 76 (Summer 2000), pp. 243–58. [Literature review, Surveys, Attitudes, Consumer patronage behavior, Price comparison frequency, Search for and responsiveness to price specials, Belief discrepancies, Assessment, Theoretical and managerial implications.] 109 Burden of Frequent Price Changes Spurs Development of Automated Pricing Systems. Michael Hartnett, Stores, 82 (May 2000), pp. 56, 58. [Retail chains; Software packages; Category management; Pricing rules can be applied to maintain family group and parity pricing by item, flavor, size, brand, competitor’s pricing, margins, and the retailer’s value image.] 110 2.7 Product See also 1, 6, 7, 8, 10, 15, 16, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 43, 50, 55, 58, 60, 63, 70, 89, 98, 101, 108, 135, 145, 147, 148, 154, 155, 167, 170, 173, 206 Product Development Partnerships: Balancing the Needs of OEMs and Suppliers. Morgan L. Swink and Vincent A. Mabert, Business Horizons, 43 (May/June 2000), pp. 59–68. [Discussion, OEM needs (providers of scarce resources and capabilities, support of global product strategies, minimized risks), Supplier needs (rewards for up-front involvement, protected business interests, shared wealth), Success, Guidelines.] 111 Building an Innovation Factory. Andrew Hargadon and Robert I. Sutton, Harvard Business Review, 78 (May/June 2000), pp. 157–66. [Knowledge-brokering cycle, Factors, Capturing new ideas, Keeping ideas alive, Imagining new uses for old ideas, Putting promising concepts to the test, Examples.] 112 Price and Brand Name as Indicators of Quality Dimensions for

Consumer Durables. Merrie Brucks, Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Gillian Naylor, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 359–74. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Laboratory experiment, Ease of use, Versatility, Durability, Service ability, Performance, Prestige, Consumers’ judgment processes and inferences, Statistical analysis.] 113 Introducing Short-Term Brands: A New Branding Tool for a New Consumer Reality. Dan Herman, Journal of Brand Management (UK), 7 (May 2000), pp. 330–40. [Changes in consumer preferences and behavior, Market strategy, Evolving and variety brands, Planned limited life expectancies, Value added, Examples.] 114 A Survey of Brand Risk Management. Rory F. Knight and Deborah J. Pretty, Journal of Brand Management (UK), 7 (May 2000), pp. 353–65. [Discussion; Brand significance and perception; Core qualities of brands across regions, industry sectors, and organizational position; Threats; Protection mechanisms; Brand insurance; Brand valuation; Assessment; Many countries.] 115 Call Branding: Identifying, Leveraging, and Managing New Branding Opportunities. Kevin M. Waters, Journal of Brand Management (UK), 7 (May 2000), pp. 321–29. [Modifying a brand to correspond with its verbal identity (Kraft Mayo, FedEx), Partial declaration and use, Acronyms, Success, Guidelines.] 116

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The Incumbent’s Curse? Incumbency, Size, and Radical Product Innovation. Rajesh K. Chandy and Gerard J. Tellis, Journal of Marketing, 64 (July 2000), pp. 1–17. [Literature review; Data collection (more than 250 books and 500 articles); Recently, large firms and incumbents are significantly more likely to introduce radical innovations than small firms and nonincumbents; Nationality; Implications.] 117 Impact of a Late Entrant on the Diffusion of a New Product/Service. Trichy V. Krishnan, Frank M. Bass, and V. Kumar, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 269–78. [Model testing, Mathematical equations, Brand-level sales data in multiple markets, Effects, Market potentials, Diffusion speed of the category and of incumbent brands, Statistical analysis.] 118 Customization of Product Technology and International New Product Success: Mediating Effects of New Product Development and Rollout Timeliness. George M. Chryssochoidis and Veronica Wong, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (July 2000), pp. 268–85. [Literature review, Model proposal, Hypotheses, Interviews with managers in multinational companies, Impacts, Scheduling, Individual country requirements, Statistical analysis.] 119 Company Competencies as a Network: The Role of Product Development. Hanne Harmsen, Klaus G. Grunert, and Karsten Bove, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (May 2000), pp. 194–207. [Literature review, Survey of managers, Rankings, Perceived success factors and problems, Assessment, Implications.] 120 Harnessing Tacit Knowledge to Achieve Breakthrough Innovation. Ronald Mascitelli, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (May 2000), pp. 179–93. [Discussion, Model presentation, Methods, Achieve emotional commitment and personal involvement from design team members, Use of early and frequent prototyping, Face-to-face interaction during product development, Examples, Managerial implications.] 121 Technological Innovativeness as a Moderator of New Product Design Integration and Top Management Support. Morgan

Swink, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (May 2000), pp. 208–20. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Study of new product development projects, Effects, Financial performance, Design quality, Time-based performance, Interactions, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 122 Consumer-Level Factors Moderating the Success of Private Label Brands. Rajeev Batra and Indrajit Sinha, Journal of Retailing, 76 (Summer 2000), pp. 175–91. [Literature review, Model estimation, Mall-intercept study, Measures (consequences of purchase mistake, degree of quality variation in category, search versus experience nature of category, price consciousness), Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 123 Choosing the Right Branding Expert.Victoria Barkan and Debra Semans, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 29–31. [Discussion, Understanding your needs, Approach/methodology, Objectivity and bias, Experience, Future perspective, Leadingedge thinking, Benchmark results, Client satisfaction, Stay involved and visible, Assessment.] 124 Market-Driven Product Development. Stephan A. Butscher and Michael Laker, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 48–53. [Target-costing pricing approach, Definition of target segments, Competitive advantages and disadvantages, Product positioning, Fine-tuning product design and pricing, Market simulations, Target costs, Examples.] 125 Brand Waves: Building Momentum Throughout the Ownership Cycle. Peter H. Farquhar, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 14–21. [Discussion, Ownership cycle, Trigger, Consideration, Drivers (awareness, relevance, differentiation, quality, affordability, availability), Conversion, Purchase and confirmation, Taking credit, Value, Examples.] 126 How to Build a Billion Dollar Business-to-Business Brand. Don E. Schultz and Heidi F. Schultz, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 22–28. [Discussion; Evolution of b-to-b companies; Product-, distribution-, and customer-driven; Brand structures and policies; Building and development; Communication; Measuring results; Example.] 127 2.8 Sales Promotion See also 70, 75, 88 Redeeming Qualities. Jennifer Lach, American Demographics, 22 (May 2000), pp. 36–38. [Study, Incentives, S&H greenpoints.com, Online participation, Customer retention, Age groups, Incomes, Effectiveness, Examples.] 128 An Evaluation of State Sponsored Promotion Programs. Timothy J. Wilkinson and Lance Eliot Brouthers, Journal of Business Research, 47 (March 2000), pp. 229–36. [Data collection (relationships between program offerings and state exports), Variables (direct exports, trade shows, trade missions, foreign offices, market information activities, population), Statistical analysis, Implications.] 129 Money Isn’t Everything. Vincent Alonzo, Sales and Marketing Management, (April 2000), pp. 47–48. [Sweepstakes, Appeals, Effectiveness, Impacts, Long-term sales, Offering prizes appropriate for clients, Examples.] 130 The Shows Will Go On. Danielle Harris, Sales and Marketing Management, (May 2000), pp. 85–88. [Discussion, Trade shows, Factors, Increasing booth traffic and generating quality leads, Motivating salespeople, Budgets, Examples.] 131 Internet Retailers Shift Focus from Attracting to Retaining On-line Customers. Maureen Licata, Stores, 82 (June 2000), pp. 66, 68, 70, 72. [Value-focused customers, Loyalty incentives, Discounts, Giveaways, Contests, Sweepstakes, Free shipping, Customer

databases, Impacts, Content, Community, Communication, Examples.] 132 Electronic Coupons Find Growing Uses for Both Stores and ECommerce Sites. Tony Seideman, Stores, 82 (April 2000), pp. 104, 106. [Target markets, Flexibility, Costs, Customer databases, Profiles, Effectiveness, Examples.] 133 2.9 Advertising See also 2, 3, 7, 8, 15, 70, 78, 79, 80, 83, 152, 159, 177, 197, 224 Who’s Next? Richard Linnett, Advertising Age, 71 (May 29, 2000), pp. 12, 15. [Strategic planning, Advertising agencies, Competitive advantage, Acquisitions and mergers, Impacts, Clients, Business growth, Examples.] 134 Linking Advertising and Brand Value. Irene M. Herremans, John K. Ryans Jr., and Raj Aggarwal, Business Horizons, 43 (May/June 2000), pp. 19–26. [Literature review, Model presentation, Advertising turnover, Marketing investment, Product quality, Market share, Study of firms, High- and low-efficiency brand enhancers, Brand deterioration, Future unknown, Neglect, Examples.] 135 Narrative Music in Congruent and Incongruent TV Advertising. Kineta Hung, Journal of Advertising, 29 (Spring 2000), pp. 25–34. [Literature review, Content analysis, Experiment, Meanings associated with ad components and commercials, Textual elaboration, Assessment.] 136 The Impact of Verbal Anchoring on Consumer Response to Image Ads. Barbara J. Phillips, Journal of Advertising, 29 (Spring 2000), pp. 15–24. [Literature review, Experiment, Attitude toward

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the ad, Presence and level of verbal anchoring, Comprehension, Statistical analysis.] 137 Journal of Advertising Research, 40 (May/June 2000), pp. 7–52. [Four articles on creativity; Recall, liking, and creativity in TV commercials; Creative differences between copywriters and art directors; Correlates of integrated marketing communications; Customer/brand loyalty in the interactive marketplace.] 138 Advertising Attitudes and Advertising Effectiveness. Abhilasha Mehta, Journal of Advertising Research, 40 (May/June 2000), pp. 67–72. [Literature review, Data collection (Magazine Impact Research Systems), Measures, Attitudinal statements, Intrusiveness/ recall, Persuasion/buying interest, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 139 2.10 Personal Selling See also 11, 142, 217, 218 Sales Call Anxiety: Exploring What It Means When Fear Rules a Sales Encounter.Willem Verbeke and Richard P. Bagozzi, Journal of Marketing, 64 (July 2000), pp. 88–101. [Literature review, Model testing, Hypotheses, Survey of salespeople, Factors, Negative self-evaluations, Negative evaluations from customers, Physiological symptoms, Protective actions, Statistical analysis, The Netherlands.] 140 Independents Day. Dan Hanover, Sales and Marketing Management, (April 2000), pp. 64–66, 68. [Independent sales reps, Motivation, Communication, Support, Rewards, Short-term bonus and incentives programs, Examples.] 141 2.11 Sales Management See also 57, 93, 95, 130, 131, 140, 141, 147, 213 Comparisons of Alternative Perceptions of Sales Performance. Paul A. Dion and Peter M. Banting, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 263–70. [Study of industrial market triads (salesperson, sales manager, buyer), There were assessment discrepancies in addition to what constituted good performance,

Gender evaluation, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 142 Driving Down Costs. Christine Galea, Sales and Marketing Management, (May 2000), pp. 102–104, 106, 108, 110. [Corporate cars, Strategy, Industry, Lease or own, Depreciation, Fuel concerns, Vehicle duration, Reselling, Buy from one manufacturer, Managing risk, Examples.] 143 Masterful Meetings. Erin Strout, Sales and Marketing Management, (May 2000), pp. 68–72, 74, 76. [Discussion, Planning, Choose destination carefully to set the right tone, Set straightforward agenda, Stick to budget, Develop postmeeting action plans.] 144 3. SPECIAL MARKETING APPLICATIONS 3.1 Industrial See also 41, 46, 50, 56, 68, 69, 77, 101, 106, 111, 119, 121, 122, 142, 163, 164, 166, 173, 193, 194, 195, 212, 217 Marketing High Technology: Preparation, Targeting, Positioning, Execution. Chris Easingwood and Anthony Koustelos, Business Horizons, 43 (May/June 2000), pp. 27–34. [Discussion; Market strategy; Supply to OEMs; Market education; Distribution; Target innovative adopters, pragmatists, conservatives, current customers, competitors’ customers; Emphasize exclusivity, low price, technological superiority; Execution; Examples.] 145 Do Trade-Offs Exist in Operations Strategy? Insights from the Stamping Die Industry. Mark Pagell, Steve Melnyk, and Robert Handfield, Business Horizons, 43 (May/June 2000), pp. 69–77. [Study of firms, Performance, Comparisons, Strategic advantages and disadvantages, Relative fixed costs and lead time, Employee commitment, Assessment.] 146 Strategic Selling in the Age of Modules and Systems. John W. Henke, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 271–84. [Discussion, OEM impediments to module and system acquisition, Developing a sales strategy, Capabilities and resources, Cooperation among participating suppliers, Design considerations, Markup practices, Supply chain management experience, Case study, Automotive industry.] 147 Differential Effects of the Primary Forms of Cross Functional Integration on Product Development Cycle Time. J. Daniel Sherman, William E. Souder, and Svenn A. Jenssen, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (July 2000), pp. 257–67. [Literature review; Survey of high-technology firms; Variables; Integration of knowledge from past projects; R&D/customer, marketing, manufacturing, supplier integration; Strategic partnership integration; Statistical analysis; US and Scandinavian firms.] 148 Prepping the Supply Base for Leaner Supply Systems. Tom Stundza, Purchasing, 128 (June 1, 2000), pp. 62–64, 66, 68. [Supplier development programs, Quality control processes, Material resource planning, Just-in-time delivery, Make or buy studies, Component kitting, Best supplier evaluations, Outsourcing, Improving performance, Implementation, Case study, Aerospace industry.] 149 3.2 Nonprofit, Political, and Social Causes See also 26, 52, 129, 158, 180, 208 Demographics, Personality Traits, Roles, Motivations, and Attrition Rates of Hospice Volunteers. Becky J. Starnes and Walter W. Wymer Jr., Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 7 (No. 2, 1999), pp. 61–76. [Literature review, Volunteer profile, Services to patients and families, Religious beliefs, Personal experiences, Training and expectations, Assessment.] 150 3.3 International and Comparative See also 13, 29, 38, 42, 45, 46, 48, 54, 63, 106, 115, 117, 119, 129,

140, 148, 177, 188, 189, 191, 200, 201, 211, 216, 223 Privacy on the Net: Europe Changes the Rules. William J. Scheibal and Julia Alpert Gladstone, Business Horizons, 43 (May/June 2000), pp. 13–18. [Discussion, Legal aspects, Business impact, EU privacy directive, Impacts, US, Assessment.] 151 Color Usage in International Business-to-Business Print Advertising. Irvine Clarke III and Earl D. Honeycutt Jr., Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 255–61. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Content analysis, Comparisons, Black/white ads, Color distribution by magazine, Cultural meanings, Managerial implications, France, US, Venezuela.] 152 Managing International Joint Venture Relationships: A Longitudinal Perspective. Akmal S. Hyder and Pervez N. Ghauri, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 205–18. [Literature review, Model presentation, In-depth interviews, Motives, Resources, Learning, Network, Performance, Case studies, Telecommunications industry, Sweden, India.] 153 Positioned for Success: Branding in the Czech Brewing Industry. Chris Lewis and Angela Vickerstaff, Journal of Brand Management (UK), 7 (May 2000), pp. 341–52. [Literature review, Brand appeals (function, image and personality), Market strategy, Price, Quality, Traditional, Modern, Effects, Foreign ownership and expertise, Case studies.] 154 Country of Branding: A Review and Research Propositions. Ian Phau and Gerard Prendergast, Journal of Brand Management (UK), 7 (May 2000), pp. 366–75. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Quality perceptions, Brand image, Country of branding versus country of manufacturing, Luxury brands, Development of country, High versus low involvement, Assessment, Asia.] 155

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Forecasting Practices in the Pharmaceutical Industry in Singapore. Louis Choo, Journal of Business Forecasting, 19 (Summer 2000), pp. 18–20. [Survey, Extent of involvement, Purpose of forecasts, Techniques used, Sources of information, Forecast drivers, Assessment.] 156 A Systematic Approach to Tourism Policy. Jafar Alavi and Mahmoud M. Yasin, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 147–56. [Discussion, Revenues, Model presentation, Mathematical equations, Effects (areawide, region-mix, competitive, allocation), Statistical data, Shift-share analysis, Policy implications, Many countries.] 157 Marketing of a Financial Innovation: Commercial Use of the Euro by European Companies Prior to Mandatory Adoption. Yvonne M. van Everdingen and Gary J. Bamossy, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 123–33. [Theoretical discussion, Model presentation, Survey of firms, Measures, Perceived innovation characteristics, Perceptions of political and business environment, Organizational characteristics, Internal communication behavior, Adoption behavior, Statistical analysis, Recommendations.] 158 Effect of a Buy-National Campaign on Member Firm Performance. Graham D. Fenwick and Cameron I. Wright, Journal of Business Research, 47 (February 2000), pp. 135–45. [Literature review, Survey, Comparisons, Nonparticipating firms, Staff member and domestic sales changes, Statistical analysis, New Zealand.] 159 Global Sourcing, Multiple Country-of-Origin Facets, and Consumer Reactions. Zhan G. Li, L. William Murray, and Don Scott, Journal of Business Research, 47 (February 2000), pp. 121–33. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Experiment, Comparisons, Countryof-design, Assembly, Corporation, Dimensions (functional,

symbolic, overall quality), Statistical analysis, Implications.] 160 New Rules for Global Markets. Richard W. Oliver, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 7–9. [Discussion; Competitive strategies; Think and act globally; Focus on ethnic group, not country; Focus on neighbors first; Focus on the cities; Culture is an important barrier; Use global market muscle; Focus south, not east–west; Develop new mind-set.] 161 Mode of International Entry: An Isomorphism Perspective. Peter S. Davis, Ashay B. Desai, and John D. Francis, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Second Quarter 2000), pp. 239–58. [Literature review, Model development, Hypotheses, Survey of firms, Pressures to conform to behavioral norms within environments, Comparisons, Wholly owned, Exporting, Joint ventures, Licensing agreements, Statistical analysis.] 162 The Determinants of Trust in Supplier–Automaker Relationships in the U.S., Japan, and Korea. Jeffrey H. Dyer and Wujin Chu, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Second Quarter 2000), pp. 259–85. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Personal interviews, Measures, Length of relationship, Face-to-face communication, Relationship continuity, Assistance to supplier, Stock ownership, Statistical analysis.] 163 Social Ties and Foreign Market Entry. Paul Ellis, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Third Quarter 2000), pp. 443–69. [Literature review, Propositions, Interviews with experienced members of manufacturing firms, Knowledge of foreign market opportunities is commonly acquired through existing interpersonal links rather than through market research, Hong Kong.] 164 Process Standardization Across Intra- and Inter-cultural Relationships. David A. Griffith, Michael Y. Hu, and John K. Ryans Jr., Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Second Quarter 2000), pp. 303–24. [Literature review, Model presentation, Hypotheses, Survey of distributors, Measures, Trust, Commitment, Conflict, Satisfaction, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications, Canada, Chile, Mexico, US.] 165 Productivity Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from UK Industry Level Panel Data. Xia ming Liu, Pamela Siler, Chengqi Wang, and Yingqi Wei, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Third Quarter 2000), pp. 407–25. [Literature review, Model presentation, Impacts, Situations in which host country is developed, Introduction of advanced technology, Statistical analysis.] 166 The International Biotechnology Industry: A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective. Anoop Madhok and Thomas Osegowitsch, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Second Quarter 2000), pp. 325–35. [International diffusion of technology, Propositions, Organizational form and geographic flows, Transactions, Licensing and marketing agreements, Research agreements, Joint ventures, Acquisition, New subsidiaries, Composite groupings, Assessment, Implications.] 167 National Culture and Strategic Change in Belief Formation. Livia Markoczy, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Third Quarter 2000), pp. 427–42. [Literature review, Study of Hungarian organizations recently acquired by Anglo-Saxon partners, Individual beliefs, Causal relationships, Impacts, Being a member of the functional area favored by the strategic change, Statistical analysis.] 168 Synergy, Managerialism or Hubris? An Empirical Examination of Motives for Foreign Acquisitions of U.S. Firms. Anju Seth, Kean P. Song, and Richardson Pettit, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Third Quarter 2000), pp. 387–405. [Theoretical

discussion, Testable hypotheses and empirical predictions, Data collection, Relationship between target gains and acquirer gains, Total gains, Statistical analysis.] 169 Knowledge Flows in the Global Innovation System: Do U.S. Firms Share More Scientific Knowledge Than Their Japanese Rivals? Jennifer W. Spencer, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Third Quarter 2000), pp. 521–530. [Discussion, Hypotheses, Data collection (firms’ publication and citation patterns), Japanese firms appropriated no more knowledge from the global community than their US counterparts, Statistical analysis.] 170 The Management Implications of Ethnicity in South Africa. Adele Thomas and Mike Bendixen, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Third Quarter 2000), pp. 507–19. [Literature review, Hypotheses, Interviews with middle managers, Both management culture and perceived management effectiveness were found to be independent of both race and the dimensions of culture, Implications.] 171 A Case for Comparative Entrepreneurship: Assessing the Relevance of Culture. Anisya S. Thomas and Stephen L. Mueller, Journal of International Business Studies, 31 (Second Quarter 2000), pp. 287–301. [Literature review, Survey of students, Measures, Innovativeness, Locus of control, Risk-taking, Energy level, Impacts, Cultural distance, Many countries.] 172 Customer-Driven Product Development Through Quality Function Deployment in the U.S. and Japan. John J. Cristiano, Jeffrey K. Liker, and Chelsea C. White III, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17 (July 2000), pp. 286–308. [Literature review; Survey of companies; US companies reported a higher degree of quality function deployment usage, management support, cross-functional support, data sources, benefits; Assessment.] 173 Venture Capitalist Involvement in Portfolio Companies: Insights from South Africa. Michael H. Morris, John W. Watling, and Minet Schindehutte, Journal of Small Business Management, 38 (July 2000), pp. 68–77. [Literature review, Survey, Types of

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companies in which venture capitalists prefer to invest, Factors influencing involvement, Areas of involvement, Interactions, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 174 International Competition in Mixed Industries. Roland Calori, Tugrul Atamer, and Pancho Nunes, Long Range Planning (UK), 33 (June 2000), pp. 349–75. [Discussion, Formation of regional competitive territories, Dual effect of marketing intensity, Influence of demand factors, Role of strategic innovators across borders, Examples.] 175 Information Technology and Productivity: Evidence from Country-Level Data. Sanjeev Dewan and Kenneth L. Kraemer, Management Science, 46 (April 2000), pp. 548–62. [Discussion, Production function, Hypotheses, Data collection, Capital investment, GDP per worker, Asset categories, Developed and developing countries, Statistical analysis, Policy implications.] 176 3.4 Services See also 9, 19, 20, 27, 37, 40, 42, 47, 55, 60, 71, 72, 76, 78, 102, 103, 150, 157, 192, 214, 230, 231 Putting the “World” in the World Series. Rebecca Gardyn, American Demographics, 22 (April 2000), pp. 28–30. [Trends, Multicultural players and fans, International, TV viewers, Radio, Impacts, Marketers, Prestige, Brand acceptance, Localism, Examples.] 177 Journal of Business Research, 48 (June 2000), pp. 165–283.

[Eleven articles on health care research, Quality-of-life/needs assessment model, Internal marketing, Financial management, Measurement error, Role of nurse practitioners, Market orientation and organizational performance, Antitrust concerns about evolving vertical relationships, Measuring service quality, Modeling health plan choice behavior, Roles of primary and secondary control in older adulthood, Service quality for inpatient nursing services.] 178 One-to-One Marketing Doesn’t Have to Be Web-Based. Joel R. Lapointe, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 34–37. [Discussion, Customer relations, Scenarios (hospitality, professional services, customer service/sales), Impacts, Key role identification, High performer profiling, Key information accessibility, Assessment.] 179 Current Resource Constraints and the Role of Marketing in Health Research Organizations. Dennis R. McDermott, Howard P. Tuckman, and David J. Urban, Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 7 (No. 2, 1999), pp. 3–16. [Survey of CEOs representing national sample of HROs, Attitudes, Fundraising, Revenue sources, Budget allocations, Strategic, Assessment, Recommendations.] 180 A Comprehensive Framework for Service Quality: An Investigation of Critical Conceptual and Measurement Issues Through a Longitudinal Study. Pratibha A. Dabholkar, C. David Shepherd, and Dayle I. Thorpe, Journal of Retailing, 76 (Summer 2000), pp. 139–73. [Literature review, Propositions, Consumer survey, Components and antecedents (reliability, personal attention, comfort, features), Impacts, Behavioral intentions, Measured disconfirmation versus perceptions, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 181 Switching Barriers and Repurchase Intentions in Services. Michael A. Jones, David L. Mothersbaugh, and Sharon E. Beatty, Journal of Retailing, 76 (Summer 2000), pp. 259–74. [Literature review, Model testing, Hypotheses, Consumer survey, Effects, Core-service satisfaction, Interpersonal relationships, Switching costs, Attractiveness of alternatives, Interactions, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 182 Access to Capital and Terms of Credit: A Comparison of Menand Women-Owned Small Businesses. Susan Coleman, Journal of Small Business Management, 38 (July 2000), pp. 37–52. [Literature review, Model presentation, Data collection (Federal Reserve Board and Small Business Administration), Firm characteristics, Most recent loan, Usage of bank credit products, Interest rates, Collateral, Statistical analysis.] 183 Customer Service: An Essential Component for a Successful Web Site. Cherryl Carlson, Marketing Health Services, 20 (Summer 2000), pp. 28–30. [Discussion, E-mail management, Response (automatic, intelligent agent–aided, intelligent automated), Self help, Live text chat, Outsourcing, Assessment.] 184 Dissecting the HMO–Benefits Managers Relationship: What to Measure and Why. James W. Peltier and John Westfall, Marketing Health Services, 20 (Summer 2000), pp. 5–13. [Discussion, Survey of employee benefits managers, Attitudes, Dimensions (financial/ economic, social/responsiveness, structural/partnership), Overall satisfaction and quality, Relationship commitment/loyalty, Statistical analysis, Managerial implications.] 185 Practicing Best-in-Class Service Recovery. Stephen W. Brown, Marketing Management, 9 (Summer 2000), pp. 8–9. [Best practices; Hiring, training, and empowerment; Service recovery guidelines and standards; Easy access and effective response; Customer and product databases; Failure; Companywide recovery; Profits;

Technology; Examples.] 186 4. MARKETING RESEARCH 4.1 Theory and Philosophy of Science See also 74, 75, 87, 118, 169 Bayesian Dynamic Factor Models and Portfolio Allocation. Omar Aguilar and Mike West, Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 18 (July 2000), pp. 338–57. [Dynamic linear models, Exchange rates forecasting, Markov chain Monte Carlo, Multivariate stochastic volatility, Portfolio selection, Sequential forecasting, Variance matrix discounting, Assessment.] 187 Modeling the Sources of Output Growth in a Panel of Countries. Gary Koop, Jacek Osiewalski, and Mark F.J. Steel, Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 18 (July 2000), pp. 284–99. [Stochastic production-frontier model, Efficiency levels, Bayesian inference, Growth decompositions, Technical change, Numerical implementation.] 188 The Theoretical Foundation for Intercultural Business Communication: A Conceptual Model. Iris I. Varner, Journal of Business Communication, 37 (January 2000), pp. 39–57. [Literature review, Research questions, Impacts, Intercultural communication strategy, Country-specific and comparative studies, Assessment.] 189 Information, Contracting, and Quality Costs. Stanley Baiman, Paul E. Fischer, and Madhav V. Rajan, Management Science, 46 (June 2000), pp. 776–89. [Literature review, Model presentation, Propositions, Internal and external failure, First- and second-best settings, Contractible decisions, Impacts, Information systems, Assessment.] 190 Modeling Intercategory and Generational Dynamics for a Growing Information Technology Industry. Namwoon Kim, Dae Ryun Chang, and Allan D. Shocker, Management Science, 46 (April 2000), pp. 496–512. [Wireless telecommunications service, Market potentials, Asymmetry of effect, Bidirectional interrelationship, Implications, Hong Kong, Korea.] 191 Measuring the Robustness of Empirical Efficiency Valuations. Ludwig Kuntz and Stefan Scholtes, Management Science, 46 (June 2000), pp. 807–23. [Model extension, Propositions, Data envelopment analysis, Hospital capacity planning, Monotone oneparameter perturbations, Assessment.] 192 Behind the Learning Curve: Linking Learning Activities to Waste Reduction. Michael A. Lapre, Amit Shankar Mukherjee,

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and Luk N. Van Wassenhove, Management Science, 46 (May 2000), pp. 597–611. [Literature review, Organizational learning, Quality, Technological knowledge, Experimentation, Knowledge transfer, Implications.] 193 The Value of Information Sharing in a Two-Level Supply Chain. Hau L. Lee, Kut C. So, and Christopher S. Tang, Management Science, 46 (May 2000), pp. 626–43. [Supply chain management, Mathematical models, Production planning and inventory control, Electronic data interchange, Quick response, Analytical and numerical analyses.] 194 Scheduling Resource-Constrained Projects Competitively at Modest Memory Requirements. Arno Sprecher, Management Science, 46 (May 2000), pp. 710–23. [Model presentation, Branchandbound algorithm, Rules, Extended and simplified single enumeration, Local left-shift, Extended global left-shift, Contraction, Set-based dominance, Nonoptimality, Heuristic, Computational results.] 195 4.2 Research Methodology See also 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,

19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 42, 62, 63, 66, 72, 73, 80, 81, 107, 108, 109, 113, 118, 123, 136, 137, 139, 156, 159, 160, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 200, 209, 217, 229, 230 American Demographics, 22 (June 2000), pp. 54–56, 58, 60–62, 64–65. [Three articles on our sense of place, Work-at-home labor force, Desire for complex appliances with simple and easy-to-use designs, Networking, Shortening the distance between places and people, Impacts, Neighborhoods, Cities, Emerging markets, Consumer expenditures, Cities, Statistical data.] 196 What’s on Your Mind? Rebecca Gardyn, American Demographics, 22 (April 2000), pp. 31–33. [Electroencephalogram technology, Reading consumers’ brain-wave activity, System testing, Problems, Data translation, Acceptance, TV content research applicability, Could be useful in conjunction with focus groups.] 197 Riding High on the Market. Cheryl Russell and Marcia Mogelonsky, American Demographics, 22 (April 2000), pp. 44–46, 48, 50, 52, 54. [Economic expansion, Household incomes, Age groups, Financial assets, Risks, Stock holdings, Home values, Debt, Net worth, Saving for retirement, Statistical data.] 198 The Money in the Middle. Alison Stein Wellner, American Demographics, 22 (April 2000), pp. 56–58, 60, 62, 64. [Economic expansion, Impacts, Middle class, Definition problems, Role of immigration, Age groups, Education, Household income, Internet usage, Statistical data.] 199 The Measurement of Intergenerational Communication and Influence on Consumption: Development, Validation, and Cross-Cultural Comparison of the IGEN Scale. Madhubalan Viswanathan, Terry L. Childers, and Elizabeth S. Moore, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Summer 2000), pp. 406–24. [Literature review, Consumer socialization, Three studies, Components relevant to marketplace transactions (consumer skills, preferences, attitudes toward marketer supplied information), Comparisons, Parents, Children, US, Thailand.] 200 Innovation and International Business Communication: Can European Research Help to Increase the Validity and Reliability for Our Business and Teaching Practice? Jan Ulijn, Journal of Business Communication, 37 (April 2000), pp. 173–87. [Literature review, Quantitative/qualitative, Real life/simulation, Studying language, Culture (national, corporate, professional), Communication medium, Assessment.] 201 Debunking Executive Conventional Wisdom. Larry Lapide, Journal of Business Forecasting, 19 (Summer 2000), pp. 16–17. [Myths about forecasting; Forecasts are always wrong, so why put any focus on demand planning; All we need is a quantitative expert; Forecasting software will take care of all forecasting needs; Process is too expensive; Assessment.] 202 State Demographic Forecasting for Business and Policy Applications. Jon David Vasche, Journal of Business Forecasting, 19 (Summer 2000), pp. 23, 28–30. [Reliance on a large, multidimensional matrix modeling system with extensive input vectors aids in projection of aggregate population and its characteristics.] 203 Journal of Business Research, 48 (April 2000), pp. 5–92. [Ten articles on replication research, Brand awareness effects on consumer decision making, Credit card effect, Business turnarounds following acquisitions, Organizational growth determinants, Impact of internalization on the diversification–performance relationship, Advertising complex products, Religious symbols as peripheral cues in advertising, Market orientation and business profitability, How salespeople build quality relationships, Conducting marketing science.] 204

Riding the Wave: Response Rates and the Effects of Time Intervals Between Successive Mail Survey Follow-Up Efforts. Cindy Claycomb, Stephen S. Porter, and Charles L. Martin, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 157–62. [Literature review; Experiment; Follow-up mailings sent to each of 20 different treatment groups, testing follow-up intervals ranging from 3 to 60 days; Assessment; Implications.] 205 Historical Method in Marketing Research with New Evidence on Long-Term Market Share Stability. Peter N. Golder, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 156–72. [Literature review, Stages, Select topic and collect evidence, Critically evaluate sources along with evidence, Analyze and interpret, Present conclusions, Application.] 206 Cast Demographics, Unobserved Segments, and Heterogeneous Switching Costs in a Television Viewing Choice Model. Ron Shachar and John W. Emerson, Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May 2000), pp. 173–86. [Model comparisons, Data collection (ACNielsen), Examination of strategic programming and scheduling decisions, Optimal programming decisions, Goodnessof-fit and ratings predictions, Applications.] 207 The Effectiveness of Survey Response Rate Incentives in a Public Non-profit Environment. Frank H. Wadsworth and Eldon Little, Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 7 (No. 2, 1999), pp. 53–60. [Literature review, Convenience sample, Treatment groups, Deadlines, Prepaid and promised monetary and nonmonetary rewards, Statistical analysis, Recommendations.] 208 4.3 Information Technology See also 53, 59, 78, 82, 85, 86, 91, 92, 94, 97, 98, 104, 105, 110, 176, 184, 190, 191, 195, 225 Teens’ Use of Traditional Media and the Internet. Carrie La Ferle, Steven M. Edwards, and Wei-na Lee, Journal of Advertising Research, 40 (May/June 2000), pp. 55–65. [Literature review, Survey, Time spent with media, Media used by activity, Frequency of Internet use by gender, Location of Internet connection, Source of information about Web sites, Internet and interpersonal sources of communication, Statistical analysis, Implications.] 209 Riding Shotgun on the Information Superhighway. Chris Wood, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 38–42. [Internet security, Strategy, Problems, Vulnerability, Costs, Documentation process, Policies, Adding hardware and software, Success, Guidelines.] 210 Understanding the Trade Winds: The Global Evolution of Production, Consumption, and the Internet. Peter R. Dickson, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (June 2000), pp. 115–22. [Literature review, Economic history, Diffusion technologies, Systemsdynamic perspective, Example.] 211

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What Buyers Want in Technology Tools.William Atkinson, Purchasing, 128 (April 20, 2000), pp. 57–58, 61. [Survey, Attitudes, Software packages, Web-based e-procurement systems, Electronic data interchange, Benefits, Satisfaction, Company’s internal performance, Supplier selection, After-sales support from suppliers, Management support, Examples.] 212 Web Wise. Patricia B. Seybold, Sales and Marketing Management, (May 2000), pp. S4–S6, 58. [E-business, Customer orientation, Factors, Streamline customer scenarios, Touchpoints and crosschannel solutions, Warehousing and logistics, Staffing and training call/contact center personnel, Managing customer-affecting applications, Examples.] 213 Information Orientation: People, Technology and the Bottom Line. Donald A. Marchand, William J. Kettinger, and John D.

Rollins, Sloan Management Review, 41 (Summer 2000), pp. 69–80. [Study of senior managers, Measures of effective information use (information technology and information management practices, information behaviors and values), Achieving high information orientation, Guidelines, Banking industry.] 214 Sophisticated Systems Help Retailers Develop Complete Picture of Each Customer. Susan Reda, Stores, 82 (June 2000), pp. 42, 44. [Customer relationship management, Data strategy, Software packages, Customer analysis, Data warehousing, E-mail response management, Modeling and file integration, Examples.] 215 5. OTHER TOPICS 5.1 Educational and Professional Issues See also 29, 38, 79, 189, 201 The Ivory Chateau. Stuart Crainer and Des Dearlove, Across the Board, 37 (June 2000), pp. 35–40. [Discussion, INSEAD, Global classroom, Students, Competitive advantage, MBA program, Jobs, Web-based businesses, Assessment.] 216 Cross-National Industrial Mail Surveys: Why Do Response Rates Differ Between Countries? Anne-Wil Harzing, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 243–54. [Literature review, Survey, Attitudes, Undergraduate courses, Professional and social activities, Work experience, International exposure, Statistical analysis.] 217 Preparing the Next Generation of Industrial Sales Representatives: Advice from Senior Sales Executives. Michael R. Luthy, Industrial Marketing Management, 29 (May 2000), pp. 235–42. [Literature review, Survey, Attitudes, Undergraduate courses, Professional and social activities, Work experience, International exposure, Statistical analysis.] 218 Corporate Universities Crack Open Their Doors. Meryl Davids Landau, Journal of Business Strategy, 21 (May/June 2000), pp. 18–23. [Discussion, Opening training centers to outsiders, Receiving a bigger return on investment, Impacts, Traditional universities, Technology, Assessment.] 219 Publications in Major Marketing Journals: An Analysis of Scholars and Marketing Departments. Aysen Bakir, Scott J. Vitell, and Gregory M. Rose, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 99–107. [Total number of published articles and a fractional score based on the number of authors of an article, Faculty size, Comparisons, Previous studies.] 220 Using the Theory of Constraints’ Thinking Processes to Improve Problem-Solving Skills in Marketing. Marjorie J. Cooper and Terry W. Loe, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 137–46. [Identify a list of undesirable effects, Generate conflict clouds from the list, Construct a generic conflict cloud, Build a current reality tree that shows the core conflict and how it leads to the undesirable effects, Classroom implementation.] 221 Relating Pedagogical Preference of Marketing Seniors and Alumni to Attitude Toward the Major. Richard Davis, Shekhar Misra, and Stuart Van Auken, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 147–54. [Literature review, Learning styles, Motivation, Attitudinal enhancement, Survey, Variables, In-class exercises, Lectures, Cases, Association between in-class activities and overall attitude toward the marketing major.] 222 Study Abroad Learning Activities: A Synthesis and Comparison. Charles R. Duke, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 155–65. [Discussion, Effectiveness, Criteria (location, tour integration with academic credit, time spent on tour), Activities (lecture and test, company visits, journals, treasure hunt, projects,

simulation), Assessment.] 223 Improving Students’ Understanding of the Retail Advertising Budgeting Process. Myron Gable, Ann Fairhurst, Roger Dickinson, and Lynn Harris, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 120–28. [Survey of retailing educators; Favorite technique is objective and task; Requires the use of methods of both prioritizing alternative expenditures and setting a cutoff point; These points are often neglected by academics, including textbook writers; Recommendations.] 224 Development of a Web-Based Internet Marketing Course. Shohreh A. Kaynama and Garland Keesling, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 84–89. [Seven-step systems model; Define purpose of course; Analyze appropriate knowledge, skills, and abilities; Determine what the students should learn and ensure that the learning takes place; Development; Implementation; Assessment; Evaluation.] 225 Determinants of Student Evaluations of Global Measures of Instructor and Course Value. Ronald B. Marks, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 108–19. [Literature review; Model development; Structural paths; Student evaluations may lack discriminant validity, the extent to which a measure does not correlate with other constructs it is not supposed to measure

106 / Journal of Marketing, April 2001

(e.g., expected/fairness of grading does have a large impact on ratings of teaching ability).] 226 Teaching Marketing Law: A Business Law Perspective on Integrating Marketing and Law. Ross D. Petty, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 129–36. [Literature review, Marketing law organized by 4 Ps and defined by protected interests, Topics distributed by course, Teaching methods, Assessment.] 227 Introducing Marketing Students to Business Intelligence Using Project-Based Learning on the World Wide Web. Carolyn F. Siegel, Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (August 2000), pp. 90–98. [Discussion, Intelligence process, Business espionage, Overview, Projects, Advantages, Disadvantages, Assessment.] 228 Consumer Primacy on Campus: A Look at the Perceptions of Navajo and Anglo Consumers. Dennis N. Bristow and Douglas Amyx, Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 7 (No. 2, 1999), pp. 31–51. [Literature review, Marketing lens model, Hypotheses, Survey, Importance ratings among educational attributes, Anticipated preparation after graduation, Satisfaction with educational product, Statistical analysis, Managerial recommendations.] 229 5.2 General Marketing See also 220 An Exploration of the Meaning and Outcomes of a CustomerDefined Market Orientation. Dave Webb, Cynthia Webster, and Areti Krepapa, Journal of Business Research, 48 (May 2000), pp. 101–12. [Literature review, Models, Hypotheses, Survey of bank clients, Relationships, Service quality, Satisfaction, Statistical analysis.] 230 The Four “P”s of Marketing Are Dead. Joel English, Marketing Health Services, 20 (Summer 2000), pp. 21–23. [Discussion, Shifts in channel dynamics within health care, New model (relevance, response, relationships, results), Assessment.] 231

Perceived Attitude and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) establishment: Why households’ characteristics matters in Coastal resources conservation initiatives in Tanzania.
J. K. Sesabo a, b, c, , H. Lang d, R. S. J. Tol b, e, f

a

International Max-Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs, Hamburg University, Mittelweg 187, 20148,Germany b Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Center for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Bundesstrasse 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany c Department of Economics, Mzumbe University, P.O. Box 5 ,Morogoro, Tanzania d Institute for Ethnology, Hamburg University, Rothenbaumchaussee 67/69, 20148 Hamburg e Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands f Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Working Paper FNU-99 Abstract
In recent years, conservation initiatives through Marine Protected Area (MPAs) in many developing countries have been molded to win the support and participation of local communities. Increasingly, studies have been undertaken to enhance the understandings of the characteristics of rural communities. In the case of Tanzania, the level of compliance with marine and coastal resources management is constrained by lack of knowledge regarding coastal communities’ behavior and characteristics. Indeed, it is hypothesized that the knowledge about rural coastal communities will lead to an increase in compliance of conservation initiatives. Therefore, this paper provides an empirical assessment of households’ perceived attitudes towards proposed MPA establishment in two Tanzanian coastal villages (Mlingotini and Nyamanzi) and their vicinity. Based on survey data, the results indicate that 50.23% of households had favorable attitudes towards the introduction of MPA, out of which 34% belonged to the poor class. Moreover, a majority of households indicate that there is a need of public participation in planning and implementation of MPA. Subsequently, Probit regression, which featured in the analysis revealed that perceived costs and benefits accruing from MPAs establishment, awareness of MPAs objectives and rules that govern the use of marine and coastal resources, dependency on marine and coastal-based activities, perceived fishery conditions, wealth and location variables have a significant influence on perceived attitudes towards establishing of new MPA. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that conservation initiatives through the establishment of MPAs may be more beneficial and more effective when policy makers understand the characteristics and behavior of coastal communities. In addition, conservation initiatives should be based on the consensus building and participation of all stakeholders.

1

1. Introduction
Economies of the western Indian Ocean coastal countries states depend on the existence and abundance of marine and coastal resources to satisfy their needs and demands. These include; recreational, aesthetic and economic dimensions (Ngoile et al, 2001). At the same time, marine and coastal ecosystems are also paramount for critical life support functions and play a significant role in balancing the extremes of climatic conditions. Therefore, just like in other countries located along the coastal region, Tanzania’s marine and coastal resources support the life of about 25% of the country’s population for the provision of employment and food (TCMP, 2003; Francis and Bryceson, 2001). However, there are significant challenges such as conflict over and competition for limited marine and coastal resources as well as escalating environmental deterioration (Masalu, 2000). According to different studies conducted in Tanzania, human impact is the primary threat of marine and coastal resources. (Francis and Bryceson, 2001; Masalu, 2000). In addition, poverty has also emerged as a major problem, particularly in the Tanzanian coastal villages where average yearly income in most of these villages does not exceed US$ 100 (per person) (TCMP, 2001). Thus, poverty, human pressure and poor understanding of marine and coastal resource management have lead to a number of problems. These problems include excessive exploitation of fishery resources, careless cutting of mangrove, use of illegal fishing methods, destruction of coral reefs, sand mining, and pollution (IUCN, 2001). Consequently, the severity of marine and coastal ecosystem degradation does not only increasingly societies deny the goods and services necessary for life but it also puts the lives of coastal communities at risk. For example diminishing fishery resources entail a risk of malnutrition and threaten the source of livelihood for an estimated 25% of Tanzanian coastal population. In addition, it affects the long-term sustainability of any development strategy among coastal communities. It is therefore imperative that measures be undertaken to stop and reverse this negative trend. 2

Specifically, conserving and sustaining use of marine and coastal resources are among the means by which we can ensure the survival of coastal communities. However, it is therefore necessary to ensure a balance between stimulating economic growth at the coast while maintaining environmental quality. This balance should be made with the sole aim of reducing poverty among the coastal communities. In response to the growing cumulative threats to marine and coastal resources as well as coastal environmental degradation, the Tanzanian government established Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the 1990s (Levine 2004). Hence, the implementation of the conservation initiatives through MPAs was designed to protect the marine and coastal resources with the aim of ensuring not only their sustainability but also to improve life of the coastal communities. However, even though the conservation initiatives through MPAs are impressive in terms of their ecological and economical point of view, the successful conservation initiatives need to be acceptable by the communities living near and/or around conservation sites. This is necessary as most of the households in the target areas are poor and rely on marine and coastal resource-based activities. As a result, MPAs must be able to provide benefits through the creation of non-consumptive activities (e.g. tourism and recreation) in order to support rural coastal households’ livelihood. In coastal communities, households have different views and react differently to conservation initiatives. For example the socio-economic factors promoting household to support and engage in management, should be involved in planning and implementation process. These factors vary between households, cultures, and will certainly be different whether households utilize these resources in order to meet subsistence or commercial needs. In particular, the acceptance of a certain conservation measure (e.g. MPA) within communities can be severely hindered if some understanding of key factors such as perceived needs and benefits are not realized (Jeffrey 2000). 3

Therefore, to achieve and maintain successful operation of MPAs, arguments have been put forward that the decision-making process should include both social and economic factors in MPAs planning as well as their implementation. (Sumaila, 1998). In addition, there was an increased recognition that local communities must be actively involved in conservation and that their needs and aspiration have to be considered in initial establishment process in order to ensure their sustainability (Howe (2001)). The overriding reason for local communities inclusion is manifold: (i) local communities influence the stock and trend in marine and coastal resources, important when managing a MPA; (ii) local communities can provide a relative comparison between the state of coast environment between the present and future; and finally communities setups and culture determine largely the possibilities in designing successful management plans (Brown and Pomeroy 1999; Jentoft 2000; Howe 2001). In most of the developing countries recognition of local community participation has been resulted to formation of various programs, which promote public participation in planning, decision-making, and management of different conservation initiatives including protected areas. However, the success of individual conservation measure or program depends on its effect to individual households or communities (e.g see Wapole and Godwin 2001). Thus, the attitude and perception of communities towards conservation initiatives are important for sustainable management of natural resources. In Tanzania, despite the importance of societal heterogeneity in rural communities as well as their participation in the conservation process were not taken into account during planning and in implementing of MPAs. In particular, the role of socioeconomic and cultural factors in decision-making process of coastal communities regarding marine and coastal resources use and management were neglected. One of the reasons for this is that most of these MPAs were initiated through the efforts of external organizations and they were fully or partially supported and/or managed by external/foreign agencies rather than the government or local communities themselves (Levine, 2004). In order to design and implement new MPAs, marine resource managers need to 4

develop an understanding of coastal communities’ values, attitude and behavior. They furthermore need to understand the way coastal communities value and use marine resources; as well as social, economic, and political dimensions of resource use (Cocklin, et al. 1998). The failure to take communities’ opinion regarding MPAs establishment into account led to poor public relations, less widely accepted decisions and lower levels of compliance (Wolfenden et al. 1994; Salz and Loomis 2005). Therefore, the inclusion of socio-economic and cultural factors of coastal communities into all decisions making processes (or by the organs) pertaining MPAs establishment from their design and implementation to everyday management is very crucial. Although studies considering the heterogeneity in coastal communities and attitudinal surveys could provide guidance for policy and management decision as well as baseline data to access the efficacy of conservation initiatives, they have been lacking in Tanzanian coastal areas. The conservation initiatives such as MPA to perform a dual goal (conserving marine and coastal resources as well as improving the life of coastal communities) requires an understanding of coastal communities’ dynamics behavior in terms of their attitudes towards introduction of MPA. Based on this argument, this paper uses household data from Mlingotini and Nyamanzi Village, seeking to address the following questions: what is the pattern of households’ perceived attitude towards the establishment of MPAs in the study area? What are the factors that influence this pattern? Therefore, the aim of this analysis lies in understanding the views of coastal households regarding conservation through MPAs establishment as well as identifying factors that facilitate or obstruct households to support MPA by using econometric methods. In addition, it is our hope that this evaluation will shed light on further need for local peoples’ involvement in terms of decision-making processes when establishing MPAs and other conservation initiatives in the coastal regions. 5

2. Conceptual framework and hypotheses
The decisions made in the course of management of natural resources (e.g. marine and coastal resources) cannot be evaluated outside the human context. Thus, the resources-use theory by Firey’s (1960) indicates that ecological, economic, ethnological or cultural factors play a role in determining local perception towards resources management initiatives as well as their fate. In addition, rural households differ in their needs, perceptions and attitudes towards conservation initiatives. Ajzen (1988), using the theory of reasoned action, argued that behavior is best predicted by the intention of a populace, which in turn is affected by the members’ attitudes and other’s influence on their intentions to act. Hence, different rural coastal households within their own framework of reference view coastal resources differently. They differ in their needs, perceptions, and attitudes towards resource use and management initiatives (for example the existence of Marine Protect Areas). Socio-economic research has revealed that rural households’ behavior regarding natural resource management is influenced by demographic and socio-economic factors (Pomeroy et al., 1996, Wright and Shindler, 2001). However, there is growing empirical evidence in support of the thesis that local people’s support for natural resource management (especially through establishment of Protected Areas) depends mainly on the tangible benefits and costs of living in or around such areas against the background of socio-economic and demographic consideration (Ite, 1996; Allendorf, 1999). Figure 1 provides a simple schematic framework for studying perceived attitudes of households in this study. The framework provided in Figure 1 forms the basis for selecting relevant variables influencing perceived attitudes towards MPAs establishment. Based on this conceptual framework and socio-economic researches, the factors used in this study to explain variation in perceived attitudes towards MPAs establishment include: perceived costs and benefits associated with MPAs establishment, awareness of MPAs objectives, presence of rules and regulations 6

governing use of marine and coastal resources, potential of marine and coastal resourced-based activities, perceived condition of marine and coastal resources (in particular fisheries), welfare of coastal communities and location of the community. Our hypotheses about how these factors may influence rural households’ perceived attitude towards MPAs introduction are drawn from literature on the attitude of local communities living near, within or around protected areas (see for example, Mehta and Kellert 1998; McClanahan et al., 2005; Shymsudar and Kramer 1997; Holmes, 2003; Jim and Xu 2002).
Socio-economic and Demographic variables•Household structure•Age•Education•Livelihood sourcesRegulations and Resources•Informal rules•Formal rules•EnforcementCosts from MPAs•Denied access to the important livelihood source•Revenue is not used to compensate the loosers•No participation of local communitiesThe outcome of the management option and sustainability of the marine and coastal resourcesATTITUDE TOWARD CONSERVATION OPTIONSBenefits from MPAs•Increase of resources in the future•Employment creation trough Tourism•Protect the marine and coastal ecosystemOther factors•Location•Resource trend

Figure 1 Conceptual relationships among factors that shape the attitude of households towards marine and coastal conservation initiatives (developed based on Mehta (2001); Buer (2003); Holmes (2003); Jim and Xu (2003))

In order to promote the use of MPAs as a conservation initiative there have been repeated efforts to implement policies that will give benefits to the rural households living near or around the protected areas. For instance, Mehta (2001) and Buer (2003) suggested that provision of direct and indirect benefits would promote incentives for people to perceive conservation positively. 7

Based on these results, it is expected that households who perceive that introduction of MPA may give some of benefits are more supportive about the introduction of MPAs near or around their local vicinity than households who do not expect any benefits from MPAs. However, the management of coastal resources through establishment of MPAs most often limit or prohibit extractive activities inside their boundaries in order to regulate users’ behavior (see for example Mehta and Kellert, 1998) In this case it is hypothesized that the existence of Marine protected areas may pose problems in meetings the resource needs of some rural coastal households and thereby influencing their attitudes toward coastal resource conservation initiatives. In addition, the awareness of rules and regulations and objectives of MPAs also play a critical role in influencing households’ attitude towards establishment of MPAs. The existence of regulations and rules on marine and coastal resources management (informal and formal rules which are enforced) depends on the awareness of rural households regarding resources management. In addition, the households’ knowledge about the reasons behind establishing MPAs depends on the understanding of the objectives of MPA. In our context, awareness is what a person thinks and understands about the reality affecting his attitude and decision towards policy and management. We hypothesize that households who are more aware of the existence of rules and regulations, which govern the use of marine and coastal resources at village level, will hold more favorable attitudes towards MPAs establishment than households without such knowledge. In the same way, we hypothesize that households who are aware of the objectives of MPAs will be more supportive to MPAs establishment than households without such awareness. Moreover, the natural resource condition may influence the rural households’ perception towards MPAs establishment. In this study, we consider fisheries trend to follow general trends in marine and coastal resources. The declining 8

pattern in fisheries resources acts as an incentive for households to support conservation initiative with the aim of improving their livelihood opportunities. We hypothesized that households who believe the fisheries resources are in poor shape (i.e. declining) will hold more favorable attitudes towards MPAs establishment than those households who believe the resources are in good shape (i.e. not declining). We also examine the influence of socio-economic and demographic factors on local attitudes. Socio-economic and demographic factors such as affluence, age or experience, education and level of dependence on natural resources have previously been defined as influencing attitudes in the literature, although not consistently (e.g Heinen 1993; Solecki 1997). For example Mordi (1987) proposed that education could make rural households more conscious and less utilitarian in their attitude towards conservation. In this study we hypothesized that educated households will be more favorable attitude towards the introduction of MPAs. The influence of wealth on conservation attitudes is not straightforward. Infield (1988) and Hackel (1999) showed that rural households with more resources in terms of land, labor, and materials at their disposal could better afford conservation. This implies that these households have the ability to absorb short-term costs of conservation as a result of realizing long-term benefits. This stands in contrast to poor households who depend mostly on natural resource-based activity for their survival (see Ruttan and Borgerhoff Mulder, 1999). As a result, wealthier households tend to support the conservation initiatives more than poorer households. Conversely, poor households may be highly motivated to support conservation measures since they depend more on common and open access resources than wealthier households. In addition, the dependency on marine and coastal resource-based activities has mixed effects on the perceived attitude towards MPAs establishment. On one hand, households who rely more on marine and coastal resources for their 9

livelihood may be more concerned with conservation initiatives (if they hope this will lead to an increase or security of resources for livelihood sustenance) than those households who have other sources of livelihood. Therefore, rural households with higher income share from marine and coastal resources based activities may hold favorable attitudes regarding MPAs establishment. On the other hand, relying more on marine and coastal resources make it difficult to achieve compliance with conservation initiatives as the opportunity cost of following restriction rules is high. As a result, rural households who depend more on marine and coastal resources for their income may hold negative attitudes about MPAs establishment.

3. Methodology
3.1 Data and Descriptive Analysis Among Tanzanian coastal villages the utilization of marine and coastal resources as well as the attitudes towards conservation of these resources is heterogeneous (For example see Andersonn and Ngazy, 1998; Sesabo and Tol 2005). Understanding households’ heterogeneity is important in predicting the likely success of any conservation measure. In order to examine the factors, which influence households’ perceived attitude, we used data from a survey conducted between January and March 2004 in two coastal villages (see Figure 1). The questionnaire was administered in two districts of Tanzania (Bagamoyo and West). In Bagamoyo district, data was collected from Mlingotini village located close to Bagamoyo district headquarters (12 km) and about 56 km north of the capital city Dar-es-salaam. The village is more affected with migrants from nearby areas and there is no any area within or nearby the village, which is protected so as to ensure sustainable use of marine and coastal resources. In West district, data was collected in Nyamanzi village 16 km from Zanzibar Stone Town. Marine protected areas and an open Forest area (known as Free Economic Zone) are close to Nyamanzi village. Most of the households in this area were reported to have existed as fishing villages more than 30 years ago. Both villages are situated in the tropical humid climate of the coastal belt. They enjoy both 10

short rains (October-November) and long (March-May) rains, which characterize the East African coast. Important to note is that a total of 250 households were randomly selected from the two villages. Of these around 13% did not answer the background questions and these questionnaires were eliminated from the database (Mlingotini = 117; Nyamanzi=100). In the collection of data, structured interviews were conducted with each of the head of household. The questionnaire was designed to solicit information on households’ demographic structure, income sources, sales of outputs, access to markets, problems inherent in coastal resources and attitude towards management of coastal resources. Household income from agriculture, fishing, seaweed-farming, and other activities was estimated according to the reported production (for consumption or sale) at the prices that prevail in the local market. Fishing, transport and other assets were valued subjectively by respondents as equivalent to current resale value. Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics of the respondents. The respondents were predominantly male (84%) between the ages of 21-69 with an average of 46.01 years. The households’ size ranged from 1 member to 12 members with an average of 1.7 dependant members and 4.6 adult members. The average number STUDY
AREAFigure 2. The map of the study area

11

of adult members with primary education was 1.7. In terms of their livelihood improvement, half of households (50.60%) reported a worse life than before. The majority of households (73.27%) were directly engaged in coastal resource based activities (shells collection, fishing, and seaweed farming). The others were farmers, traders or participating in other non-farm employment opportunities. On average, the household heads participating in fishing activities had 17.86 years of experience. The majority of households (66.36%) were classified to be poor. This classification was not based on an absolute scale. Consequently, households who reported to own a larger size of agricultural land, a good quality house, endowed with production assets (e.g fishing assets, transport assets etc) were classified as wealthy household whereas those with similar but few assets and of poor quality were classified as poor.
Table 1 Descriptive variables Variables description Gender of Household Head (1 if male and 0 otherwise) Age of Household head (years) Household head fishing experience Number of Adult members Number of dependants Average education of adult members Size of Household Income / livelihood condition (1 if worst and 0 otherwise) Welfare index (1 if poor and 0 otherwise) Percent of fishing income in total household income (in US$) Support the MPAs establishment (1 if YES and 0 otherwise)* Perceived costs Perceived benefits Perceived Fisheries resources trend objective of MPAs ( 1 if aware of objectives and 0 otherwise) Rules Variable name GENDER HHAGE EXPF ADULT DEPEND ADULTEDU HHSIZE CONDITION WEALTH FISH INCOME RATIO ATTITUDE COSTS BENEFITS RESOURCE TREND OBJECTIVES RULES Mean or Percent 84% 46.01 17.86 2.66 1.7 1.73 4.36 50.60% 66.63% 0.48 50.23% 38.71% 47.93% 35.94% 37% 41.01%

Stan

A Study and Analysis of Management Training Techniques for the Heads of SMEs, particularly Using the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)

Final Report 22nd December 2000 Contract DGENT 99/C/A3/31 S12.128934
Funded by DG Enterprise of the European Commission

ii NJM European, Economic and Management Consultants Ltd.

Contents
Section Page 1 Schematic Presentation Executive Summary v 1 2 Introduction 6 3 Expertise Needs of Heads of SMEs: a review of existing knowledge 8 3.1 Approach 8 3.2 Characteristics of SMEs 8 3.3 Characteristics of Entrepreneurs 10 3.4 EU Policy concerning SMEs and ICT development 11 3.5 General Usage of ICTs by SMEs 14 3.6 Summary of position for heads of SMEs 15 4 The Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Training 16 4.1 What is ICT Based Training 16 4.2 A Virtual Learning Environment 18 4.3 Current Position of ICTBT 19 5 Research into Priorities of Heads of SMEs 21 5.1 Composition of sample 24 5.2 General use of ICTs 28 5.3 Experience of ICT-based training 31 iii 5.4 Training preferences of SME managers 38 5.5 The effect of size 51 5.6 Analysis of effect of sex of respondent 57 5.7 Learning styles of SME managers 61 5.8 Requirements of Heads of SMEs 62 6 Analysis of Best Practice in the European Union 63 6.1 Interviews with training providers 63 6.2 Evidence of size differentiation 63 6.3 What training programmes are being offered? 63 6.4 Evidence of quality and involvement of SMEs 64 6.5 What networks do the training providers belong to? 65 6.6 Evidence of best practice in delivery - traditional techniques 66 6.7 Evidence of best practice in delivery - ICT techniques 67

6.7.1 How is ICT being used? 67 6.7.2 What advantages does ICT offer for training SME managers? 68 6.7.3 What are the problems in using ICT in training? 70 6.7.4 What would make it easier to deliver ICT-based training? 72 6.8 Identifying best practice: focus group results 75 6.9 Conclusions regarding best practice from the European Union 77 iv 7 Identifying Best Practice in the United States 79 7.1 E-learning 79 7.2 US Small Business Administration 80 7.3 The virtual university 80 7.4 Best practice from EU-US collaboration 81 7.5 Best practice in traditional techniques 82 7.6 Conclusions - Best Practice from the United States 83 8 Conclusions 85 8.1 Demand from Heads of SMEs 85 8.2 Preferences of Heads of SMEs 85 8.3 Use of ICTBT by Heads of SMEs 86 8.4 Provision of Management Training 86 8.5 Bridging training and consultancy 87 8.6 Priorities of Heads of SMEs 89 8.7 Good Practice in Course Development 89 8.8 The ICTBT Opportunity 90 8.9 Problems and Constraints in providing Management Training to Heads of SMEs 90 9 Recommendations 92
Heads of SMEs Section 1: Executive Summary
1

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The study has investigated management training techniques for the heads of SMEs. This has involved: _ assessing training requirements of a sample of Heads of SMEs within seven EU Member States (Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and United Kingdom). _ examination of the use of ICTs by Heads of SMEs in their management role and within the context of training

_ review of current practices in the EU and USA with respect to SME management training and use of ICT in training _ development of best practice recommendations regarding training for Heads of SMEs, with particular reference to the use of ICTs The Role and Characteristics of the SME Manager As the chief decision-maker, the head of an SME has to respond quickly to changes in all areas of business. There is a focus on problem solving across all business areas and managing time in the short term. He or she is constantly moving from the exercise of one management skill to another. The rounded entrepreneurial role is different from that of a manager in a large company. To be relevant training needs to deal with immediate tasks and real problems. Training Provision for the SME Manager Within the regions surveyed there is a low level of management training directed specifically at SMEs. This is particularly the case for micro firms. Training provision suffers from defects of content, access, flexibility and cost. Trainers often lack experience in SMEs. SMEs are also concerned about quality of training and getting information about training. In terms of delivery of training, the majority of managers want training at their request. They have preferences for short courses, group work and one to one advice or mentoring. However, there is a variety of demand determined by the nature of the firm and the character of the manager. A variety of provision needs to respond to this. There is a lack of use of ICT for training among managers. There is also a lack of appropriate material available in ICT form. Furthermore, there are concerns over quality and relevance of existing material. Managers have some negative opinions about ICT for training and there is a lack of knowledge about the technology and techniques of ICT based learning. This is partly a reflection of the still undeveloped state of ICT supported training, where good practice has yet to be fully developed. Recognised good practice in training of all groups with ICT support involves a balance of human interaction and ICT elements. The former has been

underestimated in the entire domain. This element is particularly important to the SME manager, and has been a major reservation in taking up ICT supported training. Existence of Good Practice Good practice in meeting the needs of Heads of SMEs exists in Europe. It is also growing. There are three main elements concerning the design process, delivery and use of ICT. Design needs to take account of the needs of the manager and firm. These include sector-specific material, differentiation in provision between small and Heads of SMEs Section 1: Executive Summary
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medium firms and regular feedback and evaluation from managers of SMEs. Delivery can involve a variety of mechanisms within the training programme to increase interest and flexibility. Best practice delivery techniques include: groupwork, mentoring, problem solving, use of SME case studies, networking and use of ICT support tools. ICT does represent an opportunity for managers and training providers to overcome a number of barriers to the delivery of training. The advantages include: access at any time and place; proceeding at one’s own tempo; access to a variety of sources; interactivity, good teacher contact and individual support through email; instant response and the ability to update and customise the material. Recommendations Realising the potential of heads of SMEs requires action at Member State and European levels. The weight of the actions falls on the Member States with the Commission playing a supportive role. More support is needed for heads of SMEs that meets their requirements in terms of content and delivery. To do this the distinctive differences within the SME market need to be recognised, especially the different requirements of micro and small firms. Provision needs to bridge the division between training and consultancy to meet the practical needs of SME managers. The Commission should play a role to ensure the development of quality standards and exchange of expertise. ICTBT presents an enormous opportunity to overcome the hurdles of time and place in the provision of support to SMEs. However, development costs put it outside the

range of most SMEs. Member States should provide services through ICTBT to overcome this problem. Again, the Commission should play a co-ordinating role, encouraging exchanges and the development of quality standards. EU programmes such as Leonardo da Vinci and the Structural Funds can play a significant role to these ends. To overcome lack of trainers with expertise in either ICTBT or SME delivery, the training of trainers with these skills should be supported at a Member State level. The Commission should support these activities through Concerted Actions. At a European level, the benchmarking of provision in Member States is important to support the above three recommendations. This activity should involve quantitative benchmarking to determine the actual access heads of SMEs have to provisions and qualitative benchmarking of provision through the development of quality standards. Heads of SMEs Section 1: Executive Summary
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1.1 Summary of New Findings The need for further investigation in certain crucial areas surrounding the needs of heads of SMEs in terms of training and access to expertise is itemised. The principal ways in which this study has met that need is set out below. About Heads of SMEs Heads of SMEs are different from employees. They exhibit activist and pragmatist learning styles, prefer learning by doing and favour problem-centred approaches that offer flexibility. Requirements for training of heads of SMEs For more formal courses, heads of SMEs expressed six priorities: _ Relevance to real business situation _ Problem solving _ Short duration _ Flexible delivery _ Networking _ Quality assurance However, the requirements of the managers was for provision, which bridged consultancy and training. The three crucial elements are individualised support, focus on the SME itself and interaction. Size of company is a factor in preferences, with managers of micro, small and medium firms often having different requirements. There is a lack of training provision for micro firms.

Opinions of heads on available training Constraints to take up of training include: time and place, cost and quality. There is a difficulty in finding information on the nature of the training available. The credibility of the deliverer for an SME audience is important. Suggested mechanisms for overcoming constraints include: better access and flexibility, grants and information on the nature and quality of training. Usage and expertise in ICT Use has grown fast, and many managers are competent in standard applications. The sample showed a high general use of ICTs, with nearly 90% of managers using email and Internet. 92% are using ICT for financial management and 40-50% are using it for other types of management. 25% have used e-commerce. The sample is therefore likely to be one of early adopters of ICT solutions Experience of ICT supported training About a quarter of managers have used ICTBT, with most common forms being CD-ROM, email and Internet search. Attitudes to ICT supported training Managers like the potential for immediacy, up-to-date material and learning at own pace offered by ICTBT. Problems exist regarding lack of human support, poor presentation and unreliability of technology. There is a need to develop quality assurance and reduce the cost of access. Recommendation from other SMEs is a factor in use of ICTBT. Heads of SMEs Section 1: Executive Summary
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Training provision Nature of training for heads of SMEs There is a lack of specific training for heads of SMEs. The SME training that is provided tends to serve either start-ups or medium sized firms. Executive training at business schools is often targeted at larger companies, and demands fairly strict timetables. There is a lack of best practice/expertise for training SME managers. There are no guides or standards as to how training providers should deliver quality training to SME managers.

Constraints on providers Attitudes of providers SME managers are not a remunerative market. It is therefore difficult to justify the costs for the specialised provision. It is also difficult to recruit trainers with appropriate backgrounds in SMEs. Although the SME market is not a prime market for training providers, both EU and US bodies active in the field held interaction and, dealing with real problems to be important elements of provision. The survey of training providers identified good practice in the process of development and delivery of management training for heads of SMEs. _ Research or market analysis _ Involvement of SMEs in design, to enable a client-centred approach – involves building relationships with SMEs or groups of SMEs _ On-site initial assessment of the needs of the SME manager _ Expertise and experience of trainers in SMEs _ Generation of entrepreneur networks for participants _ Evaluation and feedback Use of ICT in training delivery for SMEs ICT is used as a support tool in training delivery to SME managers by several providers. Much provision is low quality, ‘books on the screen’. However, this is changing fast. E learning companies exist in the USA and EU. North America has a much larger e learning industry. However, provision is predominantly corporate or academic, with little provision for SMEs. The North American industry has developed the technology and many of the delivery techniques, which are being imported into Europe. However, there remains a large need for content. Constraints in ICT delivery Constraints on ICTBT are pedagogical, technical and commercial Pedagogical Disadvantages include: _ Rigidity in navigation through the material _ Lack of human interaction with trainer and other trainees Technical Disadvantages include: _ Prior Knowledge of ICT techniques _ Appropriate ICT Infrastructure _ Delivery Speed inadequate for the use of sound and motion video, because of inadequate bandwith. _ Security: Internet usage involves a security risk to published materials as well as raising the possibility of viral attack Heads of SMEs Section 1: Executive Summary
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Commercial Disadvantages focus on cost. Creation of materials involves the use of expensive labour. It may not be economical for those with only a minority interest. This has a direct implication for SMEs, as their training needs are often very specific. Attitudes of providers to ICT delivery Providers had positive attitudes to ICTBT. The most common were _ Time saving _ Easier to give individual advice _ Overcoming distance and time barriers _ Ability of trainee to organise his or her learning better _ ICT offers a good way of getting information _ Trainees become more familiar with the technologies that are now important for e-commerce _ Personalising of training _ Repetition is easier However, there were concerns over cost, less to do with development of sites and materials, but more to do with maintaining adequate tutor support at a distance. Heads of SMEs Section 2: Introduction
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2. INTRODUCTION This document forms the final report of Contract DGENT 99/C/A3/31 S12.128934. "A Study and Analysis of Management Training Techniques for the Heads of SMEs, particularly Using the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)" All work presented in this study has been carried out by a project consortium comprising the main contractor: NJM European, Economic and Management Consultants Ltd and the following organisations: Tampere Technology Centre Ltd FINLAND Bretagne Innovation FRANCE Technologie Transfer Zentrum GERMANY Thessaloniki Technologi Park GREECE CSEA ITALY ISQ PORTUGAL CRE Group Ltd UNITED KINGDOM Details of these organisations are presented as Appendix 4 to this report. 2.1 Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study were to: _ Assess training requirements of a sample of Heads of SMEs within seven EU Member States (Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and United Kingdom). _ Examine the use of ICTs by Heads of SMEs in each of the seven Member States in (a) their management role and (b) within the context of training _ Review current status in the EU and USA with respect to (a) management training, (b) SME-specific training and (c) use of ICT in training

_ Develop, based on the findings of the previous objectives, best practice recommendations regarding training for Heads of SMEs, with particular reference to the use of ICTs _ Obtain feedback on best practice recommendations from Heads of SMEs and training providers _ Present best practice recommendations in the context of (a) relevant EU policy and programmes and (b) future actions for support at an EU level By fulfilling these objectives, the study has been able to present empirical data regarding the current status of management training and use of ICTs in training in seven Member States. It has developed a set of recommendations for action and support at an EU level. Heads of SMEs Section 2: Introduction
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2.2 Structure of the work undertaken The work took the following pattern. _ Review of literature _ Bringing together an expert team _ Survey of heads of SMEs in seven European regions _ Identification of heads of SMEs needs & demands _ Identification of suppliers in seven European regions _ Review of North American provision _ Selection of best practice cases for interview _ Interviews with providers _ Production of initial elements of good practice _ Feedback from heads of SMEs & providers on the elements of good practice _ Recommendations A description of the methodology applied and examples of the information collection tools are provided as appendices to this report. 2.3 The contents of this report The main body of this report comprises the following sections: _ Expertise needs of heads of SMEs: a review of existing knowledge _ The Use of ICTBT: a review of the current position of ICTBT _ Research into Priorities of Heads of SMEs: findings of research into the use of ICTBT and training preferences of heads of SMEs _ Identification of best practice providers: the methods and techniques used to identify best practice and its providers. An analysis of EU and US practices _ Conclusions: summary of good practice using both traditional and ICT techniques and constraints in delivery. _ Recommendations Heads of SMEs Section 3 : Expertise Needs of heads of SMEs.
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3 EXPERTISE NEEDS OF HEADS OF SMES: a review of existing knowledge

3.1 Approach The first component of the study was an initial assessment of the current status in Europe and the US regarding: (a) Management training, with specific reference to training Heads of SMEs (b) Use of ICT in training, again with specific reference to training Heads of SMEs (c) The nature of SMEs and their development This work took the form of a literature survey, making use of the following sources: _ Reviews of research reports and studies _ Reviews of reports relating to projects undertaken through LEONARDO DA VINCI, ADAPT, Framework IV _ Reviews of relevant EU policy documentation _ Web searches _ Informal discussions with training providers _ Attendance at conferences Initial searches were updated throughout the lifetime of the project to ensure relevance of material. 3.2 Characteristics of SMEs The challenge in designing management training for SMEs is to gain an understanding of the needs and difficulties they face and to design training which responds to these needs in terms of both content and means of delivery. There are over 19 million small and medium sized firms in the European Union. They amount to over 99 per cent of non-primary private enterprises and employ almost twice as many people (77 million) as large firms. The notion of a 'typical' SME is misleading. The group of firms is very heterogeneous. It is convenient to classify firms by size1. size no of enterprises average no of employees labour productivity very small 18,040,000 2 30,000 small 1,130,000 20 50,000 medium 160,000 90 95,000 While very small and small firms have a lower labour productivity than large firms (90,000), medium sized firms do better. Furthermore, profitability in small firms was the highest of all size classes. Beyond the simple size categories, SMEs display large differences in other ways. The CEDEFOP report2 considered the views of a number of SME experts. Low managerial
1 source

The European Observatory for SMEs, Sixth Report, December 1999

“Improving SME access to training: strategies for success – A report on best practice in EC Member States” – European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (1994).
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qualifications, poor quality management, limited quality control, poor prospects and a negative attitude to training were considered to exist in SMEs by 10 out of 12 experts. However the SME category also encompasses numbers of dynamic fims which have a high capacity for growth. They exhibit characteristics, such as above average pay and a particular concern with training3, the very high educational background of managers of New Technology Based Firms4, human resource managerial skills and a concern with quality5. As firms grow, they demand different skills of management. Firms may be classified into three main types, in terms of the workload of the entrepreneur. These are: owner manager with a few assistants, who fits in administration on top of delivering work owner manager, who largely supervises staff, while undertaking both delivery and administrative duties manager, who delegates many tasks to responsible other members of staff6. Managers in the three positions are likely to have different training demands. The ability to negotiate the transitions between such positions is seen as a crucial skill7. However, divisions such as stages are an inevitable simplification. Storey shows through the results of a number of studies that factors such as the nature of the firm, chosen business strategy and the nature of the entrepreneur are all crucial for business growth.8 The management training needs for SMEs in the same size bracket may still be very different. Although the SME group is heterogeneous, SMEs do share a number of characteristics, which may be important, when looking at the need to develop expertise. The size of the firm ensures that it functions in different way from larger firms. Informality and the performance of multiple tasks characterise the management style of a SME. The pressures on the SME have been characterised by Henri Mahé de Boislandelle9, as the effects of magnification, which itself can be broken down into three elements: l' effet papillon, (the butterfly effect), whereby small factors, such as the loss of

one member of staff, may disrupt business greatly. For many SMEs, the business situation is inherently unstable. l'effet de microcosme, (the effect of small scale), through which the unstable business situation brings both short term flexibility and short term focus. Hence there is a lack of planning. l'effet d' egotrophie, (the effect of one person focus) whereby the manager tends to centralise all decision making in his or her own hands to cope with unstable situation. There is thus a barrier to growth beyond a point through an inability to delegate.
http://www.eim.nl/docum/observat.htm European Innovation Monitoring System Publication 31, New Technology Based Firms in Europe, European Commission, 1997. 5 ‘Europe’s 500: Dynamic Entrepreneurs: the job creators’ A preliminary summary of the major findings. Gent, Belgium, November 16-18, EFER (1995) 6 The Entrepreneurial Middle Class, Scase, R., and Goffee, R., (1982), Croome Helme, London 7 European Innovation Monitoring System Study 42, Review of studies on innovative fast growing SMEs, European Commission, 1997. 8 ‘Understanding the Small Business Sector’ Storey, D.J. (1994), Routledge, London 9 Gestion des resources humaines dans les PME, Economica 2e éd, 1998
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Although an 'ideal type' classification, the above picture represents challenges, which the managers of small and medium sized firms must confront, and overcome in order to prosper. Thus delegation is an essential element in high growth firms10. However, Storey has pointed out that 4 per cent of new firm foundations will eventually provide 50 per cent of all employment created by new firms. Therefore the number of firms overcoming these barriers may be small. 3.3 Characteristics of Entrepreneurs Entrepreneurs vary as much as their firms. The main motivations for owner management involve those of independence, desire for a secure family income, and the lack of an alternative job opportunity. Most have no higher education, and have fewer management qualifications than managers in larger firms. In this respect, the SME survey for this study does not present a ‘typical’ SME manager as 78% are educated to degree level or higher (see section 5 figure 4).

Most entrepreneurs never intend to run high growth firms. For many it is simply a means of earning a living, and aggressive competition in the market place is something they wish to avoid. This is true of NTBFs as well as of more traditional sectors. Furthermore founders of NTBFs have a tendency to concentrate on the technology, rather than the business, and such an approach is consistent with their priorities. UK studies also indicate the managers are very reluctant to lose control of the firms. This is not simply a European phenomenon, studies of Canadian owner managers also indicate a great reluctance to gain external capital to grow, if this means losing complete control of the businesses11. The strong importance placed on independence in setting up a small firm is reflected in a reluctance to allow the firm to grow beyond the point, where such independence can be maintained. There have been a number of studies examining the characteristics of successful entrepreneurs, i.e. those with high growth companies, or several successful businesses. An archetype innovative fast-growing SME is about 10-20 years old, employing about 100 people with a turnover of about € 20 million. The SME Observatory indicates that managers of rapidly growing SMEs are open minded, value training, are market oriented and experienced, and can delegate responsibilities. This picture of a person with balanced skills is confirmed by the EIMS 42 and EFER studies. Studies do indicate the crucial importance of the personality of the entrepreneur in the development of the firm. Rae and Carswell indicate that the learning style and approach of the entrepreneur are key factors, rather than any formal learning of management or business techniques. Inculcating attitudes to openness and opportunity and techniques to achieve these may be more important than specific content in training programmes. Hence the need for programmes to include entrepreneurial skills. It is suggested in EIMS 42 that innovative entrepreneurship relies on building, nurturing and maintaining an extensive and diverse set of network relationships in order to gather intelligence, supplement internal resources and provide moral support.
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Understanding entrepreneurial learning’ Rae & Carswell, ISBA, 1999

Feeney, L., Haines, G., Riding, A.., SME owners awareness and acceptance of equity capital, presented at The small capital conference, Warwick, April 1999.
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SMEs of all sizes present a consistent picture of the conditions, under which they will undertake training. These involve: quality; timing; and location12. Quality is understood to include training, which is directly relevant to the business, as well as involving trainers, who can understand, what it is like to run an SME. Many managers are self-taught and hold no management qualifications. Many may recognise the value of training but have difficulty in identifying their specific needs. Thus self-diagnosis skills may be important. The Curren13 study shows that 47% of owner managers rely on themselves and other members of the firm for training, supported by technical literature. Equipment suppliers, private sector companies and trade bodies were also used. Many SMEs are reluctant to take up outside training offers. The CEDEFOP experts' study indicates causes such as : negative attitudes to training, poor and unqualified management, few staff, and the individualism of the manager. The difficulty of releasing staff is confirmed by Temple in firms with positive attitudes to training. This applies particularly to heads of firms, who face the heaviest cost in releasing themselves (COM(98)222). 3.4 EU policy concerning SMEs and ICT development This section looks at the EU policy that will determine the priorities for future training of SMEs. A key policy document, which is central to many of the programmes and policy areas discussed in this section, is the European Commission Competitiveness White Paper. Amongst the priorities cited within this document are promotion of the use of IT and development of training in new technologies.14 More specifically, the Paper points out not only that “Managers need specific training to make them aware of the potential of ICTs,” but also that “insufficient attention has been given so far to the application of new technologies in training and education systems.”15 As such, this study has its basis within the Competitiveness White Paper. Of particular relevance to this work are the Multiannual Programme for Enterprise and

Entrepreneurship (2001-2005)16, the eEurope17 initiative, and the BEST Report18. These policy areas are outlined in the following paragraphs. Multiannual Programme for Enterprise and Entrepreneurship The first of the policy areas listed above, the Multiannual Programme for Enterprise and Entrepreneurship, has five objectives: _ Promotion of entrepreneurship as a valuable and productive lifeskill, based on customer orientation and a stronger culture of service;
Cost effectiveness of open learning for small firms’ Hilary Temple, DfEE, 1995, London Establishing small firms training practices, needs, difficulties and use of industry training organisations, Curran, J., Blackburn. R., Kitching, J., and North, J, 1997, DfEE, London. 14 European Commission, Growth, Competitiveness, Employment, The Challenges and Ways
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Forward into the 21st Century. White Paper, P24, Luxembourg 1994
Ibid P113. COM (2000) 256, Brussels 26.04.2000 17 eEurope An Information Society for All, Progress Report, Lisbon, March 2000 18 Report on the Business Environment Simplification Task Force, Volumes I & II, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1998
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_ Encouraging a regulatory and business environment that takes account of sustainable development, and in which research, innovation and entrepreneurship can flourish; _ Improving the financial environment for SMEs; _ Enhance the competitiveness of SMEs in the knowledge-based economy; _ Ensure that business support networks and services to enterprises are provided and coordinated. This study has the potential to provide business support service providers with information about the needs and preferences of heads of SMEs. The eEurope Initiative The eEurope initiative (as described in “eEurope An Information Society for All”)19 has three key objectives: _ It should bring every citizen, school, business and administration online and into the digital age. _ Create a digitally literate Europe _ Ensure that the whole process is socially inclusive. This report presents information regarding current use of ICTs by SME managers, what the perceived barriers to use of ICTs are, and what would encourage managers to make more use of ICTs. This information may be useful in determining how these objectives can be realised

in the case of SME heads. The BEST Report The BEST Report presents a number of recommendations and findings that are related to this study regarding SME support, education of training and the use of ICTs in training. A summary of these findings and recommendations are provided below: 1) Mentoring and Business Angels: BEST suggests the need for incentive schemes to catalyse mentoring by experienced individuals. Introduction to business angels to raise finance should be facilitated by organising easily accessible networks. 2) The Education and Training of Entrepreneurs: - Training needs to take greater account of the special needs of SMEs. - Training for entrepreneurship needs to be developed. - There is a need for more emphasis on business management skills, including the application of business computer software. - It should be easier to find out about the content and structure of training measures for professional skills and business administration in other Member States. - Exchange of business experience between experienced entrepreneurs and young entrepreneurs is to be commended. - There should be financial incentives for entrepreneurs to participate in further training - There should be promotion of training to assist women to become entrepreneurs. 3) The use of ICTs in Education and Training: - The need to support tele and distance learning methods, reducing time spent in training institutions. - These methods should supplement practical training - There is a need for a stronger integration of innovative technologies into the different training methods.
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www.ispo.cec.be/basics/i_europe.html

4) The need to improve the quality and visibility of support services for businesses: The Action Plan to Promote Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness proposes a dedicated Internet site for exchange of information to improve support services. A directory of web information services for small businesses called “Screen” is also proposed. There is a need to support businesses in the growth phase.

These areas of the BEST Report have been considered in order to present recommendations, which complement previous EU policy and developments. The Business Education Network of Europe (BENE) Linked to the BEST recommendations and the Evaluation of the Third Multiannual Programme for SMEs is the setting up of BENE, the business education network of Europe. This will link up institutions specialised in entrepreneurial training to stimulate the exchange of best practice throughout Europe. BENE will be evaluating best practice from business training institutions. There are clear links with Phase 2 of this study. BENE will be making assessments in the following areas: quality of provision; how the Internet is used for training; use of training methods for entrepreneurs; mode of training; field of training; development of personal skills. Summary of areas highlighted by policy documents regarding training for SMEs In addition to the three policy areas highlighted above a number of policy documents and reports of research on ICTs and development of SMEs has been published in a number of documents, including: COM (99) 319, evaluating the Third Multiannual Programme for SMEs; the European Commission Action Plan to Promote Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness, 1999; COM (1999) 569 on concerted action in the field of enterprise policy; COM (2000) 2320; Multimedia Educational Software Observatory, 1998; the Prometeus Initiative.21 From these reports and the three documents highlighted in the previous subsections, a number of conclusions emerge about training for SMEs. They can be summarised as follows _ The need for tailor-made training. SMEs are highly heterogeneous. Training needs to be sensitive to the different stages of development of a firm. There are different types of enterprise depending on size, sector, management style, technology and growth potential. Training needs to have a high practical relevance. The priority areas for training are business management skills including marketing, international business procedures, quality and control and application of business computer software. _ The need for a client-oriented training. This means that there is a need for co-operation

with SMEs in setting up services and designing training. Better networks for SMEs are needed. Exchange mechanisms for mentoring and business angels need to be set up.
Designing Tomorrow’s Education Promoting Innovation with New Technologies, European Commission, 2000. 21 ‘PROMETEUS promotes multimedia access,’ in CORDIS RTD-NEWS, European Commission 2000, The Prometeus initiative was established under the European Commission’s Telematics Application Programme, to bridge the gap between research and use of learning technologies, content and services.
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_ Quality assurance and standards of training for SMEs. This is associated with the need for rationalisation of services. SMEs have difficulty finding out about training. This is partly because there are many providers and training programmes and a lack of consensus on what the core services should be and what training is the most useful. _ Promoting entrepreneurship throughout a firm’s entire lifecycle. Globalisation, technological change and the new economy generate greater competition. This implies a need for change in management strategy. Generating and encouraging entrepreneurs requires the generation of more sophisticated training measures. _ The need to overcome the North/South divide in Europe in terms of penetration of ICTs and price differences. Need for more SMEs to incorporate the Internet throughout their production and distribution chain to assist growth. General need to raise awareness of ICT techniques for training, especially using Internet, electronic mail and videoconferencing 3.5 General Usage of ICTs by SMEs The use of ICT in management training may be able to overcome barriers such as cost, timing and location. However if usage of ICT is not at a sufficiently high level for managers, then there are further technology barriers which need to be overcome. The TELEMAN22 study investigated the use of ICT for training in SMEs surveyed 1000 firms with between 10 and 250 employees. TELEMAN found that most companies have only one terminal connected to the Internet and one email address. Overall 52% of firms had ISDN connection and 77% had a modem. A recent study of the use of IT in the G7 nations23 examined the ‘connectivity’24 of firms by

size. Of firms employing up to 250 people, those in the size range of 1-9 employees showed the lowest degree of connectivity. German firms showed the highest levels of usage in this size range (28% of firms showing connectivity) and France and the UK the lowest (15% of firms in each country). The highest level of usage is seen in companies employing 100-250 people, with the UK performing best (70% of firms). Whilst 88% of large companies25 used email in 1999, this percentage dropped to 66% for SMEs and 40% for microfirms. The use of Electronic Data Interchange followed a similar trend, running at 49% for large companies, 23% for SMEs and 10% for micro-firms. 25% of large companies used videoconferencing in 1999 compared to 5% of SMEs and 2% of micros. Whilst this information is a snapshot of ICT usage in European SMEs, it indicates many of them, particularly micro-firms, do not have the prerequisites to take full advantage of ICTBT.
Tele-Teaching and Training for Management of SMEs – Studies, TeleMan Consortium, September 1998. The project was carried out from June 1997 to August 1998. 23 Moving into the Information Age – An International Benchmarking Study 1999 The countries surveyed were: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK and USA. 24 Connectivity was measured as the use of at least one of three technologies (a) websites, (b) frequent use of external email and (c) frequent use of EDI (electronic data interchange) 25 These figures consider all countries in the study: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, USA, UK and Canada. Since ICT usage is more widespread in the USA and Canada than in Europe (Massey, Jane: How Digital Learning Differs in Europe, March 2000, www.learningcircuits.org) it can safely be assumed that figures given in this section are higher rather than lower.
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3.6 Summary of current knowledge concerning heads of SMEs Section 3 has given an overview of the current literature relevant to this study. The nature of training demanded by heads of SMEs involves: _ Client-orientated design involving SMEs _ Need for tailor-made training for SMEs which responds to their heterogeneity _ Need for a problem-solving approach _ Need for quality assurance However, heads of SMEs face constraints in the following: _ Cost and time _ ICT use and connectivity barriers _ Lack of understanding of ICTBT The need for further investigation

There was a lack of information in crucial areas surrounding the needs of heads of SMEs in terms of training and access to expertise. These are summarised below. About Heads of SMEs About Providers _ Requirements for training of heads of SMEs _ Nature of training for heads of SMEs _ Opinions of heads on available training _ Constraints on providers _ Attitudes of providers _ Usage and expertise in ICT _ Use of ICT in training delivery for SMEs _ Experience of ICT supported training _ Constraints in ICT delivery _ Attitudes to ICT supported training _ Attitudes of providers to ICT delivery Heads of SMEs Section 4: Use of ICTBT
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4 THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TRAINING The rapid development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) presents a real opportunity for the design and delivery of training material.26 This has an impact on policy making on a national, European and worldwide level.27 In 1997, over one million pages were already registered on Internet search engines and 200 million people are expected to be online by the end of this year,28 demonstrating that web-based training plays a fundamental role in distance education.2930 4.1 What is ICT Based Training? To assess the relevance of Information and Communications Technology Based Training (ICTBT) for SME managers, it is necessary to define what we understand by ICTBT. The following sub-section describes some of the technologies and terminologies used in this report. It is important to differentiate between ICTBT and ‘distance learning’. ICTBT is a set of techniques based on ICT, sometimes used together, sometimes singly. It may facilitate learning at a distance, for example through an on-line course delivered using the Internet. It may also be used as a tool to enhance training taking place at a training provider’s location. ‘Distance learning’ is not necessarily ICT-based. For example the Open University in the UK, uses

mainly paper-based text-books, work-books and learning guides to offer training at a distance. The learner works mainly from home. In Mainstreaming Learning Technologies, Mark Van Buren gives a detailed breakdown of the technologies used in training presentation and delivery methods:31
Presentation Methods Delivery Methods _ Electronic Text _ CBT _ Interactive Multimedia _ Interactive TV _ Teleconferencing _ GroupWare _ Virtual Reality _ Audio _ Video _ Electronic Performance Support System _ Cable TV _ CD-ROM _ Electronic mail (email) _ Extranet _ Internet _ Intranet _ Local Area Network (LAN) _ Satellite TV _ Simulator _ Wide area networks (WAN) _ World Wide Web (WWW)

Using the categories proposed by Mark Van Buren a search for examples of how these technologies are currently being used was carried out. The examples are not all concerned with management training but relate to the technology that might be used in the future to train SME managers.
For an example see: Mudge, Stephen, ‘Delivering Multimedia Teaching Modules via the Internet, in Innovation in Educational Technologies International 1999, Vol. 36.1, P11. 27 Examples are PROMETEUS – Promoting Multimedia Access to Education and Training in the European Society, www.prometeus.org; and the IMS Global Learning Consortium, www.imsproject.org. 28 Eberl, Ulrich, “Where the Web is Going,” Siemens Research and Innovation, 2/97, pp.9-15 29 Khan, B.H. (ed.), Web-Based Instruction, Educational Technology Publications, 1997 (480 pp.). 30 Bethoney, Herb, ‘Computer Based Training on the web,’ PCWeek, August 1998. 31 Mainstreaming Learning Technologies - Mark Van Buren available at:
26

http://www.astd.org/CMS/templates/index.html?template_id=1&articleid=11599

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17 Presentation Methods
Electronic Text – ISTUD, an Italian training provider, disseminates electronic text in management training programmes. The distance learning courses are aimed at SME managers and cover traditional

management areas such as sales strategy and marketing. The course materials and exercises are sent to participants via email.32 CBT – The TRANSMETE project,33 created under the Telematics for Education and Training Programme, developed and delivered courses on telematic applications for SMEs. A CD-ROM was developed, used as a stand-alone training aid for SMEs. In the evaluation report, the CD-ROM, which (as standalone) equates to CBT, was generally positively received. Interactive Multimedia – The Telematics Centre at the School of Education, University of Exeter, has developed an Internet based multimedia training course for teachers ‘Telematics in Teacher Training.’ This combines text, graphics, and video, and enables the user to control the sequence of the content.34 Teleconferencing - Initially developed and most commonly used for communication within a business setting, videoconferencing has been identified by a number of educators as having strong potential in educational settings. A recent project funded under SOCRATES is establishing videoconferencing as a mechanism for training of SME managers.35 GroupWare – The Metä Institute Silva36 uses a collaborative document sharing system to train employees during on-the-job apprenticeship periods. Senior co-ordinators set students written tasks. The student carries out the task and sends the answer back as an attachment for correction. After approval, the student saves the answer into an online learning diary. A workplace-based mentor also has access to the diary to check technical details in the answer. Audio – The CLEAR project develops computer-supported environments, which facilitate cooperative and distributed learning in organisations. As part of this project, the VITAL learning environment prototype has been developed. This uses the metaphor of virtual rooms and integrates audio conferencing as well as email and chat tools to provide support for communication processes essential for co-operative learning.37 Video - the use of video as a training aid forms an integral part of established distance learning courses such as those delivered by the Open University in the United Kingdom.38 Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS) – The Benchmarking Forum of the American Society for Training and Development has been seeking best practice since 1994. One of these examples is the California State Automobile Association. The company improved customer service by using an online guide holding information on products and services, made available to relevant staff.39 This EPSS dramatically reduced time staff needed to access necessary information and is constantly revised and updated. Virtual Reality – A number of business simulations are beginning to emerge combining virtual reality settings with traditional case method teaching. One example is the Business Navigator Method developed by CALT.40 Business Navigator develops a virtual interactive business environment (VIBE) in a realistically simulated business context (e.g. a company) which the learner is invited to explore. It is also likely more advanced packages incorporating pedagogical agents will become available, although

these are not currently part of mainstream provision.41 Such agents track progress through the simulation. 32 www.sviluppoimpresa.com 33 www.eurocom.gr/EurPrj/transmete/transmete/uk/Index.html 34 http://www.ex.ac.uk/education/frames/telematics.htm 35 Carried out by TEMPO and partners: http://www.tempo-tc.com 36 Experiences in Using Internet Based Learning Environment in Paper Industry. ICEE 2000 Conference, August 14-16, 2000, Grand Hotel, Taipei, August 17-18, 2000, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan. 37 www.darmstadt.gmd.de/concert/activities/internal/clear.html 38 http://www.open.ac.uk 39 Lucadamo, Lisa and Cheney, Scott , Learning From the Best, www.astd.org 40 Described in Anghern, A, and Nabeth, T: ‘Leveraging Emerging Technologies in Management Education: Research and Experiences’ in European Management Journal, 1997, Vol. 15, No 3, pp275 – 285. 41 Recent research at the ‘Centre for Advanced Research in Technology for Education’ – University of Southern Carolina, has developed two virtual instructors Steve and Adele for use in training: http://www.isi.edu/isd/carte

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Delivery Methods
Cable/Satellite TV – the EuroPACE project, which is developing a virtual university for Europe, Uses satellite transmission on both a pre-recorded and live/interactive basis, for its Open Fora series and Ph.D. programme.42 EuroPACE finds satellite TV a useful way of contacting people throughout Europe, but has progressed beyond using it as a sole means of communication, also employing Internet technologies, ISDN-videoconferencing, and CD-ROM. CD-ROM – CD-ROM based training is common throughout Europe.43 The MASTRI ADAPT project, aimed at SMEs in the textile sector, produced a CD-ROM for management training.44 This focuses on topics such as Personal Development, Organisational Change and Culture and Strategic Management and Planning. It uses multimedia to convey its message, combining video, audio, animations and text. Email – The YOUANDI Communication Network made use of email within its TIDE Learning Organisation ADAPT Project.45 This project developed, implemented and evaluated a training concept for SME staff. It found the best courses use a combination of delivery techniques. Email was used as an offlinetutoring tool together with other tools such as CD-ROM, videoconferencing, traditional media and facetoface intensive workshops. E-mentoring – Use is widespread in USA, with a good example being provided by the Mentornet, which pairs women studying engineering with mentors in large companies.46 LAN/WAN – The Telematics Learning Project, conducted by Suffolk College, provides one example of a LAN used for training.47 Students in rural areas were given the opportunity to participate in a Local History course. Four learning centres were established in rural Suffolk with ISDN links to the main College server, enabling students to complete the course from a distance. They used the Internet,

videoconferencing and email (including group email conferencing). However, the use of these latter two methods was limited due to technological problems. Simulator - The Conglomerate virtual business game offered by Mbagames.com48 simulates a commercial environment in which managers run a small multi-national company and make realistic team decisions. Teams compete against one another, over a period of up to two months and decisions made impact upon one another. They are set certain decisions online, discuss the best response, and key in their answer online. World Wide Web (WWW) including Internet Intranet/Extranet – There are an increasing number of internet-based training programmes available for SME managers including the ICM Business School by Internet.49 The ICM MBA is based on Action Learning and students use email and web-forums to communicate with their tutor and one another. Intranet based training lends itself to academic provision. The Human-Computer Interaction module at the University of Teeside50 makes extensive use of Intranet and Internet technologies. Course materials (including augmented online lectures and selfmanaged study assignments) are made available on the Intranet for students to access at a time of their choice.

4.2 A Virtual Learning Environment A Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) aims to overcome many of the problems associated with ICTBT. VLEs take the form of web based GroupWare for
42 43

www.europace.be/info/ideas/telematics.html CD-ROM and Internet/Intranet based training are leading the Education and Training Multimedia Market – Multimedia Educational Software Observatory (MESO) – European Overview 1998. 44 CD-ROM entitled “Management: TC 2001, Achieving Business Growth in the Textile and

Clothing Industry through Training and Development.” 45 YOUANDI Communication Network GmbH, The Tide Learning Organisation, January 2000.
46

http://mentornet.net National electronic industrial mentoring network for women in engineering and science (US). Pairing of students with industrial scientists. Mentoring relationships via e-mail. Non-profit sponsored by: AT&T and Intel Foundations, US Department of Education, IBM, Cisco Systems, Ford Motor Company, Microsoft, Hewlett Packard, IEEE Foundation, SPIE, Texaco, SAP LABS and Los Alamos National Laboratory 47 Funnell, Peter: ‘Views From the Screen-Face: Issues Emerging From an Exploration of the Value of Telematics-Supported Learning,’ in Innovation in Educational Technologies International 1999, Vol 36.3, P177-184. 48 www.mbagames.com 49 http://www.internet-mba.com – MBA offered by BSN International entirely via the internet. BSN International has been accredited by several Accrediting Commissions such as the Distance Education and Training Council and CEDEO. 50 Barker, Philip, University of Teeside, UK, ‘Using Intranets to Support Teaching and Learning,’ in Innovation in Educational Technologies International 1999, Vol 36.1, P3-9.

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collaborative learning.51 A VLE can provide a complete framework for online course delivery, including course management. One example is LearnLoop52 (currently still in development). For access to LearnLoop, the user requires an Internet browser and the comprehensive manual offers user-friendly instructions. Users of LearnLoop may participate in the following actions: _ Take part in and begin discussions, either sequential or threaded. _ Participate in and construct Quizzes or surveys _ Peer Review of documents _ List private or course resources _ Use personal and course calendars _ Read and send email LearnLoop aims to encourage user participation through allowing users to edit and add to courses as well as course administrators. Whilst VLEs are currently largely used in the academic environment,53 their use in the business environment is growing. One example is the Business Navigator method,54 which combines the case study and business simulation methods. Business Navigator comprises a virtual interactive business environment (VIBE), in a simulated business context (e.g. a company) which the learner explores. Whilst VIBEs can be used on a stand-alone basis, the better option involves a multi-user dimension, allowing interaction with other learners and experts. For example the INSEAD Executive Education World55 allows virtual meetings and lectures to be conducted. 4.3 Current Position of ICTBT ICTBT is a set of techniques based on ICT, sometimes used together, sometimes used singly. Where the techniques are used together this may constitute a virtual learning environment. Virtual Learning Environment Single Applications _ Use of GroupWare _ CD-ROM - multimedia resource combining video, audio, text _ on-line interaction, management and administration _ e-mentoring _ student private resource area, document resource area _ on-line Internet and Intranet based courses _ assessments, group forums,

document sharing, whiteboard, _ email as a tutoring tool _ bulletin board, chat-room, _ simulation/ virtual reality decision-making games
51 An

description of a GroupWare solution (WebCT) as described by Marshall University (USA) is given in Appendix 2, together with a comparison of different GroupWare products by Arizona State University (USA). 52 www.learnloop.org 53 For examples see: www.hull.ac.uk/merlin; www.comentor.ac.uk 54 Angehrn, Albert and Nabeth Thierry: ‘Leveraging Emerging Technologies in Management Education: Research and Experiences,’ in the European Management Journal, Vol 15, No 3, June 1997. 55 http://www.insead.fr/CALT/VirtualWorlds/

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ICTBT offers many potential advantages in reaching heads of SMEs because of its ability to offer support at any time and place. However, there is currently a lack of literature, which gives a full picture of the views of SME heads on the issue of ICT Based Training (ICTBT). There is also evidence of a disparity in the views of representatives of SMEs and the agencies that serve them56 57. ICTBT is an area which is changing very fast. There is a need for further investigation concerning the requirements and experience of heads of SMEs and the current position of training providers. These areas are explored through this study by interviewing heads of SMEs and training providers.
56

‘Training for entrepreneurship and new businesses’ Klofsten, M. (1999) Industry &

Higher Education, December 1999
‘Building Business – Management Training for Small Firms’ Creagh, Barrow & Morrow, 1998, Cranfield University School of Management
57

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities of Heads of SMEs
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5 RESEARCH INTO PRIORITIES OF HEADS OF SMES

Design of questionnaires - Interview questionnaire In order to collect data regarding Heads of SMEs two questionnaires were designed, for delivery face-to-face. The first of these, an interview questionnaire was designed to address the nature of SME heads, their business approach and their attitude to and experience of training and ICT use. The areas presented in Table 1 were included.

The questionnaire was piloted in organisations in the UK. This resulted in some amendments to the wording of questions, inclusion of further questions to examine reasons for negative attitude towards use of ICT based techniques in management training. A copy of the final interview questionnaire for SME heads is shown in full in Appendix 1.

Main areas of inquiry with heads of SMEs

Degree of ICT penetration _ Which ICTs are being used by managers and by the company as a whole? _ Which ICTs are being used in different management areas? _ Which ICT techniques are used to gain expertise and management training? Level of ICT proficiency _ Managers’ level of existing ICT expertise _ Managers’ ICT training needs
Attitudes to different management training techniques

_ How managers view current ICTbased training from their experiences (benefits and barriers) _ Preferences for use of ICT versus traditional training delivery _ Reasons for not wanting ICTBT
Practical issues _ Relationship between small business problems and management training _ How barriers to training can be overcome _ Who should provide training, when is most suitable and where

Design of questionnaires - Learning styles questionnaire A second questionnaire, a learning styles questionnaire (see Appendix 1), was also delivered to SME managers to determine whether there is an indication of a preferred learning style among SME managers. While there is no evidence that SME managers, as a group, have particular learning preferences, there is some indication that some sub groups do so, e.g. those running New Technology Based Firms. Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities of Heads of SMEs
22

Furthermore, many authorities do assert that the personality of the entrepreneur is paramount in determining the success of the SME.

Four styles of learning have been proposed based on Honey & Mumford (198658) to analyse the preferences of people for learning in particular ways. These are: _ Activists, who learn by trying things out _ Reflectors, who learn by observing, collecting data and analysing it _ Theorists, who think logically, and follow logical rules. _ Pragmatists, who learn by experimentation. Although people combine the above approaches, they do show distinct preferences for one or two of the approaches. To achieve optimum results, a training programme for each of the above groups would be designed differently. An evaluation of the learning style preferences is relevant in determining, what techniques of training might be most appropriate to the target group of entrepreneurs. This is particularly appropriate given the opportunities offered by the new media in training, which allow for interaction and virtual experimentation, as well as on line evaluation. Sampling and Delivery A total of 175 firms across seven EU countries were sought for interview. Firms were targeted with regard to (i) size (ii) sector and (iii) Objective region. A sampling frame was drawn up as shown in Appendix 1. This was used to inform partners in the construction of a database of 1000 companies across the partner countries. The sample for interview mainly covered firms who had some previous contact with the partner organisations delivering the project. Thus the firms are more likely to show a positive attitude towards business support and management training than the general population of SMEs. It is also likely that they have a more positive approach to ICTs. They thus form a typical cross section of firms who are likely to be early adopters of new training offers. Analysis of Results In total, 168 completed interview questionnaires were received. Most were delivered face-to-face apart from 18 Italian questionnaires which were delivered over the telephone. Results were compiled and analysed using SPSS for Windows and Excel 97 to derive frequencies of responses and interrelationships. Responses to questions were coded and inputted into a program created for this analysis. The

results of analysis of the interview questionnaires are presented as Section 4 of this report. Completed learning styles questionnaires were received from four countries (Finland, France, Greece and the United Kingdom). Learning style preferences were compiled for each manager based on their responses to the questionnaire using the framework presented in Appendix 1.
58 The

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manual of learning styles, Honey, P., and Mumford, M., Maidenhead, 1986.

Results of Research into Priorities of Heads of SMEs Sections 5.1-5.6 present the findings from a survey of 168 SME managers from seven different EU countries: Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal and United Kingdom. A copy of the questionnaire is provided in Annex 1 to this report. The findings are presented as follows: _ Composition of sample - composition of the sample according to
several personal and company attributes _ General use of ICTs - overview of previous use of ICTs by managers _ Experience of ICT-based - overview of which ICTs have been used previously training in training and views of this form of training _ Training preferences - how managers prefer training to be delivered and what they want to learn _ Effect of size - relationship between size of company and other factors _ Analysis of effect of sex of - - relationship between sex and other factors respondent Section 5.7 presents the results of a Learning Styles questionnaire in four of the Member States involved in this study: Finland, France, Greece and UK. This assesses the learning types of managers and as such can be useful in the design of appropriate training. Section 5.8 provides a summary of the requirements of Heads of SMEs.

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Composition of Sample
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5.1 Composition of sample
Results Factors such as industry, size (by number of employees and turnover) and level of education of managers are important considerations when examining the data relating to this study. The type of industry of a company could have an impact on the level of ICT used, previous

educational experiences of an SME head could inform their attitudes to training and size of company could dictate the freedom to dedicate resources to training and the ability to implement new technologies. As such, the sample group needs to be clearly defined to make results meaningful and to give them a context. Figure 1 Composition of Sample by Industry
In the figure above, slices define the industry group to which companies belong: (a) manufacturing manufacturing, (b) technical/business - technical/business services, (c) distribution - distribution, (d) other services - other services and (e) missing - missing data. Within the sample, 2 managers failed to provide data, this is equivalent to 1.2% of the total sample.

SME heads were asked to classify their area of business as one of four categories: manufacturing, technical/business services, distribution and other services. The sample exhibits a split roughly into thirds comprising one third manufacturing (32% [54 companies]); one third technical/business services (39% [66 companies]) and the remaining third combining distribution and other services (15% and 13% [25 companies and 21 companies] respectively). There are certain differences within the sample between countries, for example manufacturing is highly represented in the UK (44%), whilst technical and business services are highly represented in Greece and Italy (48% and 52%).
other ser vices distribution technical / bus iness manufac turing Missing

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Composition of Sample
25 Figure 2 Composition of sample by size of company (number of employees)
In the figure above slices represent the number of employees in the company of interviewees. "Missing" relates to missing data. Two of the sample failed to provide a response to this question. This is equivalent to 1.2% of the total sample .

The figure above illustrates the breakdown of sample according to size, as defined by number of employees. Managers were asked to classify size of company as one of three categories according to number of employees (a) 10 and fewer (micro-businesses); (b) 11-50 (small firms) and (c) 51-249 (medium sized firms). As can be seen from the figure, the sample comprises mainly companies employing up to 50 people (77%). Micro businesses comprise 42% of companies, small businesses 36% and medium sized businesses 21%. Distribution amongst countries is subject to some variation, with France having 40% of its companies in the 51-249 employees categories and Portugal having no companies in this size bracket.

The composition of the sample has also been examined with regard to turnover. Company size shows a positive correlation which is significant at the 0.01 level. The majority of firms (69%) have turnover of €2,500,000 or less. Again, there are differences in distribution between countries, with 84% of the Portuguese SMEs interviewed having a turnover of €250,000 or less compared with the French and German samples which comprised 52% and 43% with turnovers exceeding €2,500,000.
51 to 249 11 to 50 10 and fewer Missing

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Composition of Sample
26 Figure 3 Composition of sample by management position
In the figure above, slices represent specific management roles.

The majority of respondents identified themselves to be managers/directors (86% [144 people]) with a few identifying specialised areas of management (marketing 7% [11], finance 5% [8] and technical 3% [5]). There are no major differences in distribution between countries. A final factor used to define the sample is level of education of the manager. Interviewees were asked to describe their level of education as (a) school certificate, (b) university, (c) postgraduate education or (d) professional training. As can be seen in Figure 4, the majority of managers have either a university level or higher education (78% [131 managers]), with the most common level of education being a university first degree (42% [70 managers]). There are differences in levels of education, with Italy and UK exhibiting a high number of managers with school certificates (44% [11 managers] and 32% [8], respectively). Whilst, Germany and Greece exhibit a high number of managers with a postgraduate education (48% [11 managers] and 40% [10], respectively). The countries exhibiting the highest levels of professional training within the sample are UK and Finland (16% [4 managers] and 19% [4], respectively).
technical manager finance manager marketing manager manager/director

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Composition of Sample
27 Figure 4 Composition of sample by level of educational qualification
In the figure above, slices represent different levels of education as follows: (a) school certificate -

manager holds a school certificate, (b) university - manager is educated to first degree level, (c) postgraduate educati - manager holds a masters or doctoral degree, (d) professional education manager holds a relevant professional qualification e.g. MBA and (e) Missing - manager has failed to provide a response. Seven managers have failed to provide a response, this corresponds to 4% of the total sample.

Conclusions The following conclusions can be drawn from the data regarding the nature of the sample group of SMEs: _ Firms are drawn mainly from the manufacturing and technical/business services sectors. _ A high proportion of the sample (approximately two thirds) have 50 or fewer employees _ The majority of managers do not associate their role with a specific management type (for example, financial manager). Differentiation between management types is greater in larger companies within the sample.59 _ The sample is also educated to a high level, with more than three-quarters possessing a minimum of a university education.
Cross-tabulation of management position against size of company show that 7.1% of managers in micro-firms and 8.3% of managers in small firms classify themselves as a "type" of manager, compared with 38.9% of managers in medium sized firms (data not shown).
59

Missing professional trainin pos tgraduate educati univ ersity school certificate

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5.2 General Use of ICTs
Results This subsection gives a baseline for managers' previous experience of using ICT. It provides an indication of what ICTs they have used, their levels of ICT competence, and in which areas of management their companies use ICT. This provides a background regarding the ICT skills level of managers, allowing a judgement of what ICTs managers are familiar with. Figure 5 ICTs used by managers in the workplace
The figure above illustrates the number of managers using a variety of ICTs in the workplace. Of the questionnaires gathered, there were 151 valid cases, with 17 managers not responding to this question.

As might be expected, the ICTs used by managers most frequently are those which are considered to be most established. The most commonly used ICTs are email (133 managers [88%]), Internet (130 [86%]), CD-ROM (118 [78%]) and basic software packages (116

[77%]). Similarly, more specialised packages with distinct applications are less well used, for example CAD (26 managers [17%]), CAE (15 [10%]), and CIM (10 [7%]). Managers were also asked to identify the use of ICTs by different managers within their company. They were asked to identify whether ICTs were used routinely in: (a) Financial management, (b) Strategic and production management, (c) Marketing and international management and (d) Human resources management. Figure 6 shows the number of companies in which ICT is routinely used by each role. Financial Management is the area in which ICT is most frequently used, with 131 of the companies using ICT in financial management (92%)59. Just under half the companies involved in the survey use ICT for strategic and production management and marketing and international management (69 [49%] and 64 [45%] respectively). 59 Percentage has been calculated as number of companies as a proportion of valid cases 1.e. as a percentage of 151 companies.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Email Internet CD ROM Excel/Word/Access Website Presentations Intranet Statistics Firewall Extranet Ecommerce Inventory Statistical Process Control CAD Video conferencing CAE CIM

Type of ICTs No. of Managers

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – General Use of ICT
29 Figure 6 Use of ICTs within different management roles
The figure above shows the number of companies, which make use of ICTs in four different areas of management (a) financial management, (b) strategic and production management, (c) marketing and international management and (d) human resources management. The data presented is based on 142 valid cases, in 26 of the questionnaires, responses had not been given to this question.

ICT uptake appears to be lowest in the area of human resources management, with only 52 companies (37%) using ICT routinely in this role. Finally, managers were asked to identify what they felt to be their own level of ICT expertise, from a pre-set list of levels. Levels used were: (a) none, (b) occasional use, (c) regular use of

basic software packages (d) regular use of email, (e) regular use of the Internet, (f) specialist use or (g) expert. Figure 7 shows the distribution of expertise. The most common responses were "Regular use of email" (108 managers), "Regular use of basic packages" (107) and "Regular use of the Internet" (103). Only 7 managers responded that they had no ICT experience, whilst 23 managers considered themselves to be experts. Within the sample, almost one quarter of managers are involved in specialist use of ICT (41 managers).
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Financial Management Strategic and Production Management Marketing and International Management Human Resources Management

Management Role Number of Companies Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – General Use of ICT
30 Figure 7 Level of ICT expertise of managers
The figure above illustrates the level of ICT expertise of managers questioned in the survey. The frequency/type of usage are as follows: (a) none - no ICT expertise, (b) occasional - occasional use of ICTs, (c) Regular use of basic packages - regular use of basic packages, for example MS Office applications, (d) Email - regular use of email, (e) Internet - regular use of the Internet, (f) Specialist packages - specialist packages such as CAD, CIM, CAE and (g) expert - expert in use of ICT.

Conclusions The following conclusions can be drawn from the data presented in this section: _ There is a high usage of established ICTs, with a small number of managers using specialist packages. _ The majority of managers use basic packages, email and Internet regularly. _ Use of eCommerce by managers is low. _ Differences between use of ICT in different management roles are apparent. _ Highest use of ICT occurs in financial management and the lowest in human resources management.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

None Occasional Regular use of basic packages E-mail Internet Specialist Packages Expert

Frequency/Type of Usage No of Managers

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5.3 Experience of ICT-based training
In discussing best practice in delivery of training to managers using ICT, it is essential to find out level of awareness of ICT, what previous experience managers have had of this type of training and what they thought of it. In order to do this, the questionnaire incorporated questions regarding (a) what ICTs have been used previously by managers for training, (b) the good and bad experiences of managers in using these ICTs, (c) reasons for managers not having used ICTs for training and (d) what factors would influence managers to use ICT based training in the future. Figure 8 ICTs used by managers in previous training
The figure above shows the level of use of different ICTs by managers. Columns represent types of ICTs, with shading representing the frequency of use, from the following list: (a) never heard about the respondent has never heard about the technology / its use for training, (b) never used respondent has never used the technology for training, (c) tried a little - respondent has tried using the technology a few times, (d) used occasionally - the respondent uses ICTs for training on an occasional basis, and (e) use a lot - respondent uses ICTs on a regular basis for training.

From the figure above, awareness of existence of ICT-based training is high. In three of the ICT technologies, CD ROM, Internet Searches and email, the combined figure for all those using ICT - "tried a little", "used occasionally", "use a lot" - outweighs the number of respondents who have not heard of or used technologies. The distribution is as follows: CD ROM - 54% of managers have used, Internet Search - 56% of managers have used, email 51% of managers have used. The use of each of the three technologies shows a positive correlation with managers' use of the same technologies in the workplace.61 61 Correlation shows significance to the 0.01 level using a bivariate Pearson productmoment correlation.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

CD ROM Internet Searches Email Internet Training Video for training Video conferencing Virtual Reality Ementoring

Type of ICT Number of People
Never heard about Never used Tried a little Used occasionally Use a lot

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Experience of ICT-based training

32 Managers were then asked about their experiences of using ICTs for training: both good and bad. The findings are presented in Figures 9, 10a and 10b. Figure 9 Good and bad aspects of using ICTs in training - Overview
The figure above shows a breakdown of the good and bad aspects of ICT-based training defined by managers. The top chart shows good aspects of ICT-based training as a percentage of total responses received. The categories were presented within the questionnaire: (a) up to date info - the ICT used enables more up to date information to be used, (b) immediate - use of ICTs makes training more immediate (c) Own pace - use of ICTs allows learning at own pace, (d) relevant - training was relevant and (e) better retention - the manager felt that training resulted in better retention of information. The bottom chart shows bad aspects as a percentage of total responses received, again categories were presented in the questionnaire: (a) out of date information - information presented was out of date, (b) Lack of human support - lack of human support (c) Unreliable (tech.) - unreliability of the technology, (d) irrelevant - training was irrelevant, (e) time consuming - training is time consuming and (f) poor presentation - training material was poorly presented.

From Figure 9, it can be seen that the most common aspects regarded as attributes of ICTbased training are: the immediacy it offers, the flexibility for the learner to work at their own pace, and that material is up to date. In terms of negative aspects, the lack of human support appears to be a major problem, along with poor presentation of information and
Good Aspects
23% 18% 31% 12% 11% 5% Up to date info Immediate Own Pace User interaction Relevant Better retention

Bad Aspects
13% 39% 13% 7% 11% 17% Out of date info Lack of Human Support Unreliable (tech.) Irrelevant Time consuming Poor Presentation

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Experience of ICT-based training
33 concerns over reliability of technology. Out of date information was cited as problem. It is possible, that this complaint draws on ICT-specific issues such as lack of updating of websites and CD-ROMs.

Figure 10a Good aspects of using ICTs in training

The figure above gives a breakdown of the good aspects of a number of different methods used for ICT training. Respondents were asked to pick responses to describe the good aspects of ICT based training that they had used. Each bar represents a single technology and the divisions within these, the good aspects. The categories were presented within the questionnaire: (a) up to date info - the ICT used enables more up to date information to be used, (b) immediate - use of ICTs makes training more immediate (c) Own pace - use of ICTs allows learning at own pace, (d) relevant - training was relevant and (e) better retention - the manager felt that training resulted in better retention of information.

From Figure 10a, it can be seen that the largest number of responses coincide with the most commonly used ICTs of email, Internet and CD-ROM. Although the distribution of good aspects is fairly even within each type of technology, certain technologies appear to have particular advantages. Internet searches, email contact and e-mentoring are felt to have the greatest potential for providing up to date information, with this good aspect accounting for 33%, 33% and 32% of responses associated with the respective technologies. With respect to immediacy Internet searches, email contact and e-mentoring are strong performers (35%, 38% and 36% respectively). Use of virtual reality and video-conferencing are felt to give good user-interactivity (30% and 50% respectively) and to lead to good retention of knowledge (23% and 19% respectively).
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 internet searches CD-Rom based training/reference email contacts use of internetbased training use of video for training virtual reality/game scenario training e-mentoring use of videoconferencing for training

Method of training Number of citations
Up to date info Immediate Own Pace User interaction Relevant Better retention

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Experience of ICT-based training
34 Figure 10b Bad aspects of using ICTs in training
The figure above gives a breakdown of the bad aspects of a number of different methods used for ICT training. Respondents were asked to pick responses to describe the bad aspects of ICT based training that they had used. Each bar represents a single technology and the divisions within these, the bad aspects. The categories were presented within the questionnaire: (a) out of date information -

information presented was out of date, (b) Lack of human support - lack of human support (c) Unreliable (tech.) - unreliability of the technology, (d) irrelevant - training was irrelevant, (e) time consuming - training is time consuming and (f) poor presentation - training material was poorly presented.

As with the good aspects, the frequently used technologies of CD-ROM and Internet searches feature heavily in the responses. However, the number of responses regarding email is reduced and the use of video for training features more heavily. Again responses tend to show a similar distribution between categories, but there are some distinctions. Concerns over reliability of technology account for 57% of responses relating to videoconferencing, much higher (in terms of number and proportion) than for more established technologies such as CD-ROM and Internet searches (5% and 7% respectively). It was also felt important, given the fact that some had no experience, to examine managers' reasons for not making use of ICT based training. Managers were asked to identify reasons from the following list: (a) lack of knowledge, (b) lack of quality assurance, (c) cost of technology, (d) not available in my language, (e) no suitable computer, (f) poor telecommunications infrastructure. The responses to this question are presented in Figure 11.
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 internet searches CD-Rom based training/reference email contacts use of internetbased training use of video for training virtual reality/game scenario training e-mentoring use of videoconferencing for training

Method of training Number of citations
Out of date info Lack of Human Support Unreliable (tech.) Irrelevant Time consuming Poor Presentation

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Experience of ICT-based training
35 It can be seen that the most common barrier to use of ICT appears to be a lack of knowledge. This to some extent contrasts with the results presented in Figure 9, which appear to suggest that people are aware of the use of ICTs in training.62 On further reflection, it appears that this question may have been interpreted in a number of ways. Lack of knowledge covers a range of areas including provision and personal knowledge in the use of ICT for training. Figure 11 Reasons for not using ICTs in training

The figure above shows reasons chosen by managers to explain why they had not previously used ICT based training. Managers were asked to select as many responses from the following as were appropriate: (a) lack of knowledge - lack of knowledge about ICT based training, (b) lack of quality assurance - lack of quality assurance of ICT based training, (c) cost of technology - the cost of the technology required to use ICT based training, (d) not available in my language - a lack of ICT based training material on offer in managers' first language, (e) no suitable computer - a lack of the equipment needed to take part in ICT based training, (f) poor telecommunications infrastructure company/individual does not have a sufficiently developed telecommunications infrastructure.

Managers suggested improvements that would increase their use of ICT for training in the future (Figure 12). Quality assurance was the most important factor (81 managers [48%]), followed by cheaper access (61 managers [36%]). However, these suggestions do not directly address the barriers of lack of knowledge, which suggests some uncertainty about what is wanted, but may also suggest that lack of knowledge has been interpreted as a lack of personal knowledge about ICT. Similarly, cost of technology was only identified by 10 managers as a barrier to using ICT based training, yet 61 managers have identified the need for a cheaper access. This may also refer to the cost of courses themselves.
Responses indicate a very small number of people (total of 10 distributed across all technologies) had not heard of the ICT technologies presented. In some cases, for example email, no respondents stated chose the "never heard of " response.
62 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Lack of Knowledge Lack of Quality Assurance Cost of Technology Not available in my language No Suitable Computer Poor Telecommunications Infrastructure

Reasons Number of people

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Experience of ICT-based training
36 Some managers identified additional factors, which have not been included in Figure 12. It is not possible to predict accurately what level of response these factors would have attracted if they had been included, but it is likely that they would have been identified by more managers. Two managers identified greater flexibility and one manager identified the use of discussion groups. Figure 12 Factors that would encourage managers to use ICT based training in the future.

The figure above shows factors that would encourage managers to use ICT based learning in the future.Managers were asked to select factors from the following: (a) Quality assurance – quality assurance (b) Cheaper access - reduction in the cost of access, (c) Recommendation from other SMEs recommendation from other SMEs, (d) Accreditation - better accreditation of courses, (e) Quality websites - higher quality websites, and (f) Provision in language - provision in first language of the manager. Some managers identified additional factors, which are discussed in the text.

Conclusions From the results presented in this section, the following conclusions can be drawn regarding perception and experience of ICT-based training: _ There appears to be a good awareness of the technologies associated with ICTbased learning but a relatively low take-up. _ Perceived advantages of ICT based learning are providing up-to-date information, flexibility and immediate training. _ ICT also has a number of perceived disadvantages, in particular lack of human support and poor presentation. _ There is a concept of different ICTs having different advantages: CD-ROM based training is good for learning at mangers' own pace Internet searches are immediate and provide up-to-date information _ Specific ICTs are also associated with particular disadvantages: Internet based training is seen as lacking human support Use of video-conferencing is seen as being technically unreliable
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Quality Assurance Cheaper Access Recommendation from other SMEs Accreditation Quality Websites Provision in Language

Factors Number of Citations

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Experience of ICT-based training
37 _ The major barrier to take-up of ICT based learning is lack of knowledge. It is likely that this factor combines a lack of personal ICT skills, particularly in areas such as Internet-based training and virtual reality which have low usage and a lack of knowledge regarding available training. _ The biggest factor that would influence managers to use ICT based training is greater quality assurance, with cheaper access and recommendations from other SMEs also being considerations.

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers

38

5.4 Training preferences of SME managers
Results In order to define best practice and determine the most effective way to deliver training to SME managers, it is necessary to examine how managers prefer training to be delivered, for example timing, location and by whom, and also what they wish to learn. Responses to these questions provide an indication of where resources and assistance should be focussed to serve SME managers' needs. Firstly managers were asked a series of questions regarding whom they preferred to receive training from, where they prefer to receive training and at what time they prefer to receive training. The responses are presented in Figures 13 - 18 respectively. Figure 13 Who managers prefer to receive training from
The figure above shows the training providers preferred by SME managers. Managers were asked to select their preferred training providers from the following: (a) private training providers private training providers, (b) universities - universities, (c) local public - local public training providers, (d) trade associations - trade associations and (e) networks - shared experience networks. In some cases, managers have indicated more than one training provider. Some managers identified other training providers; these are discussed in the text below.

It can be seen that the sample of managers interviewed showed a strong preference for private training provision (80 managers [48%]). This was followed by universitybased training provision (52 managers [31%]) and local public training providers (50 managers [30%]). In addition to the training providers shown above, managers identified other training providers, but the low responses given may not reflect their actual importance and as such these responses are not shown in the figure above. Eight managers highlighted the need for training to be provided by people with SME Expertise, that is practical experience of running a small business. Four managers indicated that a range of providers was preferable, and two managers indicated a preference for training organised by professional bodies. One manager highlighted other managers as a preferred training source.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Private Training Providers Universities Local Public Trade Associations Networks

Training Providers No of Citations

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers
39 There appear to be differences in preferences between countries, as shown in Figure 14. The overall preference for private training providers does not reflect the preferences of a number of the countries. In the cases of Germany, Greece, and Italy, there is a preference for this type of training provider (17 managers, 19 managers and 12 managers respectively). However both France and the UK show a preference for local public providers (12 managers and 8 managers respectively). SME managers in Finland appear to favour university provision (12 managers) whilst Portugal shows an even split between private training providers and university training (13 managers apiece). Figure 14 Preference for providers by country
The figure above illustrates the preferences of managers for different training providers by country. Bars represent 100% responses from countries, with the divisions showing the % contribution that each type of training provider makes to the whole response. Managers have selected preferences from the following: (a) private training providers - private training providers, (b) universities universities, (c) local public - local public training providers, (d) trade associations - trade associations and (e) networks - shared experience networks. In some cases, managers have indicated more than one training provider.

Figure 15 shows responses gathered from managers regarding their preferred location in which to receive training. It can be seen from the figure that the preferred location for training of the sample is in the company (79 managers [47%]), followed by a special location (74 managers [44%]). Under a quarter of managers expressed a preference for receiving training by computer (39 managers [24%]). Again, there are differences in preferences when responses are compared between countries. Training in a special location is preferred by SME managers in France, Germany, Greece and the United Kingdom (18 managers, 10 managers, 17 managers and 12 managers respectively). SME managers in Finland, Italy and Portugal show a preference for training delivered in the company (9 managers, 14 managers and 17 managers respectively).
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Finland France Germany Greece Italy Portugal United kingdom

Country

Contribution
Private Training Providers Universities Local Public Trade Associations Networks

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers
40 Figure 15 Where managers want training
The figure above shows the preferred location for receiving training. Managers were asked to chose their preferred location from the following: (a) in the company - training delivered on / to company premises, (b) special location - training delivered at a special location, (c) on the computer training delivered using computers, (d) home - training delivered to the home, and (e) social location training which is combined with a social event. Managers did not provider any other responses.

Figure 16 Preferences for location of training broken down by country
The figure above shows a breakdown of preferences regarding location of training by country. Bars represent 100% responses from countries, with the divisions showing the % contribution that each location makes to the whole response. Managers were asked to chose their preferred location from the following: (a) in the company - training delivered on / to company premises, (b) special location training delivered at a special location, (c) on the computer - training delivered using computers, (d)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

In the Company Special Location On the Computer Home Social Location

Location Number of Citations
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Finland France Germany Greece Italy Portugal United kingdom

Country Contribution
In the Company Home Special Location Social Location On the Computer

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers
41
home - training delivered to the home, and (e) social location - training which is combined with a social event.

In addition to identifying preferred providers and locations, managers were asked to identify their preferred timing for training. Preferences are presented as an overview of the sample and on a country-by-country basis in figures 17 and 18 respectively. Figure 17 When managers prefer to be trained
The figure above shows the preferred timing for receiving training. Managers were asked to chose their preferred location from the following: (a) at my request - training delivered on request, (b)

evening sessions - training delivered through evening training sessions, (c) instant access training which can be accessed instantaneously, (d) weekend sessions - training delivered through sessions held at the weekend, and (e) day sessions - delivered during the day. Managers did not provide any other responses, some managers provided more than one response.

It can be seen from the figure above that the most popular timing for training is at the manager's request (92 managers [55%]). This suggests that flexibility in timing of training is important to managers. There is a low preference for day sessions (8 managers [5%]). As with location and choice of training provider, there is a difference in preferences between countries, illustrated in Figure 18. In all countries except Portugal, the preference is for training delivered at the manager's request. SME managers in Portugal show a slight preference for training to be carried out during evening sessions (10 managers [40%]).
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 At My Request Evening Sessions Instant Access Weekend Sessions Day Sessions

Timing of Training Number of Citations

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers
42 Figure 18 Managers' preference for timing of training by country
The figure above illustrates the preferences of managers for timing of training by country. Bars represent 100% responses from countries, with the divisions showing the % contribution that each timing makes to the whole response. Managers were asked to chose their preferred location from the following: (a) at my request - training delivered on request, (b) evening sessions - training delivered through evening training sessions, (c) instant access - training which can be accessed instantaneously, (d) weekend sessions - training delivered through sessions held at the weekend, and (e) day sessions delivered during the day. Managers did not provide any other responses, some managers provided more than one response.

In addition to identifying preferences for provider, location and timing, managers were asked to identify how they felt barriers to training could be overcome, the results are presented in Figure 19. The most popular method for overcoming barriers to training is improved access (100 managers [60%]), followed by the provision of grants for training (70 managers [42%]). Interestingly, despite identifying lack of knowledge as the main barrier to use of ICT based training, lack of information does not appear to be such a large factor in training as a

whole.60 When responses are considered on a country-by-country basis, some differences appear: SME managers from Finland, France Germany and Italy state that improved access to and flexibility of training is the best way of overcoming barriers to training (17 managers, 10 managers, 17 managers and 11 managers respectively). Managers from the United Kingdom identified provision of grants for training as the best way of overcoming barriers (16 managers), whilst managers from Greece gave both access and grants equal importance (13 managers apiece). Managers from Portugal also identified better access as an important factor, with provision of good information ranking as equally important (17 managers apiece).
60

see Figure 11 for comparison

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Finland France Germany Greece Italy Portugal United kingdom

Country Contribution
Evening Sessions Weekend Sessions Instant Access At My Request Day Sessions

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers
43 Figure 19 Suggested methods for overcoming barriers to training
The figure above shows the responses of managers concerning methods of overcoming barriers to training. Managers were asked to identify responses from the following: (a) access - better access and flexibility, (b) grants - grants to undertake training, (c) information - an information guide on what training is available and where, (d) variety - better variety of relevant training, and (e) trade associations - provision from trade associations. Some managers identified additional factors, these are discussed in the text.

Figure 20 Methods of overcoming barriers to training by country
The figure above shows the responses of managers concerning methods of overcoming barriers to training, by country. Managers were asked to identify responses from the following: (a) access - better access and flexibility, (b) grants - grants to undertake training, (c) information - an information guide on what training is available and where, (d) variety - better variety of relevant training, and (e) trade associations - provision from trade associations.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Access Grants Information Variety Trade Associations

Suggested methods Number of People
0% 10%

20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Finland France Germany Greece Italy Portugal United kingdom

Country Contribution
variety trade associations grants information access

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers
44 Figure 21 Rationale for making training choices
The figure above shows the rationale between different training choices made by managers. Divisions within bars show the composition according to the benefits offered by the type of training: (a) problem solving - the approach is good for problem solving, (b) immediate use - the method allows immediate access, (c) proceed at own pace - the approach allows the learner to proceed at their own pace, (d) tried and tested - the approach is tried and tested and (e) other. Value axis shows percentage of respondents.

Managers were asked their rationale for making training choices. Problem solving was the predominant reason for most areas of training, from the choice of short course to in company experimentation. Also important was ‘immediate use’, followed by ‘proceed at own pace’. A preference for the ‘tried and tested’ was also shown by some managers. Responses on problems with previous training were much fewer, ‘theoretical’ and ‘not relevant’ being the two most common responses. Managers were also asked to identify preferred methods of delivery in four major areas of management: financial management, strategic and production management, marketing and international management and human resources management. The questionnaire provided a mixture of 'traditional' and ICT-based training methods and managers were asked to record their first five choices for each kind of management. Figures 22-25 present the first and second choices for each type of management.
0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0%
Training Course Experience Mentoring Consultancy Business Advisors Text Books Networking Copying Experimentation Other

Type of training

Percentage of managers Problem Solving Immediate Use Proceed at Own Pace Tried and Tested other

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers
45 Figure 22 Preferred methods of delivery of management training in financial management
The figure above shows the first and second preferences of managers for method of delivery of training in financial management. Each bar represents a single delivery method, with the divisions representing number of people identifying delivery method as their first or second choice. It should be noted that response rate was low: 46 managers failed to provide first choices and 58 did not provide second choices.61

As can be seen from the figure above, the most preferred method of delivery is a short training course, with 45 managers choosing this delivery as their first choice and 10 managers choosing it as their second choice. There seems to be general preference for traditional methods of delivery. The ICT-based methodology showing the highest combined ranking was on-line advice via email (first choice of five managers and second choice of six managers). This was only the ninth most popular choice of managers. As with the case of training in financial management, short training courses are the preferred method of delivery for the sample for training in strategic and production management, with 29 managers identifying it as their first choice of delivery and 10 managers identifying it as their second choice. Again there is a preference for traditional methods of delivery, but with group workshops and consultancy featuring more highly (22 managers and 21 managers respectively). Games scenarios / virtual reality is the eighth most popular delivery method (seven managers' first choice, three managers' second choice).
61 Lack

of response was of three kinds: (i) individuals failing to provide any choices, (ii) managers providing a first choice but no second choice and (iii) responses which could not be counted due to errors in recording (a number of choices were highlighted with no ranking or "tied choices" for example two first choices - were indicated)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

short training course one day seminar one-to-one sessions group workshops mentoring consultancy longer training at college/university text books and manuals on-line advice via email business exchange networks

interactive web-site CD-ROM use of game scenario/virtual reality video-conferencing video-cassette telephone help-line

Method of Delivery Number of Managers
First Choice Second Choice

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers
46 Figure 23 Preferred methods of delivery of management training in strategic and production management
The figure above shows the first and second preferences of managers for method of delivery of training in strategic and production management. Each bar represents a single delivery method, with the divisions representing number of people identifying delivery method as their first or second choice. Response rate was low - 61 managers failed to provide a first choice and 70 managers failed to provide a second choice.

Figure 24 Preferred methods of delivery of management training in marketing and international management

The figure above shows the first and second preferences of managers for method delivery of training in marketing and international management. Each bar represents a single delivery method, with the divisions representing number of people identifying delivery method as their first or second choice.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

short training course group workshops consultancy mentoring one-to-one sessions one day seminar longer training at college/university use of game scenario/virtual reality CD-ROM on-line advice via email business exchange networks interactive web-site text books and manuals video-cassette video-conferencing telephone help-line

Method of delivery Number of People
First Choice Second Choice
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

short training course one day seminar one-to-one sessions consultancy group workshops

mentoring longer training at college/university interactive web-site text books and manuals video-conferencing business exchange networks CD-ROM on-line advice via email use of game scenario/virtual reality video-cassette telephone help-line

Method of Delivery Number of People
First Choice Second Choice

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers
47
Response rate was low - 56 managers failed to provide a first choice and 67 managers failed to provide a second choice.

Once again, short training courses are favoured in delivery of human resources management training (32 managers' first choice and nine managers' second choice). There is also a strong preference for one-to-one sessions (19 managers' first choice and nine managers' second choice). The most popular form of ICT based delivery is CD-ROM delivery (seven managers). Figure 25 Preferred methods of delivery of management training in human resources management

The figure above shows the first and second preferences of managers for method of delivery of training in human resources management. Each bar represents a single delivery method, with the divisions representing number of people identifying delivery method as their first or second choice. Response rate was low - 69 managers failed to provide a first choice and 77 managers failed to provide a second choice.

In summary, there is a preference for traditional methods of training delivery, regardless of management area. In all cases, short courses are the preferred method of delivery and the top eight choices comprise: [short courses], one-day seminars, one-to-one sessions, group workshops, mentoring, consultancy and longer training. There are some differences between preferences for each of these traditional delivery methods between management areas. For example, one-to-one sessions rank second in preference for human resources training, whilst they only rank sixth for production management; group workshops and consultancy are felt to be more relevant to production management than the other types of management. With regard to ICT-based delivery, there appears to be low demand. Again, there are differences between preferences for training in each of the management areas. Although the numbers involved are low, it is interesting to note both the contribution of ICT-based training to preferences for each management area and the differences in preference for ICT delivery

types between management training areas. These differences are illustrated in Figure 26.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

short training course one-to-one sessions one day seminar consultancy mentoring group workshops longer training at college/university CD-ROM text books and manuals on-line advice via email business exchange networks video-conferencing use of game scenario/virtual reality video-cassette interactive web-site telephone help-line

Type of Delivery Number of People
First Choice Second Choice

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers
48 Figure 26 Breakdown of preferences for ICT based delivery by area of management training
The figure above shows the preference for different types of ICT based training delivery by area of management training. Divisions within bars show the composition according to area of management training: (a) financial management, (b) strategic and production management, (c) marketing and international management and (d) human resources management. Value axis shows relative contribution, which is an adjusted figure that takes into account the different response rates between different areas of management.62

Across the board, there is a low preference for the use of ICT based training in human resource management. It can be seen that the more established delivery methods of CD-ROM and on-line advice via email are the most preferred categories overall. However, with the exception of human resources management, the most preferred technology of different management types do not align with these overall preferences. The use of game scenario/ virtual reality is felt to be particularly appropriate to strategic and production management. Use of video-conferencing and interactive websites are felt to be particularly appropriate to training in marketing and international management. In financial management the first preference is for on-line advice, but the second is for use of an interactive website.
62 Relative

contribution = (number of managers/total number of responses within management type) expressed as a %. For example 11 managers stated a preference for on-line advice, out of a total response rate of 232, giving a relative contribution of 3%.
0% 2%

4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18%

CD-ROM on-line advice via email interactive web-site use of game scenario/virtual reality video-conference video-cassette

Type of ICT Delivery Relative Contribution
Financial Strategic and production Marketining and international Human Resources

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers
49 Figure 27 Priority areas for management training
The figure above shows the areas of training which managers identified as a priority for training. Managers were asked to select priorities for training from a list. Managers were able to select more than one training priority. The priorities from the list were grouped into categories as follows to ease comparison of data: (a) human resources management - recruitment and development, time management and delegation, employment legislation, (b) marketing - exporting and internationalisation, networks and collaborative working, customer relations, languages, (c) financial management - value analysis, financial planning, turnover ratio, (d) entrepreneurship fostering intrapreneurship and greater entrepreneurship, (e) organisational management - total quality management, (f) ICT - ICT based decision support (g) eCommerce - electronic data interchange , and (h) Production - production management . Managers identified additional areas of training; these are discussed in the text.

Figure 26 shows that managers of SMEs in this sample consider human resources management as their major priority for training (114 managers [68%]). The second priority of managers as shown above is marketing (94 managers [56%]), followed by financial management (68 managers[41%]). Very few managers identified eCommerce as a priority area for training. Our results can be compared with the results of the TELEMAN63 study. This study surveyed 1000 SMEs across Europe. In terms of delivery of training 76% preferred the modality of ‘part attendance’ . This indicates the desire for some face-to-face interaction with the tutor or other participants. 64% of companies preferred tailor-made courses rather than standardised. Teleman comments on the need for specific courses for their special problems which are directly applicable to their practical cases. Content of a distance course has to be more detailed as there is not the possibility of classroom explanations. In terms of delivery of training the following results were obtained: _ 65% of the companies prefer group training. _ 93% of companies want trainer assistance. _ 82% have a preference for an official certificate at the end of the course. _ 65% want flexibility

_

63 op.cit.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

70% want training on demand rather than scheduled training

Human resources management Marketing Financial management Entrepreneurship Organisational management ICT eCommerce Production

Area of training Number of managers

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Training preferences of SME Managers
50 _ 91% want direct contact with experts to support the course Conclusions From the results presented above we draw the following conclusions: _ Private training providers are the preferred deliverers of training. This is subject to differences between countries. _ The preferred location for training is either in the company or at a special location _ Managers prefer to receive training at their request. _ Most popular methods for overcoming barriers to training are improvements in access and grants for training. _ There are some differences in preferences for method of training delivery between management positions, but traditional methods of delivery are preferred over ICT based methods. _ Within the ICT based delivery methods investigated, the overall preference is for more established technologies such as CD-ROM and on-line advice services by email. _ There is also some evidence for the usefulness of less established technologies in specific management roles. For example: Virtual reality may have a potential application in strategic and production management Video-conferencing may have potential in marketing and international management _ Priority areas for training are human resources management, marketing and financial management. _ Entrepreneurship is also seen as a priority, whereas ICT and eCommerce do not rate highly. The lack of emphasis on ICT training may be due to the fairly high current usage of ICTs by the sample group.

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – The effect of size
51

5.5 The Effect of Size
Much of the literature regarding SME development and management points to a specific

difference in the nature of firms employing 1-10 people (micro-firms) compared with those within the small (11-50) and medium sized (51-249) categories. In order to examine the effect of size on responses, a series of cross-tabulations have been performed. This subsection examines the relationship between size of company64 and: _ Use of ICT in training _ Suggested methods for overcoming barriers to management training _ Training preferences It has been suggested that investment in ICTs and levels of connectivity show a positive relationship with size of company65. Three cross-tabulations have been performed to examine this relationship within our sample. These are presented in Tables 1-3. Table 1 Use of ICT in different areas of management
Size of Company Total 1-10 11-50 51-249 FM 52 74% 50 83% 28 78% 130 SPM 26 37% 28 47% 15 42% 69 MIM 27 39% 23 38% 14 39% 64 HRM 19 27% 21 35% 12 33% 52 124 122 69 315

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of use of ICT in different areas of management with size of company: (a) FM - financial management, (b) SPM - strategic and production management, (c) MIM - marketing and international management and (d) HRM - human resources management. In each case, the number of companies appears in the first column and the percentage that this represents of the whole sample (number of companies/total number of companies in size range) is presented in the second column. It should be noted that the data includes two missing values for size, thus the percentages quoted may include an error of up to 1%.

From Table 1 it can be seen that all sizes of company show highest adoption of ICT by financial managers. In general, use of ICT is lowest in the micro firm bracket, as might be expected. However, marketing and international management is an exception, where microfirms share highest usage with large firms. Difference in use in this area between size brackets is not large, but micro-firms showing a comparable usage to other categories, suggests that micro-firms appreciate the potential of ICT as a marketing tool. Small firms show the highest level of adoption in the other categories of management. The higher proportion of small firms operating in the technical and business services sector (40%) within our sample compared with medium firms (31%) may account for this. 64 In the text references to micro, small and medium sized firms, should be taken to refer to "managers in…" 65 For example "Moving into the Information Age - An International Benchmarking Study" 1999.

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – The effect of size
52 Table 2 Managers' level of expertise in the use of ICT

Size of Company Total 1-10 11-50 51-249 NONE 3 4% 2 3% 2 6% 7 OCC 10 14% 6 10% 6 17% 22 REG 41 59% 42 70% 24 67% 107 EMAIL 46 66% 37 62% 24 67% 107 INT 41 59% 35 58% 26 72% 102 SPE 15 21% 17 28% 9 25% 41 EXP 13 19% 7 12% 3 8% 23 169 146 94 406
The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of level of ICT expertise of managers with size of company: (a) NONE - no experience of use of ICT, (b) OCC - occasional use of basic packages, (c) REG - regular use of basic packages, (d) EMAIL - regular use of email, (e) INT - regular use of the Internet, (f) SPE - use of specialist packages and (g) EXP - expert in use of ICT. In each case, the number of companies appears in the first column and the percentage that this represents of the whole sample (number of companies/total number of companies in size range) is presented in the second column. It should be noted that the data includes two missing values for size, thus the percentages quoted may include an error of up to 1%.

From the table above, it can be seen that most managers use ICT regularly in all sizes of firm. It can also be seen that use of the Internet is much higher in the larger companies in the sample group, with medium sized companies having much higher use (72% of managers) compared with micro and small firms (59% and 58% respectively). This may reflect a lack of technology within these firms or a limitation of access. Interestingly, managers in micro-firms appear more likely to classify themselves as "ICT experts" than those in small and medium firms. Within micro-firms it is possible that the manager's role is more "hands-on" and this necessitates a greater technical expertise. Table 3 ICTs used by managers in previous training
Size of Company Total 1-10 11-50 51-249 INTS 29 41% 24 40% 16 44% 69 CD-ROM 28 40% 20 33% 16 44% 64 EMAIL 21 30% 24 40% 11 31% 56 VID 16 23% 12 20% 10 28% 38 INTT 12 17% 13 22% 8 22% 33 VIRT 8 11% 9 15% 8 22% 25 VC 8 11% 10 17% 6 17% 24 EMENT 6 9% 8 13% 6 17% 20 128 120 81 329

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of use of ICTs in previous training with size of company: (a) INTS - Internet searches, (b) CD-ROM - CD-ROM, (c) EMAIL - email, (d) VID - use of video, (e) INTT - Internet based training, (f) VIRT - virtual reality, (g) VC - video-conferencing and (h) EMENT - ementoring. In each case, the number of companies appears in the first column and the percentage that this represents of the whole sample (number of companies/total number of companies in size range) is presented in the second column. It should be noted that the data includes

two missing values for size, thus the percentages quoted may include an error of up to 1%.

Table 3 illustrates the previous use of ICTs by managers in training. As expected from previous studies, the use of ICTs for training is generally most frequent in medium sized firms. This is particularly striking in the case of newer and potentially more expensive or resource intensive approaches such as virtual reality and ementoring.

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – The effect of size
Size of Company Total 1-10 11-50 51-249 ACC 44 63% 32 53% 23 64% 99 GRANTS 29 41% 25 42% 16 44% 70 INFO 28 40% 24 40% 11 31% 63 VAR 19 27% 25 42% 13 36% 57 TRADE 8 11% 14 23% 5 14% 27 128 120 68 316

53 Table 4 Methods for overcoming barriers to management training

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of methods for overcoming barriers to management training with size of company: (a) ACC - improved access, (b) GRANTS - grants to SMEs for training, (c) - INFO - information, (d) VAR - variety of methods, and (e) TRADE - greater involvement of trade associations. In each case, the number of companies appears in the first column and the percentage that this represents of the whole sample (number of companies/total number of companies in size range) is presented in the second column. It should be noted that the data includes two missing values for size, thus the percentages quoted may include an error of up to 1%.

The table above shows the differences in suggestions for overcoming barriers to training. Information appears to be more of a problem for small and micro firms than medium firms. It is also interesting to note that small firms wish to see an increased presence of trade associations and greater variety in training providers. Table 5 When managers prefer to receive training
Size of Company Total 1-10 11-50 51-249 REQ 32 46% 35 58% 23 64% 90 EVE 23 33% 19 32% 7 19% 49 INS 8 11% 12 20% 6 17% 26 WEND 15 21% 4 7% 2 6% 21 DAY 2 3% 2 3% 4 11% 8 80 72 42 194

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of preferred timing of training with size of company: a) REQ - at my request, (b) EVE - evening sessions, (c) INS - instant access, (d) WEND weekend sessions, and (e) DAY - day sessions. In each case, the number of companies appears in the first column and the percentage that this represents of the whole sample (number of companies/total number of companies in size range) is presented in the second column. It should be noted that the data includes two missing values for size, thus the percentages quoted may include an error of up to 1%.

From Table 5, it can be seen that there is a strong preference for training provision at managers' request in all sizes of SME. It is interesting to note that micro and small firms show

a higher preference for out of hours training in evenings (33% and 32% respectively), than medium sized firms (19%) and that micro-firms also show a willingness to participate in training at weekends (21%, compared with 7% and 6% for small and medium firms respectively). This may be in part due to the documented difficulties in providing cover for staff attending training during working hours.

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – The effect of size
54 Table 6 Where managers prefer to receive training
Size of Company Total 1-10 11-50 51-249 COMP 30 43% 31 52% 17 47% 78 SPEC 30 43% 24 40% 19 53% 73 COMPU 12 17% 17 28% 10 28% 39 HOME 14 20% 7 12% 2 6% 23 SOC 3 4% 3 5% 2 6% 8 89 82 50 221

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of preferred location of training with size of company: (a) COMP - in the company, (b) SPEC - special location, (c) COMPU - on the computer, (d) HOME -training delivered to the home, and (e) SOC - social location. In each case, the number of companies appears in the first column and the percentage that this represents of the whole sample (number of companies/total number of companies in size range) is presented in the second column. It should be noted that the data includes two missing values for size, thus the percentages quoted may include an error of up to 1%.

From the table above, it can be seen that demand for training using a computer is not as popular with micro-firms (17%) than small and medium sized firms (28% each). This may be related to the lower level of use of ICT seen in management areas or in lower levels of regular use of ICTs by micro-firm managers. Table 7 Who managers prefer to receive training from
Size of Company Total 1-10 11-50 51-249 PRIV 31 44% 30 50% 18 50% 79 UNI 24 34% 17 28% 11 31% 52 LOCPUB 25 36% 16 27% 9 25% 50 TRADE 17 24% 17 28% 12 33% 46 NET 21 30% 14 23% 9 25% 44 118 94 59 271

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of preferred training providers with size of company: (a) PRIV - private training providers, (b) UNI - universities, (c) LOCPUB - local public training providers, (d) TRADE - trade associations, and (e) NET - networks. In each case, the number of companies appears in the first column and the percentage that this represents of the whole sample (number of companies/total number of companies in size range) is presented in the second column. It should be noted that the data includes two missing values for size, thus the percentages quoted may include an error of up to 1%.

There also appear to be differences between size categories regarding preferred training providers. There is a stronger preference for private training providers in small and medium firms (50% in each case) than micro firms (44%), although this is the top choice for all size categories. Micro firms appear to have a greater preference for university or local public providers than shown by small or medium firms. They also have a higher preference for network-based training. With regard to encouraging managers to use ICT based training, the most prominent factor is quality assurance, regardless of size. However, there seem to be specific problems, which affect micro firms and small firms, which are less significant for medium sized firms. Micro

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – The effect of size
55 and small firms see reduction in cost of ICT based training and recommendation from other SMEs as more significant factors than medium sized companies do. Table 8 Factors which would encourage managers to use ICT based training in the future.
Size of Company Total 1-10 11-50 51-249 QUALASS 33 47% 30 50% 16 44% 79 COST 28 40% 24 40% 8 22% 60 REC 27 39% 21 35% 8 22% 56 ACC 18 26% 13 22% 7 19% 38 QUAL 13 19% 8 13% 3 8% 24 LANG 9 13% 9 15% 5 14% 23 127 105 47 283

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of factors encouraging use of ICTs with size of company: (a) QUALASS - quality assurance (b) COST - cheaper access, (c) REC -Recommendation from other SMEs, (d) ACC - Accreditation, (e) QUAL - Quality websites (f) LANG -provision in my language. In each case, the number of companies appears in the first column and the percentage that this represents of the whole sample (number of companies/total number of companies in size range) is presented in the second column. It should be noted that the data includes two missing values for size, thus the percentages quoted may include an error of up to 1%.

Table 9 illustrate the priorities for management training identified by managers. Although priorities are broadly similar between different management types, there appears to be a distinction between micro firms and the remainder of the sample. Entrepreneurship appears to be of greater importance to managers in small or medium sized firms. This may reflect a number of factors regarding the position of these size categories relative to firms' growth

cycles and managers' stage in their employment. In the case of small firms, it is likely that they will be reaching a stage where new product development is becoming increasingly necessary to maintain growth, thus entrepreneurship training may be seen as a way of increasing innovation and stimulating new product development. Table 9 Priorities for management training
Size of Company Total 1-10 11-50 51-249 HR 36 51% 42 70% 36 100% 114 MAR 34 49% 38 63% 20 56% 92 FIN 29 41% 19 32% 19 53% 67 ENT 17 24% 33 55% 15 42% 65 OM 11 16% 17 28% 5 14% 33 ICT 8 11% 12 20% 10 28% 30 ECOM 5 7% 9 15% 9 25% 23 PROD 6 9% 8 13% 4 11% 18 146 178 118 442

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of priorities for management training with size of company: (a) HR - human resources management, (b) MAR - marketing, (c) FIN - financial management, (d) ENT - entrepreneurship, (e) OM - organisational management, (f) ICT - ICT (g) ECOM - eCommerce, and (h) PROD - production management. In each case, the number of companies appears in the first column and the percentage that this represents of the whole sample (number of companies/total number of companies in size range) is presented in the second column. It should be noted that the data includes two missing values for size, thus the percentages quoted may include an

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – The effect of size
56

error of up to 1%, such errors are evident for categories of MAR, FIN, ENT, ICT, ECOM, PROD when figures in Table 9 are compared with figures discussed in Section 5.4.

Conclusions The following conclusions can be drawn about the effect of size, as revealed in the completed questionnaires: _ In general micro firms show lower adoption of ICT in daily work of managers than small or medium sized firms, but the difference is not large. _ Use of the Internet is higher in medium sized firms than other categories of firm. _ The proportion of managers classifying themselves as experts is highest in micro firms. _ Managers in medium sized firms are more likely to have used ICT-based training than those in micro or small firms. _ More resource intensive approaches such as virtual reality and ementoring have been used more frequently in medium sized firms than micro or small firms. _ Lack of information is a greater barrier to training for micro and small firms than medium sized firms. _ Managers prefer training to be on demand regardless of size although:

_ There appears to be a greater willingness to participate in out of hours training
in small and micro firms. _ Demand for computer based training is currently low in micro firms. _ Private training provision is preferred by managers regardless of size of firm. _ Micro firms show the greatest preference for receipt of training from universities, public training providers and through networks. _ Micro and small firms view reduction in cost and recommendations from other SMEs as important factors in influencing use of ICT based training. _ The need for entrepreneurship training is greatest in small and medium sized firms.

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – The effect of Manager’s sex
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5.6 Analysis of effect of sex of respondent
In order to search for any preferences or results that could be affected by sex of the respondent, a series of cross-tabulations of responses against sex have been performed. These are presented in the tables below. In each case, the ratio of male to female responses has been used as an indicator of differences in preference. The overall ratio of male to female responses is roughly equivalent to 4:1 (20% female) and as such deviation from this ratio is considered below. Table 1 Managers' level of expertise in the use of ICT
Sex Total Male: Female ratio Male Female NONE 7 0 7 OCC 17 4 21 4:1 REG 78 24 102 3:1 EMAIL 78 23 101 3:1 INT 76 22 98 3:1 SPEC 35 3 38 11:1 EXP 21 2 23 11:1 390

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of level of ICT expertise of managers with sex: (a) NONE - no experience of use of ICT, (b) OCC - occasional use of basic packages, (c) REG regular use of basic packages, (d) EMAIL - regular use of email, (e) INT - regular use of the Internet, (f) SPEC use of specialist packages and (g) EXP - expert in use of ICT. An additional column presents the male: female ratio. Overall, male to female ratio for respondents was 4:1. It should be noted that the data includes seven missing values for sex.

Table 1 illustrates managers' level of ICT expertise. It can be seen that level of use is distributed in a similar way between the sexes. More female managers appear to use email, Internet and basic packages than male managers. However, this may be linked to the fact that less female managers place themselves in the expert and specialist categories. Table 2 ICTs used by managers in previous training
Sex Total Male: Female ratio

Male Female INTS 54 11 65 5:1 CD-ROM 50 10 60 5:1 INTT 25 5 30 5:1 VIRT 18 2 20 9:1 EMAIL 43 10 53 4:1 EMENT 16 2 18 8:1 VC 20 2 22 10:1 VIDEO 30 4 34 8:1 302
The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of use of ICTs in previous training with sex: (a) INTS - Internet searches, (b) CD-ROM - CD-ROM, (c) EMAIL - email, (d) VIDEO - use of video, (e) INTT - Internet based training, (f) VIRT - virtual reality, (g) VC - video-conferencing and (h) EMENT ementoring. An additional column presents the male: female ratio. Overall male to female ratio for respondents was 4:1.

It appears that there is some differentiation in the use of ICTs for training between the sexes. In general, ICT appears to be less well used by female members of the sample. In particular,

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – The effect of Manager’s sex

58 use of virtual reality, e-mentoring, video-conferencing and video by male managers, is much higher than use by female managers. Table 3 Methods for overcoming barriers to management training
Sex Total Male : Female Ratio Male Female ACC 75 20 95 4:1 GRANTS 53 14 67 4:1 INFO 45 15 60 3:1 VAR 44 11 55 4:1 TRADE 20 7 27 3:1 304

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of methods for overcoming barriers to management training with sex: (a) ACC - improved access, (b) GRANTS - grants to SMEs for training, (c) - INFO - information, (d) VAR - variety of methods, and (e) TRADE - greater involvement of trade associations. An additional column presents the male: female ratio. Overall male to female ratio for respondents was 4:1.

It can be seen from the table above that differences occur between male and female managers regarding opinions on methods for overcoming barriers to management training. Whilst the broad picture is the same, female managers appear to rate better information as a more important method than provision of grants. The situation is reversed in the case of male managers. Table 4 When managers prefer to receive training
Sex Total Male: Female ratio Male Female REQ 73 16 89 5:1 EVE 37 10 47 4:1 INS 21 3 24 7:1

WEND 17 4 21 4:1 DAY 6 2 8 3:1 189
The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of preferred timing of training with sex: a) REQ - at my request, (b) EVE - evening sessions, (c) INS - instant access, (d) WEND - weekend sessions, and (e) DAY - day sessions. An additional column presents the male: female ratio. Overall male to female ratio for respondents was 4:1.

Again, the picture is broadly similar between male and female respondents. There are slight differences in the preferences, with female managers placing less importance on instant access than male managers. Also, the preference for training during the day is higher for female managers. This may be related to the social situation of female managers. Table 5 shows what may be an important difference between the training preferences of male and female managers. Female managers show a lower preference for receiving training by computer than male managers (as shown by the ratio of 11:1 compared with the overall male:female ratio of approximately 4:1). Table 5 Where managers prefer to receive training

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – The effect of Manager’s sex
59
Sex Total Male: Female ratio Male Female COMP 59 18 77 3:1 SPEC 60 13 73 5:1 COMPU 33 3 36 10:1 HOME 18 4 22 5:1 SOC 7 1 8 7:1 216
The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of preferred location of training with sex: (a) COMP - in the company, (b) SPEC - special location, (c) COMPU - on the computer, (d) HOME -training delivered to the home, and (e) SOC - social location. An additional column presents the male: female ratio. Overall male to female ratio for respondents was 4:1.

Table 6 Who managers prefer to receive training from
Sex Total Male : Female ratio Male Female PRIV 63 17 80 4:1 LOCPUB 38 12 50 3:1 UNI 37 10 47 4:1 TRADE 40 7 47 4:1 NET 33 11 44 3:1 268

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of preferred training providers with sex: (a) PRIV - private training providers, (b) LOCPUB - local public training providers, (c) UNI universities, (d) TRADE - trade associations, and (e) NET - networks. An additional column presents the male: female ratio. Overall male to female ratio for respondents was 4:1.

The table above illustrates that there are no large differences between male and female managers. However, there is a slight preference for networking (as shown by the ratio of 3:1) among female managers. Local public training providers also appear to be preferred. Table 7 Factors which would encourage managers to use ICT based training in the future.
Sex Total Male : Female Ratio Male Female QUALASS 64 12 76 5:1 COST 47 11 58 4:1 REC 45 11 56 4:1 ACC 27 10 37 3:1 QUAL 19 6 25 3:1 LANG 21 2 23 10:1 275

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of factors encouraging use of ICTs with sex: (a) QUALASS - quality assurance (b) COST - cheaper access, (c) REC -Recommendation from other SMEs, (d) ACC - Accreditation, (e) QUAL - Quality websites (f) LANG -provision in my language. An additional column presents the male: female ratio. Overall male to female ratio for respondents was 4:1.

Table 7 illustrates the different suggestions made by male and female managers regarding improvements which would influence them to use ICT based training. Although the ranking of preferences is the same between the sexes, female managers appear to place more importance on accreditation and quality of websites than their male counterparts. Provision in

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – The effect of Manager’s sex
60 the manager's native language also seems to be a greater factor for male managers than female managers. Table 8 Priorities for management training
Sex Total Male : Female Ratio Male Female HR 87 23 110 4:1 MAR 80 12 92 4:1 FIN 58 7 65 8:1 ENT 57 7 64 8:1 OM 29 2 31 10:1 ICT 27 4 31 7:1 ECOM 21 3 24 7:1 PROD 18 1 19 18:1 436

The table above shows the results of a cross-tabulation of priorities for management training with size of company: (a) HR - human resources management, (b) MAR - marketing, (c) FIN - financial management, (d) ENT - entrepreneurship, (e) OM - organisational management, (f) ICT - ICT (g) ECOM - eCommerce, and (h) PROD - production management. An additional column presents the male: female ratio. Overall male to female ratio for respondents was 4:1.

From the table above, it appears that there are differences in priorities for management training. This may in part be due to some differences in the management roles of the sexes (for example, there is only a single female technical manager included). However, it appears that certain areas of training for example organisational management, production management, entrepreneurship and financial management are lower priorities for female managers than male managers. Conclusions The following conclusions can be drawn about the effect of sex, as revealed in the completed questionnaires.66: _ In general, responses appear to be unaffected by sex of the respondent, but there are some small differences _ Female managers currently appear to be less likely than male managers to want training delivered by computer _ Female managers also appear less likely to take part in specialist use of ICTs _ Male managers are more likely to have used ICTs such as virtual reality and videoconferencing in training _ Networks appear to be more preferred by female managers than male managers, although private training providers are seen as the preferrec training provider by both sexes _ Female managers also appear to place more importance on accreditation and quality websites than male managers. Male managers place more importance on provision in their own language. _ There appears to be less demand for training in the areas of production management, organisational management, entrepreneurship and financial management amongst female managers
66 It

should be noted that sample size of female managers is low, which may have an effect on these results

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities – Learning Styles
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5.7 Learning Styles of SME Managers
In addition to the main questionnaire a learning styles questionnaire was also delivered during the interviews with SME managers in four countries, Finland, France, Greece and the UK (see Appendix 1 and Appendix 3). The questionnaires investigated four different types of learners67: _ Activists - people who learn by trying things out _ Reflectors - people who learn by observing, collecting data and

analysing it _ Theorists - people who think logically, and follow logical rules. _ Pragmatists - - people who learn by experimentation.

The dominant preferred learning style for the managers was “Activist” (30 managers), followed by “Pragmatist” (17 managers). This was the case for Finland, France and Greece. However, managers in the UK showed a stronger preference for “Pragmatist”.
The strong preference for activist and pragmatist behaviour within the sample, would influence the type of learning which is likely to be most effective. According to Honey and Mumford68, Activists are most likely to learn from the following type of activity: _ New experiences/problems/opportunities from which to learn _ Here and now activities, for example business games, competitive teamwork tasks and role-playing activities _ Exciting tasks with a range of activities to tackle _ Activities in which they are thrown in at the deep end _ Problem solving as a team _ Tasks involving practical participation Pragmatists learn best from the following: _ Situations where clear links between subject matter and a "real" problem can be made _ Activities with obvious practice advantages, for example which save time _ Tasks involving practising techniques with feedback from an expert _ Models which can be emulated, for example a demonstration from someone with a proven track record _ Techniques which are directly applicable to their own job _ Learning which incorporates immediate opportunities to implement what they have learnt _ Tasks where they can concentrate on practical issues These findings link with the findings of the trainers survey and SME survey in this report which highlight preferences for human interaction, practical problem-solving approaches, feedback, coaching and mentoring, and group work. The results of the learning styles survey strengthen the idea that best practice in training for SME managers will require a variety of techniques and that ICTBT would need to be supported by other face-to-face activities.
67 68

Based on the work of Honey, P. and Mumford, M. "The Manual of Learning Styles" (1986) ibid.

Heads of SMEs Section 5: Research into Priorities Requirements
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5.8 Requirements of Heads of SMEs
_

The survey of heads of SMEs has identified the following requirements:

Demand from Heads of SMEs

Heads of SMEs are different from employees. They exhibit activist and pragmatist

learning styles, prefer learning by doing and favour problem-centred approaches that offer flexibility.
_

Preferences of Heads of SMEs

Managers prefer short courses, with an even split between delivery in and out of company. Private sector providers are favoured, with approximately a quarter of heads would like training delivered by computer. Size of company is a factor in preferences.
_

Use of ICBT by Heads of SMEs

About a quarter of managers have used ICTBT, with most common forms being CDROM, email and Internet search. They like the potential for immediacy, up-to-date material and learning at own pace offered by ICTBT. Managers find problems with ICTBT regarding lack of human support, poor presentation and unreliability of technology. Heads of SMEs see a need to develop quality assurance and reduce the cost of access. Recommendation from other SMEs is a factor in use of ICTBT.
_

Take up of Management Training

Constraints to take up of training include: time and place, cost and quality. Suggested mechanisms for overcoming constraints include: better access and flexibility, grants and information on the nature and quality of training.

Heads of SMEs Section 6 : Best Practice in the EU
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6. ANALYSIS OF BEST PRACTICE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
6.1 Interviews with Training Providers 16 training providers were interviewed face-to-face in their native language. Of these, 7 were universities, 5 were private sector companies and 4 were public or non-profit organisations. The training providers are listed below: Universidade Catolica, Portugal
Universidade Nova de Lisboa, N0VA-FORUM Institute for Executive Training, Portugal

University of Durham Foundation for SME Development, UK Bolton Business School Centre for Enterprise and Management, UK Business Focus & Associates, UK FinnVera and Ministry of Trade and Industry, Finland Pella, Finland Tampere Technology Centre, Finland Hellenic Management Association, Greece University of Macedonia, Greece ISTUD (Istituto Studi Direzionali), Italy Poliedra Progetti Integrati, Italy Emedi@, France CNAM, France WHU Koblenz, Germany Schickler Personalentwicklung und Training GmbH, Germany Summaries of the interviews are presented in Appendix 2.

6.2 Evidence of Size Differentiation Only 4 of the 16 providers did not have provision designed specifically for SMEs. These were all universities. However the provision selected from these organisations for good practice was well attended by heads of SMEs. 6 training providers were providing training specifically for micro firms. 3 of these providers were in Finland, 1 was in France, 1 in Germany and 1 in the UK. Most of these providers were private sector companies offering a combination of consultancy and training. In two cases this was receiving public support. In Finland this was from the Ministry of Trade and Industry with a nationwide programme called Training for Growth-orientated SMEs. In the UK the support was being subsidised by Business Link, which is a national network providing training and business services to SMEs. Tampere Technology Centre was the only University offering training specifically for Micro firms. Only one provider had a definite division between provision for small firms and provision for medium firms, with different programme for each. This was the University of Durham Foundation for SME Development. 6.3 What training programmes are being offered? The training programmes fall into three main categories: _ Short courses Heads of SMEs Section 6 : Best Practice in the EU
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_ 1 day seminars _ Masters degree programmes The main themes covered by these programmes are: _ General management _ Information management _ Change management _ E-commerce _ Finance _ Marketing _ Business strategy _ ICT based decision support _ TQM _ Entrepreneurship
10 of the providers said that their training included entrepreneurship. The programme at Finn Vera specifically covered entrepreneurship. The University of Durham has an MA in Entrepreneurship but this is not specifically for SMEs.

The MBA and Executive MBA seem to be more popular with Greek SMEs than SMEs in the other countries. Bolton Business School was the only provider, which had designed an MBA specifically for small business. 10 of the providers were providing self-diagnosis skills for SME managers. Generally the provision was not targeting women specifically, with the exception of one provider, ISTUD, which has a web-site for women, www.mentoreimpresa.it 6.4 Evidence of Quality and Involvement of SMEs
There were a number of areas where quality was demonstrated. These can be summarised as follows:

_ On-going research _ Specific market surveys _ Evaluation of programmes _ Piloting of programmes _ Database on profiles of participants including company size _ Generation of SME case study portfolio _ Sectoral differentiation of materials _ Pre-course assessment of training needs _ Meetings with SME focus groups to discuss design and needs _ Trainers with experience in SMEs _ Use of data from participant companies in training _ Involvement of training provider in a large network _ Building close relationships with SMEs _ Having a known reputation for quality _ Involvement in entrepreneur networks or clubs _ Being an organisation with a large number of members _ Provision of tailor-made training where SMEs assist in the design of their own training Heads of SMEs Section 6 : Best Practice in the EU
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Evaluation of training provision is being carried out in a number of ways. This includes: annual evaluation of programmes; on-going discussions with managers; post course questionnaires; follow up appraisals with firms.
6.5 What networks do the training providers belong to?

Most training providers belonged to networks or had a range of contacts. The university providers had the most extensive networks and had connections with a number of other business schools and organisations some of which were international. Included among these are: _ European Foundation for Management Development _ The European Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development Committee _ International Association of Science Parks _ Finnish Science Park Association _ Association of Business Schools, MBA Networks

_ Partnerships with various other business schools Some universities had contacts with business networks, for example, ‘Association of Industries in Northern Greece’, trade associations such as Federlombardia, Confindustria Marche, Confidustria Sardegna (Italy), Business Links (UK). Some universities had partnership with large industry for development and financing of management programmes (Bolton Business School, Universade Catolica Portuguesa). Non-university training providers tended to have networks that were more related to SMEs. These were often not formalised. Networks included: _ Local networks for ICT training
_ Bund Deutscher Verkaufsförderer und Trainer (German Association of Sales Promoters and Trainers)

_ Network of CNAM training centres _ Chartered Institute Marketing _ European Marketing Confederation _ Chambers of Commerce _ Northern Association of Management Consultants Only one of the providers mentioned a women’s network, MOSAIC (Women’s institute of managers). Generally there seemed to be a weakness in links to organisations promoting opportunities for women. There would also seem to be a lack of training specifically for women entrepreneurs. There is provision for start-up training but very little for women's businesses in the growth phase. An analysis of projects funded by the NOW programme reveals a high proportion of projects supporting women entrepreneurs in the start-up phase. A good example of such provision is ‘Frauen Am Markt.’ This consists of four networked projects providing information, counselling, training and on-going support to women entrepreneurs, with particular emphasis on the creation or adaptation of business incubators tailored to the needs of female entrepreneurs. Other projects such as ‘Step Up NOW’69 cater for women in management positions, but without emphasis on
A German project aiming to help highly qualified women step up into higher management positions. Participating firms include Volkswagen.
69

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SMEs. However, the NOW programme has not catered sufficiently for the growth phase of SMEs run by women. Whilst there is still a concentration on the start-up phase, such as evidenced by the ‘Women’s Enterprise Development’ project,70 which is setting up a mentoring

network to encourage women to start businesses, other projects focus on the growth phase. One example is the ‘Cross-border training: ‘Euroadvisers and women entrepreneurs,’ project.71 This is establishing a network of Euroadvisers to provide women running small businesses with training and information on all aspects of business management. Whilst these pilot projects are moving in the right direction, their influence is still very limited. This lack of provision for female SME managers is supported by the Fourth Annual Report of the European Observatory for SMEs, which finds women make less use of information and advisory services. This is partly due to their lack of knowledge about relevant services, and partly because of “inadequate or non-existing provision.”72 There is a need for provision catering for the growth phase of SMEs run by women, as well as for awareness raising of training opportunities amongst them. 6.6 Evidence of Best Practice in Delivery – Traditional Techniques
It would appear that training for heads of SMEs needs to include a lot of interactive activities, which means a variety of mechanisms are used for delivery. The following are examples of what the providers are using.

_ Group work on cases to solve problems and presentation of solutions to other participants. _ Use of special guest lecturers from industry _ Use of 22 known problems of survival _ Coaching _ Action learning sets _ Group games and workshops _ Mentoring _ On-site consultancy _ Self-help discussions _ Use of SME case studies as examples to solve problems _ Lectures Timing is flexible and includes 1 day per month, 1 week per month, weekends, short 3-day courses and evenings. There are cultural differences in this area. Portuguese training providers felt that weekend work was not as effective because managers are tired and have family commitments. It was generally considered useful for managers to be out of the work place for part of the training so that they can focus completely on the training. In the workplace

the manager has little time to reflect. Mentoring is a process, which helps the manager to reflect and stand back from the immediate short-term problems of the firm.
http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/dg23/craft/craft-women/craft-women.html Ibid. 72 http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/dg23/craft/craft-women/craft-obswomen.html
70 71

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All providers are offering a variety of techniques. Group work and problem solving are important. It would seem that some one-to-one individual attention is also important. 6.7 Evidence of Best Practice in Delivery – ICT Techniques
All providers, except one, were making use of ICT for delivery of training. The providers were asked a number of questions about their use of ICT. This included:

_ How ICT is being used _ What advantages ICT offers for training SME managers _ What problems have been faced in using ICT for training _ What would make it easier to use ICT for training 6.7.1 How is ICT being used? Provider Use of ICT for Training

NOVA-FORUM Currently developing an electronic framework for teaching management, including a number of software products. Have a management simulation game to assist decision making which simulates market circumstances. Plans for distance operation, where each lecturer has his or her own website through which training will be delivered. Universidade Catolica ICT is used to support training. Distance delivery is not used. Course participants make use of multimedia training rooms. They are given the option of creating a personal web-site. The Internet and mobile phones are used during e-business training sessions. SME case study data is also presented on the computer and participants learn how IT can be a support tool for decision-making. On-line advice is given via email. Bolton Business School ICT is used as a support tool for management training. There are plans for future delivery of a virtual MBA for SMEs. ICT is used for distance learning via CD-ROMs developed with ADAPT funding. A CDROM called “Your future Business with E-commerce” is available on-line at www.pegasus.org.uk A virtual centre is currently being set up (www.virtual-centre.org.uk) to provide Internet access to a wide range management training material. (See Appendix 2.2) University of Durham, Foundations for SME Development ICT is mainly being used as a support tool, rather than for direct delivery.

‘Biz-Kit’ is delivered completely on-line but the focus of this is ICT training rather than management training. CD-ROMs are used during workshops. The MA in Entrepreneurship is supported by a virtual learning centre. This includes information, on-line support and chat rooms but is not dedicated only to SMEs. Business Focus & Associates On-line advice via email is given. CD-ROMs are used to support traditional training. Finn Vera ICT is not used as part of training delivery. Pella CD-ROMs are used for information to support the training. Tampere Technology Centre A wide variety of ICT is used to support management training. This includes CDROM, virtual reality simulations and on-line advice via email. Hellenic Management Centre On-line advice is given via email. Internet is used for gaining information. CD-ROMs are also used to support training. University of Macedonia On-line advice is given via email. Internet is used for information. Videoconferencing is used to carry out seminars at a distance.

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Provider Use of ICT for Training
ISTUD On-line advice via e-mail is given. The web site has interactive aspects where managers are able to talk and share information with other managers. (www.sviluppoimpresa.com) There is also a site dedicated to women (www.mentoreimpresa.it) ISTUD are currently carrying out research on the use of simulation and virtual reality. POLIEDRA A CDROM is being used to assist self-diagnosis for SME managers. Online advice is given by email. There are some interactive aspects on the web-site www.poliedra.it WHU Koblenz ICT is not used as part of training delivery to SMEs. However the university is making use of e-learning for students through LearnLoop which is a Groupware facility. (www.whu-Koblenz.de/eindex.htm) Emedi@ Emedia’s activities are tailor-made to the needs of the firm. An intranet can be set up in the firm to be used as a tool for decision-making. Online interactive training is used. Video-conferencing and web-cams are used for interaction between group members. A virtual reality firm is used for training in quality management. CNAM Training is mainly delivered by ICT. This includes use of on-line advice via email, an interactive web-site and discussion forum. The chat room is used for on-line and real-time discussion by the virtual group. The discussion forum is managed by the trainer who provides a subject or a question the group members should answer. Training is delivered at the participant’s computer or at a local learning centre.

6.7.2 What advantages does ICT offer for training SME managers?
The bullet points below show the open responses from the trainers in our study:

_ Time saving _ Easier to give individual advice _ Easier access to course material

_ Learning at a distance _ The participant is able to organise him/her self to suit his/her needs _ ICT offers a good way of getting information _ On-line advice means day-to-day support can be given _ Trainees become more familiar with the technologies that are now important for e-commerce _ Managers are able to select specific modules _ Personalising of training _ Increase learning through the possibility of learning at any time _ The ability to repeat a session, thus enabling easier assimilation of knowledge _ Breaks down barriers to learning We can compare this information with the responses of SME managers from the Phase 1 survey (see Section 5.3 Fig.10a). The main advantages expressed by the managers are immediacy and up-to-date information. ‘Immediacy’ generally implies the flexibility to access learning when and where they want it, and to find what they want quickly. The SME managers felt that Internet searches, email contact and ementoring offered the greatest potential for providing up-to-date information. Use of virtual reality and video-conferencing were felt to give good user-interactivity and to lead to good retention of knowledge. However these had been used by less than 20% of the sample, a small number of managers. The best feature of CDROMs was though to be the ability to proceed at one’s own pace. Heads of SMEs Section 6 : Best Practice in the EU
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There are many potential advantages associated with ICTBT, which are mainly pedagogical in nature. A number of other studies have been consulted to compare these advantages. Pedagogical Advantages of ICTBT _ Access: Learning materials and resources can be accessed at all times and from remote locations, for example through the Internet or CD-ROM based training. There is no tie to a geographical location or a specific time as is inherent in traditional face-to-face courses. Research on online courses in education supports this statement; students identified convenience of access as one of the learning benefits provided by ICTBT.73 This is potentially of great benefit to SME managers. Data collected under Phase 1 of this study reveals SME managers

rate training in the workplace and at a time of their own choosing highly. Furthermore, the TeleMan Report categorises flexibility in time and place, (as provided by ICTBT), as an element of optimal course combination.74 _ Individual Tempo: Whilst learning within a traditional face-to-face environment, students are required to fit in with the teacher’s schedule and class progress. ICTBT adds flexibility. Students may choose to review learning materials on several occasions; ICTBT makes repeat usage possible75 and thus facilitates self-paced learning.76 For example, if students fail to keep pace with a particular face-to-face class, it is difficult for them to reattend; if they are viewing an online lecture they may re-run it as necessary. This individual tempo allows multi-level entry onto a programme, such as that taking place on the Telematics Learning Project undertaken by Suffolk College.77 _ Variety: Multimedia can be used with modern software (video, animations, pictures, diagrams, text, sound) to ensure variety in presentation of learning materials. Traditional face-to-face teaching usually uses the ‘chalk and talk’ method, which can become repetitive. ICTBT, however, offers the possibility of augmenting learning material. For example, at the University of Teeside, lectures are recorded and added to by digital audio narratives, pop-up notes and lecture transcripts.78 _ Interactivity: ICTBT can be interactive and maximise learner control.79 For example, CD-ROM based training may include exercises and allow the learner to ‘jump’ to relevant options through menus.80 This encourages retention of student interest; they feel they are participating in the learning process rather
73

Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (1999) 15, 2-13, P5. 74 Tele-Teaching and Training for Management of SMEs – Studies, TeleMan Consortium, September
1998, P56. 75 Mudge, Stephen M, ‘Delivering Multimedia Teaching Modules via the Internet,’ in Innovation and Educational Technologies International 1999 Vol 36.1 pp11-16 76 Engineering College of the University of Idaho: Distance Education at a Glance, October 1995. 77 Funnell, Peter: ‘Views From the Screen-Face: Issues Emerging From an Exploration of the Value of TelematicsSupported Learning,’ in Innovation in Educational Technologies International 1999, Vol 36.3, P177-184. On this project, students with differing educational backgrounds entered the telematics-supported ‘Introduction to Local History’ course. 78 Barker, Philip, Using Intranets to Support Teaching and Learning, in Innovation and Educational

S.English and M.Yazdani, ‘Computer Supported Co-operative Learning in a Virtual University,’ in the

Technologies International 1999, Vol 36.1 pp3-9.
79 80

Engineering College of the University of Idaho: Distance Education at a Glance, October 1995. For example see: CD-ROM entitled “Management: TC 2001, Achieving Business Growth in the Textile

and Clothing

Industry through Training and Development.”

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than passively receiving information.81 This is supported by the fact that students have cited increased interaction, quantity and intensity as an advantage of online education.82 The TRANSMETE Project Evaluation Report emphasises the importance of “learning by doing” and recommends including more exercises.83
_ Teacher Contact: ICT provides excellent facilities for student-teacher contact. Students and tutors can stay in constant contact via telephone, email, fax, chat rooms, video and audio conferencing. For example, the Internet based learning environment developed by the Metä Institute Silva allows students (at the workplace) and senior coordinators (at the training institution) to communicate through online learning diaries and email.84

_ Instant Response: ICTBT makes instant response and/or feedback possible. This can take place through synchronous technology (for example videoconferencing). 85 Synchronous study is used at the University of Teeside; an academic helpline is available at a fixed time, when students can email staff and participate in electronic discussions with them, gaining instant responses.86 Instant response also occurs through exercises, which students attempt and submit interactively via courseware, generating an automatic instant response.87 _ Relevance: It is easy to update and correct ICTBT material. Material is simply edited electronically and then made available on the Internet. This is more difficult with traditional printed learning materials, which are less flexible and imply expensive reprinting costs. Updating of training materials is important, as highlighted in the TRANSMETE Evaluation Report88 and by the American Society for Training and Development.89 Using techniques such as LearnLoop (described in section 4) trainees may also add their own examples to course materials. 6.7.3 What are the Problems in using ICT for Training? The bullet points below are taken from the interviews with training providers in our study. _ Confidentiality _ Equipment too slow, network connections too slow _ The telecommunications infrastructure is not suitable (France, Greece) _ No time to learn how to use the ICT, therefore it must be simple _ Equipment failure _ Preparation of material is time consuming and expensive _ The trainer has to have a high level of IT skills _ Managers lack the skills to fully utilise an ICT based training system

_ Need training for trainers
81

Mudge, Stephen M, ‘Delivering Multimedia Teaching Modules via the Internet,’ in Innovation and S.English and M.Yazdani, ‘Computer Supported Co-operative Learning in a Virtual University,’ in the www.eurocom.gr/EurPrj/transmete/docs/public/d83.htm

Educational Technologies International 1999, Vol 36.1 PP11-16.
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Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (1999) 15, 2-13, P5.
83 84

Experiences in Using Internet Based Learning Environment in Paper Industry. ICEE 2000 Conference, August 1416, 2000, Grand Hotel, Taipei, August 17-18, 2000, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan. 85 Tele-Teaching and Training for Management of SMEs – Studies, TeleMan Consortium, September 1998. 86 Barker, Philip, Using Intranets to Support Teaching and Learning, in Innovation and Educational Technologies International 1999 Vol 36.1 pp3-9.
87

Marshall, David, ‘Developing Interactive Courseware on the World Wide Web,’ in Innovation and

Educational Technologies International 1999 Vol 36.1 pp34-43.
www.eurocom.gr/EurPrj/transmete/docs/public/d83.htm Cornelia C. Weggen, American Society for Training and Development. www.learningcircuits.org/sep2000/weggen.html.
88 89

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_ It is important that the ICT component does not become more important than the management content _ Lack of human interaction _ Often SMEs do not trust computerised learning because programmes are too standardised and therefore too far from their problems _ SMEs prefer oral explanations rather than written on-line communication _ SME managers need to be out of the company to get the time and peace to learn _ Participants have a wide range of requirements _ Universities do not have adequate resources to develop appropriate services and internal take-up of new technology is slow (UK response only) _ There is a lack of motivation in SMEs to use ICT _ Lack of motivation from the participant due to less obligation The interviews with SME managers in our study (see Section 5.3 Figs. 9 and 10b) show that the bad aspects of ICTBT are considered to be the lack of human support, poor presentation of information and problems with reliability of technology. Technology concerns are particularly the case with video-conferencing. A number of studies have been consulted to compare the results of our study with other identified disadvantages. Whilst some of these fall into the pedagogical category, technical and commercial difficulties must also be taken into consideration. Pedagogical Disadvantages _ Rigidity/Navigation: Most CAL modules require students to access information

in a structured manner, which may not be the best route for them,90 who need to cover topics in more or less depth as appropriate. Equally, web-based courses may be too open; Laurillard points out that there may be too many distractions and too little guidance,91 which may result in time wasting. _ Lack of human interaction: Traditional face-to-face teaching involves a high degree of contact with tutors and other students. ICTBT implies less of such contact. Research conducted by YOUANDI Communication Network GmbH supports this, finding Computer Based Training using self-study modules is unsuccessful and students prefer interaction with other students and tutors. 92 Technical Disadvantages _ Prior Knowledge/Infrastructure: ICTBT courses often assume a prior knowledge of ICT tools (for example email and Internet usage)93 as well as assuming necessary infrastructure is in place. However, as already seen, SME managers often have little ICT knowledge outside of what they require to perform their daily tasks and European SMEs do not possess the most up-todate hardware. Funnell provides one example of lack of ICT knowledge hindering
Mudge, Stephen M, ‘Delivering Multimedia Teaching Modules via the Internet,’ in Innovation and Educational Technologies International 1999 Vol 36.1 pp11-16. 91 Laurillard, D (1993) Rethinking University Teaching, Routledge, London. 92 YOUANDI Communication Network GmbH: Trends in the development of competence in the field of IT in SMEs – Territorial Approach, January 2000. 93 Mudge, Stephen M, ‘Delivering Multimedia Teaching Modules via the Internet,’ in Innovation and Educational Technologies International 1999 Vol 36.1 pp11-16.
90

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training.94 His study highlights the difficulty of those with little ICT experience engaging in telematics-supported learning, even after an ICT induction session.
_ Delivery Speed: Philip Barker95 highlights the restrictions placed on the use of sound and motion video. He points out that both mediums imply large file sizes and hence significant bandwidth to transmit them. The difference between intranets and the Internet is important here; Barker states sound files can be moved over a fast intranet link fairly easily, whereas transmitting them over the Internet can involve an unacceptable wait.

_ Security: Internet usage involves a security risk to published materials as well as raising the possibility of viral attack.96 This may cause significant problems for users by hindering access. SMEs may also have concerns about using software which makes use of their own data, due to confidentiality.
Commercial Disadvantages

_ Cost: Creating and updating teaching materials entails a significant workload.

Creating and presenting information involves the investment of time and a combination of skills (authoring via computer and graphic design),97 which are not yet freely available. A recent study98 reveals preparation and production costs of multimedia are significantly higher than for face-to-face teaching. Multimedia implies 50-100 units compared with 1 unit for an hour of face-toface teaching, and the more hypermedia used, the higher the cost of the learning materials.99 This high cost means while it may be cost-effective to develop ECD materials for courses likely to have a large uptake, it may not be economical for those with only a minority interest. 100 This has a direct implication for SMEs, as their training needs are often very specific. 6.7.4 What would make it easier to deliver ICT based training? The graph overleaf shows what the training providers think would make it easier to deliver ICT based training. It would appear that training providers are concerned about the lack of information about ICT based training. There are also concerns about firms possessing appropriate equipment and fast enough computers. This corresponds with the results of the SME survey (Section 5.3 Figure 11). This shows that the main reasons for SME managers not using ICT for training are lack of knowledge (56 managers) and lack of quality assurance (14 managers). When managers were asked what would encourage them to use ICTBT in the future (Figure 12), the biggest factors were quality assurance, cheaper access and recommendations from other SMEs.
Funnell, Peter: ‘Views From the Screen-Face: Issues Emerging From an Exploration of the Value of TelematicsSupported Learning, in Innovation in Educational Technologies International 1999, Vol 36.3, P177-184. 95 Barker, Philip: ‘Using Intranets to Support Teaching and Learning,’ in Innovation in Educational
94

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Mudge, Stephen M, ‘Delivering Multimedia Teaching Modules via the Internet,’ in Innovation and

Educational Technologies International 1999, Vol 36.1 pp11-16.
Ibid. European Commission, IRDAC report: Quality and Relevance, March 1994. 99 Barker, Philip: ‘Using Intranets to Support Teaching and Learning,’ in Innovation in Educational
97 98

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100

Ibid.

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What would make it easier to deliver ICT based training?
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Information on availability ICT a t firm s' premises

Quality standards Own ICT infrastructu re Financial support ICT in the Community

Providers

How might the disadvantages associated with ICTBT be overcome? In addition to the training providers interviewed in our study, a search has been undertaken specifically for providers using ICTBT to give examples of how some of the difficulties might be overcome. In addition to the 82 providers identified from databases, bodies were identified through regional networks. Information was gathered from publications and reports of providers, their websites, and in telephone and face to face interviews. 101
Overcoming Pedagogical Disadvantages _ Rigidity/Navigation: To overcome the problem of rigidity, students must be given control over the way they learn. One way of doing this is to provide suitable menus and loops (hypermedia or hypertext links) so they can jump to the item they want,102 such as provided by the Management training CD-ROM produced under the MASTRI ADAPT project. To minimise navigational problems, easy to use web pages should be provided. 103 The learning materials developed by Cardiff University guide the learner by providing a consistent set of navigation tools providing hints on where to go next.104 From experience in evaluating distance learning materials105 it would seem that an index and navigational map are needed to assist learners to use the material. From a trainer’s perspective, the ability of Intranet and Internet servers to accept data entered by students and post this to relevant online databases is important. Such facilities can be used to create monitoring programmes to analyse student progress. 106
The sources for such information were identified through background research (Appendix 5.1 Phase 1a) and through consultation of databases of training providers (Appendix 5.2). The search was for best practice, and followed leads to such providers. 102 Mudge, Stephen M, ‘Delivering Multimedia Teaching Modules via the Internet,’ in Innovation and
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104

Marshall, David, Cardiff University, ‘Developing Interactive Courseware on the World Wide Web,’ in

This courseware allows for different paths, for example finding additional reading material, or looking for further assistance. Marshall, AD and Hurley, S, (1997) Courseware development for parallel computing and C programming, in Proceedings of ED-MEDIA ’97 – World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, Calgary, Canada, AACE, Virginia, USA 689-97. 105 Business Support Micromodules for High Technology SMEs, ADAPT I and II, 1995-2000, NJM Ltd. 106 Barker, Philip: ‘Using Intranets to Support Teaching and Learning,’ in Innovation in Educational

Technologies International 1999, Vol 36.1 pp3-9.

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_ Lack of human interaction: Several methods may be used to overcome this. One is to provide feedback through the courseware itself. For example, courseware developed by the University of Cardiff provides feedback including automated assessment of exercises.107 Furthermore, it is possible to incorporate email and even voice links from WWW pages to facilitate two-way exchanges between students and tutors.108 As outlined above, the HCI Course at the University of Teeside uses a combination of synchronous and asynchronous study to ease this problem.109 Combining distance learning with traditional face-to-face teaching is also a good option.

Overcoming Technical Disadvantages
_ Prior Knowledge/Infrastructure: Course participants should have an induction session to help them develop the necessary ICT capability, such as provided at Suffolk College.110 The HCI course at the University of Teeside also provides technical help in both synchronous and asynchronous modes, alleviating technical problems.111 However, providing technical help on a university campus is a different matter to catering for dispersed SMEs, emphasising the need for local technical support. Regarding infrastructure, awareness raising should encourage SMEs to invest in ICT.

_ Delivery Speed: Whilst delivery speed over the Internet is a problem, technological developments such as ADSL and cable modems are expected to permit faster data transmission rates.112 Other developments include fractal encoding which allows compression of video data,113 speeding up transmission. Whilst the use of Intranets for training SMEs is limited, networks covering wider geographical areas (such as WAN/LAN) may be a possibility and would allow faster data exchange than via Internet. Furthermore CD-ROM based training reduces time spent waiting for data. _ Security: Technology is available to reduce security risks. Web sites can be protected by the use of firewalls. 114 Reducing access to the website through unique logon scripts and passwords will help to minimise security risks. 115 Overcoming Commercial Disadvantages _ Cost:116 Good online training materials are expensive to develop and are likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. However, there are some potential savings. Evidence shows once ICTBT has been developed and the initial outlay has been recouped, costs for the training provider fall, which will benefit the trainees. For SMEs, ICTBT is particularly relevant if they have the necessary infrastructure. It will dispense with the need to release staff for training, always an issue for small
107

Marshall, David, ‘Developing Interactive Courseware on the World Wide Web,’ in Innovation and

Educational Technologies International 1999 Vol 36.1 pp34-43.

108

Mudge, Stephen M, ‘Delivering Multimedia Teaching Modules via the Internet,’ in Innovation and Barker, Philip ‘Using Intranets to Support Teaching and Learning,’ in Innovation in Educational

Educational Technologies International 1999 Vol 36.1 pp11-16.
109

Technologies International 1999, Vol 36.1 pp3-9.
Funnell, Peter: ‘Views from the Screen-Face: Issues Emerging From an Exploration of the Value of Telematicssupported Learning,’ in Innovation in Educational Technologies International 1999, Vol 36.3, pp176-184. However, one student (with little prior ICT experience) criticised the session as too short. 111 Barker, Philip: ‘Using Intranets to Support Teaching and Learning,’ in Innovation in Educational
110

Technologies International 1999, Vol 36.1 pp3-9.
112

‘Ferreira, Martins, MacKinnon, Lachlan, Desmulliez, Marc and Foulk, Patrick. A multimedia telematics Mudge, Stephen M, ‘Delivering Multimedia Teaching Modules via the Internet,’ in Innovation and

network for on-the-job training, tutoring and assessment.
113

Educational Technologies International 1999 Vol 36.1 pp11-16
Ibid. Ibid. 116 Hunt, Malcolm and Clarke, Alan, A Guide to the Cost Effectiveness of Technology Based Training, January 1997.
114 115

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firms. ICTBT would also reduce travel costs for the company. Internet access is becoming cheaper, which will ease SME access to ICTBT. ICTBT has varying cost effectiveness, and the financial aspect must be carefully considered before firms invest in training. 6.8 Identifying Best Practice: Focus Group Results A set of recommendations was produced after considering SME preferences, the interviews with training providers, information from background research and European policy (see Appendix 1.6). These were tested on focus groups, which combined trainers, business support services and SMEs. Listed below are the recommendations that were highly rated in at least four out of the seven countries taking part in this study. To make training more specific to the business needs of SMEs 1. Specific training for firms employing less than 10 employees 2. Training needs to respond to the life-cycle position of the firm 3. Training needs to be sector specific 4. Practical examples using case studies from other SMEs 5. Initial visit by training provider to SME to assess needs and problems 6. Training should be delivered by trainers who have some experience in SMEs To respond to the manager’s learning priorities 7. Coaching, mentoring and one-to-one support to deal with individual problems 8. Training that is open to requests for seminars from course participants 9. Training should include the generation of business clubs for participants to encourage networking

10. The need for flexibility in timing To ensure provision of information on content and quality 11. Training providers to provide more information about content of training for SMEs 12. Training providers should show rating of training by previous SME participants. 13. Training should include evaluation feedback from SMEs themselves. To enable SMEs to afford training 14. Subsidies or grants to undertake training To promote ICT 15. ICT should be used as a support tool for training 16. Set up an e-Learning Centre to raise awareness of use of ICT training techniques and assess quality 17. Training that is delivered in bite-sized pieces to facilitate a building block effect with clear outcomes 18. Concerning training content: Information Management, E-commerce, ICT for Management Decision Making and Entrepreneurship were rated highly 19. Interest in the UK, Greece and Finland for a Virtual MBA for Small Business 20. ICT should include on-line advice from tutors and virtual learning centres. Heads of SMEs Section 6 : Best Practice in the EU
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Although on-line tutor support was favoured, generally the concept of a virtual learning centre was only popular in Italy, Greece and the UK. Management simulation games were generally not popular. Again, with respect to ICT, the response favours the more known and accepted methods such as on-line tutor support. What is the Role of an On-line Tutor? There is evidence117 that authors of ICTBT are lacking specific skills because issues such as ‘how people learn’ and how to train on-line have not been fully addressed. There is too much focus on the technology and not on the quality of the learning experience.
The role of an on-line tutor is identified as follows118:

_ Administrator - registration - student groups - group events - recording progress _ Subject expert - FAQs, on-line support, on-line group sessions - Referring people to resources _ Coach - falling behind

- encouraging learners and recognising success - counselling learners - initiating activities _ Assessor - Is the person doing the training who they say they are? - judging assignments - observing actions of learner
The skills needed for on-line tutoring are different from the skills of a classroom tutor. The support needed is more intensive and the cost for training institutions to get quality on-line tutors may be high.

Although many of the providers are using on-line tutor support the actual times when this support was available was not investigated. If provision is only available during working day hours, then it is not meeting the needs of SMEs for flexible support. One provider had addressed this issue but said that the problem of on-line tutor support out of normal working hours had not been solved. A problem for training providers is the difficulty in monitoring working hours for on-line tutors.
see, for example, Adults Learning, November 1999, report on research led by Dr Jan Seabrook for DfEE, UK 118 IT Training Conference, July 2000, Birmingham
117

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6.9 Conclusions Best Practice from the European Union
Design There is evidence in quality and relevance to SMEs in design of training. Many of the programmes selected are designed specifically for SMEs. Particular examples of best practice include: regular meetings with SME focus groups to discuss needs and training programmes; building close relationships with SMEs such as Tampere Technology Centre; providing tailormade training for groups of firms; provision of sector specific material; differentiation in provision between small and medium firms. There may also be a need for more provision for micro firms and for provision, which takes into account the life-cycle position of the firm. Programmes should include an initial visit by the training provider to assess needs and problems. There is evidence of effective evaluation procedures among providers, leading to annual course revision. In one case this included follow-up appraisals with SMEs. Content

In addition to traditional management areas, a number of new themes are emerging in management training for SMEs. These include ICT-based decision support, ecommerce, change management, entrepreneurship and self-diagnosis skills.

Delivery

There is a focus on flexible delivery in timing and a variety of delivery mechanisms, which include groupwork, coaching/ mentoring and problem solving, often with the use of SME case studies as examples. The focus groups suggest that delivery should facilitate networking and that trainers need to have experience in SMEs. The training providers show a preference for short courses delivered by traditional techniques. The focus groups show that training is favoured in bite-sized pieces to facilitate a building block effect. ICT is mainly being used as a support tool. The main technique for this is the provision of on-line advice via email and use of CD-ROMs. Internet searches are also used during the process of training. This corresponds with the techniques, which have been used most frequently by managers in our survey (see section 5.3, figure 8). Some providers were making more extensive use of ICTBT. Nova Forum, Tampere Technology Centre and Emedia are using management simulation games. Bolton Business School and ISTUD are investigating the use of virtual reality. Publicity
Publicity may need to provide more information on how the content is relevant to SMEs and show recommendations from SMEs.

Advantages of ICTBT ‘Better access and flexibility’ is recommended in our SMEs survey as a way of overcoming the barriers to training (see section 5.4 figure 19). ICTBT can offer the advantage of flexible access at a distance at a time to suit the learner. Another advantage is that the learner can proceed at their own pace and repeat sessions where necessary, thus enabling better assimilation of knowledge. ICTBT can enhance the learning experience by offering variety. ICTBT can be interactive which maximises learner control and encourages active learning. Where a trainee is able to select what they want, interactivity also allows for personalisation of Heads of SMEs Section 6 : Best Practice in the EU 78 training. ICTBT can provide enhanced tutor contact with more individual support

and instant response techniques. Finally, materials are easier to update than textbooks, offering more up-to-date relevant information.
Problems Associated with ICTBT

There are a number of problems with ICTBT which need to be overcome if it is to become a useful tool for training SME managers. There is an overall problem of lack of awareness of ICTBT. Presentation can be a difficulty, making navigation of materials awkward and obscuring learner objectives. There is often a lack of human interaction. This may result in a lack of motivation. There are some difficulties with telecommunications infrastructures and the slow speed of using the Internet. Managers may also lack the necessary equipment and ICT skills to fully utilise the materials. Tutors may need training to use ICTBT techniques. A major disadvantage for training providers is the high cost of developing materials and SMEs are seen as a minority market who may not produce a good return on investment. The on-going cost of providing on-line tutors may also be high and administratively difficult. There is also evidence that the role of on-line tutors is not clear and that specific training may be needed in on-line tutoring. Authors of ICTBT may also be lacking specific skills and may require training. Heads of SMEs Section 7 : Best Practice in USA
79 7. IDENTIFYING BEST PRACTICE IN THE UNITED STATES The Office of Advocacy within the U.S. Small Business Administration was established in 1976 to represent and advance small business interests before Congress and federal agencies.119 The Office’s mission is to "counsel, assist, and protect small business, " and to fulfil this aim, the Office works with small businesses and small business organisations, Congress, Administration, and trade associations.120 The White House Conference on Small Business121 involves shaping policy through the active participation of small business owners who assist in the drawing up of recommendations. The US leads the world in terms of ICT usage and ownership. The country has high ICT infrastructure penetration rates in homes and businesses, high usage levels and welldeveloped telecommunications, IT and content industries.122 ICT penetration in the US is far higher than in Europe. For example, US micro-businesses are almost three times as likely to have a website as their UK counterparts.123 There is greater ICTBT development in the USA.

7.1 E-learning
The e-learning environment is more developed in the USA than in the EU. However application of best practice is focussed on large corporations and universities. The elearning concept has been developed to encompass the pedagogical changes resulting from opportunities using ICT. It encompasses a variety of learning events. Training is divided into modules, which have a flexible structure and use diverse media. A typical module can contain between two and seven Learning Events. An event can be an instructional segment, a seminar, a simulation or a collaborative event such as a workshop. SmartSeminars are live interactive on-line presentations. A learning event can be broken down into Learning Objects. For example, the learning event, “Accessing Business Resources on the Web” contains four objects: Advanced Searching; Market Intelligence; Financial Resources; Research Resources.

E-learning has a number of features:

_ Access to new events and materials, which are updated each week. _ Different learning events designed to serve different kinds of requirements with navigation to assist the user to get what they want when they want it. _ A self-diagnosis tool which matches the interest and characteristics of the individual user, to the material that is the most relevant in any one given moment. _ Orientation towards problem solving. _ Aid to establishment of a culture of learning within a company, including specific company learning events and resources. Companies have developed specialising in e-learning. SmartForce124 is a pioneer, which has developed an e-business programme to allow companies to address their specific training needs through e-learning. Companies get access to services through a flexible rental system. SmartForce is delivering a number of e-learning workshops, which are described in more detail in Appendix 2.
http://www.sba.gov/advo/aboutus.html#THE OFFICE Ibid. 121 http://www.whcsb.org/ 122 Moving into the Information Age, An International Benchmarking Study, 1999. http://www.isi.gov.uk/isi/isi/bench/1999/International99.html. 123 Ibid.
119 120

124

www.smartforce.com

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E-learning seems to operate within large companies. The best practice has been included here to demonstrate the concept of e-learning, which might work with groups of SMEs, for example of the same size or sector. 7.2 US Small Business Administration (www.sba.gov/classroom) The US Small Business Administration (SBA) is the main public service for small businesses in the US. It provides service programmes and information to small

businesses across the US. Many of SBA's resources around the US, specifically Business Information Centres, One-Stop Capital Shops and others, offer access to computers, the Internet and other emerging technologies. SBA is also partnering with other federal agencies and organisations to help provide greater technology access. In partnership with universities and private companies, the SBA now provides courses and information on the Internet, free of charge. The Small Business Classroom is an on-line resource for training and informing entrepreneurs and other students of enterprise. At the Classroom site, articles can be read, courses can be studied, or areas of small business development can be researched. Through a SCORE125 CyberChapter, access to confidential business advice on an issue via E-mail is available. There is also a facility to send comments about additional information and further links that could be added to the site.126 Linked to the SBA is SCORE127. SCORE offers email counselling. Dedicated to aiding the formation, growth and success of small businesses in the US, the organisation has 13,000 members with experts in virtually every area of business management. Retired professionals with small business experience counsel current owner managers via email. The counsellor is carefully chosen according to the client’s needs, which ensures a well-matched service and indicates best practice. Alternatively, the client is able to input a business problem and this will be answered by the most appropriate counsellor. The SCORE website also offers email newsletters and magazines, interactive quizzes and business resources and hotlinks. SCORE also advertises workshops on the website, conducted at local level, covering topics such as ‘Developing Your Business Plan’ and ‘Marketing.’ SCORE is innovative in combining a national website with local help, providing busy owner managers with a dedicated support system. 7.3 The Virtual University Concept The academic take up of ICTBT in the US illustrates the widespread use of new technologies in education and training. At the US college and university level,

Internet connection is ‘virtually universal’ and many institutions offer Internet based distance learning courses.128 Some of these courses are limited either due to their content concentration on technical information, or through ‘dressing up’ existing
Service Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE) The on-line classroom is described in more detail in Appendix 2. 127 www.score.org. 128 Molenda, Michela, Russell, James and Smaldino, Sharon: ‘Trends in Media and Technology in Education and Training,’ in Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 1998, Volume 23.
125 126

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courses by simply adding online resources to the existing programmes.129 Others merely function as portal sites for distance learning providers.130 The majority of management programmes offered by American virtual universities are MBAs. However, they are being delivered to an audience, which is more familiar with ICT systems than in Europe. A good example is provided by Ohio University, which has an award winning virtual MBA.131 Many virtual MBAs make use of GroupWare learning platforms to facilitate student interaction. Further information is provided in Appendix 2.3. 7.4 Best Practice from EU-US Collaboration
The Co-operation Programme in Higher Education and Vocational Education and Training between the European Community and the United States132 has fostered projects using ICTBT. The programme aims to add a new EC/US dimension to student-centred cooperation and to benefit the EC and the US. These aims are achieved by promoting an innovative range of student-centred, higher education and training co-operative activities. The first phase of the programme covered 1995-2000. Projects from 1998 and 1999 were analysed with regard to their use of ICT and relevance for SME management training. Nothing could be found specifically for training SMEs. Most projects focused on higher education for under-graduates. Projects applied ICT in different ways, but there was a high incidence of Internet based projects, which included discussion forums, the development of joint EU-US papers, business team games and technical project development.133 The NEURUS partnership134 uses Internet-based distance learning modules including asynchronous discussion groups among students and between students and faculty.135 The Transatlantic Business School Alliance (TABSA), which aims to develop a common international curriculum for business schools,

uses a combination of video conferences, taped lectures, and classes over the Internet.136 However, the emphasis is on the training of students not SMEs. The goal of the Earth Imaging Project is to develop an international curriculum in Earth Imaging.137 This course uses a combination of face-to-face teaching and Internet based distance learning. Each course is preceded by a four week preparation period when students are encouraged to interact via the Internet to create a sense of community. The Internet-based multilingual curriculum includes class texts and laboratory exercises, implying student interaction, and there is a consolidation period at the end of the course. The course also uses Internet based assessment, as students deliver their final report over the Internet. Email was by far the most common ICT element employed. This is clearly illustrated by the following table:
Examples include the University of British Columbia and UWired at the University of Washington. 130 One example is the California Virtual University. 131 www.mbawb.ohiou.edu/intranet 132 http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/ec-usa/sele99.html 133 Circa Group Europe Ltd, (August 1999), The Evaluation of the Co-Operation Programme
129

in Higher Education and Vocational and Educational Training between the European Community and the United States.
134

Network of European and US regional and urban studies, aiming to help students develop a global perspective on regional development. URL: http://www.seweb.uci.edu/neurus.html 135 http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/education/ec-usa/sele98.html 136 Ibid. 137 Ibid.

Heads of SMEs Section 7 : Best Practice in USA
82 Table: Usage of New Technology Transfer138 Technology Usage Level Email 100 Video-conferencing 24 Joint Net-based Projects 21 Internet phone/Internet video 4 Projects developed under the EU-US collaboration programme, therefore, still “have a long way to go to fully exploit new technology.”139 The evaluation report makes certain recommendations, which might have implications for future ICTBT projects for SMEs. These include: _ The financing of a service project in ‘new technology/virtual mobility’ to monitor and support transatlantic projects should be considered. Whilst projects financed under the first phase of the programme concentrated largely on HE,

the evaluation report recommends that the vocational training element must be fostered in the next phase. Most projects were HE collaborations for the development of undergraduate programmes. ICTBT is being used, but mainly involves email and not the more advanced technologies. No evidence of management training for SMEs for projects carried out in 1998 and 1999 could be found.

7.5 Best Practice in traditional techniques The leading institutions delivering entrepreneurial training employ traditional delivery techniques, which they attest maintain advantages over what ICTBT has proven it can deliver. Traditional techniques in the USA are demonstrated by Harvard Business School and Babson College (see Appendix 2). These programmes are targeted at smaller firms but not micro firms. The average turnover of firms on the Owner Manager Program at Harvard is $15m. FastTrac (see Appendix 2) is an award winning example of innovation in traditional delivery. FastTrac is a non-profit organisation which is sponsored by the Kauffman Centre for Entrepreneurial Leadership in Kansas. FastTrac operates programmes in 36 States. It is designed and delivered by entrepreneurs locally in the community and focuses on planning for growing small enterprises. There is a strong practical orientation and participants use their own company for case study. A variety of training techniques are used but there is an emphasis on interaction with other entrepreneurs, case study, analysis of problems and groupwork. ICT is not used as distance learning but there is a web-site for resources and use of tools such as computer simulations. Generally participants stay in residence at the college for a number of days or weeks per year. Content is highly practical, exploring the tools and techniques needed to identify opportunities and successfully manage an enterprise.
Circa Group Europe Ltd, (August 1999), The Evaluation of the Co-Operation Programme in Higher Education and Vocational and Educational Training between the European Community and the United States.
138 139

Ibid.

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7.6 Conclusions - Best Practice from the United States

The concept of E-learning is more advanced in the US. However, it is orientated towards large firms. Similarly, the Virtual University concept is more advanced in the United States than the EU. Although providing a distance learning framework, training provision tends to be MBAs rather than shorter courses. The US Small Business Administration is the main public service for SMEs in the USA. Currently they are operating a series of on-line classrooms providing a range of short courses on-line for small businesses. This is linked to a mentoring service called SCORE, which consists of retired professionals with small business experience. There is no strong evidence that managers of SMEs are benefiting from ICTBT training in the USA. However, there are a number of good practices in traditional techniques in developing entrepreneurship and small firm management, which are widespread. These use SME case studies, problem solving and group work. For example FastTrac is offered in 36 States. The lessons from the USA involve good practices in stimulating entrepreneurship using traditional techniques, and the potential to apply ICTBT techniques used by other audiences for the benefit of the heads of SMEs. However the practicability of using ICTBT with heads of SMEs needs to be considered. A search of key websites and providers was carried out (See Appendix 5.1, Phase 4). This identified very little in the area of management training for SMEs using ICTBT. Harvard Business School and Babson College were asked why they are not delivering training to small firms using ICTBT. Harvard responded that they are developing e-learning but only as an additional support tool to their mainly traditional delivery techniques. Babson College had no plans to become involved with ICTBT for small firms but thought that there might be a market for it as a time-saving device. Babson’s content often revolves around case studies, and group interaction is a vital element of their technique. The North American experience offers a number of lessons for European practice. By being first, North Americans can make most of the initial mistakes and the rest of

the world can learn from them. The hurdles to be overcome are those of content, interaction and cost, which are themselves interrelated. E-learning and virtual universities are developing fairly rapidly in North America. Virtual universities mainly offer MBA type courses which have a tried and tested market. Delivery usually makes use of GroupWare learning platforms. Elearning is more broad in content but tends to be targeted at large corporations. Elearning portals provide access to learning from multiple sources by aggregating, hosting and distributing content. Corporate customers can pick and choose courses from a multitude of vendors to create customised programmes for their employees. Planning and executing a successful e-learning strategy in this way requires time and investment. The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) has expressed concerns about the quality of contents of e-learning portals. The private sector is developing e learning as an industry. There are three main segments: _ The content providers, for whom the demand is very high, because of the variety of content needed Heads of SMEs Section 7 : Best Practice in USA
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_ Learning services firms, who provide programme building components, content design, development and programming _ Delivery solutions companies, which sell the technologies associated with e-learning. The structure of the market is predicted to change from high demand in the last segment to high demand in the first, as technical solutions become standard and costs are driven down in this area140. A number of firms integrate all three segments. SmartForce is an example of an e-learning company. It produces its own courses delivered via the Internet with mentoring support and has a large content repository. It recommends the setting up of a supportive framework and technical assistance within companies seeking to operate e-learning. The set up charge is $20,000 and the cost per year per employee would be about €900. Currently it would appear that e-learning structures are more appropriate for large companies. The North Americans have not yet overcome the three hurdles for SMEs, but it may

be possible to learn from their longer development experience in the latter two segments. In technology, costs are being driven and learning service firms are identifying techniques, such as mentoring, which do work. Setting up a GroupWare learning platform is relatively easy and is currently being used by various projects supporting SMEs in Europe. However, quality and variety of media in ICTBT varies enormously and it is therefore difficult to estimate the cost in its production. The ratio of production time to one hour of instruction time has varied from 30 to as much as 1,000 hours.141 The instruction time with ICTBT has been shown to reduce by around one-third. This might seem less of a reduction than expected. The trend is downward, but will reach a minimum for optimum human support. The principle of e-learning based on a content repository which SMEs could access via the Internet has potential. In particular the ability to search the content to find solutions to specific problems would appeal to SMEs. Also the use of the content in a personalised way could facilitate individualised learning which is favoured by
SMEs. The main issue again would be the design of the content such that it is relevant to SMEs. There are problems in transferring the widescale ICTBT practices from the USA. The market for ICTBT specifically for SMEs is untested and there are no standards. Training providers in the USA do not appear to have considered this a desirable area for development. The main best practice to emerge from the USA for SMEs has been delivered by mainly traditional techniques. To bring ICTBT techniques such as virtual universities and e-learning into widespread use with European SMEs can build on a good base of knowledge in technology and learning techniques. It could also use some North American content (which would have to be paid for), but would require the identification of a sufficient level of quality content for the European market. This would require the establishment of quality standards and the benchmarking of provision against such quality standards in each Member State. These areas are discussed in Section 9.
E learning strategies for executive education and corporate training, 27/11/2000, http://www.fortune.com/fortune/sections/onlinelearn/onlinelearn.htm
140
141

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8. CONCLUSIONS 8.1 Demand from Heads of SMEs While there is a very large variation in the nature of SMEs and their managers, it is possible to determine certain common characteristics, which impinge on the roles of the heads of firms. As the chief decision maker, the head has to be able to respond quickly to changes in all areas of business. To survive, it is essential to focus on the immediate and short term situations. Although many small firms do have long term strategies, the head finds it difficult to plan his or her time beyond the short term (see Section 3.2). Small size in a large market place, and the crucial role of one (or a very few) managers in the firm entail a focus on problem solving across all business areas and managing time in the short term. The demand for training from heads of SMEs reflects these considerations. A major priority area for training is Time Management and Delegation (Section 5 Fig. 27). Heads of SMEs are different from employees. An examination of the learning styles of heads of SMEs shows them to be mainly either ‘activists’ or ‘pragmatists’ (Section 5.7). In the former category, preferences for learning include problem solving, dealing with immediate tasks and group work. For the latter, links between the subject matter and ‘real’ problems, feedback from experts, and immediate implementation of learnt material are important. Both styles favour learning by doing. The ‘activist’ and ‘pragmatist’ approach was reflected in the managers’ desire for flexibility. Most wanted training at their request (Section 5 Fig. 17).
8.2 Preferences of Heads of SMEs

Managers of SMEs differentiate themselves from employees. On-site training in technical areas is a very strong preference for employee training. However, the preference from heads of SMEs is evenly divided between in and out of company (Section 5 Fig.15). This may involve time for reflection or networking. Due to time constraints, managers want training which is short (Section 5 Figs.2225). The top five preferences indicated are: 1. Short courses

2. One day seminars 3. One to one sessions 4. Group workshops 5. Mentoring. There is little difference in the areas of management for preferences in these techniques. 23% expressed an interest in receiving training on the computer (Section 5 Fig.15). Heads of SMEs Section 8: Conclusions
86

There is a preference for private sector delivery (48%), followed by universities (31%). (Section 5 Fig.13) There is some size differentiation in preferences. Managers in micro and small firms show a higher preference for out of working hours training (33%) than medium firms (19%). Micro firms show a much greater willingness to participate in training at weekends than small or medium firms (Section 5.5 Table 5). Training using the computer is less popular with micro firms (Section 5.5 Table 6). The desire for entrepreneurship training varies with size (Section 5.5 Table 8). Entrepreneurship appears to be of more importance to managers of small and medium firms (55% and 42% respectively) than micro firms (24%). Other studies have shown that in micro firms, survival and autonomy is often more important than growth and innovation (Section 3.3). Women managers have similar preferences to men, except in four areas (Section 5.6). They have a lower demand for computer- based training, and a higher demand for day time training, qualifications and e-mentoring than men. 8.3 Use of ICTBT by Heads of SMEs General use of ICTs is high in this sample with nearly 90% of managers using email and Internet (Section 5.2). 92% are using ICT for financial management and 4050% are using it for other types of management. 25% have used ecommerce. The sample are therefore likely to be early adopters of ICT solutions. Around 25% of managers have used ICTBT. This is fairly high. In the TeleMan142 study only 11% of managers had used any type of distance learning. Internet search, CDROM and email are the most common forms used. Managers identified a number of good and bad aspects concerning ICTBT (Section 5.3 Fig. 9). Good Aspects Bad Aspects

_ Immediacy _ Lack of human support _ Up-to-date material _ Poor presentation _ Own pace _ Unreliable technology 8.4 Provision of Management Training All Member States have systems for providing support to SMEs which are state funded. Partners in the project were consulted about such provision. Features of these systems include the following: _ Information and advice _ Training _ Financing schemes Specialist services such as technology, product design, exporting, promoting forms of co-operation among SMEs, are also available.
Tele-Teaching and Training for Management of SMEs – Studies, TeleMan Consortium, September 1998.
142

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Managers of SMEs see current training provision in management as not meeting their needs. The interviews confirmed the problem identified by other studies and policy documents (Section 3.3 and 3.4). Provision suffers from defects of content, access, flexibility and cost (Section 5.4 Fig. 19). There are also major concerns over information about training and quality. This is particularly the case for ICTBT (Section 5.3 Figs.11 &12). SMEs in the survey were asked an open question about whether they would like to see any changes to existing support services. Earlier questions had asked for assessments of experiences of advice, consultancy, networks and information. There was interest for more on-line services and better helplines and centralisation of services to provide better information about training. The review of training provision in the regions found little provision directed at heads of SMEs beyond the start up phase. The research teams looked for examples of good practice in their regions, and they were difficult to find. There is provision of management training, which may encompass SMEs. However, it was difficult to find training designed specifically for them. The publicity of training providers, via Web Sites or other literature showed little evidence of targeting this market143. The credibility of provision to SME managers is important, as a common complaint is

that they are being fed material for larger firms in a manner, which is inappropriate. Recent Swedish and Irish studies emphasise this point144 and point out significant differences in attitudes between providers and managers. Difficulties in accessing management training is confirmed by the SME managers surveyed themselves (Section 5.4 Fig. 19), by the training providers interviewed in this study (Section 6.7.4) and in the results of the focus groups (Section 6.8). Training providers in this survey confirmed the findings of studies reviewed; that the SME market is insufficiently rewarding to warrant the investment of large resources, or target marketing. All of these sources provide evidence that SMEs require better information about relevant training. 8.5 Bridging training and consultancy Heads of SMEs’ priorities for gaining expertise can be divided into three main areas: _ Individualised support _ SME Focus _ Interaction This division was arrived at by drawing together data from background research, from the interviews with SMEs, from interviews with training providers and evidence from providers in the USA. The fourfold classification indicated in Section 3.6 on the expertise needs of SMEs has been revised in the light of the surveys and more recent literature145, which emphasises the informal nature of training demanded by heads of SMEs. It is also chosen as it is relevant to both traditional and ICTBT delivered
This study aimed at identifying best practice, not conducting an evaluation of provision. Hence, these statements are based on the difficulty of search, responses from managers, providers and other literature. 144 Klofsten, M. Training for entrepreneurship and new business: attitudes among the organisers, Industry and Higher Education, Volume 13, 1999, pp 397-404 and Walsh, J., & Hynes, B., Herding cats; implications for the development of management development courses for SME owner-managers, pp1273-1289, 23rd ISBA National Small Firms Policy & Research Conference, November 2000. 145 For example Walsh et al (op.cit.) and Johnson, S., Lifelong learning for SMEs: issues for research and policy, pp577-593, 23rd ISBA National Small Firms Policy & Research Conference, November 2000.
143

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training. Problem solving for immediate use was a major incentive to undertake training, and this is reflected in the priorities above. The relation of the categories to the literature review and the survey results is indicated below. Category Literature Survey results on general training Survey results on ICTBT use Individualised support _ Client orientation _ Preferences for mentoring, & consultancy _ Need for human support
SME Focus _ Tailor made training _ Quality assurance _ Short courses _ Relevance of material _ Quality assurance _ Up to date material Interaction _ Problem solving _ Learning styles _ Immediacy _ Immediacy

The need for individualised support arises from the heterogeneous nature of SMEs (Section 3.2). Mentoring, consultancy and tailor-made training are means of providing individualised support, which are recognised in the BEST Report and other EU policy documents (Section 3.4). SMEs rate mentoring and one-to-one sessions among the top five methods for delivery of training (Section 5 Figs. 22-25). Training providers also use individualised support and forms of self-diagnosis (Section 6.6 and 6.7). Training for SMEs needs to have an SME focus. This is identified by current EU document policy (Section 3.4), particularly the need for client-orientated training and relevant content. Open responses from the survey favoured providers with SME

expertise and experience of running small firms, which confirms findings in other literature146 The interviews with training providers indicate that the SME focus is greater in the private sector providers (Appendix 2) who are more likely to provide consultancy, tailor-made training and to use client data and case studies to help solve problems. The need to involve SMEs in design and use SME case studies was recognised as good practice by most of the training providers interviewed (Section 6.4). Training with an SME focus also needs to be flexible to access as most managers want training at their request (Section 5.4 Fig.17). SMEs favour methods, which involve interaction. This is demonstrated by the preferred methods of delivery in our SME sample which includes one day seminars, group-work and mentoring (Section 5.4 Figs 22-25). Activist and pragmatist learning styles show a preference for learning, which involves interaction and direct results (Section 5.7). Lack of human support is seen as the worst aspect of ICTBT (Section 5.3 Fig.9). Methods favoured by training providers for both traditional and ICT techniques involve interaction (Section 6.6, 6.7.1). US providers: Harvard, Babson and FastTrac encourage interaction between entrepreneurs as an important way of learning (Appendix 2.3). Good practice elements can be identified in these areas for both traditional and ICT techniques.
146

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See Klofsten (op.cit) and Walsh et al (op.cit.)

Individualised support _ Self-diagnosis /business check-up _ On-site consultancy or counselling _ Mentoring SME Focus _ Content including case studies from SMEs _ Problem solving approach relevant to the businesses _ Provision at appropriate time and place Interaction _ Group-work to solve problems
_ Guest speakers from industry and debates _ Course conferencing on-line for group sessions

Chat tool for real-time communication These areas bridge the division between consultancy and training. Provision, which

involves both aspects would seem to suit the requirements of many heads of SMEs. There is often a division among providers and funding mechanisms between the two, which may be hampering adequate delivery. 8.6 Priorities of heads of SMEs For more formal courses, heads of SMEs expressed six priorities: _ Relevance to real business situation _ Problem solving _ Short duration _ Flexible delivery _ Networking _ Quality assurance These priorities are demonstrated by interviews with heads of SMEs (Figs. 12, 15, 17, 21, Figs. 22-25) and interviews with training providers (Section 6.6, 7.5). Most of the elements can be delivered by either traditional techniques or ICT. However, emerging good practice involves a combination of human and ICT delivered material (Section 6.7.1). This can involve either the provision of ICT supported material, in a traditional setting, or the provision of some human interaction events to a mainly ICT delivered course. However, some such as networking are typically thought of as easier in a traditional setting, and others, such as flexible delivery may bestow advantages on ICTBT. 8.7 Good Practice in Course Development The survey of training providers (Section 6.4) identified a number of basic features which may be considered good practice in the process of development and delivery of management training for heads of SMEs. These basic features can be summarised as follows: _ Research or market analysis _ Involvement of SMEs in design, to enable a client-centred approach – involves building relationships with SMEs or groups of SMEs _ On-site initial assessment of the needs of the SME manager _ Expertise and experience of trainers in SMEs _ Generation of entrepreneur networks for participants _ Evaluation and feedback Heads of SMEs Section 8: Conclusions
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8.8 The ICTBT Opportunity ICT represents an opportunity for managers and providers to overcome a number of barriers to the delivery of training. Both groups recognise this. The advantages of access at any time and place, proceeding at one’s own tempo, access to a variety of

sources, interactivity, good teacher contact and individual support through email, instant responses and the ability to update and customise the material are recognised (Section 6.7.2). Developing material is expensive, but once developed, costs of adaptation should be much less. Groupware products are designed to make it easier to develop and deliver on-line training (Section 4.2). To ensure that ICT can play a full role in developing new training provision, a number of hurdles have to be overcome, which are pedagogical, technical and financial (Section 6.7.3). Within pedagogy, the need for human interaction has been recognised, and guidelines for its development are being recognised. However, there is no similar consensus on the degree of structure needed in navigating webbased courses. Technical problems to be overcome include security, delivery speed on the internet and appropriate infrastructure. The latter is still lacking in parts of Europe, and at a firm level, the machines may either be too old, too few or in the wrong place (Section 3.5). The development of the infrastructure, the learning environment, and the material are all costly activities. After their establishment, costs should diminish. 8.9 Problems and Constraints in providing Management Training to Heads of SMEs However, there are constraints in realising these goals. _ Little existing provision meets them There is a lack of specific training for heads of SMEs (see Section 8.4). Executive Training at business schools is often targeted at larger companies. There is a lack of provision with the required level of flexibility for SMEs. There is a lack of best practice/expertise for training SME managers. There are no guides or standards as to how training providers should deliver quality training to SME managers. _ The SME training that is provided tends to serve either start-ups or medium sized firms There is a lack of provision for micro firms. Micro firms have specific need for survival programmes (Section 3.2 & 6.2). There is a lack of entrepreneurial training for small and growing firms (Section 3.4 & 6.3). Heads of SMEs Section 8: Conclusions
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ICTBT is under-provided Much ICTBT is of low quality, being simply the presentation of printed material on a web-site147. There are concerns expressed by training providers
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concerning the cost of development of ICTBT, particularly for SMEs which is a new and uncertain market (Section 6.7.3 & Section 7.5). There are skills shortages in ICTBT development and delivery. On-line trainers need good ICT skills and their role is different from a traditional tutor. There is too little training available for designers of ICTBT management material. Skills are needed in being able to communicate the content using different ICT-based mediums (Section 6.7.3 & 6.8). There are barriers for SMEs in using ICTBT. These are: lack of knowledge, lack of quality assurance and cost of technology (Section 5.3 Fig.11). _ There is difficulty in finding information This concerns, both locating courses and gaining sufficient information about the content of courses and their relevance to SMEs (Section 5.4 Fig.19, Section 6.7.4) There is no system of quality assurance.
Tele-Teaching and Training for Management of SMEs – Studies, TeleMan Consortium, September 1998.
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Heads of SMEs Section 9: Recommendations
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9 RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations need to address the problems and constraints that have been identified in providing management training to heads of SMEs. Recommendations have been divided into two areas: 1. Those concerning Member States 2. Those concerning the Commission Member States 9.1 Recommendation One: More training specifically for Heads of SMEs There is a need for more training specifically for heads of SMEs in all Member States. There is a need for separate programmes for small firms and micro firms. These programmes should be benchmarked against a set of quality standards for the provision of training to heads of SMEs. A first stage involves ensuring awareness of the needs of SMEs among training providers (i.e. that SMEs are not smaller large enterprises) and ensuring that the obstacles facing SMEs are recognised by policy makers and responsible bodies. 9.2 Recommendation Two: Promotion of ICTBT ICTBT can be used to overcome some of the barriers SME managers face concerning cost and time. It may be used as a support tool for management training or as the main mechanism for delivery of training. Provision of ICTBT to a specific SME audience is recommended through provision of material and awareness raising.

Actions which may contribute to increased use of ICTBT could include stimulation of ICT skills amongst heads of SMEs or the use of ICT in combination with a training style favoured by heads of SMEs. An example of this could be the use of ementoring. Pilot projects under Leonardo da Vinci for the 2000-2006 period will look at developing and transferring innovation and quality in vocational training which will include use of ICTs. The best practice indicators outlined in these recommendations might be taken into account as selection criteria for projects developing the use of ICTs in vocational training. In particular the development of material for heads of SMEs needs to be promoted. This may be done under specific measures in EQUAL. These are detailed in Appendix 6. 9.3 Recommendation Three: Training of Trainers There are a lack of trainers with experience and expertise in SMEs. There is a lack of understanding of best practice for training SME managers. The training of trainers should be promoted and benchmarked against a set of quality standards. There is also a lack of skills and training for development and delivery of ICTBT to SME managers. Training needs to be developed to address these skills shortages. Heads of SMEs Section 9: Recommendations
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Particular actions might include exchanges of expert providers across the Community in the areas of management training and design of ICT-based training material. To support this activity, ‘Training for Trainers’ under Leonardo should include guidelines for developing training for the design and delivery of ICTBT. The Commission 9.4 Recommendation Four: Concerted Action for Quality Assurance Concerted action for quality assurance in management training for heads of SMEs is recommended. This has two main areas: 1. Establishment of quality standards among Member States 2. Benchmarking of provision in each Member State Establishment of Quality Standards A set of best practice indicators have been proposed for the delivery of management training to heads of SMEs. These need to be developed into standards through meetings of exchange groups across the EU. They should be charged with:

Promoting best practice in training provision in terms of content, mode of delivery, and marketing _ Stimulating the growth of expertise for trainers and in multi media design for training _ Promotion of a manual of best practices in training for SME managers, covering: design, delivery techniques, involvement of SMEs, use of ICT-based training, evaluation and publicity. This could result from a benchmarking exercise and be supported by examples drawn from several Member States _ Policy conferences and workshops for heads of SMEs, regional policy makers and implementers on best practice in management training and ICT development tailored to training needs of SMEs Benchmarking of Provision in each Member State A set of indicators should be drawn up to benchmark provision across Member States. The following are an indicative list: _ Provision of Training/Support specifically directed at heads of SMEs by: Number of providers Number of beneficiaries Numbers reaching benchmarked quality standards Expenditure Each of the above directed at either micro or small firms _ ICTBT provision directed at heads of SMEs by: Number of providers Number of beneficiaries Numbers reaching benchmarked quality standards Expenditure Each of the above directed at either micro or small firms _ Involvement of SMES Representative Groups (sectoral, local or general) in training support delivery as a proportion of the activities described above.
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Attitude (psychology)

Attitude (psychology)
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An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degree of like or dislike for an item. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event-- this is often referred to as the attitude object. People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object, meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question. Attitudes are judgments. Discussion Ask a question about 'Attitude (psychology)' Start a new discussion about 'Attitude (psychology)' Answer questions from other users Full Discussion Forum

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I need definition of attitude with reference
Encyclopedia

An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degree of like or dislike for an item. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event-- this is often referred to as the attitude object. People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object, meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question. Attitudes are judgments. They develop on the ABC model (affect, behavior, and cognition

Cognition Cognition is the scientific term for "the process of thought." Usage of the term varies in different disciplines; for example in psychology and cognitive science, it usually refers to an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions... ). The affective response is an emotional Emotion Emotion is associated with mood, temperament, personality and disposition, and motivation. The English word 'emotion' is derived from the French word émouvoir. This is based on the Latin emovere, where e- means 'out' and movere means 'move'... response that expresses an individual's degree of preference for an entity. The behavioral intention is a verbal indication or typical behavioral tendency of an individual. The cognitive response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individual's beliefs about the object. Most attitudes are the result of either direct experience or observational learning Observational learning Observational learning is a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others... from the environment.

Attitude formation
Unlike personality Personality psychology Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and individual differences.Its areas of focus include:* Constructing a coherent picture of a person and his or her major psychological processes... , attitudes are expected to change as a function of experience Experience Experience as a general concept comprises knowledge of or skill in or observation of some thing or some event gained through involvement in or exposure to that thing or event.... . Tesser (1993) has argued that hereditary variables may affect attitudes - but believes that they may do so indirectly. For example, consistency theories, which imply that we must be consistent in our beliefs and values. The most famous example of such a theory is Dissonance-reduction Cognitive dissonance Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously. The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, or by justifying or rationalizing them...

theory, associated with Leon Festinger Leon Festinger Leon Festinger , was an American social psychologist, responsible for the development of the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Social Comparison Theory, and the discovery of the role of propinquity in the formation of social ties as well as other contributions to the study of social... , although there are others, such as the balance theory Balance theory Balance Theory is a motivational theory of attitude change proposed by Fritz Heider, which conceptualizes the consistency motive as a drive toward psychological balance... . tite

Attitude change
see also Attitude change Attitude change Breckler and Wiggins define attitudes as “mental and neural representations, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence on behavior” . Attitudes and attitude objects are functions of cognitive, affective and conative components... Attitudes can be changed through persuasion and we should understand attitude change as a response to communication. Experimental research into the factors that can affect the persuasiveness of a message include: 1. Target Characteristics: These are characteristics that refer to the person who receives and processes a message. One such trait is intelligence - it seems that more intelligent people are less easily persuaded by one-sided messages. Another variable that has been studied in this category is self-esteem. Although it is sometimes thought that those higher in self-esteem are less easily persuaded, there is some evidence that the relationship between self-esteem and persuasibility is actually curvilinear, with people of moderate self-esteem being more easily persuaded than both those of high and low self-esteem levels (Rhodes & Woods, 1992). The mind frame and mood of the target also plays a role in this process. 2. Source Characteristics: The major source characteristics are expertise, trustworthiness and interpersonal attraction Interpersonal attraction Interpersonal attraction is the attraction between people which leads to friendships and romantic relationships. The study of interpersonal attraction is a major area of research in social psychology. Interpersonal attraction is related to how much we like, love, dislike, or hate someone...

or attractiveness. The credibility of a perceived message has been found to be a key variable here; if one reads a report about health and believes it came from a professional medical journal, one may be more easily persuaded than if one believes it is from a popular newspaper. Some psychologists have debated whether this is a long-lasting effect and Hovland and Weiss (1951) found the effect of telling people that a message came from a credible source disappeared after several weeks (the so-called "sleeper effect"). Whether there is a sleeper effect is controversial. Perceived wisdom is that if people are informed of the source of a message before hearing it, there is less likelihood of a sleeper effect than if they are told a message and then told its source. 3. Message Characteristics: The nature of the message plays a role in persuasion. Sometimes presenting both sides of a story is useful to help change attitudes.

Cognitive Routes: A message can appeal to an individual's cognitive evaluation to help change an attitude. In the central route to persuasion the individual is presented with the data and motivated to evaluate the data and arrive at an attitude changing conclusion. In the peripheral route to attitude change, the individual is encouraged to not look at the content but at the source. This is commonly seen in modern advertisements that feature celebrities. In some cases, physician, doctors or experts are used. In other cases film stars are used for their attractiveness.

Emotion and Attitude Change
Emotion is a common component in persuasion Persuasion Persuasion is a form of social influence. It is the process of guiding oneself or another toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational and symbolic means.Methods :... , social influence Social influence Social influence occurs when an individual's thoughts or actions are affected by other people. Social influence takes many forms and can be seen in conformity, socialization, peer pressure, obedience, leadership, persuasion, sales, and marketing... , and attitude change Attitude change Breckler and Wiggins define attitudes as “mental and neural representations, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence on behavior” . Attitudes and attitude objects are functions of cognitive, affective and conative components...

. Much of attitude research emphasized the importance of affective or emotion components. Emotion works hand-in-hand with the cognitive process, or the way we think, about an issue or situation. Emotional appeals are commonly found in advertising, health campaigns and political messages. Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaign advertising emphasizing the fear of terrorism. Attitudes and attitude objects are functions of cognitive, affective and conative components. Attitudes are part of the brain’s associative networks, the spider-like structures residing in long term memory that consist of affective and cognitive nodes. By activating an affective or emotion node, attitude change may be possible, though affective and cognitive components tend to be intertwined. In primarily affective networks, it is more difficult to produce cognitive counterarguments in the resistance to persuasion and attitude change. Affective forecasting, otherwise known as intuition or the prediction of emotion, also impacts attitude change. Research suggests that predicting emotions is an important component of decision making, in addition to the cognitive processes. How we feel about an outcome may override purely cognitive rationales. In terms of research methodology, the challenge for researchers is measuring emotion and subsequent impacts on attitude. Since we cannot see into the brain, various models and measurement tools have been constructed to obtain emotion and attitude information. Measures may include the use of physiological cues like facial expressions, vocal changes, and other body rate measures. For instance, fear is associated with raised eyebrows, increased heart rate and increase body tension (Dillard, 1994). Other methods include concept or network mapping, and using primes or word cues.

Components of Emotion Appeals
Any discrete emotion can be used in a persuasive appeal; this may include jealousy, disgust, indignation, fear, and anger. Fear is one of the most studied emotional appeals in communication and social influence research. Important consequences of fear appeals and other emotion appeals include the possibility of reactance which may lead to either message rejections or source rejection and the absence of attitude change. As the EPPM suggests, there is an optimal emotion level in motivating attitude change. If there is not enough motivation, an attitude will not change; if the emotional appeal is overdone, the motivation can be paralyzed thereby preventing attitude change. Emotions perceived as negative or containing threat are often studied more than perceived positive emotions like humor. Though the inner-workings of humor are not agreed upon, humor appeals may work by creating incongruities in the mind. Recent research has looked at the impact of humor on the processing of political messages.

While evidence is inconclusive, there appears to be potential for targeted attitude change is receivers with low political message involvement. Important factors that influence the impact of emotion appeals include self efficacy, attitude accessibility, issue involvement, and message/source features. Self efficacy is a perception of one’s own human agency; in other words, it is the perception of our own ability to deal with a situation. It is an important variable in emotion appeal messages because it dictates a person’s ability to deal with both the emotion and the situation. For example, if a person is not self-efficacious about their ability to impact the global environment, they are not likely to change their attitude or behavior about global warming. Dillard (1994) suggests that message features such as source non-verbal communication, message content, and receiver differences can impact the emotion impact of fear appeals. The characteristics of a message are important because one message can elicit different levels of emotion for different people. Thus, in terms of emotion appeals messages, one size does not fit all. Attitude accessibility refers to the activation of an attitude from memory in other words, how readily available is an attitude about an object, issue, or situation. Issue involvement is the relevance and salience of an issue or situation to an individual. Issue involvement has been correlated with both attitude access and attitude strength. Past studies conclude accessible attitudes are more resistant to change DISCUSSION

Implicit and explicit attitudes
There is also considerable research on implicit attitudes Implicit Association Test The Implicit Association Test is an experimental method within social psychology designed to measure the strength of automatic association between mental representations of objects in memory... , which are generally unacknowledged or outside of awareness, but have effects that are measurable through sophisticated methods using people's response times to stimuli. Implicit and explicit attitudes seem to affect people's behavior, though in different ways. They tend not to be strongly associated with each other, although in some cases they are. The relationship between them is poorly understood.

Jung's definition
Attitude is one of Jung's Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist, an influential thinker and the founder of analytical psychology. Jung is considered as the first modern psychologist to state that the human psyche is "by nature religious" and to explore it in depth...

57 definitions in Chapter XI of Psychological Types Psychological Types Psychological Types is the title of the sixth volume in the Princeton / Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung. The original German language edition, "Psychologische Typen", was first published by Rascher Verlag, Zurich in 1921.... . Jung's definition of attitude is a "readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way" (Jung, [1921] 1971:par. 687). Attitudes very often come in pairs, one conscious and the other unconscious. Within this broad definition Jung defines several attitudes. The main (but not only) attitude dualities that Jung defines are the following.

Consciousness and the unconscious. The "presence of two attitudes is extremely frequent, one conscious and the other unconscious. This means that consciousness has a constellation of contents different from that of the unconscious, a duality particularly evident in neurosis Jung's theory of neurosis Jung's theory of neurosis is based on the premise of a self-regulating psyche composed of tensions between opposing attitudes of the ego and the unconscious. A neurosis is a significant unresolved tension between these contending attitudes. Each neurosis is unique, and different things work in... " (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 687).

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Extraversion and introversion. This pair is so elementary to Jung's theory of types that he labeled them the "attitude-types". Rational and irrational attitudes. "I conceive reason as an attitude" (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 785). The rational attitude subdivides into the thinking and feeling psychological functions, each with its attitude. The irrational attitude subdivides into the sensing and intuition psychological functions, each with its attitude. "There is thus a typical thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuitive attitude" (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 691). Individual and social attitudes. Many of the latter are "isms".

In addition, Jung discusses the abstract attitude. “When I take an abstract attitude...” (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 679). Abstraction Abstraction

Abstraction is a cognitive process by which higher, more abstract concepts are derived from the usage and classification of literal, "real," or "concrete" concepts.... is contrasted with concretism Concretism Concretism may refer to one of the following*Concrete art, a form of abstractionism*Concrete poetry*Reism, a philosophical movement*concretism , an opposite of abstraction, see Attitude_*Reification... . “CONCRETISM. By this I mean a peculiarity of thinking and feeling which is the antithesis of abstraction” (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 696). For example "i hate his attitude for being Sarcastic.

MBTI definition
The MBTI write-ups limit the use of "attitude" to the extraversion-introversion (EI) and judging-perceiving (JP) indexes. The above MBTI Manual statement, is restricted to EI," is directly contradicted by Jung's statement above that there is "a typical thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuitive attitude" and by his other uses of the term "attitude". Regardless of whether the MBTI simplification (or oversimplification) of Jung can be attributed to Myers, Gifts Differing refers only to the "EI preference", consistently avoiding the label "attitude". Regarding the JP index, in Gifts Differing Myers does use the terms "the perceptive attitude and the judging attitude" (Myers, 1980:8). The JP index corresponds to the irrational and rational attitudes Jung describes, except that the MBTI focuses on the preferred orientation in the outer world in order to identify the function hierarchy. To be consistent with Jung, it can be noted that a rational extraverted preference is accompanied by an irrational introverted preference.

See also

Cognitive dissonance Cognitive dissonance Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously. The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, or by justifying or rationalizing them...

Elaboration likelihood model

Elaboration likelihood model The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion is a model of how attitudes are formed and changed that was developed by R. E. Petty and J. T. Cacioppo in the early 1980's . Central to this model is the "elaboration continuum", which ranges from low elaboration to high elaboration...

Propositional attitude Propositional attitude A propositional attitude is a relational mental state connecting a person to a proposition. They are often assumed to be the simplest components of thought and can express meanings or content that can be true or false...

Social psychology Social psychology Social psychology is the study of the relations between people and groups. Scholars in this interdisciplinary area are typically either psychologists or sociologists, though all social psychologists employ both the individual and the group as their units of analysis.Despite their similarity,...

Theory of reasoned action Theory of reasoned action The theory of reasoned action , developed by Martin Fishbein and , derived from previous research that started out as the theory of attitude, which led to the study of attitude and behavior...

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Theory of planned behaviour Expectancy-value theory

Expectancy-value theory -Introduction:Expectancy-value theory was originally created in order to explain and predict individual's attitudes toward objects and actions. Originally the work of psychologist Martin Fishbein, the theory states that attitudes are developed and modified based on assessments about beliefs and...

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