You are on page 1of 29

Introduction to Microwave Links

Introduction to
Microwave Links

By Charin.Sangsuri@asiacell.com
Transmission Engineer Specialist
Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 1

Introduction to Microwave Links

Micro...wave... link?

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 2


Introduction to Microwave Links

Introduction to
Microwave
Links

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 3

Introduction to Microwave Links


Objectives
”To describe microwave link architectures.
”To define wavelength.
”To define polarizations.
”To describe propagation in free space.
”To list propagation problems.
”To list the characteristics of an antenna.
”To identify the types of modulation.
”To list parameters for preparing a frequency plan.
”To prepare a simplified link budget.
”To describe the configurations of a transceiver.

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 4


Introduction to Microwave Links
Course content
” Antennas
” Microwave link architectures
Gain
Signals to be transmitted
Radiation pattern
Definition
Aperture angle
Architectures
” Modulation
” Radio waves
” Frequency plan
Definition
Organizations
Polarization
Plan
Propagation in free space
” Link budget
Propagation problems
” Transceiver hardware
configurations
Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 5

Introduction to Microwave Links


Course content
” Antennas
¾ Microwave link architectures
Gain
Signals to be transmitted
Radiation pattern
Definition
Aperture angle
Architectures
” Modulation
” Radio waves
” Frequency plan
Definition
Organizations
Polarization
Plan
Propagation in free space
” Link budget
Propagation problems
” Transceiver hardware
configurations
Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 6
Introduction to Microwave Links
Microwave link architectures
Signals to be transmitted

Optical fibre

Copper wire

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 7

Introduction to Microwave Links


Microwave link architectures

Microwave
Link

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 8


Introduction to Microwave Links
Microwave link architectures
Diagram of a microwave link

0110111
F 1011101
Tx Tx
Rx Rx
1011101 0110111
F’

Tx : transmitter
Rx : receiver
F : transmission frequency

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 9

Introduction to Microwave Links


Microwave link architectures
Point-to-point radio

Point-to-multipoint radio

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 10


Introduction to Microwave Links
Microwave link architectures

Universities

Offices

Hospitals Nodal point

Offices
Offices

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 11

Introduction to Microwave Links


Microwave link architectures

Offices
Central office

Heavy traffic customers

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 12


Introduction to Microwave Links
Course content
” Antennas
” Microwave link architectures
Gain
Signals to be transmitted
Radiation pattern
Definition
Aperture angle
Architectures
” Modulation
¾ Radio waves
” Frequency plan
Definition
Organizations
Polarization
Plan
Propagation in free space
” Link budget
Propagation problems
” Transceiver hardware
configurations
Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 13

Introduction to Microwave Links


Radio waves
Definition
λ=C*T=C/F

λ : wavelength in metres,
C : speed of light in metres per second,
F : frequency in Hertz,
T : period in seconds.
F in GHz λ in mm
2 150
7 42.86
13 23.08
23 13.04
38 7.89

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 14


Introduction to Microwave Links
Radio waves
Polarizations

N
IO
T
EC
DIR

N
TIO
N

EC
IO
AT

VERTICAL

DIR
AG

CIRCULAR POLARIZATION

N
OP

IO
POLARIZATION

AT
PR

AG
OP
PR

N
TIO
EC
DIR
N
IO
HORIZONTAL

AT
AG
POLARIZATION

OP
PR

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 15

Introduction to Microwave Links


Radio waves
Polarizations

Rectangular waveguide section

E
E

E : electric field

Earth horizontal

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 16


Introduction to Microwave Links
Radio waves
Polarizations
Waveguides with different flanges

≅ 30 dB !

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 17

Introduction to Microwave Links


Radio waves
Propagation in free space


Free space = no solar effects
no effects induced by atmospheric conditions

Clearance of the first Fresnel ellipsoid

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 18


Introduction to Microwave Links
Radio waves
Propagation in free space

First Fresnel ellipsoid

r
d

AM + MB = AB + (n*λ/2)

n = 1, first Fresnel ellipsoid


d : axis of radio wave path,
r : radius of first ellipsoid

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 19

Introduction to Microwave Links


Radio waves
Propagation in free space

Radius of first Fresnel ellipsoid: rmax = 0.5*√λ*d


Maximum radius of first Fresnel ellipsoid

40

35

30

25 F (GHz)
radius in m

2 GHz
7 GHz
20
13 GHz
23 GHz
15 38 GHz

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

distance in km

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 20


Introduction to Microwave Links
Radio waves
Propagation in free space
260
240
220
Elevation (metres)

200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Path Length (65.00 km)

Radiofrequency propagation path


First Fresnel ellipsoid

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 21

Introduction to Microwave Links


Radio waves
Propagation in free space Part of the sphere
d
of radiated
isotropic power
Sr: receive antenna
Pr
Pe equivalent surface area

Part of the transmitted energy that is


picked up by the receive antenna
Pr = Pe * Sr / (4*π*d2) , where Sr = λ2 / (4*π)
Pr = Pe * (λ / 4 * π * d)2
α = 20 log (4 * π * d / λ)

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 22


Introduction to Microwave Links
Radio waves
Propagation in free space
Telegraphists’ equation:
α = Pe / Pr = 20 log (4πD / λ)
Free space losses

170

160

150
F (GHz)
2 GHz
140 7 GHz
13 GHz
Losses in dB

23 GHz
130 38 GHz

120

110

100

90
1 10 20 50 100 1000
Distance in km

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 23

Introduction to Microwave Links


Radio waves
Propagation problems

Refraction, multiple paths

Losses in Fresnel area

Losses due to rainfall

Losses in free space and


absorption losses

Losses due to obstruction

Multiple paths

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 24


Introduction to Microwave Links
Radio waves
Propagation problems : correction for the roundness of the earth
The bulging of the earth at a point on the profile is:
d1× d 2
h = 1000 ×
2 × R0
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
Elevation (metres)

1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Path Length (117.50 km)
CHAPARRAL Frequency = 1440.0 MHz LA MARIA
Latitude 003 43 40.00 N K = 1.00 Latitude 004 14 25.00 N
Longitude 075 29 47.00 W %F1 = 100.00 Longitude 074 34 10.00 W
Azimuth 61.13 deg Azimuth 241.20 deg
Elevation 895 m ASL Elevation 1586 m ASL
Antenna CL 0.0 m AGL ALCATEL Antenna CL 0.0 m AGL

COLOMBIA Date 09-08-99 By DO

PROYECTO RIC chapmari.pl3

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 25

Introduction to Microwave Links


Radio waves
Propagation problems :
Effect of atmospheric refraction

Gases in the atmosphere such as water vapour and oxygen


create additional attenuation over and above that produced
during propagation in free space.

13 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz 38 GHz


0.03 dB/km 0.08 dB/km 0.19 dB/km 0.12 dB/km

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 26


Introduction to Microwave Links
Radio waves
Propagation problems :
Effect of atmospheric refraction
According to vertical variations in the atmospheric
refractive index, microwave signals do not propagate in a
straight line between antennas, but on a curved path which
changes over time.

“Standard” conditions = 50% of the


time, and the path curves towards
the earth;
Unfavourable conditions = 0.1% of
the time, and the path curves
towards the sky.

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 27

Introduction to Microwave Links


Radio waves
Propagation problems :
Effect of atmospheric refraction
R0 = 6378 km

R0 kmin R0
kmax R0 R0

kmax = 4/3, R0 = 8504 km kmin = 2/3, R0 = 4252 km

the radiofrequency horizon the radiofrequency horizon is


is further away and the closer and the earth seems
earth seems flatter. rounder.

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 28


Introduction to Microwave Links
Radio waves
240
220
200
Elevation (metres)

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Path Length (65.00 km)
WESTONVILLE Frequency = 2000.0 MHz BAKER LAKE
Latitude 049 15 12.00 N K = 1.33, 0.85 Latitude 049 38 49.00 N
Longitude 122 34 14.00 W %F1 = 100.00 Longitude 121 54 29.00 W
Azimuth 47.41 deg Azimuth 227.91 deg
Elevation 120 m ASL Elevation 150 m ASL
Antenna CL 36.7 m AGL ALCATEL Antenna CL 53.2 m AGL

60% OF RADIUS CLEARED (K=4/3) Date 09-22-99 By LBT

0% OF RADIUS CLEARED (K MIN) pldemo_1.pl2

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 29

Introduction to Microwave Links


Radio waves

240

220

200
Elevation (metres)

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Path Length (65.00 km)
WESTONVILLE Frequency = 2000.0 MHz BAKER LAKE
Latitude 049 15 12.00 N K = 1.33, 0.85 Latitude 049 38 49.00 N
Longitude 122 34 14.00 W %F1 = 100.00 Longitude 121 54 29.00 W
Azimuth 47.41 deg Azimuth 227.91 deg
Elevation 120 m ASL Elevation 150 m ASL
Antenna CL 36.7 m AGL ALCATEL Antenna CL 53.2 m AGL

60% OF RADIUS CLEARED (K=4/3) Date 09-22-99 By LBT


0% OF RADIUS CLEARED (K MIN) pldemo_1.pl2

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 30


Introduction to Microwave Links
Radio waves

Diffraction Algorithm Pathloss Diffraction Algorithm Pathloss


Multiple Knife Edge Method Deygout Multiple Knife Edge Method Deygout
Maximum Number of Obstacles 2 Maximum Number of Obstacles 2
Obstacle Radius Method All obstacles Obstacle Radius Method All obstacles
Foreground Loss Method Not Included Foreground Loss Method Not Included
WESTONVILLE BAKER LAKE WESTONVILLE BAKER LAKE
Antenna Height (m) 36.66 53.15 Antenna Height (m) 36.66 53.15
Distance (km) 65.00 Distance (km) 65.00
Frequency (MHz) 2000.00 Frequency (MHz) 2000.00
K 1.33 K 0.85
Polarization Vertical Polarization Vertical
Tree Type Dry bare trees Tree Type Dry bare trees
Ground Type Average Ground Type Average
1 Knife edge 1 Knife edge
Profile Segment (km) 0.00 65.00 Profile Segment (km) 0.00 65.00
Location (km) 38.47 Location (km) 38.47
Clearance / F1 0.70 Clearance / F1 0.00
Loss (dB) 0.00 Loss (dB) 6.02
Diffraction loss (dB) 0.00 Diffraction loss (dB) 6.02
Free Space Loss (dB) 134.75 Free Space Loss (dB) 134.75
Total Loss (dB) 134.75 Total Loss (dB) 140.77

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 31

Introduction to Microwave Links


Radio waves

Propagation problems:
Attenuation due to hydrometeors

Attenuation, in dB per kilometre


6 GHz 10 GHz 20 GHz 40 GHz
Fine rain 0.013 0.07
Downpour 0.012 0.08 0.45 1.5
Storm 0.22 1.2 5.5 13
Heavy storm 1.2 5.5 18 27

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 32


Introduction to Microwave Links
Radio waves
Propagation problems:
Per cent of Time Gradient
Attenuation due to hydrometeors

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 33

Introduction to Microwave Links


Radio waves
Propagation problems:
Attenuation due to hydrometeors
Per cent of Time Gradient

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 34


Introduction to Microwave Links
Course content
¾ Antennas
” Microwave link architectures
Gain
Signals to be transmitted
Radiation pattern
Definition
Aperture angle
Architectures
” Modulation
” Radio waves
” Frequency plan
Definition
Organizations
Polarization
Plan
Propagation in free space
” Link budget
Propagation problems
” Transceiver hardware
configurations
Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 35

Introduction to Microwave Links


Antennas

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 36


Introduction to Microwave Links
Antennas

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 37

Introduction to Microwave Links


Antennas
Gain

G dB = 10 log η 4 π2S
λ Horn

S: projected surface area


η: antenna gain, from 50% to 70%

Frequency 2 GHz 4 GHz 8 GHz 13 GHz 23 GHz 38 GHz


Efficiency 50% 50% 60% 60% 70% 70%
Diameter 3.7 m 32 dB 38 dB 45 dB
Diameter 2.4 m 28 dB 34 dB 42 dB 46 dB
Diameter 1.2 m 28 dB 36 dB 40 dB 46 dB
Diameter 0.6 m 34 dB 40 dB 44 dB
Diameter 0.3 m 34 dB 38 dB

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 38


Introduction to Microwave Links
Antennas
Radiation patterns

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 39

Introduction to Microwave Links


Antennas
Aperture angle at 3 dB

70. λ
θ −3dB ≈
d

Frequency 2 GHz 4 GHz 8 GHz 13 GHz 23 GHz 38 GHz


Diameter 3.7 m 2.8° 1.4° 0.7°
Diameter 2.4 m 4.4° 2.2° 1.1° 0.7°
Diameter 1.2 m 2.2° 1.3° 0.8°
Diameter 0.6 m 2.7° 1.5° 0.9°
Diameter 0.3 m 3° 1.8°

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 40


Introduction to Microwave Links
Course content
” Antennas
” Microwave link architectures
Gain
Signals to be transmitted
Radiation pattern
Definition
Aperture angle
Architectures
¾ Modulation
” Radio waves
” Frequency plan
Definition
Organizations
Polarization
Plan
Propagation in free space
” Link budget
Propagation problems
” Transceiver hardware
configurations
Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 41

Introduction to Microwave Links


Modulation

Ρ Ρ

Ρ Ρ

Ρ Ρ Ρ Ρ
Ρ Ρ
Ρ Ρ Ρ Ρ

Ρ Ρ Ρ Ρ
Ρ Ρ Ρ Ρ

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 42


Introduction to Microwave Links
Modulation

BPSK -1
0 1 2 3 4 5

Mixer
1

A(t) S( t )
x 0

-1
Frequency 0 1 2 3 4 5

F0

Modulator O.L.

-1
0 1 2 3 4 5

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 43

Introduction to Microwave Links


Modulation
1

0,5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-0,5

-1

4QAM 0,5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-0,5

-1

1
Q Q sin ω0t
X 0,5
H/2
A(t) sin ω0t S(t) 0
-0,5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
+
H +π/2
P cos ω0t
P -1
X
H/2
1
cos ω0t

F0 0

4QAM Modulator OL

-1
0 1 2 3 4 5

1,5

0,5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-0,5

-1

-1,5

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 44


Introduction to Microwave Links
Modulation

Modulation Nyquist band Theoretical peak power BER


BPSK B P 10-n
4QAM B/2 P 10-n
16QAM B/4 P+6.5 dB 10-n

The basic duration of a symbol cannot be indefinitely reduced, but


the number of bits per symbol can be increased:
2n signal states = n bits transmitted for a symbol.
The Nyquist criterion defines the Nyquist band: minimum
bandwidth of a transmission channel.

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 45

Introduction to Microwave Links


Course content
” Antennas
” Microwave link architectures
Gain
Signals to be transmitted
Radiation pattern
Definition
Aperture angle
Architectures
” Modulation
” Radio waves
¾ Frequency plan
Definition
Organizations
Polarization
Plan
Propagation in free space
” Link budget
Propagation problems
” Transceiver hardware
configurations
Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 46
Introduction to Microwave Links
Frequency plan

Organizations

HITU: International Telecommunications Union

HCEPT: European Conference on Posts and


Telecommunications

HFCC: Federal Communication Commission (≈ CEPT)

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 47

Introduction to Microwave Links


Frequency plan

F1 F3 Fn F'1 F'3 F'n


Vertical
polarization

Horizontal
polarization
F2 F4 F'2 F'4

Duplex separation = ⏐Fn - F ’⏐

CEPT T/R 13-02 Duplex separation = 1008 MHz


Fn (MHz) = F0 (MHz) + 798 + 28n
F ’n (MHz) = F0 (MHz) + 1806 + 28n
where F0 = 21,196 MHz and n =1,…,20

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 48


Introduction to Microwave Links
Frequency plan

1, 3, 5 V 2 ’, 4 ’ V

1 ’, 3 ’, 5 ’ V 2, 4 V

1 ’, 3 ’, 5 ’ H
1, 3, 5 H

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 49

Introduction to Microwave Links


Course content
” Antennas
” Microwave link architectures
Gain
Signals to be transmitted
Radiation pattern
Definition
Aperture angle
Architectures
” Modulation
” Radio waves
” Frequency plan
Definition
Organizations
Polarization
Plan
Propagation in free space
¾ Link budget
Propagation problems
” Transceiver hardware
configurations
Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 50
Introduction to Microwave Links

Diffraction Algorithm Pathloss Diffraction Algorithm Pathloss


Multiple Knife Edge Method Deygout Multiple Knife Edge Method Deygout
Maximum Number of Obstacles 2 Maximum Number of Obstacles 2
Obstacle Radius Method All obstacles Obstacle Radius Method All obstacles
Foreground Loss Method Not Included Foreground Loss Method Not Included

BONNY LNG AMENAM BONNY LNG AMENAM

Antenna Height (m) 69.39 68.60 Antenna Height (m) 69.39 68.60
Distance (km) 51.16 Distance (km) 51.16
Frequency (MHz) 2000.00 Frequency (MHz) 2000.00
K 1.33 K 0.81
Polarization Horizontal Polarization Horizontal
Tree Type Dry bare trees Tree Type Dry bare trees
Ground Type Average Ground Type Average

1 Isolated obstacle 1 Isolated obstacle


Profile Segment (km) 0.00 51.16 Profile Segment (km) 0.00 51.16
Location (km) 25.94 Location (km) 25.94
Radius (km) 8337.06 Radius (km) 11719.56
Clearance / F1 0.87 Clearance / F1 0.30
Loss (dB) 0.00 Loss (dB) 5.70

Diffraction loss (dB) 0.00 Diffraction loss (dB) 5.70


Free Space Loss (dB) 132.67 Free Space Loss (dB) 132.67
Total Loss (dB) 132.67 Total Loss (dB) 138.37

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 51

Introduction to Microwave Links


Course content
” Antennas
” Microwave link architectures
Gain
Signals to be transmitted
Radiation pattern
Definition
Aperture angle
Architectures
” Modulation
” Radio waves
” Frequency plan
Definition
Organizations
Polarization
Plan
Propagation in free space
” Link budget
Propagation problems
¾ Transceiver hardware
configurations
Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 52
Introduction to Microwave Links
Simplified link budget
Frequency = 23 GHz dBm

Transmit

Distance = 10 km antenna gain

Bit rate = 2 tributaries Transmitted


Free space
power
losses
Antenna diameter = 0.6 m PTx = 12 dBm

Connection
losses
Tx α Rx

Connection
Tx connection losses = - 1 dB Received power
losses

Tx antenna gain = 40 dB PN = - 50 dBm

Margin
Free space losses = - 140 dB relative to
DCP : 40 dB
Receive antenna
Rx antenna gain = 40 dB Propagation
gain

- 75 dBm
alarm
Rx connection losses = - 1 dB
DCA PRx - 80 dBm

Total losses = -62 dB DCA


Threshold 10 -8
≅ -85dBm

Threshold 10 -6
Quality DC ≅ -87dBm
threshold
Threshold 10 -3
DCP ≅ -90dBm

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 53

Introduction to Microwave Links


Hardware configurations
1+0 Configuration

01101110
F 1011101

Tx Tx
Rx Rx
1011101 01101110
F’

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 54


Introduction to Microwave Links
Hardware configurations
1+1 HSB Configuration

01101110 F F 01101110
Tx 1 Tx 1

Tx x Tx x

F’
Rx 1 Rx 1
o o
Rx x Rx x
1011101

1011101

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 55

Introduction to Microwave Links


Hardware configurations
Frequency Diversity Configuration

F1
Tx Tx
Rx Rx
1100101 F1’ 101010

F2 011010
1101101
Tx Tx
Rx Rx
F2’

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 56


Introduction to Microwave Links
Hardware configurations
Space Diversity Configuration

01101110 1011101
F
Tx Tx
Rx Rx
1011101 F’
01101110
F Tx
Rx

Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 57

Introduction to Microwave Links

Microwave
link!

By Charin.Sangsuri@asiacell.com
Transmission Engineer Specialist
Asiacell Telecom Platform Course 58