# ERROR PROPAGATION

TRAVERSE

I

I

-

D

J
+

D

Departure
(a)

+
Departure

(b)

Every course in traverse affected by:
distance measurement errors.
angular measurement errors causing
computed errors in azimuth .
PLATE 7-1

J

THE FUZZY TRAVERSE

Errors in distance and angle measurements result in
increasing uncertainty in computed coordinates at each
station.
PLATE 7-2

PLATE 7-3

V.O.P. since latitude and departure are functionally related by errors in distance and azimuth.L.DERIVATION OF ERROR PROPAGATION FORMULA LAT = D Cos( Az ) DEP = D Sin( Az ) Need to use G.O. PLATE 7-4 .

G. E. 1 0 2 3 A4 = 3 9 3 8 6 0 4 7 1 PLATE 7-5 .SOLVING EQUATIONS WITH MATRICES MATRIX: a set of numbers or symbols arranged in an array of “m” rows and “n” columns.

1 0 2 3 A= 9 3 8 6 0 4 7 1 a11 = 1 a21 = 9 a31 = 0 a12 = 0 a22 = 3 a32 = 4 a13 = 2 a23 = 8 a33 = 7 a11 a12 a13 a14 A = a21 a22 a23 a24 a31 a32 a33 a34 PLATE 7-6 a14 = 3 a24 = 6 a34 = 1 . a13. a12. a14.G.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Elements designated by subscripted lower case letters. E. For first row: a11.

MATRIX TRANSPOSE Interchanging rows and columns. that is: aij = aji 1 0 2 3 A= 9 3 8 6 0 4 7 1 then 1 9 0 T A = 0 3 4 2 8 7 3 6 1 PLATE 7-7 .

Let A 7 3 1 2 5 6 B 1 5 6 4 2 3 then A B 7 1 3 5 1 6 2 4 5 2 6 3 PLATE 7-8 .g.MATRIX ADDITION Add matrices element by element E.

Let A Then 4 8 1 2 3 B 4 2 7 5 3 C2 = 2A3 × 3B2 2 c11 = 1×4 + 2×6 + 3×5 = 31 c12 = 1×8 + 2×2 + 3×3 = 21 c21 = 4×4 + 2×6 + 7×5 = 63 c22 = 4×8 + 2×2 + 7×3 = 57 or C= 6 2 31 21 63 57 PLATE 7-9 .MATRIX MULTIPLICATION Row is multiplied by column.

4z = 3 6x .REPRESENTING EQUATIONS USING MATRICES Let 1x + 2y .3y + 8z = 8 5x + 1y + 1z = 2 This can be written in matrix form: AX = B where 1 2 4 x 3 6 3 8 y 8 5 1 1 z 2 PLATE 7-10 .

L.V. lat.P.dep where A Lat D Lat Az Dep D Dep Az AT =A Lat D Cos( Az) Lat Az D Sin( Az) Dep D Sin( Az) Dep Az D Cos( Az) 2 D 0 2 Az 0 2 lat lat.O.dep lat.APPLYING G.O. dep PLATE 7-11 .dep 2 dep lat.

Dep = 456.87 ± 0.87 Cos( 23° 35' 26" ) = 418.EXAMPLE A traverse course has a length of 456. What are the latitude and departure for the course. PLATE 7-12 .69 ft.87 Sin( 23° 35' 26" ) = 182. and the estimated errors in each? Lat = 456.84 ft.02 ft. and azimuth of 23° 35' 26" ± 9".

00000096 0.O.L.O.V. dep 0. dep DSin(Az) 0.87 (0.4002 456.87 (0.87 (0.THEIR ESTIMATED ERRORS BY G.0004 0 0 9 2 0.4002) 456. dep 0.9164) 0.022 Sin(Az) DCos(Az) 0 9 0 2 Cos(Az) Sin(Az) DSin(Az) DCos(Az) OR 0.00039958 0.00000096 lat.9164 456.9164) OR 0.00039781 PLATE 7-13 0.P.9164 lat.4002) 456.4002 . Cos(Az) lat.87 (0.

and q12 and q21 are their covariances.00039958 = ±0.00039781 = ±0.ERROR ANALYSIS q11 is the latitude's variance.020 ft. Thus estimated errors are: Lat = q11 Dep = q22 0. PLATE 7-14 . 0. q22 is the departure's variance.020 ft.

Errors in distances PLATE 7-15 . Errors in azimuths 2.ESTIMATED ERRORS IN TRAVERSE TWO COMPONENTS: 1.

O.ESTIMATED ERRORS IN COURSE AZIMUTHS FORMULA: Azc = Azp + 180 + where Azc is the azimuth of the course. Azc 2 Azp PLATE 7-16 2 .L. Azp is the azimuth of the previous course USING S.P.O.V.

FOR A TRAVERSE WITH AZIMUTHS COMPUTED FROM ANGLES Azn 2 Azinitial n 2 i 2 i where Azn is Azinitial the azimuth of the n’th course is the azimuth of the initial course PLATE 7-17 .

6 Since 19" is less than 24. the angular misclosure is acceptable.35 0.) BS Inst FS Angle S E A B 110 24' 40" 3.020 (Each angle was measured with four repetitions.94 0.92 ±24.66 0.12 3.020 756.020 1125.020 1054. PLATE 7-18 .183 3.6".52 3.5" A B C 87 36' 14" 3.025.1" D E A 116 14' 56" 3.62 3.67 0.12 3.1" B C D 125 47' 27" 3.020 856.183 3.54 0.3 = 3.6" C D E 99 57' 02" 3.EXAMPLE Occ A B C D E Std B C D E A Distance S 1435.9" 540° 00' 19" Check angular misclosure at 95% level of confidence: t0.

62 ±4.7 69 35' 39" 5.12 3.8 133 20' 43" 4.12 ±5.Errors in Traverse Computations FROM TO AZIMUTH ESTIMATED ERROR A B C B C D 0 00' 00" 267 36' 14" 213 23' 41" 0" ±3.1" D E E A 3.72 3.82 3.9 PLATE 7-19 .92 ±6.

Cos(AzAB) DABSin(AzAB) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sin(AzAB) DAB Cos(AzAB) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cos(AzBC) DBC Sin(AzBC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sin(AzBC) DBC Cos(AzBC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cos(AzEA) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sin(AzEA) DEA Cos(AzEA) PLATE 7-20 0 0 DEA Sin(AzEA) .Errors in Traverse Computations Set up A matrix: alternate columns with partial derivatives for distance and azimuth alternate rows with latitude and departure equations for each course.

Errors in Traverse Comps Setup 2 DAB matrix: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 DBC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 DCD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 DDE 0 0 0 0 0 2 DEA 0 2 0 0 AzAB 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 AzBC 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 AzCD 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 AzDE 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 PLATE 7-21 0 0 0 AzEA .

00049 0.00002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00002 0.00040 0 = A AT 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00043 PLATE 7-22 .00064 0.00061 0.00062 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00034 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. dep 0.00061 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00050 0.00060 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00034 0.00062 0.00040 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00050 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.Errors in Traverse Computations Substitute in appropriate values and compute: lat.00017 0.

EXPECTED MISCLOSURE IN A TRAVERSE Computing the expected value for the linear misclosure of a traverse.t. Lat and Dep for the i’th course are: LC Lati Lats LC LC Depi Deps LC PLATE 7-23 . LC ( LatAB LatBC LatEA )2 ( DepAB DepBC DepEA )2 The partial derivatives w.r.

the A matrix structure is: A Lats LC Deps LC Lats LC Deps LC PLATE 7-24 Lats LC Deps LC .EXPECTED MISCLOSURE IN A TRAVERSE Since the partial derivatives are course independent.

082 0 -856.811 -723.191 -619.022)2 0.082)2 (0.894 708. PLATE 7-25 .67 -35.829 263.886 = 0.ACTUAL TRAVERSE MISCLOSURE Course Latitude Departure AB BC CD DE EA 1435.715 = -0.085 ft.827 -939.022 LC = ( 0.567 766.

0.9647 0.2588 0.00229 ] PLATE 7-26 .9647 0.9647 0.2588 [ 0.9647 0.O. Dep and G.2588 0.2588 ] Lat.2588 0.L.9647 0.9647 0.2588 0.P. Dep 0.V.2588 0.2588 0.9647 0.O.9647 LC [ 0.EXPECTED TRAVERSE MISCLOSURE From previously determined Lat.

STATISTICAL CHECK OF TRAVERSE MISCLOSURE Expected traverse misclosure: LC = 0.00229 PLATE 7-27 ±0.048 ft .

048 = ± 0.35 × 0.35 Thus E95 = 2. 3 = 2. PLATE 7-28 . within 95% confidence interval. Actual traverse misclosure 0.085 ft.STATISTICAL CHECK OF TRAVERSE MISCLOSURE At 95% level of confidence use a t multiplier of t0.11 ft.05.

22 Angle Observations BS Inst FS 1 A B C A B C D B 66 16' 35" C 205 16 '46" D 123 40' 19" 2 212 00' 55" S ±0.3" ±4.5" ±5.9" ±5.98 1223.021 Angle ±4.00 3677.021 ±0.00 2 4873.16 933.020 ±0.020 ±0.1" .021 ±0.6" Control Stations Station X Y 1 1248.33 1273.26 819.1" ±4.00 S 1 2 PLATE 7-29 Azimuth Observations From To Azimuth S A D 197 04' 47" 264 19' 13" ±4.00 3979.LINK TRAVERSE EXAMPLE 1 2 D B A C Distance Observations From 1 A B C D To A B C D 2 Distance 1069.

ANGULAR MISCLOSURE Course 1A AB BC CD D2 Azimuth 197 04' 47" 83 21' 22" 108 38' 08" 52 18' 27" 84 19' 22" ±4.P..O. PLATE 7-30 .5" ±8.O. the estimated difference is: 11.7 Thus. there is no reason to suspect any problems in the angle measurements.3" ±6.02 4.9" ±11.V.5" ±9.0" The actual difference in the azimuths: 84° 19' 22" .12 ±11.84° 19' 13" = 9" Using S.L.

3625.989 968.Y1) = -302.X1) = 3624.00) = -0.128 = 3624.032)2 .952 -314.968 .132 PLATE 7-31 Lat 2 ( 0.975 = -302.128 LC Dep 2 ( 0.(Y2 .993 776.007 107.968 ACTUAL MISCLOSURE Dep = Dep .976 -262.CHECKING TRAVERSE MISCLOSURE Course Latitude Departure 1A AB BC CD D2 -1022.022 747.128 .973 125.00 = -0.032 Lat = Lat .014 926.(X2 .128)2 0.(-302.025 1266.

EXPECTED TRAVERSE MISCLOSURE SETUP MATRICES Cos(Az1A) A D1ASin(Az1A) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sin(Az1A) D1ACos(Az1A) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cos(AzAB) DABSin(AzAB) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sin(AzAB) DABCos(AzAB) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cos(AzD2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sin(AzD2) DD2Cos(AzD2) PLATE 7-32 DD2Sin(AzD2) .

EXPECTED TRAVERSE MISCLOSURE 2 D1A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 DBC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Az1A 0 0 2 DAB 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 AzAB 0 2 2 AzBC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 DCD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 DD2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 AzCD 2 PLATE 7-33 AzD2 .

001565 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.24 ft.002324 0.000492 lat. dep Dep LC Lat LC AT = [ 0. PLATE 7-34 Dep LC .000263 0.000467 0.EXPECTED TRAVERSE MISCLOSURE 0.01000 ] LC = ± 0.000497 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00107 0.000467 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.000145 0.000446 0.000263 0.004570 0.05.001881 0.000482 Expected Traverse Misclosure: A Lat LC Dep LC LC =A E95% = t0.35 × 0.000476 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.000497 0.000406 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. dep 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 Lat LC lat.000859 0.001881 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.000145 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.10 = 0.10 ft. LC = 2.

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