You are on page 1of 8

Geographic information system

A geographic information system (GIS), or geographical information system, is any
system that captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and presents data that are linked to
location. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography and database
technology. GIS systems are used in cartography, remote sensing, land surveying, utility
management, photogrammetry, geography, urban planning, emergency management,
navigation, and localized search engines.


GIS technology can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, asset
management, archaeology, environmental impact assessment, urban planning,
cartography, criminology, geographic history, marketing, logistics, prospectivity
mapping, and other purposes. For example, GIS might allow emergency planners to
easily calculate emergency response times (i.e. logistics) in the event of a natural disaster,
GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection from pollution, or GIS can be
used by a company to site a new business location to take advantage of a previously
under-served market.

GIS techniques and technology

Modern GIS technologies use digital information, for which various digitized data
creation methods are used. The most common method of data creation is digitization,
where a hard copy map or survey plan is transferred into a digital medium through the
use of a computer-aided design (CAD) program, and geo-referencing capabilities. With
the wide availability of ortho-rectified imagery (both from satellite and aerial sources),
heads-up digitizing is becoming the main avenue through which geographic data is
extracted. Heads-up digitizing involves the tracing of geographic data directly on top of
the aerial imagery instead of by the traditional method of tracing the geographic form on
a separate digitizing tablet (heads-down digitizing).

Data representation

GIS data represents real objects (such as roads, land use, elevation) with digital data. Real
objects can be divided into two abstractions: discrete objects (a house) and continuous
fields (such as rainfall amount, or elevation). Traditionally, there are two broad methods
used to store data in a GIS for both abstractions: raster and vector. A new hybrid method
of storing data is point clouds, which combine three-dimensional points with RGB
information at each point, returning a "3D color image".

GIS developments
Many disciplines can benefit from GIS technology. An active GIS market has resulted in
lower costs and continual improvements in the hardware and software components of

result in a much wider use of the technology[original research?] throughout science. It was established in 1973 to reduce the large number of navigation aids and to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems. Photogrammetry the practice of determining the geometric properties of objects from photographic images. tracking and surveillance.GIS. Applications GPS has become a widely used aid to navigation worldwide. Global Positioning System The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system that provides reliable location and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Department of Defense (DOD) and was originally based on and run with 24 satellites. in turn. commerce. natural resources. Each satellite continually transmits messages which include • the time the message was transmitted • precise orbital information (the ephemeris) • the general system health and rough orbits of all GPS satellites (the almanac). transportation and logistics Cartography or mapmaking is the study and practice of making maps or globes. land surveying. archaeology. business. The precise time reference provided by GPS is used in many applications including the scientific study of earthquakes and as a time synchronization source for cellular network protocols. with applications including real estate.S. Basic concept of GPS A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by the GPS satellites high above the Earth. sustainable development. scientific uses. public health. . regional and community planning. government. and a useful tool for map- making. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver. and industry. landscape architecture. national defense. GPS was created and realized by the U. These developments will. crime mapping. and hobbies such as geocaching and waymarking.

. save your toured places. (NASDAQ: GOOG. and share with others. using a cellular (GPRS or SMS). Google Earth Google Earth lets you fly anywhere on Earth to view satellite imagery. and advertising technologies corporation.[2][6] The company was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin. FWB: GGQ1) is a multinational public cloud computing.[7][8][9][10] while the two were attending Stanford University as Ph. The recorded location data can be stored within the tracking unit. terrain. California. Google hosts and develops a number of Internet-based services and products. 2004. maps. person. Internet search. 1998. The company's stated mission from the outset was "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful". or it may be transmitted to a central location data base.[12][13] In 2006.[11] and the company's unofficial slogan – coined by Google engineer Paul Buchheit – is Don't be evil. from galaxies in outer space to the canyons of the ocean. candidates. radio. or other asset to which it is attached and to record the position of the asset at regular intervals. Search engine The Google web search engine is the company's most popular service.D. It was first incorporated as a privately held company on September 4. or internet-connected computer.GPS tracking unit A GPS tracking unit is a device that uses the Global Positioning System to determine the precise location of a vehicle. the company moved to their current headquarters in Mountain View. You can explore rich geographical content. or satellite modem embedded in the unit. 3D buildings. often dubbed the "Google Guys". Google Google Inc. with its initial public offering to follow on August 19.[5] and generates profit primarily from advertising through its AdWords program. using GPS tracking software. This allows the asset's location to be displayed against a map backdrop either in real time or when analysing the track later.

2007. some not -- including Google Earth. Gmail. music. Pack (Windows XP/Vista) Collection of computer applications -. iPhone) Virtual 3D globe that uses satellite imagery. providing photo library options and simple effects. Mac OS X) Web browser. Features of products. such as Web Search features. Windows 2000/XP) Alerts the user of new messages in their Gmail account. mobile and online products released or acquired by Google Inc. Web history and other files. photos. Windows 2000/XP/Vista. Windows 2000 SP3+/XP/Vista. Chrome (Windows XP/Vista/7. Also includes Facial Recognition and GeoTagging features. that have either been merged. This list also includes previous products. in beta development.[102] and became available to the general public on February 7. Mac OS X. . GNU/Linux. It consists of both an iPhoto plug-in and a stand-alone application.Productivity tools In addition to its standard web search services. Gmail/Google Notifier (Mac OS X.[103] List of Google products This list of Google products includes all major desktop. 2004. chats. Windows 2000 SP3+/XP/Vista) Desktop application to manage a Google AdWords account. Linux and Windows 2000/XP/Vista) Photo organization and editing application.some Google-created. a free webmail service provided by Google. discarded or renamed. Google Talk. Earth (Linux. aerial photography and GIS from Google's repository. They are either a gold release. and Google Chrome. It allows the installation of Google Gadgets. The application allows users to make changes to their account and advertising campaigns before synchronizing with the online service. that indexes e-mails. Google has released over the years a number of online productivity tools. or through RSS and Atom Web feeds. which displays images sourced from a hard disk. Picasa (Mac OS X. Desktop products [edit] Standalone applications AdWords Editor (Mac OS X. Desktop (Mac OS X. was launched as an invitation-only beta program on April 1. Google Desktop. Linux ) Desktop search application. are not listed. documents. Picasa Web Albums Uploader (Mac OS X) An application to upload images to the "Picasa Web Albums" service. or part of the Google Labs initiative. Photos Screensaver Slideshow screensaver as part of Google Pack. Picasa.

Quick Search box (Windows. Send to Mobile (Firefox) (Discontinued) Allows users to send text messages to their mobile phone (US only) about web content. to Chinese characters. Visigami (Mac OS X Leopard) Image search application screen saver that searches files from Google Images. to Indian Language characters. Blogger Web Comments (Firefox only) Displays related comments from other Blogger users. which can be entered on Western-style keyboards. Firefox. Google Indic Input Method (Windows 2000/Windows XP/Windows Vista) (Google India) Input Method Editor that is used to convert Indic characters. Gears (Google Chrome. Dashboard Widgets for Mac (Mac OS X Dashboard Widgets) Collection of mini-applications including Gmail. which can be entered on Western-style keyboards. Toolbar (Firefox and Internet Explorer) Web browser toolbar with features such as a Google Search box. based on Quicksilver (software). Blogger and Search History. It consists of both a service and a client used to connect to the service. Mac OS X) A search box. Talk (Windows 2000/Windows XP/Server 2003/Vista) Application for VoIP and instant messaging. whose equipment does not support WPA or 802. pop-up blocker as well as the ability for website owners to create buttons. Picasa and Flickr. Secure Access (Windows 2000/XP) VPN client for Google WiFi users. phishing protection. • Japanese Input (Windows XP SP2+/Windows Vista SP1+/Windows 7 and Mac OS X Leopard+) (Google Japan) Japanese Input Method Editor. which uses the XMPP protocol.1x protocols SketchUp (Mac OS X and Windows 2000/Windows XP) Modelling application to sketch simple 3D structures for integration into Google Earth. [edit] Desktop extensions These products created by Google are extensions to software created by other organizations. Pinyin Input Method (Windows 2000/Windows XP/Windows Vista) (Google China) Input Method Editor that is used to convert Chinese Pinyin characters. which allows the user to easily view installed applications or perform online searches. . Internet Explorer and Safari) A browser plug-in that enables development of off-line browser applications.

Google Maps Navigation An Android navigation application for GPS-enabled mobile devices (such as the Google Nexus One) with 3D views. also available as a preference of Google Mobile) Optimizes web pages for mobile web browsers. Italy. iGoogle Mobile version of iGoogle that can be easily customised with modules. Germany. Spain. Buzz Buzz is a social networking service built into Gmail. Mobile view is enabled by default. turn-by-turn voice guidance and automatic rerouting. France. Allows you to update your Blogger blog from a mobile device. Reader Displays Google Reader on a mobile device. It is currently available in the United[1] . UK. Product Search Updated version of the previous Froogle Mobile that allows users to easily search for information about a product. 2010. Gmail Access a Gmail account from a mobile device using a standard mobile web browser. Switzerland and Belgium. Alternatively. Google Latitude Google Latitude is a mobile geolocation tool that lets your friends know where you are via Google Maps. Picasa Web Albums Lets you view and share photo albums that you have stored online on Picasa. Calendar Displays a list of all Google Calendar events on a mobile device. Users are able to quickly add events to your personal calendar. Mobile search Search web pages. It was released on February 9th. images. Blogger Mobile Only available on some US networks. Google provides a specific mobile application to access and download Gmail messages quicker.Mobile products [edit] Online mobile products These products can be accessed through a browser on a mobile device. Netherlands. News Allows the user to access Google News in a mobile-optimized view. Austria. local listings and mobile-specific web pages through the Google search engine. Ireland. Canada. Google Mobilizer (http://www.

[3] It has been modified for local Chinese markets by China Mobile's OPhone Software Developers Network. social networking. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen. web browsing. EYE-fohn) is a line of Internet and multimedia- enabled smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. with e-mail. GPS navigation. Third-party applications are available from the App Store. a firm later purchased by Google. These apps have diverse functionalities. and work done by the Open Handset Alliance.foʊn/. and an Internet client.. including a virtual keyboard rather than a physical one. and advertising for television shows. For end users.[3] . a portable media player. iPhone The iPhone (pronounced /ˈaɪ. entry level smartphone access and a limited mobile internet experience using China Mobile's proprietary TD-SCDMA network. including games. and its GSM network. It is a competitor to Apple's iOS for the iPhone and Microsoft's Windows Mobile for mobile devices. and Wi-Fi connectivity. OPhone OS is intended provide cheap. and celebrities Google Chrome OS Google Chrome OS is an upcoming open source[1] operating system designed by Google to work exclusively with web applications. low frills. which launched in mid-2008 and now has well over 200. 2009. including text messaging and visual voicemail.[4 History OPhone OS is linux-based smartphone software platform developed by China Mobile and based on the Android operating system developed by Google. Chrome OS is set to have a publicly available stable release during the second half of 2010.[6] An iPhone functions as a camera phone. films. OPhone OPhone OS is a mobile operating system running on the Linux kernel.Android (operating system) Android is Google's operating system for mobile devices. reference. OPhone OS bases on open source software and mobile internet technologies.000 "apps" approved by Apple. It is based on technologies initially developed by Android Inc. The first iPhone was introduced on January 9.[2] Announced on July 7. 2007.

[1] Google Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Internet.The operating system is based on Linux and will not be available as a download to run and install. resembling that of the Chrome web browser.[6][7][8] .[4] The user interface takes a minimalist approach. Chrome OS is only shipping on specific hardware from manufacturers Google has partnered with. Instead. As a browser incorporating a media player[5] will be the only application residing on the device.