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Host organisation::Aga Khan Rural Support Program(India)

Submitted to::Mr. Mukesh Chandra, Development Specialist

Faculty Guide:: Prof. Nandini Sen

Submission Date::9th March, 2011

Submitted by: RAKESH KUMAR, B.Com-10201039






First and foremost, we would like to thank our host organization AKRSP(I) for giving us an
opportunity to work on the topic of Livelihood Portfolio Analysis and Cash Flow Analysis of the
villagers of Ghanshyampur. We would also like to thank our faculty guide of this project, Prof.
Nandini Sen for giving us valuable inputs and suggestions regarding the topic of the project. This
topic helped us a lot in understanding the livelihood of the villagers of Bihar and the decisions
that conduce in selecting the livelihoods. Prof. Nandini Sen inspired us greatly to work in this
project. Her willingness to motivate us contributed tremendously to our project. We also would
like to thank her for referring to us some example that related to the topic of our project.

Besides, we would like to thank Mr. Atul Kumar, the administrator of the Aurai Spear-Head-
Team of AKRSP(I) and Mr. Mukesh Kumar, the knowledgeable security guard of AKRSP(I)
whose valuable inputs contributed immensely towards successful completion of this report.

Finally, an honorable mention goes to our parents, Mr. Swapan Kumar Auddy, Mrs. Mallika
Auddy and Mr. Jhabu Lal Sharma and brother, Mr. Subhash Kumar for their understanding and
support to us in completing this report. Without the help and continued support of the above-
mentioned people this report would not have seen the light of the day.

-Soumyajit Auddy

-Rakesh Kumar


I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY------------------------------------5
II. ORGANISATION PROFILE--------------------------------7
III. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY-------------------------8
IV. VILLAGE PROFILE-----------------------------------------9
VI. INTRODUCTION--------------------------------------------28
VII. CASTE SYSTEM---------------------------------------------30
VIII. PRIMARY OCCUPATION---------------------------------31
IX. LANDHOLDING PATTERN----------------------------- 33
IMPACTING LIVELIHOOD------------------------------36
SEARCH OF LIVELIHOOD------------------------------40
MIGRATION FOR LIVELIHOOD----------------------47
XV. CONCLUSION----------------------------------------------55
XVI. REFERENCES---------------------------------------------55


As part of of the Theme Paper we need to do the Livelihood Portfolio Analysis and Cash Flow
Analysis of the villagers of Ghanshyampur:

The methodology we used for gathering the data and analyzing the same to achieve the desired
results are are Participatory Rural Appraisal(PRA), Focused Group Discussion with villagers in
Ghanshyampur and Informal Group Discussions with villagers in Ghanshyampur and Vaishali.
We also conducted one-to-one interviews with villagers and also used inputs we got from visits
to places like Sudha Dairy in Muzaffarpur. We also used data gathered from 32 households
during household surveys for our analysis. The data we gathered from FGD are as follows:

 Ghanshyampur village is on the banks of the Bagmati river.
 The village is more than 100yrs old.
 Every year during the monsoon the village used to be flooded by Bagmati river.
 Soil in the Ghanshyampur region is very fertile and sustains a variety of crops.
 Yield is 2.5-4 mounds per Katha.
 Caste system prevails in the village.
 The different castes in the village are Kayasthas,Bhumihar, Hajams,
Brahmins,Yadavs,Machhwaras,mallas,Chamar,Dom,Teli,Halwai,Rajputs and Musahars.
 At the beginning of this village most households were of Kayasthas and Yadav
caste.Kayasthas used to be landlords.
 Kayasthas used to be the learned caste in the village.
 Agriculture used to be the primary occupation in this village as this land is very fertile.
 Ghanshyampur panchayat existed from the formation of panchayats.
 The village school is very old.
 Revenue village is Ghanshyampur
 The mukhiya has been holding post for 3 generations.
 The first mukhiya was Shri Bhagyanarayan Thakur.
 The village road was constructed by him
 The second Mukhiya was KrishnaKumar Thakur.
 Benipur village is just across the ring dam. It is home of famous poets like Rambriksh
Benipuri and JankiBallav Shastri.
 Kayasthas come to this village during festivals.
 Chhat and Holi are the largest festivals in this village.
 Wheat, maize and paddy are the primary crops in this village.
 Ramdayal Sharma was the 1st MLA of this village in 1949.
 Rambabau Singh was 2nd MLA.


 Income of the people is lowest during the period of October-November since most migrated people return home from work and expenses are also high due to festivals. maize and oilseeds are mainly grown in the rabi season.  Arjun Rai was 3rd MLA. 10000 is taken as bribe from the villagers on account of Indira Awas Yojana by the Mukhiya.(Manishanand Saraswati). notable freedom fighter hailed from this village.  Wheat.  Ramsurat Rai is the present MLA.  Swami Ayodhya lal.  Tobacco is a major cash crop and is mostly grown by people with less landholding to generate more income. 6|K II T SCH OOL OF RU RAL MANAG EM ENT .  Electricity in the village came during the period of 87-88.  Potato and tobacco are also grown here.  During floods people used to migrate to higher grounds.  Late Dr.  Skin disease along with diarrhea and malaria are prevalent in the area.  Maximum people have migrated to Jaipur and Mumbai. Suryadev Prasad Verma. founder of Gurukul in Sitamarhi hailed from this village.  Rs.  No fertilizer is provided from Panchayat.

ORGANISATION PROFILE About the Aga Khan Development Network The Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) focuses on health. without regard to their faith. education. It 7|K II T SCH OOL OF RU RAL MANAG EM ENT . AKRSPI About the Organization The Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (India) is a non-denominational. It is dedicated to improving living conditions and opportunities for the poor. institution-building and the promotion of economic development. AKRSP (India) works as a catalyst for the betterment of rural communities by providing direct support to local communities to promote activities and develop models for sustainable natural resource use and development of human resources. origin or gender.We will begin the report with a brief profile of our host organization. AKRSP (India) began field operations in 1985 and has since become one of the larger grassroots NGOs in India with more than 250 staff in 27 locations and an annual budget of $6 million. culture. non-government development organisation. rural development.

watershed development. 8|K II T SCH OOL OF RU RAL MANAG EM ENT . Bhilala and Barela. preventing salinity ingress and alternative energy to empower rural women and marginalised communities. community institutions. In the Khandwa programme area. an entirely new approach and strategy was needed. The village comes under the Gjanshyampur panchayat. The key focus areas have been watershed development. To ensure that these lessons are shared with others. The village has a population of almost 2000 people as per the 2001 census data. These are:  Casteeism prevails supreme in the village. Background of the Study Ghanshyampur is one of the largest villages in Aurai block. As we spent our days in the village and kept on doing household surveys we noticed some interesting facts about the village. a Multi Input Area Development (MIAD) approach was taken up in collaboration with AKF India. As Bihar was new to AKRSP (India). joint forest management. Hence. Since mid-2008. micro enterprise development and implementing the Community-based Technology Learning Centres. Korku. Every aspect of the village lifestyle is dictated by the caste system. education and health have been piloted in Bihar Through field implementation over the last two decades. The training centres train more than 3500 villagers and government staff annually. Khargone and Burhanpur in Madhya Pradesh. AKRSP (India) also partners with other NGOs and research agencies to influence policies and programmes of the Government and market players to improve the quality of life of the rural poor. rain water harvesting. AKRSP (India) is active in over 1000 villages in four environmentally challenged and economically vulnerable regions of Gujarat: the tribal block of Bharuch – Narmada – Surat-Tapi. AKRSP (India) has been working with the tribal communities of Bhil.has innovated and pioneered several efforts in areas such as participatory irrigation management. coastal salinity-affected Junagadh and the drought-prone Surendranagar. Since 2005. It is a member of many state and national committees on natural resource management. AKRSP (India) has been working in the remote and poor districts of Khandwa. MIAD aims at working simultaneously on economic and social development through community-based approaches. AKRSP (India) has set up two training centres in the rural areas of Gujarat. participatory irrigation management. Bihar is the most backward state of India with more than 45 million people living on less than a dollar a day and the highest infant mortality and lowest literacy rates in the country. AKRSP (India) initiated its activities in Bihar in 2007 in the districts of Samastipur and Muzaffarpur. there has been much learning for AKRSP (India). The MIAD approach is quite different from the ones that are followed in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh where interventions are taken up in a sequential manner with economic development leading to investments in social development. a range of interventions in the domain of economic development.

We will also do a detailed analysis of the incomes and expenditures of the villagers. famous for Shahi lychees is the largest city of northern Bihar.  Soil in the village is very fertile. The topics of our study are livelihood portfolio analysis and cash flow analysis of the villagers of Ghanshyampur. much of the town suffered severe damage and many lives were lost. electricity or good school. which flows from the Himalayan foothills.  Landholding pattern in the village is highly uneven. Muzaffarpur is one of the many gateways to Nepal. the reasons for taking up the existing patterns of livelihood and the alternative livelihood options the villagers have at the present circumstances. Geography Muzaffarpur is located at 26°07′N 85°24′E / 26. This has directly impacted the pattern of livelihood in the village. Most of the land is controlled by villagers of the upper caste. Muzaffarpur.4°E.  Daily wage labor is the primary occupation of the villagers. we would firstly like to illustrate a complete village profile.  The Mukhiya of the village is a corrupt person. It is situated on the banks of the perennial Burhi Gandak River. The entire current population of the village consists of women.  There is hardly any middle aged man or youth left in the village. The town lies in a highly active seismic zone of India. In our study we will find out the current livelihood pattern of the villagers. Clothes and food-grains are traded between Nepal and Muzaffarpur. In most cases there is no secondary occupation. In the disastrous earthquake on 15 January 1934. Before going into the details of the study. children and senior citizens. At least one member from every household has migrated in search of livelihood. [3] It has an average elevation of 47 meters 9|K II T SCH OOL OF RU RAL MANAG EM ENT . There is no road.12°N 85.  Migration in search of livelihood is very high in the village. Village Profile A short history of Muzaffarpur Muzaffarpur is a town in Muzaffarpur district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is the capital of the district.  The infrastructure in the village is completely dilapidated. bring out the heads where incomes and expenditures are maximum and also try to analyze how savings can be increased so as to have a better standard of living.

Muzaffarpur Town has ancient temples like Baba Garib Nath (Shiva Temple). Muzaffarpur now is a rapidly growing city. over Himalayan silt and sand brought by the glaciers and rain-fed meandering rivers of the Himalayas. the Vaishali and Saran districts to the south. There are also several large and small places of worship of other religious communities like the Sikhs (Gurudwara at Ramna). It has won international encomiums for its delicious Shahi Lychee and Chinese Lychee fruits. Chakkar Maidan has a small encampment of members of the Territorial Army non-departmental unit 151 Inf Bn (TA) JAT. ‘The Land of Lychee. The drainage system and garbage disposal system is disorderly and practically non-existent. The town is surrounded by the flood plain dotted with ponds and oxbow lakes. History Muzaffarpur district. Rama Krishna Ashram (in Bela – Mithan Pura). 10 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . The city has a water-table just 20 ft. but a lot is yet to be done. Jains. Numerous private fruit orchards and idyllic rivers are also nearby. Raj Rajeswar Devi Kali (Durga)build by darbhanga maharaj. well drained and sandy. Thousands of villagers migrated to this town from nearby villages in the rapid urbanization of post-independence India. belonging to the Airport Authority of Indiawhich is now somewhat damaged. The district is named after Muzaffar Khan. The landscape is green all year round. Muslims (Badi Masjid at Company Bagh. Data Kambal Shah Mazaar near Purani Bazaar. low-centered town lies on the great Indo-Gangetic plains of Bihar. It is bounded by the Purbi Champaran and Sitamarhi districts to the north. the Kali temple. Buddhists. an Amil (Revenue Officer) under the Raj. The growth in the last decade has been phenomenal. Christians.(154 feet). The city has a non-operational civil Aerodrome. The downtown areas of Muzaffarpur are Tilak Maidan Road. Bada Imambara near Banaras Bank Chowk & Badi Karbala at Sariyagunj). below ground level. Chaturbhuj-sthan. with sparkling sandy river banks and clean air and water. and others. the Darbhanga and Samastipur districts to the east and the Saran and Gopalganj districts on the West. but this has created serious law and order problems.’ was created in 1875 for the sake of administrative convenience by splitting up the earlier district of Tirhut. Temple of Raj Darbhanga and Kalibari. These areas are densely populated with small shops selling a plethora of goods and services. Kalyani and Saraiyagunj. This saucer shaped. The soil of the town is highly fertile. Patahi. Motijheel is the main shopping area. white colored and very soft.

Towards the close of the 14th century the whole of North Bihar. In the 8th century A. until Sikandar Lodi of Delhi defeated the king of Jaunpur. the Pala kings gained control over Tirhut and kept it until 1019 A. However. Sometime between 1211 and 1226. Even the powerful kingdom of Magadh had to conclude matrimonial alliances in 519 B. passed to the kings of Jaunpur and remained under their control for nearly a century. including Tirhut. It was in 1323 that Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq established his control over the district.D. the famous Royal court dancer of Vaishali.D. The Vrijjan Republic was a confederation of eight clans of which the Licchavis were the most powerful and influential.The recorded history of the district dates back to the rise of the Vrijjan Republic. 40 km from Muzaffarpur is believed to be the village home of Amrapali. the Nawab of Bengal.D. From the visit of the Hieuen Tsang until the rise of the Pala dynasty. Hussain Shah. Nanyupa Deva. became the first Muslim invader of Tirhut. the sovereign power of Tirhut passed from the Hindu chiefs to the Muslims. a powerful sovereign of North India. Muzaffarpur was under the control of Maharaja Harsha Vardhan. the ruler of Bengal. Tughlaq Shah invaded Tirhut in 1323 and gained control over the territory. merely extorting tributes. Ajatshatru invaded Vaishali and extended his sway over Tirhut. Chedi kings of Central India also exercised their influence over Tirhut until they were replaced by the rulers of the Sena dynasty towards the close of the 11th century. Tughlaq Shah handed over the management of Tirhut to Kameshwar Thakur. It was at this time that Patliputra (the modern Patna) was founded at the village Patali on the banks of the sacred Ganges river. who extended his power over the whole of Mithila and Nepal. he could not succeed in conquering the kingdom. During the regime of Harasimha Deva. Thus. with the neighboring estates of the Licchavis. had 11 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . After 647 A. Ambarati. the last king of the dynasty. and Ajatshatru built an invincible fortress to keep vigil over the Licchavis on the other side of the river. The history of Muzaffarpur would be incomplete without a reference to the Simraon dynasty (in the north-east part of Champaran) and its founder. when the center of political power shifted from Mithila to Vaishali. Ghais-u-ddin Iwaz. Meanwhile. the district passed to the local chiefs.C.

was hanged for throwing the bomb at the carriage of Pringle Kennedy. and after his fall. a separate Subah of Bihar was constituted under the Mughal dynasty. 12 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . north Bihar formed a part of the mighty Mughal Empire. It has undoubtedly been this highly diversified element within her boundaries that has so often made Muzaffarpur the birthplace of towering geniuses. The young Bengali revolutionary. The visit of Mahatma Gandhi to Muzaffarpur district in December 1920 and again in January 1927 had tremendous political effect in arousing the latent feelings of the people and the district continued to play a prominent role in the country's struggle for freedom. the District Judge of Muzaffarpur. Muzaffarpur played a very significant role in the history of North-Eastern India. a boy of barely 18 years. rise along this border line. The political awakening in the country after the First World War stimulated nationalist movement in Muzaffarpur district as well. with the decline and fall of Mahood Shah. The victory of East India Company in 1764 at the battle of Buxar gave them control over the whole of Bihar and they succeeded in subduing the entire district. representing mutual assimilation. The peculiarity of Muzaffarpur in Indian civilization arises out of its position on the frontier line between two most vibrant spiritual influences. Khudi Ram Bose. with Tirhut forming a part of it. the petty chieftains continued to exercise effective control over this area until the days of Daud Khan. the Nawab of Bengal. All sorts of modified institutions. After independence.become so powerful that he exercised his control over large tracts including Tirhut. The success of the insurgency in Delhi in 1857 caused grave concern to the English inhabitants in this district and revolutionary fervor began to permeate the entire district. The emperor of Delhi advanced against Hussain Shah in 1499 and got control over Tirhut after defeating its Raja. Muzaffarpur played its role and was the site of the famous bombing case of 1908. The power of the Nawabs of Bengal began to wane and. a memorial to this young revolutionary patriot was constructed at Muzaffarpur. who was mistaken for Kingsford. Daud Khan had his stronghold at Patna and Hajipur. which still stands. Though Muzaffarpur with the entire north Bihar had been annexed. To this day. it is a meeting place of Hindu and Islamic culture and thoughts.

pulses. The railcar industry is one of the town's most important industry.1 magnitude earthquake struck the area. The best months to visit are October through March. jute. It is best to avoid visits in the summer and the monsoon season (Mid June to September) due to prolonged power cuts. Muzaffarpur is a important centre for the wholesale cloth trade. Climate The summer. The district has a few sugar mills. the area was famous for hand-woven textiles. between April and June. big and small. The main livestock of the town are cattle. Muzaffarpur is the largest producer of litchee-based wine in Eastern India. and its lychee. Economy Muzaffarpur is famous for exporting Lichi. which are now old and dilapidated. wheat. It is the commercial hub of North Bihar and the wholesale market for Mumbai. around 06/20 deg C. and flooding in the town. indigo. sugar cane. maize and oil seeds. Cauliflower. The commercial hub of the town is Motijheel. Damage was extensive not only in the region but also in Kolkata and Kathmandu. buffalo. The district is famous for its delicious mangoes. Rice and wheat account for most of the area under cultivation. pigs and poultry. potato and barley are some of the non-cereal crops grown. Long ago. beetroot. Muzaffarpur Town has several industries.90% Max. are also grown. 13 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . Textile mills in the famous Marwari community dominate Suta Patti. a colossal 8. among others. Maize is the next important crop for the district. completely demolishing the city. opium and other products.) and winter is pleasantly cool. goats. The air pollution is lower than in other areas. The principal crops are rice. tomato. which are exported to other parts of the country and even abroad. the heat. carrot. so the air is comparatively clean. radish. sheep. Surat and Ahmedabad.In August 1934. cabbage. is extremely hot and humid (28/40 deg C. The region was shaken strongly again in the 1988 Bihar earthquake. Sugar cane. The area around Muzaffarpur is largely agricultural.

The block is situated in the North – Eastern part of the District. The block is surrounded from three sides by the one district border i.Aurai Block Location The Aurai block is in North – Eastern part of the Muzaffarpur District. LAND CLASSIFICATION AURAI GEOGRAPHICAL 19677 CULTIVABLE LAND 16519 UPLAND 1686 MEDIUM LAND 1564 LOW LAND 9082 DEEP WATER LAND 4187 14 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .e. The total 15 % of population is of Minority community & 12% is of scheduled castes in the block. The Block is situated at 35km from the District headquarter. Bochahan Block in the Southern part of the Block. Introduction The Block consists of 27 Panchyats comprising of total 115 Villages. and three Blocks of Muzaffarpur district namely Katra Block in South-East .W & N. The Literacy rate of the block is 38. 6% of total population is Mahadalit in the block. Sitamarhi in the Northern .1 %. The Block is situated on the embankment of the River Baghmati. N.E. Minapur Block in the South . The total population of the Block is 232729 in 46033 Households.Western part of the Aurai Block.


P. 425 M. prd-productivity and pro-production [UNIT FOR COV-Ha. 425 C.151 12906 MAIZE 2000 2 4000 BARLEY 100 .65 13.65 AVERAGE CONSUMPTION OF FERTILIZER IN THE DISTRICT [ UNIT MT ] Fertilizer Aurai UREA 1500 D.P. 140 S.P.2 Total 21 . AND FOR PRD & PRO MT ] CROPS NAME COV PRD PRO WHEAT 6000 2. PRODUCTIVITY AND PRODUCTION abbreviation used : cov-coverage .A.6 4.A. 14 AMMONIUM SULPHATE 140 MIXED FERTILISER(12:32:16) 35 MIXED FERTILISER(20:20:00) 20 MIXED FERTILISER(15:15:15) 20 RABI AVERAGE COVERAGE .S. SUNFLOWER 7 .875 87.5 16 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .N.O.

8 5.3 SUMMER SUNFLOWER 7 .846 361 SUMMER MAIZE 650 2 1300 SUMMER GREEN GRAM 200 .85 127.75 150 TOTAL 475 .5 GARDEN PEA(MATAR) 50 .P.6 SUMMER PADDY 200 2 400 AVERAGE CONSUMPTION OF FERTILIZER IN THE DISTRICT [ UNIT MT ] Fertilizer Aurai UREA 1500 D. 320 IFFCO 65 AMMONIUM SULPHATE 250 MIXED FERTILISER(12:32:16) 53 MIXED FERTILISER(20:20:00) 25 MIXED FERTILISER(15:15:15) 20 17 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .SARSO AND TORI) 340 .8 40 OTHER PULSES 200 . 650 M.6 TOTAL 427 .666 5. GRAM 75 1 75 LENTIL(MASOOR) 150 .P.S.822 390 MUSTARD(RYE.9 306 LINSEED(TISI) 80 .O.625 50 SUNFLOWER 7 .P.8 5.A.826 165 SUMMER TEEL 8 . 250 S.

Female Literate Polulation 1702 Illiterate Population 3661 Male Literate 1171 Male illiterate population 1693 Female Literate 531 Female illiterate 1968 population No of Households 957 Working Population 1784 Main working population 335 Main Working Population Male 119 Main Working Population 216 Female Main Casual Working Population 117 Total Casual labour Main Casual Working Population 22 Main Casual Working 95 Male Population-Female 18 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .78 Marginal Agriculture 111 Male Labour . on the north by National Highway 77 and on the east by chaur or low lying agricultural land filled up by flood water and on the west by the irrigation canal. North of the Aurai block office. a tributary of Lakhandeyi river. It is bound on the south by the Ring Dam of Bagmati river built by the Government of Bihar in 2008. The statistical data of Ghanshyampur village as per the 2001 census is presented below: Number of Households 957 Total Population 5363 Population below 06 yrs 1110 Male Population 2864 Population below 06 Male 614 Female Population 2499 Population below 06 496 Female Total Agricultural Labor 189 Marginal Agriculture Labour .GHANSHYAMPUR VILLAGE Ghanshyampur village comes under Ghanshyampur panchayat and it is located 8kms.

Vegetables are mainly grown by the Kushwaha (Koeri) both by land owner and also by landless (on contract land). Agricultural Productivity The main crops grown in the block is mainly Rice. Rajputs & Bhumihars will grow Rice & Wheat. The low lands are facing the problem of water logging for more than 3 months. Maize:150-200 Kg 2. Maize. It means that in which occupation they are engaged for their Livelihood totally dependent of their community. Chamars and also some of the Harijans) on taking the land on the contract basis. The livelihood mainly depends upon the community of the population from which they belongs to. Rice:50 -60 Kg 4. Wheat. Rice & Wheat is the major crops grown mainly by Minority community and also by backward castes (Yadavs.Number of SC 676 Male SC Population 345 Female SC Population 331 Number of ST 0 Male ST Population 0 Female ST Population 0 Livelihood Daily wage labor is the main source of livelihood for the people of this block. It means that what they grow will be dependent of their community like Kushwaha will grow mainly maize & vegetables. Due to flood the Distress Migration is also seen in the block. Crops Productivity per Kattha 1. Before the Major Dam which was constructed 3 years back namely Yojana Dam this area used to be totally flooded for minimum 3-4 months. oil seeds. Wheat is also grown here. Paswans. The up lands of the areas are used for the rice cultivation. Kurmi. Wheat:60-80 Kg 3. tobacco andPulses Rice is main crop grown here after 3 years. No farm practices were done before 3 years during season of rice due to severe flood. Oilseeds: 20-30 Kg 19 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . The land is very fertile as it is Flood affected area. The cropping pattern also depends on the Community from which they belong to irrespective of land holding size.

There is no PHC or subcenter in the village. No mid-day meal is provided at the school. Pulses:30-40 Kg 6. The name of the school is Utkramit Rajya Madhya Vidyalaya. Tobacco: Source: Field Visit Education There is only one school in the village. There is lack Supply in the market. The name of the principal of the school is Smt. The school is till class VIII. Malaria is prevalent in the rainy seasons. Small Haats for the essential items on 3 days a week occur (Tuesday 20 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . Only at the time of flood and post flood the epidemic conditions prevails. The Aurai market is local market and seems like rural market only. Pitaujhia prefer the Runni Saidpur for the market as it is nearer than Aurai market. Some of the Villages like Shailla Balli. Most of the people prefer to go to Muzaffarpur for their treatment. Local Market The local market for the village is only at Block office for only day to day practices. Health The Health condition of the village is satisfactory. Krishna Thakur. The people used to prefer Runni saidpur & Muzaffarpur for the Marketing purpose. Some of the Private clinic is also present at the Block & Runni saidpur but the facilities are very bad there.5. There are 320 students and only three teachers. Tuberculosis & some of the water borne diseases like typhoid are commonly seen in this block. The main market is at Sitamarhi & Muzaffarpur which is about 20-25 km from the villages. It is a secondary government school. Potato:600-800 Kg 7. Attendance in the school is very low. Power Supply There is no electrification in the village. The Government Hospital is available at Aurai Block office.

Banks and Financial Institutions There are no banks or financial institutions within the village. The Bhumihars & Yadavs are in better position than others. The up lands fetches little bit higher prices for the lease up to Rs 600 per kattha. The migration is very high in the village. Land Ownership Pattern The land ownership pattern in the village is slightly different than other places. Yadavs and Bhumihars are the major land owner but in the small sizes & also fragmented. They migrate to New Delhi. Landlessness is high in the Mushers community. Some of the Muslims are in better position but most of the them are in the trap of poverty due to landlessness & high unemployment. Bank of India.& Friday. The people also not prefer the Aurai market as they have to pay the Poverty Premium there. Some of the Yadavs also found to practices this. Even for the agricultural inputs people used to prefer Muzaffarpur as there variety of products with reasonable price is available. Bank of Baroda and Allahabad Bank at Runni Saidpur which is 9kms from the village. The poor person in Bhumihars and Rajputs also practices the share cropping by taking the land on the lease. The Mushers & other backwards castes used to practices Farm & Non-Farm labor even at the source and at Destination place. The Minority community has the land ownership up to some extent. Sunday). There are two nationalized banks namely The State Bank of India and Central Bank of India at the Aurai Block Office which is 12kms from the village and four nationalized banks namely The State Bank of India. People prefer to do daily uses marketing from Runni saidpur as it is at a distance of 5-10 km from some of the villages. 21 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . Other Backward castes practices contract share cropping by taking the land on the lease for 3 years @ 200-300 per kattha per year. Mumbai and Jaipur.

On the next day the idols are drowned in the rivers or ponds.e. Muharram. Mahashivratri: This is come in March. Deepawali and Chhatt. Guru Purnima: This is come in April. Delicious dishes are cooked on the eve of Holi. it is celebrated in the month of Falgun. People worship the idol of goddess Saraswati. Holi: Holi is the festival of colors. because goddess Saraswati is called as the goddess of knowledge. Saraswati Puja i. Ramnavami: This also comes in April on that day they worship Ram God. Festivals of Muslim are Eid.e. Generally it is celebrated on 14th January. Basantpanchmi. Dahi Bada and Maalpua are the main dishes of Holi. Main festivals of Hindu celebrated in Ghanshyampur are Makarsankranti. On this day villagers take sweet and sattu. Saraswati Puja: Saraswati Puja is celebrated with the incidence of spring season. People in the village also drink local Liqour and eat goat meat. 22 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .kutt). Hindu people celebrate it as Makarsankrati. fast for whole day and worshiping of Shiva God. On this day people especially young girls. Holi.Festivals and Social Customs . They wear new dresses in the evening.The villagers have different social customs. They celebrate different festivals. After taking bath they eat beaten rice and curd (Dahi- Chuda) along with till candy (teel. Beautiful idols of goddess Saraswati are kept in each schools. Makarsankranti : The day on which sun enters in the Capricorn i. Makar Rashi. some go to take a dip in holy rivers and worship lord Sun. and enjoy that day. Durga Puja. Bakr-e-eid. People take bath in early morning on this day. People apply colours on the face of each other even on the face of enemies and also hug each other. Chehallum and Shab-e-baraat.

Children light crackers. Muharram: Muharram is celebrated in the memory of the war of Ali. Eid: Eid is the most important festival of Muslims. They hug each other and distribute sewai. Chehallum: It is celebrated 40 days after Muharram. People stand in rivers or ponds and worship setting and rising Sun. People light candles and earthen lamps at the night and worship lord Ganesha and goddess Laxmi. It is the festival of light. Bakr-e-eid: The other name of Bakr-e-eid is Qurbaani. after that the moon of Eid rises which brings Eid on the very next day. Durga Puja: Durga Puja is celebrated in the month of Ashwin . People worship goddess Durga for ten days. It is celebrated in the month of Kartik . This festival is celebrated because on this day lord Ram got victory on King Ravana. People wear new clothes and go to mosques for their namaz. They burn Ravana. People use to keep fast which is called Roza for 30 days. Dusshera: All villagers enjoy this festival. Chhat: Chhat is very special festival of Bihar. Beautiful pandals are made where idol of goddess Durga is kept. So this festival is celebrated for the defeat of evil. 23 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . It is also called as Chalisma. They play with swords. On this day people give sacrifice of goat or other animals and distribute meat to their friends.Husain in the battle field of Karbala. It is celebrated in the month of Ramzan. Meghnath and Kumbkaran’s statues. Deepawali: After 20 days of Dashahara Deepawali is celebrated. It is said that lord Ram had returned back to Ayodhya after killing Ravana on this day. People do procession with Tajia ( towers made up of paper and bamboo). the day of Chhat comes 6 days after Deepawali. Goddess Durga had killed the demon Mahishasur after ten days of battle. After ten days the idols are drowned in the rivers.

the lifestyle the villagers follow and to have interaction with the villagers. Participatory Rural Appraisal(PRA) We used PRA to understand the village. 24 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . The tools we used as part of PRA are:  Social Map  Resource Map  Chapati Diagram  Seasonal Map to understand the cropping pattern in the village  Time Line  Problem Tree The photographs of the PRA tools we used and their diagrammatic representation are shown in the following pages. Shab-e-baraat: Muslim people celebrate Shab-e-barat to remember their ancestors. its resources. They read Quraan Shareef the whole night and light candles in the night.

The Social Map of Ghanshyampur The Resource Map of Ghanshyampur 25 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .

Chapati Diagram of Ghanshyampur Seasonal Map showing Cropping Pattern in Ghanshyampur 26 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .

Problem Tree Analysis of Ghanshyampur Village 27 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .

According to the 2001 census Bihar has the lowest literacy rate in the country .237 in 1981 to 0. Timeline of a Normal Day of a Villager in Ghanshyampur Introduction Bihar is the poorest state in India with the lowest per capita income amongst the major states. and had witnessed a decline in absolute terms over the earlier period. In the 1990s Bihar had the lowest Gender Equality Index in India. the real per capita GSDP was Rs.48% against a national 28 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . It fares very badly on a number of indicators. 4435 while the nominal per capita GSDP was Rs. More than 40% of the population lives below the poverty line.308 in 1991 to 0. Although moderate progress was made during the 1990s (1993-94 to 1999-00) in reducing poverty by nearly 7 percentage points. It is also the third most populated state with a total population of 83 million. the rate of poverty reduction was well below the national average. The state’s performance lags seriously behind others. 7080 which were less than half that of the neighboring state of Jharkhand. Current projections are that Bihar is likely to fall well behind on most of the MDG targets for 2015. In 2004/05. Bihar’s rank for HDI among the Indian states has remained unchanged at 15 since 1981 while its score has increased marginally from 0.267 in 2001.

Ghanshyampur is one of the largest villages in the Aurai block of Muzaffarpur district and probably one of the poorest villages of North Bihar. wage rate etc for our livelihood portfolio analysis and cash flow analysis we will be taking into account each of these data. The specific sets of data we will be doing a deep research on to find out the livelihood portfolio analysis are:  Caste  Caste Category  Number of members in the family  Livestock  Landholding Pattern  Income expenditure and savings  Migration Status  Daily Wage Rate The specific sets of data we will do a deep research on to find out the cash flow analysis are:  Income expenditure and savings  Daily wage rate as a result of migration 29 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . we got from the census data. primary and secondary occupation of the villagers. health status. While the share of agriculture has declined. As part of our study we have collected data on different aspects of a villager’s life like number of adult male and female members. It is the only state where primary enrolment fell between 1993 and 1999. Ghanshyampur village is a new area of operation for our host organization and as part of our theme paper we are required to do the livelihood portfolio analysis and the cash flow analysis of the population of this region. Although land reforms were introduced in 1950 they have been slow and ineffective. Over time the proportion of non-farm laborers in the poorest quintile has increased and the proportion of farm workers decreased. nearly 40% of the workforce is engaged in agricultural labour (1999-2000) down from 42% in the previous round. Poverty is predominantly rural in Bihar and is associated with limited access to land and livestock. We chose the samples on the basis of the percentage of the caste category. According to the NSS. We have done systematic sampling in choosing the 32 households for our study. land ownership pattern. other assets. and 80% of the bottom quintile heads of household have no education. NSS data show that 75% of the poor were landless or near landless in 1999-2000. income and expenditures heads.average of 65%. which is roughly the same as the Indian overall average. 2001 so as to represent the different castes of the village adequately. The share of services has increased from 41% to nearly 50% of GSDP. it is still very large. irrigation assets. The rural poor tend to depend on agricultural wages or casual non-farm jobs for a living. poor education and health care. livestock. migration status. Cultivation and farm labour together account for 80% of employment. Our analysis will strictly adhere to the 32 households which we believe will adequately represent the entire population of the village. 35 Bihar is a predominantly agrarian economy with a small manufacturing base. as well as low-paid occupations and social status.

In course of our analysis we will also be suggesting alternative livelihood options given the current sets of resources. there are 6 halwais. dhanuk and yadav belonging to the OBC category. A graphic representation of the caste system prevailing in the village is being presented below. 5 mallas. Caste Category SC 6% General 25% OBC 69% 30 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . 4 kayasths and 5 brahmins belonging to the General category and 2 chamars belonging to the SC category. malla. kayasth and Brahmin belonging to the General category and chamars belonging to the SC category. Out of the 32 households we surveyed. The seven different castes we have taken for our analysis are halwai. 3 dhanuks and 7 yadavs belonging to the OBC category. Caste System Caste system prevails in Bihar and has maximum impact in the rural areas.

so not much people are engaged in faming or agricultural activities. A graphic representation of the 32 villagers of Ghanshyampur whom we surveyed as part of our research is shown in the following page. Most of the villagers have migrated inter- state or intra-state and work as daily wage laborers. Caste Name Brahmin Halwai 16% 19% Chamar 6% Malla 16% Yadav 22% Dhanuk 9% Kayasth 12% Each household has an average of 8 members. As very few villagers have landholding and the distribution of landholding is highly uneven. Primary Occupation The primary occupation of the villagers of Ghanshyampur is daily wage labor. 31 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .

We have calculated the savings of the 32 respondents and graphically plotted them on a trend line as shown in the following page. 32 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . Primary Occupation Farmer Non-agri laborer Salaried Job Business 3% 6% 19% 72% From the above representation we can see that 72% of the villagers are engaged in non-agri labor. 19% of the villagers are engaged in farming and agricultural activities. 6% is involved in business and only 3% is involved in salaried jobs.

3 bighas of land and the SCs have no landholding at all. Most of the land is controlled by the upper caste Bhumihar Brahmins.8 bighas of land. The land distribution pattern has been graphically represented in the following chart. only 14 had landholdings which means less than 50% of the sample size has landholdings. we can see that the peak points on the line are dominated by the upper castes like Brahmins and Kayasths of General category or the Yadavs of OBC category while the baseline or the bottom points consist of Scheduled Castes like Chamars or the recessive OBC castes like Halwais and Dhanuks. 33 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . the OBCs have 5. 200000 kayasth 150000 ANNUAL 100000 SAVINGS IN RUPEES brahmin 50000 halwai dhanuk brahmin brahmin malla yadav yadav kayasth malla yadav kayasth yadav dhanuk chamar halwai halwaikayasth yadav 0 dhanuk brahmin brahmin yadav malla chamar halwai malla 0 halwai 5 halwai 10 yadav 15 20 25 30 35 malla HOUSEHOLDS -50000 Savings of Villagers on Caste Basis From the above analysis. Out of that the Generals have 6. Landholding Pattern The landholding pattern in the village is highly uneven. An interesting fact to note here is that out of the 32 households we surveyed.1 bighas. In our household survey the total landholding size by the 32 households is 12.

Out of the 32 households we surveyed. Most of the agricultural land in the village has been taken over by the Mukhiya of the Panchayat who himself resides in a different village and are controlled by him and his supporters. Out of the 8 General category households. 34 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . out of the 22 OBC category households. Land Distribution Pattern SC 0% OBC 44% General 56% Agricultural land is abundant in the village. 4 have landholdings. 8 belong to the General category. 22 belong to the OBC category and 2 belong to the SC category. A graphic representation of the percentage of landholdings with respect to sample population is shown in the following page. 10 have landholdings and the 2 SC households have no landholdings at all.

Savings of Migrated Villagers with Landholdings 80000 General 60000 ANNUAL SAVINGS Savings of Migrated Villagers IN 40000 with Landholdings General RUPEES 20000 BC BC BC BC General Linear (Savings of Migrated Villagers with Landholdings) BC BC 0 General BC BC BC 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -20000 HOUSEHOLDS 35 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . Percentage of Landholdings with respect to Sample Population 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Percentage 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Total Population Percentage of People SC 2 Having Landholdings 0 OBC 22 45.455 General 8 50 We have also calculated the savings of the migrated villagers who have landholding and plotted them on a trend line on the basis of caste category.

Savings of Migrated Villagers without Landholdings 200000 General 150000 ANNUAL SAVINGS 100000 Savings of Migrated Villagers IN without Landholdings RUPEES Linear (Savings of Migrated 50000 BC Villagers without Landholdings) BC General BC General BC BC BC BC sc 0 BC BC sc BC 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 -50000 From the above two analytical trend lines we can come to the conclusion that the savings of villagers from General category are the highest irrespective of landholdings. When we used to go for household surveys in the village. However the trend line moves upward for the villagers without landholdings than with landholdings. we used to notice that there were hardly any middle aged men or youth left in the village. savings is usually low since a large portion of the savings is invested in agricultural activities in the village. Almost the entire current village population consists of women. Migration and its Role in Impacting Livelihood A unique yet alarming fact about the Ghanshyampur village is the pattern of migration the villagers follow. members from 28 households have migrated inter or intra state on account of livelihood. Migration from the village in search of livelihood used to be a necessary mean of staying alive pre 2009 when devastating floods of the Bagmati river used to ravage the entire 36 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . This is due to the fact that for villagers with landholdings. children and senior citizens. We have also calculated the savings of the migrated villagers who have no landholding and plotted them on a trend line on the basis of caste category. Out of the 32 households we surveyed.

Migration occurs both on seasonal and on perennial pattern. In between these two categories. Accommodation and two square meals are provided by the quarry owners. In case of seasonal migration. The choice of destination of migration is strongly determined by social networks-villagers from a particular caste tend to go to the same destination and into similar occupations. generally seasonal migration pattern is seen among the other castes. Perennial migration is generally seen among the upper General castes like Bhumihars and Kayasths who have control over resources in the village and among the absolute bottom level castes like Chamars. The average daily expenditure in Jaipur is Rs70-80. This means the daily wage laborers in Jaipur has a monthly income of Rs3600-4200. The savings is a little more if medical expenses are provided by the quarry owners. as a mean of achieving livelihood has not receded and has increased over the years. Doms and Musahars who have no resources at all.1500-1800. the migrant laborers from the Ghanshyampur village generally engage in stone quarries as daily wage laborers with an average wage rate of Rs120-140 per day. Floods have become a thing of the past and agricultural activities occur abundantly on the fertile alluvial soil left behind by the Bagmati river. Distance and transport facilities or living conditions are not as important in determining the choice of destination. Villagers from all castes-higher or lower alike have migrated in search of livelihood. In Jaipur. In case of perennial migration. 37 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .village. Some have migrated intra state to te districts and towns of Bihar like Patna. The laborers are able to send the savings back to their families in the village. Chhapra and Muzaffarpur. The laborers from the Ghanshyampur village who have migrated to Mumbai generally engage in masonry and daily wage labor in ironworks. But since two years the situation has changed with the construction of the ring dam around the Bagmati river. In some cases medical facilities are also provided by the privately held stone quarry owners. The villagers who have migrated intra-state generally belong to the Chamars. However migration.150. This means the average daily savings of each worker is Rs. The average daily wage rate in Mumbai is Rs.50-60 which means average monthly savings id Rs. Doms and Musahars of SC category. migrants generally stay out of the village for entire year except a few days of the festival months. migration occurs during the non-cropping seasonand generally takes place for 9-10 months in a year. The two principal destinations where the maximum villagers of Ghanshyampur have migrated in search of livelihood are Jaipur and Mumbai.

expenditures are very high for the migrant laborers. For example if a senior villager of Kurmi caste is engaged in masonry it is generally seen that other villagers of the same caste will engage in similar occupation irrespective of possessing certain distinct or other sets of skills. Since caste system prevails supreme in the village. So the average daily savings of the migrant daily wage laborer is about Rs150 which tallies up to Rs1800 per month. They are not allowed access to the jobs being held by other villagers of higher castes than them. This increases the income opportunities of the migrant laborers.350. They could not migrate interstate as well since caste system prevails in migrated form of livelihood as well. they are not allowed to have access to any resources in the village since they are regarded as untouchables by the upper castes. The average daily wage rate can go up to as high as Rs. Doms and Musahars are the worst. The laborer is able to send the savings back to their families in the village. A villager will work under the tutelage of his senior caste member for some years before breaking off and working on his own. But at the same time Mumbai presents multiple income opportunities. waiters at cheap hotels or garbage cleaners in and around Bihar particularly in towns like Muzaffarpur. Patna and Chhapra at a meager wage rate of Rs50 per day. They are generally provided accommodation and three meals a day. Work in these cases is learnt in “chela-guru” (master-apprentice) setup. The condition of the Chamars. By caste they belong to the lowest layer of the social pyramid. Mumbai being an expensive city. The average daily expenditure for a migrant daily wage laborer in Mumbai is Rs200. we found that the marginalized Scheduled Castes are the utmost sufferers in the village. Most of the migrant laborers here work as apprentice laborers in food joints or tea stalls or drive taxi on contract or hire basis. This means the average monthly income reaches up to Rs10500. As long as he works in the master-apprentice setup he needs to share his income with his master. It generally takes place on the basis of family or caste lineage. In the course of Focused Group Discussion and numerous Informal Group Discussions with the villagers.Accommodation and two square meals or at least one square meals are provided by the masonry contractors or ironworks owners. Consequently they work as sweepers in government buildings or roads. The choices of livelihood in case of migrant laborers dosen’t depend on skill sets or education. They generally work in derogatory and errand jobs in and around Bihar. Their average daily expenditure is Rs 30 per day which 38 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .

A couple of years back. The story with the Bhumihar Brahmins are however different. The Bhumihars have maximum landholdings in the village. Most people from Kayasth caste including women are well educated and since there are no employment opportunities in the village. It is a taboo for them in Bihar to work in their own fields. In spite of this. practice of migration still continues. The educated Bhumihars migrate permanently to metropolitan cities and take up government or private services. 39 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . Bhumihars belong to upper caste.tallies up to an average daily savings of Rs20 or average monthly savings of Rs600. They permanently stay out of the village and return for only a few days during the festival season. Child labor is mostly found among the poor and marginalized Scheduled Castes. Another reason why farming is not practiced by the villagers is that before the ring dam was built two years ago there wasn’t any advent of agriculture for decades due to disastrous floods of the Bagmati river. Consequently the land remains unutilized or the Bhumihars give it on lease to Bhumihars or Rajputs of other villages and themselves migrate interstate in search of livelihood. In Ghanshyampur. Permanent migration is also seen among these castes. Despite the recession in flooding. since there is hardly any middle aged man or youth of lower caste left in the village. farming is hardly done on the lands by the villagers or their families. It happens due to multiple reasons. A very interesting fact about the villagers in Ghanshyampur is that even people from higher castes namely Bhumihars and Kayasths have migrated in search of livelihood. In other villages the Bhumihars employ laborers of lower caste to work in their own fields. Bhumihars used to migrate in search of livelihood since most of their agricultural lands used to get flooded. So most of the villagers do not even know the farming techniques or utilization of land. as masons or as contract laborers in other’s agricultural fields. there is no one to work in the fields. The Kayasths are known to be learned caste. This happens despite the fact that these castes command considerable resources including land and many of them are highly educated. Though the Bhumihars have agricultural lands. they migrate interstate and work as daily wage laborers in stone quarries. they have migrated permanently to the metropolitan cities and have taken up government or private service. This is the main reason why the condition of the marginalized Scheduled Castes is the worst among the villagers in Ghanshyampur. before the ring dam was constructed.

There is no other significant source of income of the villagers of Ghanshyampur. We have averaged the income heads of the 32 households we surveyed and presented a graphical representation below.Reasons for Migration in search of Livelihood The primary occupation of the villagers of Ghanshyampur is daily wage labor due to which most of them have migrated interstate or intra state. Average Income Heads 5% 9% 10% 6% Agricultural Wages Labour 14% Salaried job Livestock 56% Business Others From the above pie-chart we see that daily wage labor is the primary source of income with 56% contribution followed by salaried jobs and agriculture which is mostly practiced by upper castes of the General and OBC category. We have averaged the expenditure heads of the 32 households we surveyed and presented a graphic representation below. 40 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .

41 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . expenditures and savings pattern of the 32 households we surveyed. Average Expenditure Heads 1% 1% 1% 7% 3% Food Consum 4% Clothing 7% Toiletries 2% 3% Health Care Education Festivals 71% Social Functions Int Payments Fertilizers Pesticides From the above pie-chart we can clearly see that food consumption is the single-most expenditure head which consumes about 71% of the total expenditure of the family followed by health care and interest payments which contribute 7% each. This happens due to the fact that each family has an average of 8 members including men. The middle aged men and youth consumes maximum food in a family since they are the working people and need more calories for sustenance of work throughout the day. Healthcare expenses is also more for them since they are most likely to fall sick being exposed to different working conditions. Having more number of members in a family is a significant reason for migration to earn livelihood. women and children. We have also graphically represented the average income.

laborers of the same level from Maharashtra will never work. it significantly brings down the food consumption and healthcare expenses of the family. thereby reducing the total expenditure. Due to lack of education infrastructure in the village. each one reported that they are provided accommodation and at least three meals on an average per day at their destination workplace. The migrant laborers from Bihar are considered to be physically vey fit and can work for long hours with minimum food and rest at hazardous working conditions. they migrate to big cities for education. Jaipur and Delhi is that they do not engage themselves in activities like labor or trade unionists which may hamper production and is generally a problem with Maharashtrian laborers. Average Income. Another reason for the mass migration from the village in search of livelihood is the availability of easy employment opportunities at places like Jaipur. This trend is particularly common among t he upper castes especially the Kayasth caste. But at this wage rate the migrant laborers from Bihar are ready to work. Another reason why the migrant laborers from Bihar are favorite choice of the contractors or stone quarry or ironworks owner of Maharashtra. Out of the 28 of the 32 households we surveyed. The migrant villagers agree to work at cheap wage rates than the locals. They also do not complain about the living conditions or the quality of food provided to them. Expenditure and Savings Pattern 10% 50% Income 40% Expenditure Savings From the above pie-chart we see that expenditure for each family is very high at almost 40% and only 10% is the savings. Attraction of city life is another important reason for migration in search of livelihood by the villagers. In some cases they are provided healthcare expenses as well. There they get attracted to city life and permanently stay back in the cities by getting 42 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . For the Scheduled Castes the savings is much less than 10% in most cases. who have migrated on account of livelihood. Mumbai and Delhi. At the same wage rate of Rs150. In this situation if the middle-aged men and youth migrate in search of livelihood.

the marginalized Scheduled Casts have been able to attain sustainable livelihood. All migrant laborers return to the village twice in a year during the Holi and Diwali or Chhat. There is no racial discrimination or oppression at the workplace and sometimes healthcare is also provided. the personal interviews and the Focused Group Discussion we conducted with the villagers. Income however is not very low during the Holi period because the migrants find employment and livelihood in the village. March being a harvesting month. Castes like the Doms. The money they earn in the other states are sent back home which finances the agricultural activities back in the village. In the case of the poorest unskilled laborers it has helped to smooth income and improve food security. As we discussed the earlier. In big cities however. The good thing about migration is that it has increased the per capita income of the villagers. Income is lowest during the Diwali- Chhat period and expenditures are very high. The seasonal migrants come back to the village during the cropping season when they get employment in the village itself as sharecroppers or as laborers in agricultural fields though at very low wage rates. due to the cosmopolitan culture. the migrant laborers of Ghanshyampur also engage in other forms of livelihoods like working at tea-stalls or restaurants and driving taxis on hire or contract on part-time basis. Due to migration. In this section we are going to talk about the impact of such migration due to livelihoods. From the numerous Informal Group Discussions. The Bhumihars are zamindars by ascribed status and are forbidden from doing petty jobs like daily wage labor in ironworks. Impact of Migration for Livelihood: The Pros and The Cons As we have seen from our earlier discussions. Till now we have discussed about the reasons for such migration. they do not face this kind of situation and therefore prefer migration to earn livelihoods. they will be socially secluded. Chamars and Musahars are socially secluded and most 43 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . migration has resulted in rejuvenation of agricultural activities. The migrants can send enough money back home which meets two square meals of the family. 28 out of 32 households we sampled for our household surveys have migrated in search of livelihood. We will also highlight the pros and the cons of engaging in these types of livelihoods. nearly all migrant laborers or their families said that accommodation is provided at the destination workplace and meals are provided regularly. Once found doing these types of jobs. For the upper caste Bhumihars.into government or private service. as masons or in other’s agricultural fields. Mass migration to large metropolitan cities occur since these cities also provide abundant resources and multiple employment opportunities.

The villagers thus used to fall in a perpetual debt trap as they could never repay the loans and every year the amount used to increase. Finding employment interstate is also difficult for them. There is no proper equipment for disposal of the stone dust in the stone quarries or the toxins and smoke in the ironworks. Two years back during the time of flood. For most part of the year the Scheduled Castes were not even able to provide two square meals to their families. Now due to interstate migration. Sep 6. having no proof to link their illness to their work. The. they now have sustainable income which has considerably improved their food security. 44 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . 2008 JAIPUR: The flip side of stone with universal appeal is also occupational health hazards among thousands of stone quarry workers in the state. At an advanced stage silicosis is an incurable disease that develops over a period of time. But due to migration on account of livelihood. Even if loan was given to them the interest charged from them was much higher than the other castes. In this context we will cite a report which appeared in The Times of India newspaper on the 6th of September 2008. Although the wage rate is very low. Migration on account of livelihood has also reduced the dependency on sahukars and mahajans or moneylenders. Everything however is not so good for the migrant laborers. they get accommodation and meals and are able to sustain the food consumption and healthcare expenses for their families. A large number of quarry workers die a slow death without any compensation from their employers. mostly among workers in silica-related industries. In the Focused Group Discussion and personal interviews. Children of the villagers were often forced into this kind of labor. nearly all of the migrant laborers complained that conditions at the workplace are extremely dangerous. The migrant laborers often work in hazardous conditions at the workplace. Many of its symptoms are similar to those of tuberculosis. They were thus forced to work in the money-lenders’ agricultural fields without any payments.oppressed in the village. There is no employment opportunities for them in the village. the villagers used to take loan from the local moneylenders who used to charge exorbitant rates of interest since the villagers used to have food availability for 7-9 months on an average. The workers are not even provided basic equipments like dust or gas masks. The condition was much more severe for the marginalized Scheduled Caste people. They were not given loans by the mahajans since the former were regarded as untouchables. they are able to find sustainable livelihood. “Labourers dying a slow death [Jaipur] Times of India. TB is often a direct result of silicosis and the mining industry is a great cause of occupational diseases. "We get a lot of patients from all over the country with tuberculosis that actually is silico tuberculosis. In fact." said Dr Narendra Khippal at TB sanatorium in Jaipur.

Mehrangarh fort and Umaid Bhawan palace at Jodhpur and Rajasthan Assembly House in Jaipur. the migrant laborers are provided accommodation but it is seldom hygienic. There are hardly any middle aged men or youth found in the entire village. alcoholism. tuberculosis are also common. They are paid very low wages for the amount and the type of work they generally engage in. This decrease in working capacity is because of the damages in the respiratory tract due to deposition of RSPM. Deeg. The migrant laborers generally do not have any bargaining power or voice their grievances in case of wages. 2008 Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. The wide scale architectural application of sandstone can be seen in different monuments. In the last decade. like the Red Forts of Delhi and Agra. palaces and buildings of Fatehpur Sikri. not only in India but all over the world for different purposes. Rashtrapati Bhavan. doing drugs and dangerous sexual behavior. Bikaner. All rights Reserved” There are no health or life insurance policies for the migrant laborers. Sometimes even basic hygienic facilities are not provided and the migrant laborers are put up in dingy slums. Rajasthan is the treasure-trove of sandstone with more than 90% share of Indian sandstone deposits found here. These sorts of activities take a serious toll on the migrant laborers’ health and expose them to a multitude of diseases including cancer and HIV/AIDS. The effect of migration due to livelihood on the families of the migrant laborers back at the village is not good either." said Dr Khippal. Copyright Bennett. Coleman & Company Limited Sep 6. Supreme Court building and Akshardham temple in Delhi. particulate matter is generated and the workers involved in the different activities are exposed to the polluted environment during working hours (8hrs/day) and this creates health problems for the workers. "Silicosis is one of the oldest occupational diseases. Yet it continues to pose a very real threat to quarry workers on a daily basis and kills thousands around the world every year. processing and marketing in Rajasthan have achieved a remarkable growth and it is also a source of livelihood for thousands of workers. Parliament House. Most of the migrant respondents told us that they suffer from severe breathing problems and respiratory diseases at the workplace. the migrant laborers suffer from low self-esteem. Diarrhea. Due to long periods of separation from the family. The working capacity of workers starts decreasing with the increase of working duration in quarries. gambling. sandstone quarrying. The entire population of the middle aged men or youth has 45 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . Compensation in case of accidental death or disability of a migrant laborer is meager and that too is not compulsory.The sandstone quarrying has been established as the largest industry of Jodhpur where more than hundred thousand workers are employed for quarrying and related activities. This induces them to engage in activities like smoking. For centuries sandstone is being used. Stones are primarily quarried by manual methods but now heavy machines are also used. In the process of stone quarrying. Kota. temples and buildings in India. low self confidence and low morale. malaria. Jodhpur and Jaisalmer.

we were expecting the answer to be related to flood which is the common reason of crisis for the village but she told us some thing different. “Still waiting for justice……. She told us that she had a girl child also 46 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . Women are left without socio-emotional support and we heard accounts of women indulging in illicit relationships with men of other villages which bring drastic impacts to her own family..migrated leaving behind the vulnerable womenfolk. The canal is the main water resource of the village. The family head was not at home so we talked to his wife named Sita devi the family belongs to Hajjam (Barbers)community. She described the whole incident which led them to major crisis for the family. There is no one to take care of the family in case of an emergency situation like death or disease of a family member. When asked the question related to family crisis that may the family may have faced during last 5 yrs. In order to depict how critical the situation is we present the following incident which we came to know while interacting with a villager. While talking about the family‟s economic condition she told us that sustainable livelihood is a tough question here because of the power dynamics of the village where the people of particular castes have dominancy over the resources and as they belong to the lower caste every time they were kept deprived of their needs as well as rights. Today on 16th feb 2010 as we are continuing our HSS we reached to a house which is on the bank of the canal which passes by the west of the village. The family head along with his two boys of age 17 and 13 yrs works as Agri-labourer in tobacco field with a daily house hold earning of Rs 150 per day to feed his family of 8 members. The migrant laborers get so low on self morale that they themselves engage in heinous crimes. The house was also not in very good condition as like the economic condition of the household. The family lives in a small house of 2 or three rooms made of phush (a commonly found weed grass used to make house). the children and the senior citizens. Crimes are common in the village especially theft and dacoity.

They look in each and every corner of the village they even approached to the nearby villages but they didn‟t got her. The biggest dilemma is that the lady even says that she knowns who could be the person who had that done this but as because the person belongs to the dominating Yadav community of the village so she can‟t even question him without any specific proof. Panchayat plays the role of head man or father figure of a village. The above incident depicts the low morale and self esteem from which the migrant villagers suffer which induces them to take such atrocious steps. The Role of Panchayat in Inducing Migration for Livelihood It is long been known that if the head man of a house is strong and honest. That was a night of the summery day when they usually use to sleep in their courtyard. The girl‟s body was buried as after the murder to hide any evidences. 47 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .but last she lost her not because of her death due to some disease or some other reasons but because she have been murdered brutally. The body was in such a bad condition that it was really hard to identify it. the throat was cut and it was very clear that the child was murdered. When asked the reason of not approaching to the police the lady told us that if she would have called the police that time the police would have asked for money and in spite of helping them it would have tortured them as this behavior of the police was very clear by the several interventions that police made in different cases in the village in the past. In morning when the family members got up they found her missing they searched for her every where the whole day but they didn‟t find her. The misfortune of Ghanshyampur village is that the Panchayat virtually doesn’t exist and the Mukhiya of the Panchayat is a corrupt person.” According to the respondent. While making these statements she started crying she told about the day when this incident happened. The dead body was in bad condition the body was smelling and the part of the decayed body was eaten up by the foxes that is usually found in the village. the murderers were villagers from Ghanshyampur who returned home during Diwali. Their search continued for three days even the some of the villagers started searching for her. The apathy of the Panchayat and the Mukhiya is being discussed in the following report we have prepared on the Panchayat of Ghanshyampur. After three days they got information that the body of her daughter has been found near the bank of the canal. the household is sure to flourish else it will disintegrate. The some of the prima-facie observations of the body also made it very clear that the child was first Raped and then murdered. The most disappointing part of the whole story is that the family in spite of having such a crisis in the family they didn‟t approached to the police for help. Her daughter also slept in the courtyard along with her family members but the was on other cot. The both the hands and legs of the body were not there .

Late Shri KrishnaKumar Thakur was the second Mukhiya of the village. A small footbridge of 20 feet has been constructed over the irrigation canal between Takia and Ghaghri Tola which Mr. the floods have stopped but a major part of the lowlands connecting Ghanshyampur and Madhopur. She is the third Mukhiya from the same family. Thakur is a young man of 25-26 years of age. No roads in the village have been metalled. Late Shri BhagyaNarayan Thakur was the first panchayat mukhiya of Ghanshyampur village.Bina Thakur . hard-working nature and love for his fellow villagers. Thakur said cost 24lakhs but it serves no purpose.the water at this time is knee-deep but during the monsoon it can be chest-high. He has his personal secretary and four bodyguards. According to villagers. Medical emergencies during the night time especially labor of pregnant women is sure to turn fatal if tried to reach hospital over these roads. son of Late Shri KrishnaKumar Thakur on Mrs.which is the size of a football field and drives a Bolero luxury series car. He was an equally respectable man. Mrs. the bridge was concretised using mortar mixture in the ratio of 22:1 and is so weak and unstable that it will fall like a deck of cards under the pressure of a small car or tractor. There is no footbridge over this lowland or chaur for villagers to cross safely. compassion. Her father-in- law.a Bhumihar Brahmin is the Mukhiya or the head of the Panchayat. Amol Thakur the condition of the Ghanshyampur village has become pathetic. the village road was constructed by him he was known in the village for his honesty. Bina Thakur„s behalf. Being a conservative Bhumihar widow.during his regime electrification of the Ghanshyampur village took place. 48 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . A couple of years back the floods of Bagmati river used to drown the entire Ghanshyampur village. Mrs Bina Thakur„s husband. Saidpur and Muzaffarpur has been inundated from where flood water never receded.Thakur to construct a bridge have fallen to deaf ears. Walking on these roads during the day time is life threatening.“Report on Panchayat of Ghanshyampur The panchayat building of ghanshyampur is located in the ghanshyampur village just beside the Utkramit Rajya Madhya Vidyalaya. Amol Thakur has worsened the already dwindling living condition of the Ghanshyampur villagers. Fifteen children have already drowned and died in this chaur over the years during the monsoon. Mr . lives in a concrete house in Gangli village. she never steps out of her palatial house in Gangli village. Under the leadership of Mr. Presently the panchayat is run by Amol Thakur. the arterial village on NH77. the acting Mukhiya is a corrupt person. The sheer apathy and lack of initiative of Mr. Repeated applications to Mr. Only people loyal to him and already commands enormous resources got the benefit of the government schemes. According to the villagers. He was a very honest and respected man during the 80s. After construction of the dam. the lifeline of Urai block connecting Aurai with Sitamarhi.

One look at Ghanshyampur village and it seems like the administration has forgotten the existence of this village on the face of developing and shining India. No sanitation facility is provided in the village.The village does not have a basic PHC. This is the principal reason why inspite of gaining work skills the migrant laborers are reluctant to apply the same in their own village and thereby increase the employment opportunities in the village itself.10000 as bribe for the allocation of Indira Awas Yogana(Rs. 49 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . Thakur . Amol Thakur. The poor have been allocated APL cards while those with resources have got BPL cards. No health camps have ever been conducted in the village during the tenure of Mr Amol Thakur.Few villagers who got work have not been given payment. When we met Mr. On Republic day he didn‟t even come to the Panchayat office of the village to hoist the National Flag. ” The above case study depicts the apathy of the Panchayat which has induced migration at such large scale in search of livelihood. Furthermore the lack of awareness and the oppression of the Mukhiya over the years have created a strong belief within the villagers that nothing good or productive is possible within the village and livelihood can only be found when they migrate to other states. Thakur charges Rs. PDS and NREGA card has added to the woes of the villager especially the already marginalized Scheduled Castes for whom no employment could be possible in the village. He has not facilitated a single Gram Sabha during his tenurity. The upper castes like the Kayasths and Bhumihars have migrated because there is no scope for employment in the village. After monsoon when agricultural land reallocation is done he colludes with local toughs and provides maximum land to his loyalists. People who have got the card have not been provided any work since any development or construction work in the village is done by hiring contract laborers at cheap rates by Mr. Thakur. The village school has 320 students with only three teachers and no mid day meal has been allocated for the past six months. The uneven and unethical distribution of facilities like BPL. 35000) to each villager. Forcible takeover of lands by the Mukhiya has further complicated the situation. Ghanshyampur village still lives in the dark ages. The entire village is an open defecation ground. he was so non-cooperating that he didn‟t even provide us a map of the village or its census data. For treatment villagers have to travel more than 10Kms to Runni Saidpur. Electricity in the village has long been lost and the wooden electric poles and wires stand as remnants of the days of the father of Mr. The Kayasths especially have migrated due to lack of educational infrastructure. Most people have not been provided NREGA card. Mr.

5 buffalo 1 goat 0.5 cow 2 bullock 1. The method of implementation of the idea of dairy cooperative is discussed in the following points. the reasons for migration in search of livelihood and the role of Panchayat in inducing migration. As part of talternative livelihood option we can set up a dairy cooperative. buffaloes and goats. their migration pattern. 4 3.Alternative Livelihood Option Till now we have discussed about the livelihood of the villagers of Ghanshyampur.5 poultry 0 malla malla brahmin brahmin brahmin brahmin yadav yadav yadav yadav yadav halwai halwai halwai halwai halwai halwai chamar chamar dhanuk dhanuk Gen Gen Gen Gen sc sc BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC BC From the above graph we see that the distribution of livestock is more or less even among the different castes.5 3 2. From our study we have found that 21 out of the 32 respondents we surveyed had livestock and most of them have cows. 50 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . In this section we are going to discuss about the alternative livelihood options that can be generated for the villagers given the current resources. The distribution pattern of livestock has been graphically represented below.

we came to know that local contractors used to buy milk from villagers at just Rs10-12 per litre. No profit no loss situation for most of the days.FORMATION OF DAIRY COOPERATIVE The baseline surveys of the 32 households have shown certain very interesting data about Ghanshyampur village like migration of villagers from every household in search of livelihood and presence of certain distinct skillsets among specific castes as we have discussed earlier in our report. it gets wasted. Each livestock produces an average of 4-5 litres of milk per day.  Create self-help-groups and develop Ghanshyampur village into a dairy cooperative hub based on the Anand model of Gujarat. our host organization will contact Sudha Dairy.  Generate source of livelihood for marginalized and landless villagers. In the first phase a group of 10 people having livestock will be formed. The Bihar State Cooperative Milk Producers’ Federation 51 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . buffalo. Method of Implementation The idea of dairy cooperative will be implemented in a number of phases. In this way the income generation potential of the livestock gets wasted. goat and bullocks. Our idea is to increase the income of every household in the village and ensure that livestock is optimally utilized and taken care of. The second phase will be implemented after two months. From the different informal discussions and one-to-one interviews we had with the villagers in Ghanshyampur district. Our host organization will employ a veterinary doctor who will ensure proper vaccination and treatment of the livestocks and provide awareness to these 10 villagers on proper maintainance of livestock. Steps will be taken to increase the productivity of each livestock. We conceived the idea of formation of dairy cooperative while we were doing Informal Group Discussion with villagers in Vaishali district. Objectives of Formation of Dairy Cooperative The principle objectives of formation of dairy cooperative are:  Increase the income of the villagers.  Optimal utilization of livestock. The Yadav caste is traditionally good livestock keepers. One of our principal aims of Rural Action Component is to generate means of livelihood for the villagers in order to curb the migration and improve the standard of living of the villagers. In this phase the milk yielding capacity of each livestock will be measured and the purity of the milk will be tested and the livestock will be grouped accordingly. This means average income per livestock per day is Rs40-60 which means villagers are forced to sell milk at a loss or at break-even ie. The cost of maintaining each livestock is Rs50-70 per day. Moreover there is no veterinary or Animal Healthcare Center in the village. In the second phase. There is no guarantee that the contractors will buy milk everyday and the days they don’t buy milk. From the data we gathered from the baseline surveys we found that 16 out of the 32 households have livestocks in the form of cow.

Sitamarhi district is 4Kms north of Ghanshyampur village. When the second group has a savings of Rs . The principal advantage of having contract with Sudha Dairy is that they buy milk from farmers everyday throughout the year and the milk of farmers never get wasted unlike local contractors and middlemen. These milk unions are covering twenty-two districts and in addition four districts are covered by the Federation itself. In this way. this income is sure to increase. The milk union which services the Muzaffarpur district is the Tirhut Milk Union. Sheohar.8000 to the second group as and when necessary on nominal interest rates. There are five district level Milk Producers’ Cooperative Unions affiliated to the Milk Federation. When there will be several groups. Our host organization will negotiate with Sudha Dairy to open a milk collection centre in Ghanshyampur village. The Sudha Dairy pays each farmer Rs. landless villagers. Each group can train the other groups on optimum utilization of livestock and techniques such as artificial insemination of livestock to produce better breeds of cattle.15 for per litre of milk. The third or the final phase of our idea will be the expansion of the dairy cooperative. Sitamarhi. then farmers of Ghanshyampur village can access fodder directly from collection centres at the time of delivering milk.60-75.16000 collectively to the third group on nominal interest rates. Siwan and Gopalganj districts. The Sudha Dairy also employs trained veterinary doctors at their milk collection centres and runs awareness programs from time to time for proper maintenance of livestock. The first two groups can loan out a maximum of rs. From the farmers in Vaishali district we came to know that Sudha Dairy provides quality fodder for cattle at their milk collection centres. improve cohesiveness and harmony 52 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T . gradually the villagers who do not have any livestock will also come under the purview of these self-help-groups.10000 in their reserves. The formation of dairy cooperative we believe will not only increase the income of the people and ensure optimum utilization of livestock. West Champaran. It covers Muzaffarpur.2000 in their reserve balance so as to meet the group members’ contingency expenditures. a third group will be formed. the collective loan amounts will be enough to purchase livestock. 50% of the profits generated by the group of 10 farmers from the sale of milk will be deposited with the leader of the group who will be elected by the group members. a second group of another 10 farmers will be formed in exactly the same way as the first group. but also improve the living conditions of the marginalized. With improvement in milk yielding capacity of the livestock. Each group should always maintain a minimum balance of Rs. If that is the case. When the group will have savings of Rs. From the farmers of Vaishali district we came to know that Sudha Dairy also runs contests among farmers and rewards the farmer whose livestock yields maximum milk. Thereby the transportation cost of procurement of fodder will decrease and the overall cost of maintainance of livestock will reduce. The income per day from sale of milk to Sudha Dairy will be Rs. The first group of farmers can provide loan upto a maximum of Rs. Sudha Dairy also pays incentive to farmers who supplies more milk during the festival and ‘lagan’ or wedding season when demand fror milk is maximum.10000 in their reserves.Limited(COMPFED) or what we know as Sudha dairy was established in 1983 as the implementing agency of Operation Flood Programme of dairy development on ‘Amul’ pattern in Bihar. East Champaran.

 Urge among the villagers to increase their income and improve their own standard of living.  Presence of good breeds of livestock with the villagers.among the different castes in the village and with proper execution can write a success story like the anand village of Gujarat.  Presence of large Yadav caste in the village.  Operations of Sudha Dairy in less than 4Kms.  Presence of a large marginalized and landless population in the village. Factors Determining Success Our research has presented the following factors which we believe will be conducive to the success of our idea:  Presence of livestock in most households in the village. in the Sitamarhi district of North Bihar. The photographs of some of the livestock the villagers own which prompted us the idea of having a Dairy Coopeative are shown in the next page: 53 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .

54 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .

Conclusion In doing the livelihood portfolio analysis and the cash flow analysis of the villagers of Ghanshyampur we researched the topics from different aspects and found migration to be the single most important factor in shaping a villager’s livelihood The Role of Migration and Remittances in Promoting Livelihoods in Bihar by Priya the/mi_8012/is_20080906/labourers-dying-slow-death-jaipur/ai_n39501245/ http://nrega. References http://findarticles. Sushil Kumar. Migration on account of livelihood has its sets of positive and negative impacts on the life of the villagers. Harendra Kumar Chobey and Dhananjay Kumar ****************************************************************************** 55 | K I I T S C H O O L O F R U R A L M A N A G E M E N T .wikipedia.nic. During the course of the analysis. we tried to touch the different aspects of the villagers’ livelihood and the factors affecting them and we believe that the alternative livelihood we generated in addition to proper socio-economic support by local and government authorities will curtail the time of migration by the villagers and increase the per capita income thereby improving the standard of living of the villagers which will be a conducive factor to the overall development of the village.

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