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E xp erim ental

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@flrugsaregivenbyIV injectioninanaesthesized catordog.
* SystolicB.Piscontrolledby:Cardiacoutput(C.O.P.)andTotal
periphcralrcsistance(T.P.R.).
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Phenylephrine- Phenoxybenzaluine- I
I
lklctlloxal
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nile- Prazosin,
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carbachol-' Gallalminc(selcctiveM 2
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l'
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ass'lethacholine andBethanechol.
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. 4- ofActbaoli ndsjhebldobcykela . t zr- iAb luco tal i ps hedb han.-q blockerssorAT-lblockers. ' L/W/cF' 7c?u?F? Exaln les Characteristics 1-Ganglion NSD andLSD. ldemtitcationo c?/Junknojvndru cc/r/x//.and chlorisondal- nine. Noradrtmaline. j . Notabolished by ganglion blockers. v'tacllypllylaxis' t). 1agonist). Nlephentranqine. J-lteversed-notabolislycd by czblockers. bnydgnan ot gr li eov n er bs l e od ck be y rs ( z . 3-Almostno changein thehypertensive (Notachyphylaxis). ' 5-V/agonist.and prazosin 4-Augmentedbynon-seledivef $blockersas propranolol. 3-Atlgmentedalàernon-selectivejblocl ters J . s-Abolished by colnbination of(zblockers andf' lblockersandbylabetalol. l-l-lypertensionismahnlyduetoreleascof stimtllant(Nn adrenalinefrom adrenall'nedulla. lnecamylal-nine. Directcq agonists: l-'. olorbycombi nati on )4-AT-1agoni st. 3-(zandf s Adrenallne. M ethoxamine.-q. (W lAatistl neeffcd of 'tllepreviouslymentionedtlrugsonheartrate' ?) . . Tyralmine. 1-' Notabolishedbyganglionblocl ters. 2-ct1Agonist. 3-Abolished by AT-I antagonistswq saralasin andlosartan. (lndirectanddualacting shos. ' ' ? 11 ncr/c/- ///tpn. Dual: Euphcdri1 - 1e. z-Abolishcd -and notreversed-bv Phellylepllrine. 2 1-Notabolisheda blockers. rbe1tal s. tolazoline. actionafternon-selectivef ' Jblockers. yxRaa he ngl me ionbtl thoni uo nc ' kersas (C4. 3-lteversed by l' zlblockersasphentolamine. Vasopressin N'otaboljshed bv aiuaalicm blockers. Agonist.Angi ot elsi n11(AT11).tbl oclters.phenoxybenzam ine.tanonists: Anaphetanline. lndircctct.

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3-Abolished b col -nbination pf1-1). Non-selectivcf ' sagonists 1-Netabolishedbyatropine.-- l/k/f/z/tpuv' ? Exaln 7/t. Idcntification ofan ? uf/c/c#3(?w/'7J/wg causil'l /-/?lotensibn: -.Notabolishedbvatropitle 7 Hydralazine-M inoxidil. cinaetidille. . receptorsin adrenall' nedulla --/l-eleaseofadl. ?. lyithoutnicotinic action l klethacholine.conabination Diazoxide-sodium ofluepvram ineand nitroprusside. kJasodilators.11andHzagovst. 1 N eostignaine. ' M epyranaine and l-1z bloclterjas Cimetidine 5-Dil -ect. 2-N otreversed iflargedose (M agpyistsonl).j . 3-02agonists. isint kcctcdafteratropine. z-lleversed iflarne doseis (M+N agonists). Hl Vstaluine. --at' I-lvot nolished by atropine. l-Abolished by atropine. (5V11atistheeffectoftheprcviouslyJnentioneddrugsonheart1 -ate?). z-Abolished by non- Selcctivejzagonistsas selective( $blockersas Salbutam oland propranololand by Terbutaline. Characteristics 1-l7ëll' asyl lallpltllol lailzactics Bethanecholand 1-Abolisl- lcd by atropine. 1with nicotillicactiol l Carbachol. - z-pal-asyllay aatlaol llillzetics Acetylcholine. 2-Notabolishedbyj blookers.blodtersas . bloclters orb .enatjuu . Physostignaineand to stit- ntllation ot-N l . asNifedipineand Verapamil. 4-1. aslsoprenaline. Allanticholinesterasesas iniectedafteratropine(due . I7' elzoltlopam-AcE ' inhibitorsasCaptopril- AltBSastaosartan-ccl3s . Butoxamine(selective1 sz blocyleJ-. Nill -afesasNiiï-oglycerine.

fCqflhPltc & tc.z .. 9 UZtljt. J :'r )a' ) cû- yt tzt (?--t :h.fa.4. t' lu t co r lp. .tropçn't tpy. y eyo mqm j.(7 s ? ( 2. 1 n1$J' .ts .p.tiy-oyte. * .lqh'ptot. m i r' J' f z.cre < t7k../1is-ojtku- t .w .ln.o4 . zi.. t/n X .(7 .dwc-l.) ( ?-.-su. E- o. . .) o.s >'. y w o.s . % ((rI.v 'frojfPXE- QS .F.b.) l CpW ' ? .p.tz- L.- .a.44 >W 4' 1 $' t 57r-rkz-ol-r1.xkvm .) soaotot . A. b 7. stc..y. V.) 1 . w cvyx /1'i t-i L. w )xt Abroglo.re ' w- 'm c 1 v 'z-r-.e.) L.v..&. .-w (w . )zK( sC u/ ?é' A sg(.' h.h. ' . ) v cu ye. l fq. f- j ') ' 1' '1' $ $ t?f 941-*(2t'CG h 'CA' Z Y ( J--' -D . z) -- Acc.cl c-thkef'èx.t?/jgxota U1.pq fî - c % $. u z-oms . . r.o.'r : . ..cc.N.. .b.2'..'D . h' K l'-tefzjr-mï. .P. ' .

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agonist onCPM ciliarymuscle. atropine. wit kput (intact. y y o t he oy I o eay s o tjy oy . Muscarinic(A43) l-contractionef 1-Glaucoma.. preserved). 3-lsacrinlation.a1- ' 1 lpst). z. nlydliatics. 3-1. V. acconuaaodation cornealtllcers: 1 I-lyoscïne and to nearvisjon. asAtropine. synthetic z-xerophthalnaia 2-to l ' neausure .. 2-Tocounterac 1twitches. p/. st1bstitutes 1 (tropical uideis thebestas itis . Uses l-M losis Present Present..' zon Rabbit's#)7c 1Ek jtèc/ts( lfj.of with l' nydriatics Pilocarpine. withoutnicotinic Z-.. tabolishcds blocl tM 3inCPS. .?5... -..DP'P). . aoti on as: 3-lwaertnlation. (2) Unknown f-lr/v.. 4-V. - luydriasis..v. 2-Tocounterac twitches.. errorsof substitutes: No cffccton refraction in l- lonlatropine. . atropine. 3-alternatively Bcthanechol.. . ----..... withagonist Z-JIOP. . naydriatic 3-' tlOP.. children: Tropicaluide. 3-Passive Absqpt present. conjtlnctival iniritistocut B.tcongestion) recentadhesior ( .. 3-alternativcly receptorsin NX'IJ with n' lydriatich ofeye1id nnuscles: in iritisto cut 1 Carbacholand recentadhesior Anticholinesterase (Physostigluine- 1 Neostigluine- Deluecariunn- EcotlAiopllate- ! -. Antinauscarinics l-cycloplegia l-lr/tis. 7undus exal-nination: i synthctio . tIOP. ' I and lossofj iridocyclitis..J -- z-Miosis Present. mydriatics. Muscarinic(M-73 ') l-contractionof l-Glauconla. -. B.. Present... fc/.Art k vc/- soo? unknob ReIex vn c?//?c?-. lwith agonistonCPM cilial y muscle. - action on N! u. ? L?i- izc Xt qch. Cyclopentolate.. .' (?.l-).

V . V. 1' . 7A1.?/cu5-. (decongestion).. recentadhesiop s-ActUV l:t Prescnt..C.Present Prcsent t- zlagoniston.' - 1-l--ight$cflex isonly lostby a 'ntiluuscarinicdrugs(parasynlpatholytics). Ilnportatlt/' Vc. d 3-Afienalineapplietllocally aseyedropsinnormalpersonsdoesnot causeactivel' nydriasis(why7).s they l' uay cause congestion . 5 t A ntim uscarinic drugs as atropine are absolutely . ' Phcnylephrine and B . 7-M ydriatics are contraindicated in narrow angle glaucolna. 6-Ecothiophateand Dl7P (isofluorophate)arelcmg acting (ap'plied tothe eyeevery 3weeks)butarenotpreferredintreatluentot-openaagle glaucom a as tlley m ay cause cataract They are notused in narrow angle .C of . z-sensory rellcx (alsoltnown ascornealreflexorconjunctivalreflex)is only lostby suffacelocalanaestlleticsascocaine(causesactive naydriasis)andtctracaine(nomydriasis). t' ly M A O 1 . )1.l conjunctival proceduresas receptol-s in D PM B ..o? l-lvundus nayclriasis. glaucom a a. (lost).colatrailAdicated in - glaucoma(why?).aitio.- ilahil .V ..itism tlch lesstoxic on theeye than adrenaline. stiluulatcsc. M inoreye mydriasis.zy-All- tl zve .. .directlyas conjunctival exanlination. . zt-Dipivefrin isa lipophilic prodrug converted into adrenaline and isused in glatlcom a. z-decongestant.. . r lDipivefrin. foreign body by inhibition of reluovaland neuronaluptalte of naeasurenaento noradrtm aline aud IOP . 3-Alternatively 1 indirectly as with luioticsin anlphetanline-or iritisto cut dualasyphcdrine. . -. A bsent Cocaine indirectly V .

L. s-stimulatiqà ofNnreceptors(ligand-gatedion channelreceptors)in isolatedhel -rt-->openingofNa+channelsin postganglionic parasympatheticnerves. $ -q! 1-I lj Stimulation.e. Carbachol-Bethanechol- Pilocarpine-M uscarine- Playsostiglnilxe-N eostiglrilae..S. z-sym patheticinnkrvation oftheheartincreases al1cardiac prop*ertiesvia activation ofcardiacI3IreceptorstGs-.chlorisondal- nine.- 3-N p lnhibition. e on IsolatedH eartof Toad G eneral# f?/c5'. 3-parasym pathetic innervation ofthe heartdecreases heartrate butdoes notaffectventficular contractility-in hum ans. linked). Adl-elnalilae-Noratlrenaline. bloclters:N . 1 lanccam laluine.' i Edl-oplaolaiulaa-Ecotlaioplaate.contains 0141). (3) Vnknown D rfl.l ' l ' l D p-p .releaseofacetylcllolilae.S.' l--f' he heartis ai- linvoluntal'y organ controlled by A . N . D epolarizing ganglion -- (Ng) L. . --wcarjy .D. k ---1 . Propranolol. Histamine.generation ofnerveactionpotential(NAP) .N .l-low ever. Hi C2me blo ti c dkin er esRaa sn :itidine j Fam otidine N izatidine.-.S. )o j . A11j-blockers. 1 E hedrine .in toad'sheartthe ventricles are supplied by parasynïpathetic innervation w hich also decreases cöntractility. Dobutamine-prenalterol.lilzkedl. Recqp tqrs n Isolated H eart: Recept 'orActi h oeart non//?c Agonists Wz7/Jg(?/?J h.I .D./.liacdepression(inhibition). parasym pathetic ganglia w hich are ''term inal''gang. -. . A cetylclAolilne-M etlnaelloline.. 4-The isolated heart-like allisplated organs. Colupetitive ganglion blockers' .lia. I 4-542 lnhibition.A tropine.g. sçc j l lsoprenaline-Dopam ine. 1 2-142 Stimulation. . 6-A tropine abolishesthe action ofboth I' nuscarinic and nicotinic agonists çkb' h)$/l.D .stitnnulatiolnofcardiacM areceptors(Gi- . i I .

*Glucagon(increasesC-AM P). P ossibilities ofaDepressantTfr// . @Bipyridines:amrinone(inalurinolael-laaill-inone. @ Antiarrhythmicdrugs:CCBS(verapamil-diltiazeml-Na+channe .halothane-ether-cllloroform . *Xntihistatuinics:antazoline.is either a stiluulantunknow n or a depressant(i?nhibitory). ' *A ntim alarial:chloroquine. ' *cholineésjers:acetylclaoline-llnetllaclâolilae-cal-bachol-bethalnecllol. *lrreversible(organophosphorotlscompoundsl:ecothiophater isofluorophate(DFP). . z-llistam ine:by stimulation of142receptors. cz7own (lnvocardialdepressantl: l-Ganglion stimulants(nicotinicagonistsl:N .4e$12c.Unknown Jrr/g on //:c isolated heart.D.D.<ene-lokc. eA ntiam ebic:em etine. g own (myocardialstilnulantsl: 1-f$1-Agoni . ' .unltnown.pilocarpine-l-nuscarine .S. @cholinol'nina 'etic alkaloids' .andL.S. 3-D irectm yocardialstim ulants: *cardiacglycosides(digitalisprelparationsl:digoxila-digitoxila-otlabaila.stsympathomimetics. *A nticholinesterases: *R eversible:plnysostiglnine-neostiglrine-edrophonitlm .tm yocardialdepressants' . . i P ossibilities ofa kv/ïncsfDn/unl . @M ethylxanthines:caff'eine-alm inolnllylline-tlleoplaylline. z-M uscarihicagonists(pal-asylrpatlaolanilreticsl. *lnhalation generalanaesthetics'. 3-D irec. .l blockers(quilnidine-procainaluide-disolnyfalnide).

. l-listal-nine.- 2-142agonist. 2-Notabolislydbyl42blockers. Idtntiication o an Tfn/cnow n myocal-dialstimulanlz. Adrenaline-Nortldl-enaline..- U pcntpw zl Exarnples C/?tz/-lc/cr/s'/jcs' 7 1-j1agonists. Alrinolplpylline-Allll-inolle. . l-Notabolishedbyjblocl cers. ' ! M ilrinone-G lucagon .. . 1 . .. l-A bolished by l-1ablockers t1s Cimetidine 1 2-Notabolishedby f3bloclters. . . I 3-Directnnyocardial Digitalis-caffeine. l-stiluulantaction isabolished Isopl'ellaline-D opslln' line. 2-N otabolishrd by 1-12 blockep o . --l stimulants. f' $blockersasPropranolo- N adolol-A telaolol-M etoprolol- Iwabetalol. by Dobtltamine. j .

z-A bolished by ganglion blockersasX.V .D . 3-I. z-parasym pathom im etics A cetylcholine.teratogenicity. z-l-achycardia and increased cardiac w orlt. .cancerlarynx). 7-A bortion.L.C .l1. A ctions: 1-V C andelevationofABP.V .D . . z-A bolished by A tropine. blockers. 9-V. releaseofacetylcholinefrom cholinergic nerves leading to stim tllation ofM areceptors.(tobaccoamblyopia). Chloro uine-A ntazoline. .S.ofperipheralB .S. Pilocarpine.l-l.arrhythm ia. Identiicl/ït?/?o a de 7-c. 6-CN S stim ulation. 3 D irectm yocardial H alothane-chloroform . 4-Bronchospasm and increased bronchialsecretion. 2-Notabolishe 'dby atropine. A dverse effects: Contraindications: l-llypertepsion. s-pregnancy. z-A rrhythm ia.D .V.and L . s-llyperlipidem ia and atherosclerosis. 3-stimulatiopofJ4C1secretion. Carbachol-Bethanechol. l Nicotinesmàlldose(N &D.)= Cigarettes/ntn/cpw M echgnism ofaction:stimulation ofN! .C. ! 1 . l-l-lypertension. ' Quinidine-Em etine.D.ofretinalB. U-Tolerance and dependence. 4-P.D. l-D epressantaction is due to (Nnagonist). A nticlp linesterases.blockers. 7-HM E indycer(leadstotoleranceanddrug interactions). chlorisondam ine and m ecam ylanaine. 8-carcinojenicity (bronchogeniccarcinoma. .and CN S. 3-A bolished b atro ine. s-l- lyperlipidem ia and atherosclerosis. l-N otabolished by ganglion (M agonists). 3-Anginalpains.s5'tk/k/unknow n: Unknown Exalnples Characteristics l-G anglionic stim ulant N . z-Tachycardia. Ether-v erapam il.(Ng)receptorsin atltomic ganglia.(aùgina). 4-V . -N otabolished by ganglioll depressants.prem attlre labor.adrenalm edulla.

depolarizingganglion blocker.NicotineDrgcdose(NLL.ltstimulatesR. Lobeline sm alldose:asN .injection.C). ! (' ! 12 .D ..c.given by intra- umbilicalorS.itactsas PartialagontstonNnreceptorsleading toinitialstimulation followedby block due to stlstained depolarization.reiexly.C.I.D.S.ltw as used in treatm entofneonatal asphyxia(ttueto adm inistration ofmorpllinedtlringlaborcatlsing depression offetalR. lthasnoclinicaluses(only forexperimentalsttldies).

. .stilmtllation ofM 3receptors . s-stimulation ofN.intestinal stim ulation.receptors(ligand-gatedionchannelreceptors)in - isolated intestine --->opening ofN al-channels in postganglionic . parasylnpatheticnerves--ygeneration ofnerveaction potential(NAP) . (why?). 6-A tropine a 7bo lishesthe action ofboth m uscarinic and nicotinic agonists .N .contains only parasym pathetic ganglia w hich are ''term inal''ganglia. z-sym pathetic innervation ofthe intestine catlsesintestinalrelaxation (inhibition)viaactiyation ofallj l 3and (zreceptors.(4) tlzz/t own prse on Isolated Intestine t?/'/?(4/?J# . 7-cyproheptadine(anti-seroton'in andanti-histaminicdrug)abolishesthe actionofbotl1serotoni' n anclhistan-tine.release cifacetylcholilze. G eneralftzf/cu l--f' he intestine is an involuntary organ controlled by A . 3-parasym pathetic innervation ofthe intestine causes intestinal stim tllation via activation ofM 3m ceptors. 4-The isolated intestilte -like a1lisolated organs.S.

l l Edl-oplnolAiullA-Ecothiopllate- DFP. Agonists zrfzp/c- /gtn/?f' 5'/5' intestine . Acetylclloline-M etlnacholilne.d(xagqpistsl . Stim llation. Serotonin (511T). Anti-serotonindrugsas mainly). I Adrcnalinea14d Epheclril:e Labetalol(both g' .D .S. Vasopressin (ADH). D-epo -larizingganglion bloclters:N . - Receptors A ction t?/7the .S.D.' Recep/0/5.D-L.agonists).inIsolatedlntestinc' :C l ' . 8-vasljpressin Stimulation. Saralasin. ------------------------------. Noradrenaline. blocker). Phcnoxybenzamine. Non-selective'g1blockersas I l . Compettiveaanglion blockers:chlorisondalnine- luecalu lanaine. 1-a Relâxation Plaelnylelahl-l 'lae-M etlAoxalanilne.' V lm ainl l4 . (infliyition). m ainl . j ' Plzysostiglrine-N eostiglnine. Cyproheptadine(alsoanti- t serotonin .. ( Pilocarpine-Muscarine. Angiotensin 11(AT-11). 6-5H1 (5HT2 Stim lation. .Phentolalnnilae-Tolazoline- (inllibition). ( Adrenalineand Ephedrine Labetalol(bott?f$and (z (both 1) 'andg. blocker). mainly) Carbachol-B'ethanechol. Llistamine.L . Propranolol. -s. M ethysergide. N. Antihistaminicsas sjts s -am kue. Cypröheptadine(alsoanti- histal- ninic . Jantlct (bothp al 4. Terbutaline. 7-AT (ATI. 3-Nn(Ng) Stimulation.Atropine. - 2-f$ Retaxation lsoorellalil '' ' -ae-salbtltaluol. 5-Hj Stilyulation. 4-M (M 3 Stifùulation.

. 3-l-listam ine by stim tllation ofJLllreceptors.baclnol-lnethanecllol. l Possibilitiesofastimulantl/r//cr/tpwzz. z-Musc *chol ariest ine nije'rs: agoacet nists yl( parais chol ynn ne-lâl p latl etln lomi acl l An lolie lnt iccar e-sl' .theophylline.pilocal-pilae-lnntlscarille.D. z-DirectSgasmolytics:asmethyxanthines(caffeine. 4-serotonin (5HT)by stimtllation of5147-2receptors. . *0agonist'sasisoprenalineandsalbtltamol. l-sympathom im eticswhich are eittner: *(xagonistF àsnoradrenaline and phenylephrine. *Both j and (zagonistsasadrenaline.' l-Ganglion stimulant(nicotinicagonist):N . .D.on?unknown.S. Theunkùown drtlg on the isoléted intestine iseithera stim ulantunknown oran inhibi $ tery (depressant)unltnown.andL. aminophylline)-nitrates-volatileoilsaspgpayerine. 5-A T-1I. . ' 6-vasopreqstn(ADH). P ossibilities ofUnknown drug on Isolated Intestine. . Possibilitiesofan ! jzy/?j>j/.S. *lrreversible(organophosphorouscompoundsl:ecothiophate- isofluorophate(DFP). *cholinom im etic alkaloids' - lA nticholip sterases: *R eversible:physostigluine-neostiglrine-edrophoniuln'.peppermintoil.

1 3-A bolished by 1-11antagonists (anti-histaminics)as M epyram ine- c rohe tadine.' Identilcati ??o a stilnulantunknow n: U nknojvn fxc-//zw /cx Characteristics lG anglion stim ulants .-L. atropine.L. .atropine. 3-N Otabolished by M epyram ine. l-D epressantaction is due to - j' (Nnàgonists).D . 3-N otaboli1shed by Nlepyram ine. Vasopressin (ADl-1). Serotonin (5l4T). j1-NOtabolished by ganglion lblockers. 3-AJbolished b atro ine.D .saralasin.L.D . z-parasym pathom im etics A cetylcholine. 4-N otabolished by 511r1- antagonists(anti-serotonin)as M etlxsel'gidè-cyproheptadilne. l-N otabolished by ganglion blockers.m epyram ine. z-A bolished by ganglion blockers as N . chlorisondam ine and m ecam ylam ine. 2-N otabolished b). H istam ine. 2-N otabolished by atropine.. N . t 2-N otabolished by atropine. Notabolishk:dbyN . AT-l1. . 3-H Iagonist.D. 5-AT-l1(AT agonist). .. . p ethysergide. Pilocarpine- * 1 A nticholinesterases.S.S. s-A bolished by A T blockers as V ralasin. releaseofacetylcholinefroln cholinergic nerves leading to stim tllation ofM 2receptors. l-Notabolished byganglion bloclters. * 6-v-agonist. z-A bolished by A tropine. 4-5H12agonist. Carbachol. B ethanechol. blockers. l-N otabolished by ganglion (V agonists). 4-A bolished by 5H T antagonists (anti-serotonin)asM ethsergide- C rohe tadine.

t$ ' z-Abolishedbyj3blockers. . Identsication ofan inhibitory T/pc/cn(?w/c. z-partially abolishe' dby g$ blockers. ol Yot ishe abo lidbydLbyabfe she st alo bl l.' Unknow n Exam Ies Characteristics ' l-sym pathom im etics: 1-(zA gonists Phenylephrine. j 2-jAgonists Isoprenaline. ll-D irect Spasm olytics: Papaverine-pepperm int. ' l-A bolished by (zblockers as phentolam ine. l am ino h lline-nitrates. ' 3-A bolished b Labetalol. hentolam ine. N otabolished by propranolol. ockers.and by labetalol. 3-a and13Agonist Adrenaline.or labetalol. . l-partially abolishedby (! blockers. l-Notabolishedby (zblockers asphentolam ine. l '' z-Ab 3. 3-com pletely abolished by com bilAation ofpropranololand phentolam ine.

tw itches. cornealreflexes.. cornealreflexes. btltoxam ine ' 6-Acetylcholine: 1-1y?otension.D . atro aine. z-N oradrenaline: I-lypertension Nb m ydriasis.. atro ine. . . atropine. abolished by abolishcd by after atro ine. hentolam ine. abolished by lntactlightand 'abolished by phentolam ine. ro ranolol. cim etidine D ru Action on ABP W c//t7/J01-1E )7t?. . b'OI(li(?6l. 8-B ethanechol: l-lypotension M iosis w ithotlt lnhibition Stim tllation abolished not tw itches. atro nine. abolishedby ab nro nrallolol. dj - Sum maly qff/nptlr/c-fz?/D rugs in Experinaental - D rug c/!' t?/J on ABP Action on Eye Action (?n Action t?/c isolated isolated H qart Intestine l-A drenaline: Hypertenjion N o m ydriasis. atro ine.. ar os ted revnsbiy ont0 . Stim ulation R elaxation reversed by abolished by abolished by lhentolam ine. . abolished by' abolished by reversed after atropine. -. labetalol. olishedby hentolam ine.. propranolol. m epyram ine. Mi tw iosiswith tches. - 3-phenylephrine: l-lypertension A ctive m ydriasis N o effect. 4-Ephedrine: H ypertension A ctive m ydriasis Stim ulation Relaxation. abolished by abolished by atro ine. 7-c arbachol: H y otension M iosis w ith lnhibition Stim ulation reversed by L. . le-lahysostigmine Hyt and x eostigm ine. Stimulation Stimulation abolishedby abolishedby abolishedby m epyram ine + Cim etidinè. propranolol. abolished by abolished by after atro ine. atropine.D . atro ine.. ' ' . 1 atro ine. atro ine. Stilnulation Relaxation abjlishedby abolishedby abolishedby propranololand by propranolol. A ctl'ol1Oi7* A ctl'on ON i. -. M iosiswith Inhibitioll Stimulation reversed by L . R elaxation abolished by lntactlightand abolished by hentolam ine. tw itches. Stimtllation Relaxation aq holishedby entolam ine. - 1l-llistamine: Hypotension Xo effect. j g-pilocarpine: M iosis w ithout lnhibition Stim ulation tw itches. tagh h laxis. s-lsoprenaline: H ypotension N o effect. lnhibition abolished by Stil aaulation abolished by afteratro ine.

or ' N LD . (C4 andreversed atropine. ' l3-v asopressin: H ypertension not N o effect. 19 . . 12-A T-ll: H ypertension N o effect. llypertension N o effect.atropine. Stim ulation abolishedl$y abolishedby saralasin or losartan ' saralasin.D . m ethysergide. isolated f/cw/'/ intestine IZ-N . .. m epyram ine... sarâlasin. lnhibition Stim ulation abolished by abolished tny abolished by N LD ganglion bloclters N lwD and and atropine. Stim tllation not abolished by C6. abolished by plaentolam ine.or saralasin. b hentolam ine.S..

A nswers to the exercises in E xperlm cntalP harm acolozv book: 7-b.e 8-a (19-20) 2-a (35-36) 2-e 3-d 4-c 6-c 7-d 8-b (36-37) 2-c 3-c 5-? 6-b 2-e 3-b 5-d 6-c 8-a 9-d (39) 2-e (46) 2-a 3-d 4-c 6-b 7-a 8-c (60) 3-a 4-b (61) .

Elim ination rate ct/zvx/tzzé/off' Jdruz /hour (KcL- 0.and in patients already treated by digitalij).) Volumeofjistribution= A Vd= L.in renalim pairrnent. *ltmay lead to toxicity ifthe drug haslow therapeutic index (asdigoxin' .orL. *1tisaffected by clearance and V(I./minute). * *Tlne dose needed to reach Cssrapidly in em ergency cases as in acute . P halm lacokinetic C oncepts W zvptzrca/ Volunleofdistribtltion tpr ./min. M aintenancedose= Clx CssX Tm (Tm::doseinterval) Infusion rate.khourorml. ' jj . g *Tlae ''tim e'needed for a drug plasm a concentration to be reduced by 50% (1/2).693 ./min./lrinlX Css(m1. heartf'ailure(by digoxin lV)and in life-threatening infbctions. fx Amount(dose)ofdrug(mg. wD rugs follow ing first-orderkinqticsreach a steady state concentration in plasnaa(Css)after4-5t1/2.693 x Vd L oadinz d se. *Cl= K elX V d= 0. Plasm a hal -Ii e o a * .11 t1/2 . lnfusionratetmg./Kg.)= Cl(1%1. K el= I t1/2 Clearance (Cl): *ltisthevolumeofbody tluidsfrom which thedrug iscleared(removed) inaunittimq(L.In case ofdrugsgiven by IV infusion thereisno dose intervalarld them aintenance dose isknown as''inftlsion rate''. Loading dose =V dX Css sfaintenahce dose: ltisthe dose required to m aintain Cssw hich replaces the am ountof elim inated drug. especially in old age.).

I s-D rugs reach a ''plateau''w ith repeated closes s. 6-The log. A constantamount(numberofmoles)of thedrug iseliminated (bymetabolism and /or thedrug iseliminatedperunittim e. 4-t1/2 is constantirrespective ofthe drug 4-t1/2 isvariable and increasesas the l plasm a concentration. '/-M ostdrugsfollow first-orderkinetics. s crcatinine c/t?r//wz/cc 100 lnl. D ose adiustm entaccortlinz to creatinine clearance: lncaseofrenalimpairmentor(reducedRBF asinheartfailurelxthedose ofdrugseliltinateèlbyrenalexcretionshouldbeadjustedaccordingto ''creatinine clearance''according to tl' le follow ing eqtlqtion: Corrected f' /t/-s' zd= A verage t' /t?s'trx p atiellt' . *Absorptionfrom:Sustainedreleaseol- a1 l P1'elarations-depot1)/1ilAjectiolnsOfsO1nC l hormonalcontraceptlves-transderlAnal delivery system s follow s zero-order kinetics(aconstantamountofthedrugid eliminatedpertlnittit zle). plasm a concentration increases. (them oretheplasmaconcentration. l (*ie. 3-The m etabolizing eùzym es are sattlrable .donotexceedthetoxiclevel).Plasm a concentration-tim e i is ''linear'' curve is non-linear. i 1-A constantpercent(proportion-fkaction)of 1-.thenaore ( theelimination). l 3-The m etabolizing enzym es are non- sattlrable. F irst-order kinetics Zcr//-fyrf/cr ldnetics . (*Druagss pl doco ma notn nceecle nt -as ts iarilma on yre ya chsatepela be pt e aalj nd j 1 unpredictable). l 6-The log Plasm a coneentration -tim e curve . ------ A . j - orderkinetics). 1 . 2-Therateoftheelijpination processis 2-Therateoftheeliluination processisnotl proportionalto the dkug plasm a concentration proportionalto the plasm a concentration . ./z?' ?2/J. . excretion)perunittime. 7-Few drugsfollow zero-orderkineticsas: t l d @os As pirin-phelaytoin-Alcoholinlarge es(sm alldosesofthesedrugsobey j tirst .

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anticonvulsants. ' fU-Tvpc D : D elayed adverse effectsthatappearafterprolonged use as: l-M uta enicit and Carcino enicit :lung carcinomainducecibytobacco Sm O1çil' lg. astlalra-rlnilaitis-alaaplnylactic shock caused b nenicillin.% .g. 4-Acute Addisonian crisis' .g. * 1-and 2-:w orsening of an existing disease.. * Type V :Siim ulatory reaction.due to sudden stop ofsteroidsafterchronic l1se. z-lleboundangina-arrhythmia.com plem ent. TypelV:deàayed. .penicillin.NSAIDS causepepticulcer- R esepine and a-m ethyldopa cause Parkinsonism -c ortisblcauses Ctlshing.lgE and m ast U rtical-ia-angioedelma-brolnclnial cell-m ediated. .iodides. - V-lkpeE : < .9 / .j J l-ltebound hypertensiolu due to sudden clonidine w ithdraw al.1 anem ia caused by a-m eth ldo a. >. l-lepatotoxicity and hem olytic de endent'. serum sicltness.orillfarction:duetosuddencessation off 3 blockers.. z-latrogenicty (dl-ug-induceddiseasesl:e. :nd ofuse effectsas: -.e. Type 11:cytotoxic.5' Type 1:im luediate. (*.cell-mediated: Contactdermatitiscausedby to icalantibiotics. ' * . deposition' . Tvpesofhvpcrsensitivitvreactions: I F pc Exam 7/t?. zrTeratogenicity (fetotoxicity).LA -l-s-induced hyperthyroidism .vasculitis.anaphylactic' .caused by sulphynalnides. Type 111:iluiuunecom plex Gloluertllonephritis.thiourea. 3-Abstinençlesyndrome(withdrawalsymptpmsl)i1laddicts(tnorphine- - - heroin-alcotol-barbitulates-cocaine).